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The Dacians
Dacians
(/ˈdeɪʃənz/; Latin: Daci, Ancient Greek: Δάκοι,[2] Δάοι,[2] Δάκαι[3]) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians. Dacians
Dacians
were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
and west of the Black Sea. This area includes the present-day countries of Romania
Romania
and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine,[4] Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia,[5] Hungary and Southern Poland.[4] The Dacians
Dacians
spoke the Dacian language, believed to have been closely related to Thracian, but were somewhat culturally influenced by the neighbouring Scythians
Scythians
and by the Celtic invaders of the 4th century BC.[6]

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Contents

1 Name and etymology

1.1 Name 1.2 Etymology

1.2.1 Early history of etymological approaches 1.2.2 Modern theories

1.3 Mythological theories

2 Origins and ethnogenesis 3 Identity and distribution

3.1 Linguistic affiliation 3.2 Tribes

3.2.1 Costoboci 3.2.2 Carpi

3.3 Physical characteristics

4 History

4.1 Early history 4.2 Relations with Thracians 4.3 Relations with Celts 4.4 Relations with Greeks 4.5 Relations with Persians 4.6 Relations with Scythians

4.6.1 Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
Transylvania

4.7 Relations with Germanic tribes 4.8 Dacian kingdoms

4.8.1 The kingdom of Burebista 4.8.2 The kingdom of Decebalus
Decebalus
87 – 106

4.9 Conflict with Rome 4.10 Roman rule 4.11 After the Aurelian
Aurelian
Retreat

5 Society

5.1 Occupations 5.2 Currency 5.3 Construction

6 Material culture

6.1 Language 6.2 Symbols 6.3 Religion 6.4 Pottery 6.5 Clothing and science

7 Warfare

7.1 Weapons

8 Notable individuals 9 Trivia 10 In Romanian nationalism 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Sources

14.1 Ancient 14.2 Modern

15 External links

Name and etymology[edit] Name[edit] Main article: Getae
Getae
§  Getae
Getae
and Dacians The Dacians
Dacians
were known as Geta (plural Getae) in Ancient Greek writings, and as Dacus (plural Daci) or Getae
Getae
in Roman documents,[8] but also as Dagae and Gaete as depicted on the late Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana. It was Herodotus
Herodotus
who first used the ethnonym Getae
Getae
in his Histories.[9] In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius Caesar, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder, the people became known as 'the Dacians'.[10] Getae
Getae
and Dacians
Dacians
were interchangeable terms, or used with some confusion by the Greeks.[11][12] Latin
Latin
poets often used the name Getae.[13] Vergil
Vergil
called them Getae
Getae
four times, and Daci once, Lucian
Lucian
Getae
Getae
three times and Daci twice, Horace
Horace
named them Getae
Getae
twice and Daci five times, while Juvenal
Juvenal
one time Getae
Getae
and two times Daci.[14][15][13] In AD 113, Hadrian
Hadrian
used the poetic term Getae
Getae
for the Dacians.[16] Modern historians prefer to use the name Geto-Dacians.[10] Strabo
Strabo
describes the Getae
Getae
and Dacians
Dacians
as distinct but cognate tribes, but also states that they spoke the same language.[17] This distinction refers to the regions they occupied.[17] Strabo
Strabo
and Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
also state that Getae
Getae
and Dacians
Dacians
spoke the same language.[18] By contrast, the name of Dacians, whatever the origin of the name, was used by the more western tribes who adjoined the Pannonians
Pannonians
and therefore first became known to the Romans.[19] According to Strabo's Geographica, the original name of the Dacians
Dacians
was Δάοι "Daoi".[2][20] The name Daoi (one of the ancient Geto-Dacian tribes) was certainly adopted by foreign observers to designate all the inhabitants of the countries north of Danube
Danube
that had not yet been conquered by Greece or Rome.[10][10] The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources. Greeks
Greeks
used the forms Δάκοι "Dakoi" (Strabo, Dio Cassius, and Dioscorides) and Δάοι "Daoi" (singular Daos).[21][2][22][a][23][20] The form Δάοι "Daoi" was frequently used according to Stephan of Byzantium.[15] Latins used the forms Davus, Dacus, and a derived form Dacisci (Vopiscus and inscriptions).[24][25][26][27][15] There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians
Dacians
and those of Dahae
Dahae
(Greek Δάσαι Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai; Latin
Latin
Dahae, Daci), an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, until the 1st millennium BC. Scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.[28][29][30][15] The historian David Gordon White has, moreover, stated that the " Dacians
Dacians
... appear to be related to the Dahae".[31] (Likewise White and other scholars also believe that the names Dacii and Dahae
Dahae
may also have a shared etymology – see the section following for further details.) By the end of the first century AD, all the inhabitants of the lands which now form Romania
Romania
were known to the Romans as Daci, with the exception of some Celtic and Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who infiltrated from the west, and Sarmatian
Sarmatian
and related people from the east.[12] Etymology[edit] The name Daci, or "Dacians" is a collective ethnonym.[32] Dio Cassius reported that the Dacians
Dacians
themselves used that name, and the Romans so called them, while the Greeks
Greeks
called them Getae.[33][34][35] Opinions on the origins of the name Daci are divided. Some scholars consider it to originate in the Indo-European *dha-k-, with the stem *dhe- "to put, to place", while others think that the name Daci originates in *daca – "knife, dagger" or in a word similar to daos, meaning "wolf" in the related language of the Phrygians.[36] One hypothesis is that the name Getae
Getae
originates in the Indo-European *guet- 'to utter, to talk'.[37][36] Another hypothesis is that "Getae" and "Daci" are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had been assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the later "Dacia".[38][39] Early history of etymological approaches[edit] In the 1st century AD, Strabo
Strabo
suggested that its stem formed a name previously borne by slaves: Greek Daos, Latin
Latin
Davus (-k- is a known suffix in Indo-European ethnic names).[40] In the 18th century, Grimm proposed the Gothic dags or "day" that would give the meaning of "light, brilliant". Yet dags belongs to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word-root dah-, and a derivation from Dah to Δάσαι "Daci" is difficult.[15] In the 19th century, Tomaschek (1883) proposed the form "Dak", meaning those who understand and can speak, by considering "Dak" as a derivation of the root da("k" being a suffix); cf. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dasa, Bactrian daonha.[41] Tomaschek also proposed the form "Davus", meaning "members of the clan/countryman" cf. Bactrian daqyu, danhu "canton".[41] Modern theories[edit] Since the 19th century, many scholars have proposed an etymological link between the endonym of the Dacians
Dacians
and wolves.

