Dacians (/ˈdeɪʃənz/; Latin: Daci, Ancient Greek:
Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European
people, part of or related to the Thracians.
Dacians were the ancient
inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near
Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea. This area includes
the present-day countries of
Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of
Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary
and Southern Poland. The
Dacians spoke the Dacian language,
believed to have been closely related to Thracian, but were somewhat
culturally influenced by the neighbouring
Scythians and by the Celtic
invaders of the 4th century BC.
This article is part of a series on
Conflict with Rome
Trajan's Dacian Wars
Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa
Part of a series on
List of Indo-European languages
Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut
Old Irish glosses
Alternative and fringe
Paleolithic Continuity Theory
Chalcolithic (Copper Age)
Domestication of the horse
Nordic Bronze Age
Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Peoples and societies
Religion and mythology
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
1 Name and etymology
1.2.1 Early history of etymological approaches
1.2.2 Modern theories
1.3 Mythological theories
2 Origins and ethnogenesis
3 Identity and distribution
3.1 Linguistic affiliation
3.3 Physical characteristics
4.1 Early history
4.2 Relations with Thracians
4.3 Relations with Celts
4.4 Relations with Greeks
4.5 Relations with Persians
4.6 Relations with Scythians
4.7 Relations with Germanic tribes
4.8 Dacian kingdoms
4.8.1 The kingdom of Burebista
4.8.2 The kingdom of
Decebalus 87 – 106
4.9 Conflict with Rome
4.10 Roman rule
4.11 After the
6 Material culture
6.5 Clothing and science
8 Notable individuals
10 In Romanian nationalism
11 See also
15 External links
Name and etymology
Getae and Dacians
Dacians were known as Geta (plural Getae) in Ancient Greek
writings, and as Dacus (plural Daci) or
Getae in Roman documents,
but also as Dagae and Gaete as depicted on the late Roman map Tabula
Peutingeriana. It was
Herodotus who first used the ethnonym
his Histories. In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius
Caesar, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder, the people became known as 'the
Dacians were interchangeable terms, or used
with some confusion by the Greeks.
Latin poets often used the
Vergil called them
Getae four times, and Daci once,
Getae three times and Daci twice,
Horace named them
and Daci five times, while
Juvenal one time
Getae and two times
Daci. In AD 113,
Hadrian used the poetic term
the Dacians. Modern historians prefer to use the name
Strabo describes the
Dacians as distinct
but cognate tribes, but also states that they spoke the same
language. This distinction refers to the regions they
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder also state that
Dacians spoke the same language.
By contrast, the name of Dacians, whatever the origin of the name, was
used by the more western tribes who adjoined the
therefore first became known to the Romans. According to Strabo's
Geographica, the original name of the
Dacians was Δάοι
"Daoi". The name Daoi (one of the ancient Geto-Dacian tribes)
was certainly adopted by foreign observers to designate all the
inhabitants of the countries north of
Danube that had not yet been
conquered by Greece or Rome.
The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient
Greeks used the forms Δάκοι "Dakoi" (Strabo, Dio
Cassius, and Dioscorides) and Δάοι "Daoi" (singular
Daos).[a] The form Δάοι "Daoi" was frequently
used according to Stephan of Byzantium.
Latins used the forms Davus, Dacus, and a derived form Dacisci
(Vopiscus and inscriptions).
There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the
Dacians and those
Dahae (Greek Δάσαι Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι
Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai;
Latin Dahae, Daci), an Indo-European people
located east of the Caspian Sea, until the 1st millennium BC. Scholars
have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since
ancient times. The historian
David Gordon White has,
moreover, stated that the "
Dacians ... appear to be related to the
Dahae". (Likewise White and other scholars also believe that the
names Dacii and
Dahae may also have a shared etymology – see the
section following for further details.)
By the end of the first century AD, all the inhabitants of the lands
which now form
Romania were known to the Romans as Daci, with the
exception of some Celtic and
Germanic tribes who infiltrated from the
Sarmatian and related people from the east.
The name Daci, or "Dacians" is a collective ethnonym. Dio Cassius
reported that the
Dacians themselves used that name, and the Romans so
called them, while the
Greeks called them Getae. Opinions
on the origins of the name Daci are divided. Some scholars consider it
to originate in the Indo-European *dha-k-, with the stem *dhe- "to
put, to place", while others think that the name Daci originates in
*daca – "knife, dagger" or in a word similar to daos, meaning "wolf"
in the related language of the Phrygians.
One hypothesis is that the name
Getae originates in the Indo-European
*guet- 'to utter, to talk'. Another hypothesis is that "Getae"
and "Daci" are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups
that had been assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population
of the later "Dacia".
Early history of etymological approaches
In the 1st century AD,
Strabo suggested that its stem formed a name
previously borne by slaves: Greek Daos,
Latin Davus (-k- is a known
suffix in Indo-European ethnic names). In the 18th century, Grimm
proposed the Gothic dags or "day" that would give the meaning of
"light, brilliant". Yet dags belongs to the
Sanskrit word-root dah-,
and a derivation from Dah to Δάσαι "Daci" is difficult. In
the 19th century, Tomaschek (1883) proposed the form "Dak", meaning
those who understand and can speak, by considering "Dak" as a
derivation of the root da("k" being a suffix); cf.
Bactrian daonha. Tomaschek also proposed the form "Davus", meaning
"members of the clan/countryman" cf. Bactrian daqyu, danhu
Since the 19th century, many scholars have proposed an etymological
link between the endonym of the
Dacians and wolves.
A possible connection with the
Phrygians was proposed by Dimitar
Dechev (in a work not published until 1957). The
Phrygian language word daos meant "wolf" , and Daos
was also a Phrygian deity. In later times, Roman auxiliaries
recruited from the Dacian area were also known as Phrygi.[citation
needed] Such a connection was supported by material from Hesychius of
Alexandria (5th/6th century), as well as the 20th century
historian Mircea Eliade.
The German linguist
Paul Kretschmer linked daos to wolves via the root
dhau, meaning to press, to gather, or to strangle – i.e. it was
believed that wolves would often use a neck bite to kill their
Endonyms linked to wolves have been demonstrated or proposed for other
Indo-European tribes, including the Luvians, Lycians, Lucanians,
Hyrcanians and, in particular, the
Dahae (of the south-east Caspian
region), who were known in Old Persian as Daos. Scholars
David Gordon White have explicitly linked the endonyms of the
Dacians and the Dahae.
The Draco, a standard flown by the Dacians, also prominently featured
a wolf head.
However, according to Romanian historian and archaeologist Alexandru
Vulpe, the Dacian etymology explained by daos ("wolf") has little
plausibility, as the transformation of daos into dakos is phonetically
improbable and the Draco standard was not unique to Dacians. He thus
dismisses it as folk etymology.
Another etymology, linked to the
Proto-Indo-European language roots
*dhe- meaning "to set, place" and dheua → dava ("settlement") and
dhe-k → daci is supported by Romanian historian Ioan I. Russu
Dacian Draco as from Trajan's Column
Mircea Eliade attempted, in his book From
Zalmoxis to Genghis Khan, to
give a mythological foundation to an alleged special relation between
Dacians and the wolves:
Dacians might have called themselves "wolves" or "ones the same with
wolves", suggesting religious significance.
Dacians draw their name from a god or a legendary ancestor who
appeared as a wolf.
Dacians had taken their name from a group of fugitive immigrants
arrived from other regions or from their own young outlaws, who acted
similarly to the wolves circling villages and living from looting. As
was the case in other societies, those young members of the community
went through an initiation, perhaps up to a year, during which they
lived as a "wolf". Comparatively, Hittite laws referred to
fugitive outlaws as "wolves".
The existence of a ritual that provides one with the ability to turn
into a wolf. Such a transformation may be related either to
lycanthropy itself, a widespread phenomenon, but attested especially
in the Balkans-
Carpathian region, or a ritual imitation of the
behavior and appearance of the wolf. Such a ritual was presumably
a military initiation, potentially reserved to a secret brotherhood of
warriors (or Männerbünde). To become formidable warriors they
would assimilate behavior of the wolf, wearing wolf skins during the
ritual. Traces related to wolves as a cult or as totems were found
in this area since the
Neolithic period, including the Vinča culture
artifacts: wolf statues and fairly rudimentary figurines representing
dancers with a wolf mask. The items could indicate warrior
initiation rites, or ceremonies in which young people put on their
seasonal wolf masks. The element of unity of beliefs about
werewolves and lycanthropy exists in the magical-religious experience
of mystical solidarity with the wolf by whatever means used to obtain
it. But all have one original myth, a primary event.
Origins and ethnogenesis
See also: Prehistoric
Balkans § Iron Age
Evidence of proto-
Thracians or proto-
Dacians in the prehistoric period
depends on the remains of material culture. It is generally proposed
that a proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture
of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of
Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early
Bronze Age (3,300–3,000
BC) when the latter, around 1500 BC, conquered the indigenous
peoples. The indigenous people were Danubian farmers, and the
invading people of the BC 3rd millennium were
from the Ukrainian and Russian steppes.
Indo-Europeanization was complete by the beginning of the Bronze Age.
The people of that time are best described as proto-Thracians, which
later developed in the
Iron Age into Danubian-
as well as
Thracians of the eastern Balkan Peninsula.
Between BC 15th–12th century, the Dacian-
Getae culture was
influenced by the
Bronze Age Tumulus-Urnfield warriors who were on
their way through the
Balkans to Anatolia. When the
La Tène Celts
arrived in BC 4th century, the
Dacians were under the influence of the
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great attacked the
Getae in BC 335 on the lower Danube,
but by BC 300 they had formed a state founded on a military democracy,
and began a period of conquest. More
Celts arrived during the BC
3rd century, and in BC 1st century the people of
Boii tried to conquer
some of the Dacian territory on the eastern side of the Teiss river.
Dacians drove the
Boii south across the
Danube and out of their
territory, at which point the
Boii abandoned any further plans for
Identity and distribution
The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be
found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until
conditions to do so are met. (November 2013) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
North of the Danube,
Dacians occupied[when?] a larger territory than
Ptolemaic Dacia,[clarification needed] stretching between Bohemia in
the west and the
Dnieper cataracts in the east, and up to the Pripyat,
Oder rivers in the north and
northwest.[better source needed] In BC 53, Julius Caesar
stated that the Dacian territory[clarification needed] was on the
eastern border of the Hercynian forest. According to Strabo's
Geographica, written around AD 20, the Getes (Geto-Dacians)
Suevi who lived in the Hercynian Forest, which is
somewhere in the vicinity of the river Duria, the present-day Vah
Dacians lived on both sides of the Danube. 
According to Strabo, Moesians also lived on both sides of the
Danube. According to Agrippa,
Dacia was limited by the Baltic
Ocean in the North and by the
Vistula in the West. The names of
the people and settlements confirm Dacia's borders as described by
Agrippa. Dacian people also lived south of the Danube.
Main article: Dacian language
Davae and List of Dacian towns
Getae were always considered as
Thracians by the
ancients (Dio Cassius, Trogus Pompeius, Appian,
Strabo and Pliny the
Elder), and were both said to speak the same Thracian
language. The linguistic affiliation of Dacian is uncertain,
since the ancient Indo-European language in question became extinct
(?) and left very limited traces (?), usually in the form of place
names, plant names and personal names.