A possible connection with the Phrygians
Phrygians
was proposed by Dimitar Dechev (in a work not published until 1957).[citation needed] The Phrygian language
Phrygian language
word daos meant "wolf" ,[citation needed] and Daos was also a Phrygian deity.[42] In later times, Roman auxiliaries recruited from the Dacian area were also known as Phrygi.[citation needed] Such a connection was supported by material from Hesychius of Alexandria (5th/6th century),[43][44] as well as the 20th century historian Mircea Eliade.[42] The German linguist Paul Kretschmer linked daos to wolves via the root dhau, meaning to press, to gather, or to strangle – i.e. it was believed that wolves would often use a neck bite to kill their prey.[31][45] Endonyms linked to wolves have been demonstrated or proposed for other Indo-European tribes, including the Luvians, Lycians, Lucanians, Hyrcanians
Hyrcanians
and, in particular, the Dahae
Dahae
(of the south-east Caspian region),[46][47] who were known in Old Persian as Daos.[42] Scholars such as David Gordon White have explicitly linked the endonyms of the Dacians
Dacians
and the Dahae.[31] The Draco, a standard flown by the Dacians, also prominently featured a wolf head.

However, according to Romanian historian and archaeologist Alexandru Vulpe, the Dacian etymology explained by daos ("wolf") has little plausibility, as the transformation of daos into dakos is phonetically improbable and the Draco standard was not unique to Dacians. He thus dismisses it as folk etymology.[48] Another etymology, linked to the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
roots *dhe- meaning "to set, place" and dheua → dava ("settlement") and dhe-k → daci is supported by Romanian historian Ioan I. Russu (1967).[49] Mythological theories[edit]

Dacian Draco
Dacian Draco
as from Trajan's Column

Mircea Eliade
Mircea Eliade
attempted, in his book From Zalmoxis to Genghis Khan, to give a mythological foundation to an alleged special relation between Dacians
Dacians
and the wolves:[50]