Thraco-Dacian (or Thracian and
Daco-Mysian)[which?] seems to belong to the eastern (satem) group of
Indo-European languages.[why?] There are two contradictory
theories: some scholars (such as Tomaschek 1883; Russu 1967; Solta
1980; Crossland 1982; Vraciu 1980) consider Dacian to be a Thracian
language or a dialect thereof. This view is supported by R. G. Solta,
who says that Thracian and Dacian are very closely related
languages. Other scholars (such as Georgiev 1965, Duridanov
1976) consider that Thracian and Dacian are two different and specific
Indo-European languages which cannot be reduced to a common language
(?). Linguists such as Polomé and Katičić expressed
reservations[clarification needed] about both theories.
Dacians are generally considered[by whom?] to have been Thracian
speakers, representing a cultural continuity[specify] from earlier
Iron Age communities loosely termed[by whom?] Getic. Since in one
interpretation, Dacian is a variety of Thracian, for the reasons of
convenience, the generic term ‘Daco-Thracian" is used, with "Dacian"
reserved for the language or dialect that was spoken north of Danube,
Romania and eastern Hungary, and "Thracian" for the
variety spoken south of the Danube.  There is no doubt that the
Thracian language was related to the
Dacian language which was spoken
in what is today Romania, before some of that area was occupied by the
Romans. Also, both Thracian and Dacian have one of the main satem
characteristic changes of Indo-European language, *k and *g to *s and
*z. With regard to the term "Getic" (Getae), even though attempts
have been made to distinguish between Dacian and Getic, there seems no
compelling reason to disregard the view of the Greek geographer Strabo
that the Daci and the Getae, Thracian tribes dwelling north of the
Danube (the Daci in the west of the area and the
Getae further east),
were one and the same people and spoke the same language.
Another variety that has sometimes been recognized[by whom?] is that
Moesian (or Mysian) for the language of an intermediate area
immediately to the south of
Danube in Serbia, Bulgaria and Romanian
Dobruja: this and the dialects north of the
Danube have been grouped
together as Daco-Moesian. The language of the indigenous
population has left hardly any trace in the anthroponymy of Moesia,
but the toponymy indicates that the Moesii on the south bank of the
Danube, north of the
Haemus Mountains, and the Triballi in the valley
of the Morava, shared a number of characteristic linguistic
features[specify] with the Dacii south of the Carpathians and the
Getae in the Wallachian plain, which sets them apart from the
Thracians though their languages are undoubtedly related.
The Australian writer Tome Egumenoski explains that the
Dacians had no
written language (?), this is also common with many other tribes
living in the Balkan regions between the 6th and 8th Century. Dacian
culture is mostly followed through Roman sources. Ample evidence
suggests that they were a regional power in and around the city of
Sarmizegetusa. Sarmizegetusa was their political and spiritual
capital. The ruined city lies high in the mountains of central
Vladimir Georgiev disputes that Dacian and Thracian were closely
related for various reasons, most notably that Dacian and
names commonly end with the suffix -DAVA, while towns in
(i.e. South of the Balkan mountains) generally end in -PARA (see
Dacian language). According to Georgiev, the language spoken by the
Dacians should be classified as "Daco-Moesian" and regarded as
distinct from Thracian.Template:Georgiev Georgiev also claimed that
names from approximately Roman
Moesia show different and
generally less extensive changes in Indo-European consonants and
vowels than those found in
Thrace itself. However, the evidence seems
to indicate divergence of a Thraco-
Dacian language into northern and
southern groups of dialects, not so different as to qualify as
separate languages. Polomé considers that such lexical
differentiation ( -dava vs. para) would, however, be hardly enough
evidence to separate Daco-
Moesian from Thracian.
Main article: List of Dacian tribes
Roman era Balkans
An extensive account of the native tribes in
Dacia can be found in the
ninth tabula of Europe of Ptolemy's Geography. The Geography was
probably written in the period AD 140–150, but the sources were
often earlier; for example, Roman Britain is shown before the building
of Hadrian's Wall in the AD 120s. Ptolemy's Geography also
contains a physical map probably designed before the Roman conquest,
and containing no detailed nomenclature. There are references to
the Tabula Peutingeriana, but it appears that the Dacian map of the
Tabula was completed after the final triumph of Roman nationality.
Ptolemy's list includes no fewer than twelve tribes with Geto-Dacian
The fifteen tribes of
Dacia as named by Ptolemy, starting from the
northernmost ones, are as follows. First, the Anartes, the Teurisci
and the Coertoboci/Costoboci. To the south of them are the Buredeense
(Buri/Burs), the Cotense/
Cotini and then the Albocense, the
Potulatense and the Sense, while the southernmost were the Saldense,
Ciaginsi and the Piephigi. To the south of them were
Predasense/Predavensi, the Rhadacense/Rhatacenses, the Caucoense
(Cauci) and Biephi. Twelve out of these fifteen tribes listed by
Ptolemy are ethnic Dacians, and three are Celt Anarti, Teurisci,
and Cotense. There are also previous brief mentions of other Getae
Dacian tribes on the left and right banks of the Danube, or even in
Transylvania, to be added to the list of Ptolemy. Among these other
tribes are the Trixae,
Crobidae and Appuli.
Some peoples inhabiting the region generally described in Roman times
as "Dacia" were not ethnic Dacians. The true
Dacians were a people
of Thracian descent. German elements (Daco-Germans), Celtic elements
(Daco-Celtic) and Iranian elements (Daco-Sarmatian) occupied
territories in the north-west and north-east of Dacia.
This region covered roughly the same area as modern
Bessarabia (Republic of Moldova) and eastern Galicia (south-west
Ptolemy places Moldavia and
Bessarabia in Sarmatia
Europaea, rather than Dacia. After the Dacian Wars (AD 101-6), the
Romans occupied only about half of the wider Dacian region. The Roman
Dacia covered just western
Wallachia as far as the Limes
Transalutanus (East of the river Aluta, or Olt) and Transylvania, as
bordered by the Carpathians.
The impact of the Roman conquest on these people is uncertain. One
hypothesis was that they were effectively eliminated. An important
clue to the character of Dacian casualties is offered by the ancient
sources Eutropius and Crito. Both speak about men when they describe
the losses suffered by the
Dacians in the wars. This suggests that
both refer to losses due to fighting, not due to a process of
extermination of the whole population. A strong component of the
Dacian army, including the Celtic
Bastarnae and the Germans, had
withdrawn rather than submit to Trajan. Some scenes on Trajan's
Column represent acts of obedience of the Dacian population, and
others show the refugee
Dacians returning to their own places.
Dacians trying to buy amnesty are depicted on
Trajan's Column (one
Trajan a tray of three gold ingots). Alternatively, a
substantial number may have survived in the province, although were
probably outnumbered by the Romanised immigrants. Cultural life
Dacia became very mixed and decidedly cosmopolitan because of the
colonial communities. The
Dacians retained their names and their own
ways in the midst of the newcomers, and the region continued to
exhibit Dacian characteristics. The
Dacians who survived the war
are attested as revolting against the Roman domination in
least twice, in the period of time right after the Dacian Wars, and in
a more determined manner in 117 AD. In 158 AD, they revolted
again, and were put down by M. Statius Priscus. Some
apparently expelled from the occupied zone at the end of each of the
two Dacian Wars, or otherwise emigrated. It is uncertain where these
refugees settled. Some of these people might have mingled with the
Dacian tribes beyond the Carpathians (the Costoboci
After Trajan's conquest of
Dacia there was recurring trouble involving
Dacian groups excluded from the Roman province, as finally defined by
Hadrian. By the early third century the "Free Dacians", as they were
earlier known, were a significantly troublesome group, then identified
as the Carpi, requiring imperial intervention on more than one
occasion. In 214
Caracalla dealt with their attacks. Later,
Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab came in person to deal with them; he assumed the
triumphal title Carpicus Maximus and inaugurated a new era for the
Dacia (July 20, 246). Later both Decius and Gallienus
assumed the titles Dacicus Maximus. In 272,
Aurelian assumed the same
title as Philip.
In about 140 AD,
Ptolemy lists the names of several tribes residing on
the fringes of the Roman
Dacia (west, east and north of the Carpathian
range), and the ethnic picture seems to be a mixed one. North of the
Carpathians are recorded the Anarti,
Teurisci and Costoboci. The
Anarti (or Anartes) and the
Teurisci were originally probably Celtic
peoples or mixed Dacian-Celtic. The Anarti, together with the
Celtic Cotini, are described by
Tacitus as vassals of the powerful
Quadi Germanic people. The
Teurisci were probably a group of
Taurisci from the eastern Alps. However, archaeology has
revealed that the Celtic tribes had originally spread from west to
east as far as Transylvania, before being absorbed by the
the 1st century BC.
Main article: Costoboci
The main view is that the
Costoboci were ethnically Dacian.
Others considered them a Slavic or
Sarmatian tribe. There
was also a Celtic influence, so that some consider them a mixed Celtic
and Thracian group that appear, after Trajan's conquest, as a Dacian
group within the Celtic superstratum. The
Costoboci inhabited the
southern slopes of the Carpathians.
Ptolemy named the Coestoboci
Costoboci in Roman sources) twice, showing them divided by the
Dniester and the Peucinian (Carpathian) Mountains. This suggests that
they lived on both sides of the Carpathians, but it is also possible
that two accounts about the same people were combined. There was
also a group, the Transmontani, that some modern scholars identify as
Costoboci of the extreme north. The name
Transmontani was from the Dacians' Latin, literally "people over
the mountains". Mullenhoff identified these with the Transiugitani,
another Dacian tribe north of the
Based on the account of Dio Cassius, Heather (2010) considers that
Hasding Vandals, around 171 AD, attempted to take control of lands
which previously belonged to the free Dacian group called the
Costoboci. Hrushevskyi (1997) mentions that the earlier
widespread view that these
Carpathian tribes were Slavic has no basis.
This would be contradicted by the Coestobocan names themselves that
are known from the inscriptions, written by a Coestobocan and
therefore presumably accurately. These names sound quite unlike
anything Slavic. Scholars such as Tomaschek (1883), Shutte (1917)
and Russu (1969) consider these Costobocian names to be
Thraco-Dacian. This inscription also indicates the
Dacian background of the wife of the Costobocian king "Ziais Tiati
filia Daca". This indication of the socio-familial line of
descent seen also in other inscriptions (i.e. Diurpaneus qui Euprepes
Sterissae f(ilius) Dacus) is a custom attested since the historical
period (beginning in the 5th century BC) when
Thracians were under
Greek influence. It may not have originated with the Thracians,
as it could be just a fashion borrowed from
Greeks for specifying
ancestry and for distinguishing homonymous individuals within the
tribe. Shutte (1917), Parvan, and Florescu (1982) pointed also to
the Dacian characteristic place names ending in '–dava' given by
Ptolemy in the Costoboci's country.
Main article: Carpi (people)
The Carpi were a sizeable group of tribes, who lived beyond the
north-eastern boundary of Roman Dacia. The majority view among modern
scholars is that the Carpi were a North Thracian tribe and a subgroup
of the Dacians. However, some historians classify them as
Slavs. According to Heather (2010), the Carpi were
the eastern foothills of the
Carpathian range – modern Moldavia and
Wallachia – who had not been brought under direct Roman rule at the
time of Trajan's conquest of
Transylvania Dacia. After they generated
a new degree of political unity among themselves in the course of the
third century, these Dacian groups came to be known collectively as
Dacian cast in Pushkin Museum, after original in Lateran Museum. Early
second century AD.
The ancient sources about the Carpi, before 104 AD, located them on a
territory situated between the western side of Eastern European
Galicia and the mouth of the Danube. The name of the tribe is
homonymous with the
Carpathian mountains. Carpi and Carpathian
are Dacian words derived from the root (s)ker- "cut" cf. Albanian Karp
Sanskrit kar- "cut". A quote from the
6th-century Byzantine chronicler
Zosimus referring to the
Καρποδάκαι (Latin: Carpo-Dacae or "Carpo-Dacians"), who
attacked the Romans in the late 4th century, is seen as evidence of
their Dacian ethnicity. In fact, Carpi/Carpodaces is the term used for
Dacians outside of
Dacia proper. However, that the Carpi were
Dacians is shown not so much by the form Καρποδάκαι (Latin:
Zosimus as by their characteristic place-names in
–dava, given by
Ptolemy in their country. The origin and ethnic
affiliations of the Carpi have been debated over the years; in modern
times they are closely associated with the
Carpathian Mountains, and a
good case has been made for attributing to the Carpi a distinct
material culture, "a developed form of the Geto-Dacian La Tene
culture", often known as the Poienesti culture, which is
characteristic of this area.
Roman monument commemorating the
Battle of Adamclisi
Battle of Adamclisi clearly shows two
giant Dacian warriors wielding a two-handed falx
Dacians are represented in the statues surmounting the Arch of
Constantine and on Trajan's Column. The artist of the Column took
some care to depict, in his opinion, a variety of Dacian people—from
high-ranking men, women, and children to the near-savage. Although the
artist looked to models in
Hellenistic art for some body types and
compositions, he does not represent the
Dacians as generic
Classical authors applied a generalized stereotype when describing the
"barbarians"—Celts, Scythians, Thracians—inhabiting the regions to
the north of the Greek world. In accordance with this stereotype,
all these peoples are described, in sharp contrast to the "civilized"
Greeks, as being much taller, their skin lighter and with straight
light-coloured hair and blue eyes. For instance,
Scythians on the
Black Sea and the
straight-haired, for both they themselves and the environing air are
moist"; according to Clement of Alexandria,
Thracians as "ruddy and tawny". On Trajan's column,
Dacian soldiers' hair is depicted longer than the hair of Roman
soldiers and they had trimmed beards.
Body-painting was customary among the Dacians.[specify] It is probable
that the tattooing originally had a religious significance. They
practiced symbolic-ritual tattooing or body painting for both men and
women, with hereditary symbols transmitted up to the fourth
Getae on the World Map according to Herodotus
In the absence of historical records written by the
Thracians) themselves, analysis of their origins depends largely on
the remains of material culture. On the whole, the Bronze Age
witnessed the evolution of the ethnic groups which emerged during the
Eneolithic period, and eventually the syncretism of both autochthonous
and Indo-European elements from the steppes and the Pontic
regions. Various groups of
Thracians had not separated out by
1200 BC,  but there are strong similarities between the ceramic
types found at Troy and the ceramic types from the Carpathian
area. About the year 1000 BC, the Carpatho-Danubian countries
were inhabited by a northern branch of the Thracians. At the time
of the arrival of the
Scythians (c. 700 BC), the Carpatho-Danubian
Thracians were developing rapidly towards the
Iron Age civilization of
the West. Moreover, the whole of the fourth period of the Carpathian
Bronze Age had already been profoundly influenced by the first Iron
Age as it developed in Italy and the Alpine lands. The Scythians,
arriving with their own type of
Iron Age civilization, put a stop to
these relations with the West. From roughly 500 BC (the second
Iron Age), the
Dacians developed a distinct civilization, which was
capable of supporting large centralised kingdoms by 1st BC and 1st
Since the very first detailed account by Herodotus,
acknowledged as belonging to the Thracians. Still, they are
distinguished from the other
Thracians by particularities of religion
and custom. The first written mention of the name "Dacians" is in
Roman sources, but classical authors are unanimous in considering them
a branch of the Getae, a Thracian people known from Greek writings.
Strabo specified that the Daci are the
Getae who lived in the area
Pannonian plain (Transylvania), while the
gravitated towards the
Black Sea coast (Scythia Minor).
Relations with Thracians
See also: Dromichaetes
Since the writings of
Herodotus in the 5th century BC,
Dacians are acknowledged as belonging to the Thracian sphere of
influence. Despite this, they are distinguished from other Thracians
by particularities of religion and custom. Geto-
Thracians were kin people but they were not the same. The
differences from the southern
Thracians or from the neighboring
Scythians were probably faint, as several ancient authors make
confusions of identification with both groups.
In the 19th century, Tomaschek considered a close affinity between the
Thracians and Getae-Dacians, an original kinship of both people
with Iranian peoples. They are
Aryan tribes, several centuries
before Scolotes of the Pont and
Sauromatae left the
Aryan homeland and
settled in the
Carpathian chain, in the
Haemus (Balkan) and Rhodope
mountains. The Besso-
Thracians and Getae-
Dacians separated very
early from Aryans, since their language still maintains roots that are
missing from Iranian and it shows non-Iranian phonetic characteristics
(i.e. replacing the Iranian "l" with "r"). He considered that the
Dacians and Besso-
Thracians would represent a new layer of people
that extended in the autochthonous fund, probably Illyrian or
Relations with Celts
Celts in Transylvania, Gallic invasion of the Balkans, Boii,
Taurisci, Scordisci, Anartes, Burebista, List of Celtic cities in
Thrace and Dacia, and Púchov culture
Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:
core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC
maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC
Dacians inhabited both sides of the
Tisa River before the rise of
the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the
Dacians under king Burebista. During the second half of the 4th
century BC, Celtic cultural influence appears in the archaeological
records of the middle Danube, Alpine region, and north-western
Balkans, where it was part of the Middle
La Tène material culture.
This material appears in north-western and central Dacia, and is
reflected especially in burials. The
Dacians absorbed the Celtic
influence from the northwest in the early third century BC.
Archaeological investigation of this period has highlighted several
Celtic warrior graves with military equipment. It suggests the
forceful penetration of a military Celtic elite within the region of
Dacia, now known as Transylvania, that is bounded on the east by the
Carpathian range. The archaeological sites of the third and
second centuries BC in
Transylvania revealed a pattern of co-existence
and fusion between the bearers of
La Tène culture and indigenous
Dacians. These were domestic dwellings with a mixture of Celtic and
Dacian pottery, and several graves in the Celtic style containing
vessels of Dacian type. There are some seventy Celtic sites in
Transylvania, mostly cemeteries, but most if not all of them indicate
that the native population imitated Celtic art forms that took their
fancy, but remained obstinately and fundamentally Dacian in their
Replica of the raven-totem helmet from Satu Mare County
The Celtic Helmet from Satu Mare,
Romania (northern Dacia), an Iron
Age raven totem helmet, dated around the 4th century BC. A similar
helmet is depicted on the Thraco-Celtic Gundestrup cauldron, being
worn by one of the mounted warriors (detail tagged here). See also an
illustration of Brennos wearing a similar helmet. Around 150 BC, La
Tène material disappears from the area. This coincides with the
ancient writings which mention the rise of Dacian authority. It ended
the Celtic domination, and it is possible that
Celts were driven out
of Dacia. Alternatively, some scholars have proposed that the
Celts remained, but merged into the local culture and
thus ceased to be distinctive.
Archaeological discoveries in the settlements and fortifications of
Dacians in the period of their kingdoms (1st century BC and 1st
century AD) included imported Celtic vessels, and others made by
Dacian potters imitating Celtic prototypes, showing that relations
Dacians and the
Celts from the regions north and west of
Dacia continued. In present-day Slovakia, archaeology has
revealed evidence for mixed Celtic-Dacian populations in the
Hron river basins.
Dacians subdued the Celtic tribes, the remaining Cotini
stayed in the mountains of Central Slovakia, where they took up mining
and metalworking. Together with the original domestic population, they
Puchov culture that spread into central and northern
Slovakia, including Spis, and penetrated northeastern
southern Poland. Along the
Bodrog River in Zemplin they created
Celtic-Dacian settlements which were known for the production of
Relations with Greeks
See also: Decree of Dionysopolis, List of Greek cities in
Dacia, and Lysimachus
Greek and Roman chroniclers record the defeat and capture of the
Lysimachus in the 3rd century BC by the Getae
(Dacians) ruled by Dromihete, their military strategy, and the release
Lysimachus following a debate in the assembly of the Getae.
Relations with Persians
Herodotus says: "before Darius reached the Danube, the first people he
subdued were the Getae, who believed that they never die". It is
possible that the Persian expedition and the subsequent occupation may
have altered the way in which the
Getae expressed the immortality
belief. The influence of thirty years of
Achaemenid presence may be
detected in the emergence of an explicit iconography of the "Royal
Hunt" that influenced Dacian and Thracian metalworkers, and of the
practice of hawking by their upper class.
Relations with Scythians
See also: Agathyrsi, Scythia Minor, Alans, Roxolani, and Iazyges
The Scythians' arrival in the
Carpathian mountains is dated to 700
Transylvania had been mentioned by Herodotus
(fifth century BC), who regarded them as not a Scythian people,
but closely related to them. In other respects their customs were
close to those of the Thracians. The
Agathyrsi were completely
denationalized at the time of
Herodotus and absorbed by the native
The opinion that the
Agathyrsi were almost certainly
also from the writings preserved by Stephen of Byzantium, who explains
Greeks called the
Trausi the Agathyrsi, and we know that the
Trausi lived in the Rhodope Mountains. Certain details from their way
of life, such as tattooing, also suggest that the
Thracians. Their place was later taken by the Dacians. That the
Dacians were of Thracian stock is not in doubt, and it is safe to
assume that this new name also encompassed the Agathyrsi, and perhaps
other neighboring Thracian people as well, as a result of some
Relations with Germanic tribes
See also: Suebi, Bastarnae, Goths, Marcomannic Wars, and Chernyakhov
Map showing the Dacian-speaking Carpi place in invading Roman
AD 250-1, under the Gothic leader Kniva
The Goths, a confederation of east German peoples, arrived in the
Ukraine no later than 230. During the next decade, a
large section of them moved down the
Black Sea coast and occupied much
of the territory north of the lower Danube. The Goths' advance
towards the area north of the
Black Sea involved competing with the
indigenous population of Dacian-speaking Carpi, as well as indigenous
Sarmatians and Roman garrison forces. The Carpi,
often called "Free Dacians", continued to dominate the anti-Roman
coalition made up of themselves, Taifali, Astringi, Vandals, Peucini,
Goths until 248, when the
Goths assumed the hegemony of the loose
coalition. The first lands taken over by the
in Moldavia, and only during the fourth century did they move in
strength down into the Danubian plain. The Carpi found themselves
squeezed between the advancing
Goths and the Roman province of
Dacia. In 275 AD,
Aurelian surrendered the Dacian
territory[clarification needed] to the Carpi and the Goths. Over
time, Gothic power in the region grew, at the Carpi's expense. The
Goths replaced native Dacian-speakers as the
dominant force around the
Carpathian mountains. Large numbers of
Carpi, but not all of them, were admitted into the Roman empire in the
twenty-five years or so after 290 AD. Despite this evacuation of
the Carpi around 300 AD, considerable groups of the natives
Sarmatians and others) remained in place under
In 330 the Gothic
Thervingi contemplated moving to the Middle Danube
region, and from 370 relocated with their fellow
Gothic Greuthungi to new homes in the Roman Empire. The
Ostrogoths were still more isolated, but even the
to live among their own kind. As a result, the
Goths settled in
pockets. Finally, although Roman towns continued on a reduced level,
there is no question as to their survival.