Dacians
Dacians
might have called themselves "wolves" or "ones the same with wolves",[51][50] suggesting religious significance.[52] Dacians
Dacians
draw their name from a god or a legendary ancestor who appeared as a wolf.[52] Dacians
Dacians
had taken their name from a group of fugitive immigrants arrived from other regions or from their own young outlaws, who acted similarly to the wolves circling villages and living from looting. As was the case in other societies, those young members of the community went through an initiation, perhaps up to a year, during which they lived as a "wolf".[53][52] Comparatively, Hittite laws referred to fugitive outlaws as "wolves".[54] The existence of a ritual that provides one with the ability to turn into a wolf.[55] Such a transformation may be related either to lycanthropy itself, a widespread phenomenon, but attested especially in the Balkans- Carpathian
Carpathian
region,[54] or a ritual imitation of the behavior and appearance of the wolf.[55] Such a ritual was presumably a military initiation, potentially reserved to a secret brotherhood of warriors (or Männerbünde).[55] To become formidable warriors they would assimilate behavior of the wolf, wearing wolf skins during the ritual.[52] Traces related to wolves as a cult or as totems were found in this area since the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, including the Vinča culture artifacts: wolf statues and fairly rudimentary figurines representing dancers with a wolf mask.[56][57] The items could indicate warrior initiation rites, or ceremonies in which young people put on their seasonal wolf masks.[57] The element of unity of beliefs about werewolves and lycanthropy exists in the magical-religious experience of mystical solidarity with the wolf by whatever means used to obtain it. But all have one original myth, a primary event.[58][59]

Origins and ethnogenesis[edit] See also: Prehistoric Balkans
Balkans
§ Iron Age Evidence of proto- Thracians
Thracians
or proto- Dacians
Dacians
in the prehistoric period depends on the remains of material culture. It is generally proposed that a proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3,300–3,000 BC)[60] when the latter, around 1500 BC, conquered the indigenous peoples.[61] The indigenous people were Danubian farmers, and the invading people of the BC 3rd millennium were Kurgan
Kurgan
warrior-herders from the Ukrainian and Russian steppes.[62] Indo-Europeanization was complete by the beginning of the Bronze Age. The people of that time are best described as proto-Thracians, which later developed in the Iron Age
Iron Age
into Danubian- Carpathian
Carpathian
Geto-Dacians as well as Thracians
Thracians
of the eastern Balkan Peninsula.[63] Between BC 15th–12th century, the Dacian- Getae
Getae
culture was influenced by the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Tumulus-Urnfield warriors who were on their way through the Balkans
Balkans
to Anatolia.[64] When the La Tène
La Tène
Celts arrived in BC 4th century, the Dacians
Dacians
were under the influence of the Scythians.[64] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
attacked the Getae
Getae
in BC 335 on the lower Danube, but by BC 300 they had formed a state founded on a military democracy, and began a period of conquest.[64] More Celts
Celts
arrived during the BC 3rd century, and in BC 1st century the people of Boii
Boii
tried to conquer some of the Dacian territory on the eastern side of the Teiss river. The Dacians
Dacians
drove the Boii
Boii
south across the Danube
Danube
and out of their territory, at which point the Boii
Boii
abandoned any further plans for invasion.[64] Identity and distribution[edit]