In 336 AD, Constantine took the title Dacicus Maximus ("The great
victory over Dacians"), implying at least partial reconquest of Trajan
Dacia. In an inscription of 337, Constantine was commemorated
officially as Germanicus Maximus, Sarmaticus, Gothicus Maximus, and
Dacicus Maximus, meaning he had defeated the Germans, Sarmatians,
Goths, and Dacians.
Main article: Dacia
Burebista and Decebalus
Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC
Dacian polities arose as confederacies that included the Getae, the
Daci, the Buri, and the Carpi[dubious – discuss] (cf. Bichir 1976,
Shchukin 1989), united only periodically by the leadership of
Dacian kings such as
Burebista and Decebal. This union was both
military-political and ideological-religious on ethnic basis. The
following are some of the attested Dacian kingdoms:
The kingdom of Cothelas, one of the Getae, covered an area near the
Black Sea, between northern
Thrace and the Danube, today Bulgaria, in
the 4th century BC. The kingdom of
Rubobostes controlled a region
Transylvania in the 2nd century BC. Gaius Scribonius Curio
(proconsul 75–73 BC) campaigned successfully against the Dardani and
the Moesi, becoming the first Roman general to reach the river Danube
with his army. His successor, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, brother
of the famous Lucius Lucullus, campaigned against the Thracian Bessi
tribe and the Moesi, ravaging the whole of Moesia, the region between
Haemus (Balkan) mountain range and the Danube. In 72 BC, his
troops occupied the Greek coastal cities of
Scythia Minor (the modern
Dobrogea region in
Romania and Bulgaria), which had sided with Rome's
Hellenistic arch-enemy, king
Mithridates VI of Pontus, in the Third
Mithridatic War. Greek geographer
Strabo claimed that the Dacians
Getae had been able to muster a combined army of 200,000 men
during Strabo's era, the time of Roman emperor Augustus.
The kingdom of Burebista
The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum extent under king Burebista
(ruled 82 – 44 BC). The capital of the kingdom was possibly the city
of Argedava, also called Sargedava in some historical writings,
situated close to the river Danube. The kingdom of
south of the Danube, in what is today Bulgaria, and the Greeks
believed their king was the greatest of all
Thracians.[better source needed] During his reign,
Burebista transferred the Geto-Dacians' capital from
Sarmizegetusa. For at least one and a half centuries,
Sarmizegethusa was the Dacian capital, reaching its peak under king
Burebista annexed the Greek cities on the Pontus.(55–48
Augustus wanted to avenge the defeat of Gaius Antonius
Histria (Sinoe) 32 years before, and to recover the lost
standards. These were held in a powerful fortress called Genucla
(Isaccea, near modern Tulcea, in the
Danube delta region of Romania),
controlled by Zyraxes, the local Getan petty king. The man
selected for the task was Marcus Licinius Crassus, grandson of Crassus
the triumvir, and an experienced general at 33 years of age, who was
appointed proconsul of Macedonia in 29 BC.
The kingdom of
Decebalus 87 – 106
By the year AD 100, more than 400,000 square kilometers were dominated
by the Dacians, who numbered two million.[b]
Decebalus was the last
king of the Dacians, and despite his fierce resistance against the
Romans was defeated, and committed suicide rather than being marched
through Rome in a triumph as a captured enemy leader.
Conflict with Rome
Domitian's Dacian War and Trajan's Dacian Wars
Burebista's Dacian state was powerful enough to threaten Rome, and
Caesar contemplated campaigning against the Dacians. Despite
this, the formidable Dacian power under
Burebista lasted only until
his death in 44 BC. The subsequent division of
Dacia continued for
about a century until the reign of Scorilo. This was a period of only
occasional attacks on the Roman Empire's border, with some local
The unifying actions of the last Dacian king
Decebalus (ruled 87–106
AD) were seen as dangerous by Rome. Despite the fact that the Dacian
army could now gather only some 40,000 soldiers, Decebalus' raids
south of the
Danube proved unstoppable and costly. In the Romans'
eyes, the situation at the border with
Dacia was out of control, and
Domitian (ruled 81 to 96 AD) tried desperately to deal with
the danger through military action. But the outcome of Rome's
disastrous campaigns into
Dacia in AD 86 and AD 88 pushed
settle the situation through diplomacy.
Trajan (ruled 97–117 AD) opted for a different approach and
decided to conquer the Dacian kingdom, partly in order to seize its
vast gold mines wealth. The effort required two major wars (the Dacian
Wars), one in 101–102 AD and the other in 105–106 AD. Only
fragmentary details survive of the Dacian war: a single sentence of
Trajan's own Dacica; little more of the
Getica written by his doctor,
T. Statilius Crito; nothing whatsoever of the poem proposed by
Caninius Rufus (if it was ever written), Dio Chrysostom's
Appian's Dacica. Nonetheless, a reasonable account can be pieced
Dacian wars depicted on Trajan's column
In the first war,
Dacia by crossing the river Danube
with a boat-bridge and inflicted a crushing defeat on the
Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. The Dacian king
forced to sue for peace.
Decebalus then concluded a peace
treaty which was highly favourable to the Romans. The peace agreement
Dacians to cede some territory to the Romans and to
demolish their fortifications. Decebalus' foreign policy was also
restricted, as he was prohibited from entering into alliances with
Decebalus considered this only a temporary
truce, and readied themselves for renewed war.
Trajan had Greek
Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Damascus construct a stone bridge over the
Danube river, while
Decebalus secretly plotted alliances against the
Romans(citation needed). In 105,
Trajan crossed the
Danube river and
besieged Decebalus' capital, Sarmizegetusa, but the siege failed
because of Decebalus' allied tribes. However,
Trajan was an optimist.
He returned with a newly constituted army and took Sarmizegetusa by
Decebalus fled into the mountains, but was cornered by
pursuing Roman cavalry.
Decebalus committed suicide rather than being
captured by the Romans and be paraded as a slave, then be killed. The
Roman captain took his head and right hand to Trajan, who had them
displayed in the Forums.
Trajan's Column in Rome was constructed to
celebrate the conquest of Dacia.
Decebalus (Trajan's Column, Scene CXLV)
The Roman people hailed Trajan's triumph in
Dacia with the longest and
most expensive celebration in their history, financed by a part of the
gold taken from the Dacians. For his triumph,
Trajan gave a
123-day festival (ludi) of celebration, in which approximately 11,000
animals were slaughtered and 11,000 gladiators fought in combats. This
surpassed Emperor Titus's celebration in AD 70, when a 100-day
festival included 3,000 gladiators and 5,000 to 9,000 wild
Main article: Roman Dacia
See also: Danubian provinces
Only about half part of
Dacia then became a Roman province, with
a newly built capital at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, 40 km away
from the site of Old Sarmisegetuza Regia, which was razed to the
ground. The name of the Dacians' homeland, Dacia, became the name of a
Roman province, and the name
Dacians was used to designate the people
in the region. Roman Dacia, also
Dacia Traiana or
was a province of the
Roman Empire from 106 to 271 or 275
AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and southeastern
Transylvania, and the regions of
Oltenia (located in modern
Dacia was organised from the beginning as an imperial
province, and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. It was
one of the empire's
Latin provinces; official epigraphs attest that
the language of administration was Latin. Historian estimates of
the population of Roman
Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000.
Moesia Superior and other Roman
Dacians that remained outside the
Roman Empire after the Dacian wars
of AD 101–106 had been named Dakoi prosoroi (
Latin Daci limitanei),
"neighbouring Dacians". Modern historians use the generic name
"Free Dacians" or Independent Dacians. The tribes Daci
Magni (Great Dacians),
Costoboci (generally considered a Dacian
subtribe), and Carpi remained outside the Roman empire, in what the
Dacia Libera (Free Dacia). By the early third
century the "Free Dacians" were a significantly troublesome group, by
now identified as the Carpi. Bichir argues that the Carpi were
the most powerful of the
Dacian tribes who had become the principal
enemy of the Romans in the region. In 214 AD, Caracalla
campaigned against the Free Dacians. There were also campaigns
Dacians recorded in 236 AD.
Dacia was evacuated by the Romans under emperor
Aurelian made this decision on account of
counter-pressures on the Empire there caused by the Carpi, Visigoths,
Sarmatians, and Vandals; the lines of defense needed to be shortened,
Dacia was deemed not defensible given the demands on available
resources. Roman power in Thracia rested mainly with the legions
stationed in Moesia. The rural nature of Thracia's populations, and
the distance from Roman authority, encouraged the presence of local
troops to support Moesia's legions. Over the next few centuries, the
province was periodically and increasingly attacked by migrating
Germanic tribes. The reign of
Justinian saw the construction of over
100 legionary fortresses to supplement the defense.
Dacia were Romanized, while those within the Byzantine
empire were their Hellenized descendants that had mingled with the
See also: Free Dacians, Carpi (people), Costoboci, and Origin of the
Dacian on the Constantine Arch
Dacia was never a uniformly or fully
Dacia fell into three divisions: the area along the
river, usually under some type of Roman administration even if in a
highly localized form; the zone beyond this area, from which Roman
military personnel had withdrawn, leaving a sizable population behind
that was generally Romanized; and finally what is now the northern
parts of Moldavia, Crisana, and Maramures, which were never occupied
by the Romans. These last areas were always peripheral to the Roman
province, not militarily occupied but nonetheless influenced by Rome
as part of the Roman economic sphere. Here lived the free, unoccupied
Carpi, often called "Free Dacians".
Aurelian retreat was a purely military decision to withdraw the
Roman troops to defend the Danube. The inhabitants of the old province
Dacia displayed no awareness of impending dissolution. There were
no sudden flights or dismantling of property. It is not possible
to discern how many civilians followed the army out of Dacia; it is
clear that there was no mass emigration, since there is evidence of
continuity of settlement in Dacian villages and farms; the evacuation
may not at first have been intended to be a permanent measure.
The Romans left the province, but they didn't consider that they lost
Dobrogea was not abandoned at all, but continued as part of
Roman Empire for over 350 years. As late as AD 300, the
tetrarchic emperors had resettled tens of thousands of Dacian Carpi
inside the empire, dispersing them in communities the length of the
Danube, from Austria to the Black Sea.
Dacian tarabostes (nobleman) – (Hermitage Museum)
Comati on Trajan's Column, Rome
Dacians were divided into two classes: the aristocracy (tarabostes)
and the common people (comati). Only the aristocracy had the right to
cover their heads, and wore a felt hat. The common people, who
comprised the rank and file of the army, the peasants and artisans,
might have been called capillati in Latin. Their appearance and
clothing can be seen on Trajan's Column.
Dacian tools: compasses, chisels, knives, etc.
The chief occupations of the
Dacians were agriculture, apiculture,
viticulture, livestock, ceramics and metalworking. They also worked
the gold and silver mines of Transylvania. At Pecica, Arad, a Dacian
workshop was discovered, along with equipment for minting coins and
evidence of bronze, silver, and iron-working that suggests a broad
spectrum of smithing. Evidence for the mass production of iron is
found on many Dacian sites, indicating guild-like specialization.
Dacian ceramic manufacturing traditions continue from the pre-Roman to
the Roman period, both in provincial and unoccupied Dacia, and well
into the fourth and even early fifth centuries. They engaged in
considerable external trade, as is shown by the number of foreign
coins found in the country (see also
Decebalus Treasure). On the
northernmost frontier of "free Dacia", coin circulation steadily grew
in the first and second centuries, with a decline in the third and a
rise again in the fourth century; the same pattern as observed for the
Banat region to the southwest. What is remarkable is the extent and
increase in coin circulation after Roman withdrawal from Dacia, and as
far north as Transcarpathia.
Geto-Dacian Koson, mid 1st century BC
The first coins produced by the Geto-
Dacians were imitations of silver
coins of the Macedonian kings Philip II and Alexander III (the Great).
Early in the 1st century BC, the
Dacians replaced these with silver
denarii of the Roman Republic, both official coins of Rome exported to
Dacia, as well as locally made imitations of them. The Roman province
Dacia is represented on the Roman sestertius coin as a woman seated on
a rock, holding an aquila, a small child on her knee. The aquila holds
ears of grain, and another small child is seated before her holding
Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains
Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains and Murus
Dacians had developed the murus dacicus (double-skinned ashlar-masonry
with rubble fill and tie beams) characteristic to their complexes of
fortified cities, like their capital Sarmisegetuza Regia in what is
today Hunedoara County, Romania. This type of wall has been
discovered not only in the Dacian citadel of the Orastie mountains,
but also in those at Covasna, Breaza near Făgăraș, Tilișca near
Sibiu, Căpâlna in the
Sebeș valley, Bănița not far from
Petroșani, and Piatra Craivii to the north of Alba Iulia. The
degree of their urban development was displayed on
Trajan's Column and
in the account of how
Sarmizegetusa Regia was defeated by the Romans.
The Romans were given by treachery the locations of aqueducts and
pipelines of the Dacian capital, only after destroying the water
supply being able to end the long siege of Sarmisegetuza.
See also: Thracology, Dacology, and Romanian archaeology
See also: the categories Dacian archaeology, Museums of Dacia, and
According to archaeological findings, the cradle of the Dacian culture
is considered to be north of the
Danube towards the Carpathian
mountains, in the historical Romanian province of Muntenia. It is
identified as an evolution of the
Iron Age Basarabi culture. The
Iron Age Basarabi evidence in the northern lower
connects to the iron-using Ferigile-Birsesti group. This is an
archaeological manifestation of the historical
Getae who, along with
the Agathyrsae, are one of a number of tribal formations recorded by
Herodotus. In archaeology, "free Dacians" are attested by
Puchov culture (in which there are Celtic elements) and Lipiţa
culture to the east of the Carpathians. The
Lipiţa culture has a
Dacian/North Thracian origin.  This North Thracian
population was dominated by strong Celtic influences, or had simply
absorbed Celtic ethnic components.
Lipiţa culture has been
linked to the Dacian tribe of Costoboci.
Specific Dacian material culture includes: wheel-turned pottery that
is generally plain but with distinctive elite wares, massive silver
dress fibulae, precious metal plate, ashlar masonry, fortifications,
upland sanctuaries with horseshoe-shaped precincts, and decorated clay
heart altars at settlement sites. Among many discovered artifacts, the
Dacian bracelets stand out, depicting their cultural and aesthetic
sense. There are difficulties correlating funerary monuments
chronologically with Dacian settlements; a small number of burials are
known, along with cremation pits, and isolated rich burials as at
Cugir. Dacian burial ritual continued under Roman occupation and
into the post-Roman period.
Main article: Dacian language
See also: Davae, Thracian language, and Languages of the Roman Empire
Dacians are generally considered to have been Thracian speakers,
representing a cultural continuity from earlier Iron Age
communities. Some historians and linguists consider Dacian
language to be a dialect of or the same language as
Thracian. The vocalism and consonantism differentiate the
Dacian and Thracian languages. Others consider that Dacian and
Illyrian form regional varieties (dialects) of a common language.
Thracians inhabited modern southern Bulgaria and northern Greece.
Illyrians lived in modern Albania, Serbia, Montenegro,
Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia.)
The ancient languages of these people became extinct, and their
cultural influence highly reduced, after the repeated invasions of the
Balkans by Celts, Huns, Goths, and Sarmatians, accompanied by
persistent hellenization, romanisation and later slavicisation.
Therefore, in the study of the toponomy of Dacia, one must take
account of the fact that some place-names were taken by the Slavs from
as yet unromanised Dacians. A number of Dacian words are
preserved in ancient sources, amounting to about 1150 anthroponyms and
900 toponyms, and in Discorides some of the rich plant lore of the
Dacians is preserved along with the names of 42 medicinal plants.
Dacians knew about writing. Permanent contacts with
the Graeco-Roman world had brought the use of the Greek and later the
Latin alphabet. It is also certainly not the case that writing
with Greek and
Latin letters and knowledge of Greek and
known in all the settlements scattered throughout Dacia, but there is
no doubt about the existence of such knowledge in some circles of
Dacian society. However, the most revealing discoveries
concerning the use of the writing by the
Dacians occurred in the
citadels on the Sebes mountains. Some groups of letters from
stone blocks at Sarmisegetuza might express personal names; these can
not now be read because the wall is ruined, and because it is
impossible to restore the original order of the blocks in the
Main article: Dacian mythology
Detail of the main fresco of the Aleksandrovo kurgan. The figure is
identified with Zalmoxis.
Dacian religion was considered by the classic sources as a key source
of authority, suggesting to some that
Dacia was a predominantly
theocratic state led by priest-kings. However, the layout of the
Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa indicates the possibility of
co-rulership, with a separate high king and high priest. Ancient
sources recorded the names of several Dacian high priests (Deceneus,
Comosicus and Vezina) and various orders of priests: "god-worshipers",
"smoke-walkers" and "founders". Both
Hellenistic and Oriental
influences are discernible in the religious background, alongside
chthonic and solar motifs.
According to Herodotus' account of the story of
Getae (speaking the same language as the
the Thracians, according to Strabo) believed in the immortality of the
soul, and regarded death as merely a change of country. Their chief
priest held a prominent position as the representative of the supreme
deity, Zalmoxis, who is called also
Gebeleizis by some among
Strabo wrote about the high priest of King Burebista
Deceneus: "a man who not only had wandered through Egypt, but also had
thoroughly learned certain prognostics through which he would pretend
to tell the divine will; and within a short time he was set up as god
(as I said when relating the story of Zamolxis)."
Votive stele representing
Bendis wearing a Dacian cap (British Museum)
Jordanes in his
Getica (The origin and deeds of the Goths),
also gives an account of
Deceneus the highest priest, and considered
Dacians a nation related to the Goths. Besides Zalmoxis, the Dacians
believed in other deities, such as Gebeleizis, the god of storm and
lightning, possibly related to the Thracian god Zibelthiurdos. He
was represented as a handsome man, sometimes with a beard. Later
Gebeleizis was equated with
Zalmoxis as the same god. According to
Gebeleizis who is only mentioned by
Herodotus) is just another name of Zalmoxis.
Another important deity was Bendis, goddess of the moon and the
hunt. By a decree of the oracle of Dodona, which required the
Athenians to grant land for a shrine or temple, her cult was
introduced into Attica by immigrant Thracian residents,[c] and, though
Thracian and Athenian processions remained separate, both cult and
festival became so popular that in Plato's time (c. 429–13 BC) its
festivities were naturalised as an official ceremony of the Athenian
city-state, called the Bendideia.[d]
Known Dacian theonyms include Zalmoxis, Gebeleïzis and
Gebeleizis is probably cognate to the Thracian god
Zibelthiurdos (also Zbelsurdos, Zibelthurdos), wielder of lightning
Derzelas (also Darzalas) was a chthonic god of
health and human vitality. The pagan religion survived longer in Dacia
than in other parts of the empire; Christianity made little headway
until the fifth century.
Fragment of a vase collected by
Mihail Dimitriu at the site of Poiana,
Romania illustrating the use of Greek and
Latin letters by a Dacian potter (source:
Dacia journal, 1933)
Fragments of pottery with different "inscriptions" with
Greek letters incised before and after firing have been discovered in
the settlement at Ocnita – Valcea. An inscription carries the
word Basileus (Βασιλεύς in Greek, meaning "king") and seems to
have been written before the vessel was hardened by fire. Other
inscriptions contain the name of the king, believed to be
Latin groups of letters (BVR, REB). BVR
indicates the name of the tribe or union of tribes, the Buridavensi
Dacians who lived at
Buridava and who were mentioned by
Ptolemy in the
second century AD under the name of Buridavensioi.
Clothing and science
The typical dress of Dacians, both men and women, can be seen on
Dio Chrysostom described the
Dacians as natural
A 19th century depiction of Dacian women
Main article: Dacian warfare
The history of
Dacian warfare spans from c. 10th century BC up to the
2nd century AD in the region typically referred to by Ancient Greek
Latin historians as Dacia. It concerns the armed conflicts of the
Dacian tribes and their kingdoms in the Balkans. Apart from conflicts
Dacians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were
Dacian tribes as well.
Falx and Sica
The weapon most associated with the Dacian forces that fought against
Trajan's army during his invasions of
Dacia was the falx, a
single-edged scythe-like weapon. The falx was able to inflict horrible
wounds on opponents, easily disabling or killing the heavily armored
Roman legionaries that they faced. This weapon, more so than any other
single factor, forced the Roman army to adopt previously unused or
modified equipment to suit the conditions on the Dacian
See also: List of Dacian kings, Burebista, and Decebalus
This is a list of several important Dacian individuals or those of
partly Dacian origin.
Zalmoxis, a semi-legendary social and religious reformer, eventually
deified by the
Dacians and regarded as the only true god.
Burebista was a king of Dacia, 70–44 BC, who united under his rule
Thracians in a large territory, from today's
Moravia in the West, to
Southern Bug river (Ukraine) in the East, and from the Northern
Carpathian Mountains to Southern Dionysopolis. The
him the first and greatest king of
Thrace.[better source needed]
Decebalus, a king of
Dacia who was ultimately defeated by the forces
Diegis was a Dacian chief, general and brother of Decebalus, and his
representative at the peace negotiations held with
Domitian (89 CE)
"The ducks come from the trucks" – Romanian language pun about a
mistranslation (duck and truck sound like dac and trac, the ethnonyms
for Dacian and Thracian).
In Romanian nationalism
Main article: Origin of the Romanians
Modern Romanian statue of the Dacian King
Burebista (located in
Study of the Dacians, their culture, society and religion is not
purely a subject of ancient history, but has present day implications
in the context of Romanian nationalism. Positions taken on the vexed
question of the
Origin of the Romanians
Origin of the Romanians and to what degree are
present-day Romanians descended from the
Dacians might have
contemporary political implications. For example, The government of
Nicolae Ceaușescu claimed an uninterrupted continuity of a
Dacian-Romanian state, from King
Burebista to Ceaușescu himself.