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North of the Danube, Dacians
Dacians
occupied[when?] a larger territory than Ptolemaic Dacia,[clarification needed] stretching between Bohemia in the west and the Dnieper
Dnieper
cataracts in the east, and up to the Pripyat, Vistula, and Oder
Oder
rivers in the north and northwest.[65][better source needed] In BC 53, Julius Caesar stated that the Dacian territory[clarification needed] was on the eastern border of the Hercynian forest.[64] According to Strabo's Geographica, written around AD 20,[66] the Getes (Geto-Dacians) bordered the Suevi
Suevi
who lived in the Hercynian Forest, which is somewhere in the vicinity of the river Duria, the present-day Vah (Waag).[67] Dacians
Dacians
lived on both sides of the Danube.[68] [69] According to Strabo, Moesians also lived on both sides of the Danube.[35] According to Agrippa,[70] Dacia
Dacia
was limited by the Baltic Ocean in the North and by the Vistula
Vistula
in the West.[71] The names of the people and settlements confirm Dacia's borders as described by Agrippa.[70][72] Dacian people also lived south of the Danube.[70] Linguistic affiliation[edit] Main article: Dacian language See also: Davae
Davae
and List of Dacian towns The Dacians
Dacians
and Getae
Getae
were always considered as Thracians
Thracians
by the ancients (Dio Cassius, Trogus Pompeius, Appian, Strabo
Strabo
and Pliny the Elder), and were both said to speak the same Thracian language.[73][74] The linguistic affiliation of Dacian is uncertain, since the ancient Indo-European language in question became extinct (?) and left very limited traces (?), usually in the form of place names, plant names and personal names. Thraco-Dacian (or Thracian and Daco-Mysian)[which?] seems to belong to the eastern (satem) group of Indo-European languages.[why?][75] There are two contradictory theories: some scholars (such as Tomaschek 1883; Russu 1967; Solta 1980; Crossland 1982; Vraciu 1980) consider Dacian to be a Thracian language or a dialect thereof. This view is supported by R. G. Solta, who says that Thracian and Dacian are very closely related languages.[76][77] Other scholars (such as Georgiev 1965, Duridanov 1976) consider that Thracian and Dacian are two different and specific Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
which cannot be reduced to a common language (?).[78] Linguists such as Polomé and Katičić expressed reservations[clarification needed] about both theories.[79] The Dacians
Dacians
are generally considered[by whom?] to have been Thracian speakers, representing a cultural continuity[specify] from earlier Iron Age
Iron Age
communities loosely termed[by whom?] Getic.[80] Since in one interpretation, Dacian is a variety of Thracian, for the reasons of convenience, the generic term ‘Daco-Thracian" is used, with "Dacian" reserved for the language or dialect that was spoken north of Danube, in present-day Romania
Romania
and eastern Hungary, and "Thracian" for the variety spoken south of the Danube. [81] There is no doubt that the Thracian language
Thracian language
was related to the Dacian language
Dacian language
which was spoken in what is today Romania, before some of that area was occupied by the Romans.[82] Also, both Thracian and Dacian have one of the main satem characteristic changes of Indo-European language, *k and *g to *s and *z.[83] With regard to the term "Getic" (Getae), even though attempts have been made to distinguish between Dacian and Getic, there seems no compelling reason to disregard the view of the Greek geographer Strabo that the Daci and the Getae, Thracian tribes dwelling north of the Danube
Danube
(the Daci in the west of the area and the Getae
Getae
further east), were one and the same people and spoke the same language.[81] Another variety that has sometimes been recognized[by whom?] is that of Moesian (or Mysian) for the language of an intermediate area immediately to the south of Danube
Danube
in Serbia, Bulgaria and Romanian Dobruja: this and the dialects north of the Danube
Danube
have been grouped together as Daco-Moesian.[81] The language of the indigenous population has left hardly any trace in the anthroponymy of Moesia, but the toponymy indicates that the Moesii on the south bank of the Danube, north of the Haemus Mountains, and the Triballi in the valley of the Morava, shared a number of characteristic linguistic features[specify] with the Dacii south of the Carpathians and the Getae
Getae
in the Wallachian plain, which sets them apart from the Thracians
Thracians
though their languages are undoubtedly related.[84] The Australian writer Tome Egumenoski explains that the Dacians
Dacians
had no written language (?), this is also common with many other tribes living in the Balkan regions between the 6th and 8th Century. Dacian culture is mostly followed through Roman sources. Ample evidence suggests that they were a regional power in and around the city of Sarmizegetusa. Sarmizegetusa was their political and spiritual capital. The ruined city lies high in the mountains of central Romania.[85] Vladimir Georgiev disputes that Dacian and Thracian were closely related for various reasons, most notably that Dacian and Moesian town names commonly end with the suffix -DAVA, while towns in Thrace
Thrace
proper (i.e. South of the Balkan mountains) generally end in -PARA (see Dacian language). According to Georgiev, the language spoken by the ethnic Dacians
Dacians
should be classified as "Daco-Moesian" and regarded as distinct from Thracian.Template:Georgiev Georgiev also claimed that names from approximately Roman Dacia
Dacia
and Moesia
Moesia
show different and generally less extensive changes in Indo-European consonants and vowels than those found in Thrace
Thrace
itself. However, the evidence seems to indicate divergence of a Thraco- Dacian language
Dacian language
into northern and southern groups of dialects, not so different as to qualify as separate languages.[86] Polomé considers that such lexical differentiation ( -dava vs. para) would, however, be hardly enough evidence to separate Daco- Moesian from Thracian.[79] Tribes[edit] Main article: List of Dacian tribes