The Ceaușescu government conspicuously commemorated the supposed
2,050th anniversary of the founding of the "unified and centralized"
country that was to become Romania, on which occasion the historical
film "Burebista" was produced.
List of rulers of
Thrace and Dacia
List of cities in
Thrace and Dacia
List of Dacian names
^ Dioscorides's book (known in English by its
Latin title De Materia
Medica 'Regarding Medical Materials') has all the Dacian names of the
plants preceded by Δάκοι Dakoi i.e. Δάκοι Dakoi
Latin Daci propodila "
^ De Imperatoribus Romanis Retrieved 2007-11-08. "In the year 88, the
Romans resumed the offensive. The Roman troops were now led by the
general Tettius Iulianus. The battle took place again at Tapae but
this time the Romans defeated the Dacians. For fear of falling into a
trap, Iulianus abandoned his plans of conquering Sarmizegetuza and, at
the same time,
Decebalus asked for peace. At first,
this request, but after he was defeated in a war in Pannonia against
the Marcomanni (a Germanic tribe), the emperor was obliged to accept
^ Extensive discussion of whether the date is 429 or 413 BC was
reviewed and newly analyzed in Christopher Planeaux, "The Date of
Bendis' Entry into Attica" The Classical Journal 96.2 (December
2000:165–192). Planeaux offers a reconstruction of the inscription
mentioning the first introduction, p
^ Fifth-century fragmentary inscriptions that record formal descrees
regarding formal aspects of the
Bendis cult, are reproduced in
^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
(1898),(Zalmoxis) or Zamolxis (Zamolxis). Said to have been so called
from the bear's skin (zalmos) in which he was clothed as soon as he
was born. He was, according to the story current among the
the Hellespont, a Getan, who had been a slave to Pythagoras in Samos,
but was manumitted, and acquired not only great wealth, but large
stores of knowledge from Pythagoras, and from the Egyptians, whom he
visited in the course of his travels. He returned among the Getae,
introducing the civilization and the religious ideas which he had
gained, especially regarding the immortality of the soul. Herodotus,
however, suspects that he was an indigenous Getan divinity (Herod.iv.
^ a b Westropp 2003, p. 104.
^ a b c d
Strabo & 20 AD, VII 3,12.
^ Dionysius Periegetes, Graece et Latine, Volume 1, Libraria
Weidannia, 1828, p. 145.
^ a b Nandris 1976, p. 731.
^ Husovská 1998, p. 187.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica – Dacia.
^ Millar 2004, p. 189: "the
Getae over the Danube, whom they call
Appian & 165 AD, Praef. 4/14-15, quoted in 
^ a b c d e f g
Herodotus & 440 BC, 4.93–4.97.
^ a b c d Fol 1996, p. 223.
^ a b Nandris 1976, p. 730:
Trogus Pompeius "Daci
quoque suboles Getarum sunt"
^ a b Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 837.
^ a b Roesler 1864, p. 89.
^ Zumpt & Zumpt 1852, pp. 140 & 175.
^ a b c d e Van Den Gheyn 1886, p. 170.
^ Everitt 2010, p. 151.
^ a b Bunbury 1979, p. 150.
^ Oltean 2007, p. 44.
^ Bunbury 1979, p. 151.
^ a b Riley 2007, p. 107.
^ a b Garašanin, Benac (1973) 243
^ Parvan, Vulpe & Vulpe 2002, p. 158.
^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 397.
^ Mulvin 2002, p. 59: "…A tombstone inscription from Aquincum
reads M. Secundi Genalis domo Cl. Agrip /pina/ negotiat. Dacisco. This
is of a second century date and suggests the presence of some Dacian
traders in Pannonia…"
^ Petolescu 2000, p. 163: "…patri incom[pa-] rabili, decep [to]
a Daciscis in bel- loproclio …"
^ Groh 2000, p. 43: "…CIL V 3372 inscription at Verona Papirio
Marcellino, decepto a Daciscis in bello proelio…"
^ Gibbon 2008, p. 313: "…
Aurelian calls these soldiers Hiberi,
Riparienses, Castriani, and Dacisci " conform to "Vopiscus in Historia
Augusta XXVI 38"
^ Kephart 1949, p. 28: The Persians knew that the
Dahae and the other
Massagetae were kin of the inhabitants of Scythia west of the Caspian
^ Chakraberty 1948, p. 34: "Dasas or Dasyu of the RigVeda are the
Dahae of Avesta, Daci of the Romans, Dakaoi (Hindi Dakku) of the
^ Pliny (the Elder) & Rackham 1971, p. 375.
^ a b c White 1991, p. 239.
^ Grumeza 2009.
^ Sidebottom 2007, p. 6.
^ Florov 2001, p. 66.
^ a b Papazoglu 1978, p. 434.
^ a b Barbulescu & Nagler 2005, p. 68.
^ Vraciu 1980, p. 45.
^ Lemny & Iorga 1984, p. 210.
^ Toynbee 1961, p. 435.
^ Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 8375.
^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 404.
^ a b c Paliga 1999, p. 77.
^ Eisler 1951, p. 136.
^ Parvan, Vulpe & Vulpe 2002, p. 149.
^ Alecu-Călușiță 1992, p. 19.
^ Eisler 1951, p. 33.
^ Eliade 1995, p. 12.
^ Vulpe 2001, pp. 420–421.
^ Russu 1967, p. 133.
^ a b Eliade 1995, p. 11.
^ Eisler 1951, p. 137.
^ a b c d Eliade 1995, p. 13.
^ Jeanmaire 1975, p. 540.
^ a b Eisler 1951, p. 144.
^ a b c Eliade 1995, p. 15.
^ Zambotti 1954, p. 184, fig. 13-14, 16.
^ a b Eliade 1995, p. 23.
^ Eliade 1995, p. 27.
^ Eliade 1986.
^ Hoddinott, p. 27.
^ Casson, p. 3.
^ Mountain 1998, p. 58.
^ Dumitrescu et al. 1982, p. 53.
^ a b c d e Mountain 1998, p. 59.
^ Pârvan 1926, p. 279.
^ Strabo, Jones & Sterrett 1967, p. 28.
^ Abramea 1994, p. 17.
^ Dio 2008, Volume 3.
^ Papazoglu 1978, p. 67.
^ a b c Pârvan 1926, p. 221: Agrippa comments "Dacia, Getico
finiuntur ab oriente desertis Sarmatiae, ab occidente flumine Vistula,
a septentrione Oceano, a meridie flumine Histro. Quae patent in
longitudine milia passuum CCLXXX, in latitudine qua cogitum est milia
^ Schütte 1917, p. 109.
^ Schütte 1917, pp. 101 and 109.
^ Treptow 1996, p. 10.
^ Ellis 1861, p. 70.
^ Brixhe 2008, p. 72.
^ Fisher 2003, p. 570.
^ Rosetti 1982, p. 5.
^ Duridanov 1985, p. 130.
^ a b Polomé 1982, p. 876.
^ a b Peregrine & Ember 2001, p. 215.
^ a b c Price 2000, p. 120.
^ Renfrew 1990, p. 71.
^ Hainsworth 1982, p. 848.
^ Polomé 1983, p. 540.
^ National Geographic, Hubble at 25, April 2015, Story by Andrew
^ Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 838.
^ a b c Oltean 2007, p. 46.
^ Koch 2007, p. 1471.
^ Schütte 1917, p. 88.
^ Schütte 1917, p. 89.
^ Bennett 1997, p. 47.
^ a b c Pârvan 1926, p. 250.
^ a b Wilcox 2000, p. 18.
^ Wilcox 2000, p. 24.
^ a b Pârvan 1926, pp. 222–223.
Ptolemy III.5 and 8
^ Barrington Plate 22
^ Ruscu 2004, p. 78.
^ Wilcox (2000)27
^ MacKenzie 1986, p. 51.
^ MacKendrick 2000, p. 90.
^ Millar 1981.
^ Bunson 2002, p. 167.
^ Pop 2000, p. 22.
^ Denne Parker 1958, pp. 12 and 19.
^ a b Wilkes 2005, p. 224.
^ Oltean 2007, p. 47.
^ Pârvan 1926, pp. 461–462.
Heather 2010, p. 131
Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 184
Poghirc 1989, p. 302
Pârvan 1928, pp. 184 and 188
Nandris 1976, p. 729
Oledzki 2000, p. 525
Astarita 1983, p. 62
^ a b Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 100.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 184.
^ Nandris 1976, p. 729.
^ a b Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 98.
^ a b Shutte 1917, p. 100.
^ Parvan & Florescu 1982, p. 135.
^ Sir Smith 1856, p. 961.
^ Shutte 1917, p. 18.
^ Heather 2010, p. 131.
^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 407.
^ Shutte 1917, p. 143.
^ Russu 1969, pp. 99,116.
^ VI, 1 801=ILS 854
^ VI, 16, 903
^ Russu 1967, p. 161.
^ Shutte 1917, p. 101.
^ Parvan & Florescu 1982, pp. 142 and 152.
Goffart 2006, p. 205
Bunson 1995, p. 74
MacKendrick 2000, p. 117
Parvan & Florescu 1982, p. 136
Burns 1991, pp. 26 and 27
Odahl 2004, p. 19
Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 19
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 129.
^ Heather 2010, p. 114.
^ Pârvan 1926, p. 239.
^ Russu 1969, pp. 114–115.
^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 403.
^ Goffart 2006, p. 205.
^ Minns 2011, p. 124.
^ Nixon & Saylor Rodgers 1995, p. 116.
^ Clarke 2003, p. 37.
^ a b c d e f g Oltean 2007, p. 45.
Aristotle (2001). "Hair (V.3.)". De Generatione Animalium
(Translated by Arthur Platt). Electronic Text Center, University of
Virginia Library. Archived from the original on 2012-12-15. Retrieved
^ Clement of Alexandria. "The heathens made gods like themselves,
whence springs all superstition (VII.4.)". The Stromata, or
Miscellanies. Early Christian Writings. Archived from the original on
2002-06-13. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 208.
^ a b Bury et al. 1954, p. 543.
^ Oltean 2007, p. 114.
^ a b c Dumitrescu et al. 1982, p. 166.
^ Parvan 1928, p. 35.
^ Parvan, Vulpe & Vulpe 2002, p. 49.
^ a b c d e Koch 2005, p. 549.
^ Pârvan 1926, p. 661.
^ a b c d Tomaschek 1883, pp. 400–401.
^ a b c d e f Taylor 2001, p. 215.
^ a b c MacKendrick 2000, p. 50.
^ Koch 2005, p. 550.
^ a b Skvarna, Cicaj & Letz 2000, p. 14.
^ Taylor 1987, p. 130.
^ Pârvan 1928, p. 48.
^ a b
Herodotus & 440 BC, 4.48–4.49.
^ Herodotus, Rawlinson G, Rawlinson H, Gardner (1859) 93
^ Thomson 1948, p. 399.
^ Parvan 1928, p. 48.
^ a b Hrushevskyĭ, Poppe & Skorupsky 1997, p. 97.
^ a b c Watson 2004, p. 8.
^ Heather 2006, p. 85.
^ Burns 1991, pp. 26–27.
^ a b c Burns 1991, pp. 110–111.
^ a b c d e Southern 2001, p. 325.
^ Heather 2010, p. 128.
^ a b Heather 2010, p. 116.
^ Heather 2010, p. 165.
^ Barnes 1984, p. 250.
^ Elton & Lenski 2005, p. 338.
^ Lewis et al. 2008, p. 773.
^ Berresford Ellis 1996, p. 61.
^ Smith's Dictionary: Curio
^ Smith's Dictionary: Lucullus
Strabo & 20 AD, VII 3,13.
^ a b Grumeza 2009, p. 54.
^ MacKendrick 2000, p. 48.
^ Goodman & Sherwood 2002, p. 227.
^ Crişan 1978, p. 118.
^ Dio LI.26.5
^ Dio LI.23.2
^ Taylor 1994, p. 404.
^ a b c Oltean 2007, pp. 53–54.
^ Bennett 1997, p. 97.
^ Hooper 2002, p. 434.
^ Snooks 1997, p. 154.
^ Campbell 2002, p. 144.
^ Boia 2001, p. 47.
^ a b Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 205.
^ a b Klepper, Nicolae. Romania: An Illustrated
History. [unreliable source?]
^ MacKendrick 2000.
^ Pop 2000.
^ Oltean 2007.
^ Köpeczi, Béla; Makkai, László; Mócsy, András; Szász, Zoltán;
Barta, Gábor. History of
Transylvania – From the Beginnings to
^ Georgescu 1991.
^ a b Bowman, Cameron & Garnsey 2005, p. 224.
^ Schütte 1917, p. 143.
^ Siani-Davies P., Siani-Davies M. & Deletant 2006, p. 205.
^ Cowan 2003, p. 5.
^ Hazel 2002, p. 360.
^ MacKendrick 2000, p. 161.
^ Heather 2006, p. 159.
^ a b c d e Taylor 2001, pp. 214–215.
^ Ellis 1998, p. 229.
^ Ellis 1998, p. 232.
^ Applebaum 1976, p. 91.
^ Taylor 2001, p. 86.
^ Millar 1981, p. 279.
^ Shchukin, Kazanski & Sharov 2006, p. 20.
^ Kostrzewski 1949, p. 230.
^ Jażdżewski 1948, p. 76.
^ Shchukin 1989, p. 306.
^ Parvan & Florescu 1982, p. 547.
^ Ellis 1998, p. 233.
^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 401.
^ Pârvan 1926, p. 648.
^ Pares et al. 1939, p. 149.
^ Turnock 1988, p. 42.
^ Cunliffe 1994, p. 193.
^ Millar 1981, p. 275.
^ a b Applebaum 1976, p. 94.
^ Glodariu 1976, p. 101.
^ Applebaum 1976, p. 95.
^ Hans Wagner Die Thraker Eurasisches Magazin, 30 August 2004
^ Kalin Dimitrov Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo, Cultural Heritage
Activities and Institutes Network, 12 September 2008
^ Histories by
Herodotus Book 4 translated by G. Rawlinson
Strabo & 20 AD, VII 3,11.
^ Tomaschek 1893.
^ Glodariu, Pop & Nagler 2005, p. 120.
^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 410.
^ Paliga 1994, p. 440.
^ BENDIS : Thracian goddess of the moon & hunting ;
mythology ; pictures
^ Hdt. 4.94,Their belief in their immortality is as follows: they
believe that they do not die, but that one who perishes goes to the
deity Salmoxis, or Gebeleïzis, as some of them call him.
^ Glodariu 1976, p. 128.
^ a b MacKenzie 1986, p. 67.
^ MacKenzie 1986, p. 26.
^ MacKenzie 1986, p. 66.
^ Sidebottom 2007, p. 5.
^ Schmitz 2005, p. 30.
^ Attributed to
Ion Iliescu speaking about drugs, cf.
^ Boia, L., History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central
European University Press, Budapest, 2001, p. 78; 125
Appian (165). Historia Romana [Roman History] (in Ancient
Dio, Cassius (2008). Rome. Volume 3 (of 6). Echo Library.
Cassius, Dio Cocceianus; Cary, Earnest; Foster, Herbert Baldwin
(1968). Dio's Roman history, volume 8. W. Heinemann.
Herodotus (c. 440 BC). Histories (in Ancient Greek). Check date
values in: date= (help)
Pliny (the Elder); Rackham, Harris (1971). Pliny Natural History,
Volume 2. Harvard University Press.
Strabo (c. 20 AD).
Geographica [Geography] (in Ancient Greek).
Check date values in: date= (help)
Horace Leonard; Sterrett, John Robert (1967). The
geography of Strabo. Harvard University Press.
Abramea, Anna P (1994). Thrace. Idea Advertising-Marketing.
Alecu-Călușiță, Mioara (1992). "Steagul geto-dacilor" [The
Geto-Dacians' Flag] (PDF). Noi Tracii (in Romanian). Rome: Centro
Europeo di Studii Traci (210). Archived from the original (PDF) on
Applebaum, Shimon (1976). Prolegomena to the study of the second
Jewish revolt (A.D. 132–135). BAR.
Astarita, Maria Laura (1983). Avidio Cassio. Ed. di Storia e
Letteratura. OCLC 461867183.
Barnes, Timothy D. (1984). Constantine and Eusebius. Harvard.
Barbulescu, Mihai; Nagler, Thomas (2005). The History of Transylvania:
Until 1541. Coordinator Pop, Ioan Aurel. Cluj-Napoca: Romanian
Cultural Institute. ISBN 978-9737784001.
Berresford Ellis, Peter (1996). Celt and Greek:
Celts in the Hellenic
World. Constable & Robinson. ISBN 978-0094755802.
Bennett, Julian (1997). Trajan: Optimus Princeps. Routledge.
Boak, Arthur E. R.; Sinnigen, William G. (1977). A History of Rome to
A.D. 565 (6th Rev ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 978-0029796900.
Lucian (2001). Romania: Borderland of Europe. Reaktion.
Bowman, Alan; Cameron, Averil; Garnsey, Peter (2005). The Crisis of
Empire, AD 193–337. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12. CUP.
Brixhe, Claude (2008). Phrygian in The Ancient Languages of Asia
Minor. CUP. ISBN 978-0521684965.
Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1979). A history of ancient geography among
Greeks and Romans: from the earliest ages till the fall of the
Roman empire. London: Humanities Press International.
Bunson, Matthew (1995). A Dictionary of the Roman Empire. OUP.
Bunson, Matthew (2002). Roman Empire, Encyclopedia of The, Revised
Edition. Fitzhenry & Whiteside; 2nd Revised edition.
Burns, Thomas S. (1991). A History of the Ostrogoths. Indiana
University Press. ISBN 978-0253206008.
Bury, John Bagnell; Cook, Stanley Arthur; Adcock, Frank E.; Percival
Charlesworth, Martin (1954). Rome and the Mediterranean, 218-133 BC.
The Cambridge Ancient History. Macmillan.
Cardos, G; Stoian, V; Miritoiu, N; Comsa, A; Kroll, A; Voss, S;
Rodewald, A (2004). Paleo-mtDNA analysis and population genetic
aspects of old Thracian populations from South-East of Romania.
Romanian Society of legal medicine.
Chakraberty, Chandra (1948). The prehistory of India: tribal
Clarke, John R. (2003).
Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual
Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.-A.D. 315.
University of California. ISBN 978-0520219762.
Conti, Stefano; Scardigli, Barbara; Torchio, Maria Cristina (2007).
Geografia e viaggi nell'antichità. Ancona.
Cowan, Ross (2003). Imperial Roman Legionary AD 161–284. Osprey.
Crișan, Ion Horațiu (1978).
Burebista and his time. Bibliotheca
historica Romaniae. Translated by Sanda Mihailescu. Bucuresti: Editura
Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania.
Crossland, R.A.; Boardman, John (1982). Linguistic problems of the
Balkan area in the late prehistoric and early Classical period. The
Cambridge Ancient History. 3. CUP. ISBN 978-0521224963.
Cunliffe, Barry W. (1994). Rome and Her Empire. Constable.
Denne Parker, Henry Michael (1958). A history of the Roman world from
AD 138 to 337. Methuen.
Dumitrescu, Vlad; Boardman, John; Hammond, N. G. L; Sollberger, E
(1982). The prehistory of
Romania from the earliest times to 1000 BC.
The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World,
Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC. The Cambridge Ancient History. CUP.
Duridanov, Ivan (1985). Die Sprache der Thraker [The Language of the
Thracians]. Bulgarische Sammlung (in German). Neuried: Hieronymus
Verlag. ISBN 978-3888930317.
Eisler, Robert (1951). Man into wolf: an anthropological
interpretation of sadism, masochism, and lycanthropy. London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul. ASIN B0000CI25D.
Eliade, Mircea (1986). Zalmoxis, the vanishing God: comparative
studies in the religions and folklore of
Dacia and Eastern Europe.
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226203850.
Eliade, Mircea (1995). Ivănescu, Maria; Ivănescu, Cezar, eds. De la
Zalmoxis la Genghis-Han: studii comparative despre religiile și
folclorul Daciei și Europei Orientale [From
Zalmoxis to Genghis Khan:
comparative studies in the religions and folklore of
Dacia and Eastern
Europe] (in Romanian) (Based on the translation from French of De
Zalmoxis à Gengis-Khan, Payot, Paris, 1970 ed.). București, Romania:
Humanitas. ISBN 978-9732805541.
Ellis, L. (1998). 'Terra deserta': population, politics, and the
[de]colonization of Dacia. World archaeology. Routledge.
Ellis, Robert (1861). The Armenian origin of the Etruscans. Parker,
Son and Bourn. [better source needed]
Elton, Hugh; Lenski, Noel Emmanuel (2005). Warfare and the Military.
The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. CUP.
Encyclopædia Britannica. "Dacia". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Everitt, Anthony (2010).
Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome. Random House
Trade. ISBN 978-0812978148.
Fisher, Iancu (2003). Les substrats et leur influence sur les langues
Romania du Sud-Est / Substrate und ihre Wirkung auf die
romanischen Sprachen: Sudostromania in Romanische Sprachgeschichte.
Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110146943.
Florov, Irina (2001). The 3000-year-old hat: New connections with Old
Europe : the Thraco-Phrygian world. Golden Vine.
Fol, Alexander (1996). "Thracians, Celts,
Illyrians and Dacians". In
de Laet, Sigfried J. History of Humanity. History of Humanity. Volume
3: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. UNESCO.
Georgiev, Vladimir Ivanov (1960). Българска
етимология и ономастика (in Bulgaria and French).
Sofia: Bŭlgarska akademii︠a︡ na naukite. Institut za Bŭlgarski
ezik. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
Glodariu, Ioan (1976). Dacian trade with the
Hellenistic and Roman
world. British Archaeological Reports. ISBN 978-0904531404.
Glodariu, Ioan; Pop, Ioan Aurel; Nagler, Thomas (2005). The history
and civilization of the Dacians. The history of
1541. Romanian Cultural Institute, Cluj Napoca.
Goffart, Walter A. (2006). Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the
Later Roman Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Groh, Vladimir (1964). Mnema. Univerzita J.E. Purkyně v Brně.
Grumeza, Ion (2009). Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of
Ancient Eastern Europe. Hamilton Books.
ISBN 978-0-7618-4465-5. [unreliable source?]
Gibbon, Edward (1776) . The History of the Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire. Vol. I. Cosimo Classics.
Garašanin, Milutin V.; Benac, Alojz (1973). Actes du VIIIe congrès
international des sciences préhistoriques (in French). International
Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences.
Georgescu, Vlad (1991). Matei Calinescu, ed. The Romanians – A
History. Translated by Alexandra Bley-Vroman. I. B. Tauris.
Gibbon, Edward (1776) . The History of the Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire. Vol. I. Cosimo Classics.
Goodman, Martin; Sherwood, Jane (2002). The Roman World 44 BC–AD
180. Routledge. ISBN 978-0203408612.
Hainsworth, J.B. (1982). Boardman, John, ed. The relationships of the
ancient languages of the Balkan. The Cambridge Ancient History. 3 (2nd
ed.). CUP. ISBN 978-0521224963.
Hazel, John (2002). Who's Who in the Roman World. Routledge.
Heather, Peter (2006). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of
Rome and the Barbarians. OUP. ISBN 978-0195159547.
Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: Migration, Development,
and the Birth of Europe. OUP. ISBN 978-0199735600.
Husovská, Ludmilá (1998). Slovakia: walking through centuries of
cities and towns. Príroda. ISBN 978-8007010413.
Jażdżewski, Konrad (1948). Atlas to the prehistory of the Slavs.
Translated by Teresa A. Dmochowska. Łódzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe /
Łodz Scientific Society.
Jeanmaire, Henri (1975). Couroi et courètes (in French). New York:
Arno. ISBN 978-0405070013.
Kephart, Calvin (1949). Sanskrit: its origin, composition, and
Koch, John T (2005).
Dacians and Celts. Celtic culture: a historical
encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1851094400.
Köpeczi, Béla; Makkai, Laszlo; Mócsy, András; Szász, Zoltán;
Barta, Gabor (2002). History of
Transylvania – From the Beginnings
to 1606 (in Hungarian). East European Monographs.
Kostrzewski, Józef (1949). Les origines de la civilisation polonaise.
Press University of France.
Lemny, Stefan; Iorga, Nicolae (1984). Vasile Pârvan. Editura
Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John; Hornblower, Simon; Ostwald, M., eds.
(2008). The fourth century B.C. The Cambridge ancient history. 6 (7
ed.). CUP. ISBN 978-0521233484.
Luttwak, Edward N. (1976). The grand strategy of the
Roman Empire from
the first century A.D. to the third. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.
MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan (2000). The Dacian Stones Speak. Chapel
Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina.
MacKenzie, Andrew (1986). Archaeology in Romania: the mystery of the
Roman occupation. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0709027249.
Millar, Fergus (2004). Cotton, Hannah M.; Rogers, Guy M., eds. Rome,
the Greek World, and the East. Volume 2: Government, Society, and
Culture in the Roman Empire. University of North Carolina.
Millar, Fergus (1981).
Roman Empire and Its Neighbours (2nd illus.
ed.). Gerald Duckworth. ISBN 978-0715614525.
Minns, Ellis Hovell (1913) .
Scythians and Greeks: a survey of
ancient history and archaeology on the north coast of the Euxine from
Danube to the Caucasus. CUP. ISBN 978-1108024877.
Mountain, Harry (1998). The Celtic Encyclopedia. Universal.
Mulvin, Lynda (2002). Late Roman Villas in the Danube-Balkan Region.
BAR. ISBN 978-1841714448.
Nandris, John (1976). Friesinger, Herwig; Kerchler, Helga; Pittioni,
Richard; Mitscha-Märheim, Herbert, eds. "The Dacian
Iron Age – A
Comment in a European Context". Archaeologia Austriaca (Festschrift
für Richard Pittioni zum siebzigsten Geburtstag ed.). Vienna:
Deuticke. 13 (13–14). ISBN 978-3700544203.
Niessen, James P. (2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the
People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576078006.
Nixon, C. E. V.; Saylor Rodgers, Barbara (1995). In Praise of Later
Roman Emperors: The Panegyric Latini. University of California.
Oltean, Ioana Adina (2007). Dacia: landscape, colonisation and
romanisation. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415412520.
Otto, Karl-Heinz (2000). "Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften".
Ethnographisch-archäologische Zeitschrift. Humboldt-Universität zu
Paliga, Sorin (1999). Thracian and pre-Thracian studies: linguistic
papers published between 1986 and 1996. Sorin
Paliga. [better source needed]
Paliga, Sorin (2006). Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous
(Thracian) Elements in Romanian. Fundatia Evenimentul.
Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in Pre-Roman
Times:Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci, & Moesians,
translated by Mary Stansfield-Popovic. Hakkert.
Pares, Bernard Sir; Seton-Watso, Robert William; Williams, Harold;
Brooke Jopson, Norman (1939). The Slavonic and East European review: a
survey of the peoples of eastern Europe, their history, economics,
philology and literature. 18–19. W.S. Manely.
Pârvan, Vasile (1926).
Getica (in Romanian and French). București,
Romania: Cvltvra Națională.
Parvan, Vasile (1928). Dacia. CUP.
Parvan, Vasile; Vulpe, Alexandru; Vulpe, Radu (2002). Dacia. Editura
100+1 Gramar. ISBN 978-9735913618.
Parvan, Vasile; Florescu, Radu (1982). Getica. Editura
Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory.
4 : Europe. Springer. ISBN 978-0306462580.
Petolescu, Constantin C (2000). Inscriptions de la Dacie
romaine : inscriptions externes concernant l'histoire de la Dacie
(Ier-IIIe siècles). Enciclopedica. ISBN 978-9734501823.
Pittioni, Richard; Kerchler, Helga; Friesinger, Herwig;
Mitscha-Märheim, Herbert (1976). Festschrift für Richard Pittioni
zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, Archaeologia Austriaca : Beiheft.
Wien, Deuticke, Horn, Berger,. ISBN 978-3700544203.
Poghirc, Cicerone (1989).
Thracians and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the
Fourth International Congress of
Thracology Rotterdam 1984. Brill
Academic Pub. ISBN 978-9004088641.
Polomé, Edgar C. (1983). Linguistic situation in the western
provinces. Sprache Und Literatur (Sprachen Und Schriften). Walter de
Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110095258.
Polomé, Edgar Charles (1982). "20e". In Boardman, John. Balkan
Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian). The Cambridge Ancient
History. 3 (2nd ed.). London: CUP. ISBN 978-0521224963.
Pop, Ioan Aurel (2000). Romanians and Romania: A Brief History. East
European Monographs. ISBN 978-0880334402.
Price, Glanville (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe.
Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631220398.
Renfrew, Colin (1990). Archaeology and Language, The Puzzle of
Indo-European Origins. CUP. ISBN 978-0521386753.
Roesler, Robert E. (1864). Das vorromische Dacien. Academy, Wien,
Rosetti, A. (1982). La linguistique Balkanique in Revue roumaine de
linguistique, volume 27. Editions de l'Academie de la RSR.
Ruscu, D. (2004). William S. Hanson; I. P. Haynes, eds. The supposed
extermination of the Dacians: the literary tradition. Roman Dacia: The
Making Of A Provincial Society. Journal of Roman Archaeology.
Russu, I. Iosif (1967). Limba Traco-Dacilor ('
(in Romanian). Editura Stiintifica.
Russu, I. Iosif (1969). Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker ('Thraco-Dacian
language') (in German). Editura Stiintifica.
Scarre, Chris (1995). Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The
Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. Thames &
Hudson. ISBN 978-0500050774.
Schmitz, Michael (2005). The Dacian threat, 101–106 AD. Armidale,
NSW: Caeros. ISBN 978-0975844502.
Schütte, Gudmund (1917). Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe: a
reconstruction of the prototypes. H. Hagerup.
Shchukin, Mark (1989). Rome and the barbarians in central and eastern
Europe: 1st century BC – 1st century AD. BAR.
Shchukin, Mark; Kazanski, Michel; Sharov, Oleg (2006). Des les goths
aux huns: le nord de la mer Noire au Bas-Empire et a l'époque des
grandes migrations. BAR. ISBN 978-1841717562.
Sidebottom, Harry (2007). "International Relations". The Cambridge
History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Volume 2, Rome from the Late
Republic to the Late Empire. CUP. ISBN 978-0521782746.
Skvarna, Dusan; Cicaj, Viliam; Letz, Robert (2000). Slovak History:
Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci.
Solta, Georg Renatus (1980). Berücksichtigung des Substrats und des
Balkanlateinischen. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Southern, Pat (2001). The
Roman Empire from Severus to Constantin.
Routledge. ISBN 978-0203451595.
Taylor, Timothy (2001). Northeastern European
Iron Age pages 210–221
and East Central European
Iron Age pages 79–90. Springer Published
in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files.
Tomaschek, Wilhelm (1883). Les Restes de la langue dace (in French).
Belgium: Le Museon.
Tomaschek, Wilhelm (1893). Die alten Thraker (in German). I. Vienna:
Thomson, James Oliver (1948). History of Ancient Geography.
Biblo-Moser. ISBN 978-0819601438.
Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1961). A study of history. 2. OUP.
Treptow, Kurt W (1996). A History of Romania. Polygon.
Turnock, David (1988). The Making of Eastern Europe: From the Earliest
Times to 1815. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415012676.
Van Den Gheyn, Joseph (1886). "Les populations danubiennes: études
d'ethnographie comparée" [The Danubian populations: comparative
ethnographic studies]. Revue des questions scientifiques (in French).
Bruxelles: Société scientifique de Bruxelles. 17–18.
Vraciu, Ariton (1980). Limba daco-geţilor. Ed. Facla.
Vulpe, Alexandru (2001). "
Dacia înainte de romani". Istoria
Românilor (in Romanian). 1. Bucharest: Univers Enciclopedic.
Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European
Peoples, 2-Volume Set. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816049646.
Watson, Alaric (2004).
Aurelian and the Third Century. Routledge.
Westropp, Hodder M. (2003). Handbook of Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan and
Roman Archeology. Kessinger Publishing.
White, David Gordon (1991). Myths of the Dog-Man. University of
Chicago. ISBN 978-0226895093.
Wilcox, Peter (1982). Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians. Men
at Arms. 129. Illustrator Gerry Embleton. Osprey.
Wilkes, John (2005). Alan Bowman; Averil Cameron; Peter Garnsey, eds.
Provinces and Frontiers. The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337. The
Cambridge Ancient History. 12 (second ed.). CUP.
Zambotti, Pia Laviosa (1954). I Balcani e l'Italia nella Preistoria
(in Italian). Como.
Zumpt, Karl Gottlob; Zumpt, August Wilhelm (1852). Eclogae ex Q.
Horatii Flacci poematibus page 140 and page 175 by Horace.
Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Dacia and Dacians.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dacians.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dacian culture.
Dacian reenactor with falx
Art, jewellery, treasures, tools
Words of possible Dacian origin
Dacian plant names
Sinaia lead plates
Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains
Wars with the
First Battle of Tapae
Second Battle of Tapae
Battle of Adamclisi
Battle of Sarmisegetusa
Diocese of Dacia
Towns and cities
Sarmatiae (Devil's Dykes)
Brazda lui Novac
Eastern Romance substratum
sites in Romania