Roman era Balkans

An extensive account of the native tribes in Dacia
Dacia
can be found in the ninth tabula of Europe of Ptolemy's Geography.[87] The Geography was probably written in the period AD 140–150, but the sources were often earlier; for example, Roman Britain is shown before the building of Hadrian's Wall in the AD 120s.[88] Ptolemy's Geography also contains a physical map probably designed before the Roman conquest, and containing no detailed nomenclature.[89] There are references to the Tabula Peutingeriana, but it appears that the Dacian map of the Tabula was completed after the final triumph of Roman nationality.[90] Ptolemy's list includes no fewer than twelve tribes with Geto-Dacian names.[91][92] The fifteen tribes of Dacia
Dacia
as named by Ptolemy, starting from the northernmost ones, are as follows. First, the Anartes, the Teurisci and the Coertoboci/Costoboci. To the south of them are the Buredeense (Buri/Burs), the Cotense/ Cotini
Cotini
and then the Albocense, the Potulatense
Potulatense
and the Sense, while the southernmost were the Saldense, the Ciaginsi
Ciaginsi
and the Piephigi. To the south of them were Predasense/Predavensi, the Rhadacense/Rhatacenses, the Caucoense (Cauci) and Biephi.[87] Twelve out of these fifteen tribes listed by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
are ethnic Dacians,[92] and three are Celt Anarti, Teurisci, and Cotense.[92] There are also previous brief mentions of other Getae or Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
on the left and right banks of the Danube, or even in Transylvania, to be added to the list of Ptolemy. Among these other tribes are the Trixae, Crobidae and Appuli.[87] Some peoples inhabiting the region generally described in Roman times as "Dacia" were not ethnic Dacians.[93] The true Dacians
Dacians
were a people of Thracian descent. German elements (Daco-Germans), Celtic elements (Daco-Celtic) and Iranian elements (Daco-Sarmatian) occupied territories in the north-west and north-east of Dacia.[94][95][93] This region covered roughly the same area as modern Romania
Romania
plus Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(Republic of Moldova) and eastern Galicia (south-west Ukraine), although Ptolemy
Ptolemy
places Moldavia and Bessarabia
Bessarabia
in Sarmatia Europaea, rather than Dacia.[96] After the Dacian Wars (AD 101-6), the Romans occupied only about half of the wider Dacian region. The Roman province of Dacia
Dacia
covered just western Wallachia
Wallachia
as far as the Limes Transalutanus (East of the river Aluta, or Olt) and Transylvania, as bordered by the Carpathians.[97] The impact of the Roman conquest on these people is uncertain. One hypothesis was that they were effectively eliminated. An important clue to the character of Dacian casualties is offered by the ancient sources Eutropius and Crito. Both speak about men when they describe the losses suffered by the Dacians
Dacians
in the wars. This suggests that both refer to losses due to fighting, not due to a process of extermination of the whole population.[98] A strong component of the Dacian army, including the Celtic Bastarnae
Bastarnae
and the Germans, had withdrawn rather than submit to Trajan.[99] Some scenes on Trajan's Column represent acts of obedience of the Dacian population, and others show the refugee Dacians
Dacians
returning to their own places.[100] Dacians
Dacians
trying to buy amnesty are depicted on Trajan's Column
Trajan's Column
(one offers to Trajan
Trajan
a tray of three gold ingots).[101] Alternatively, a substantial number may have survived in the province, although were probably outnumbered by the Romanised immigrants.[102] Cultural life in Dacia
Dacia
became very mixed and decidedly cosmopolitan because of the colonial communities. The Dacians
Dacians
retained their names and their own ways in the midst of the newcomers, and the region continued to exhibit Dacian characteristics.[103] The Dacians
Dacians
who survived the war are attested as revolting against the Roman domination in Dacia
Dacia
at least twice, in the period of time right after the Dacian Wars, and in a more determined manner in 117 AD.[104] In 158 AD, they revolted again, and were put down by M. Statius Priscus.[105] Some Dacians
Dacians
were apparently expelled from the occupied zone at the end of each of the two Dacian Wars, or otherwise emigrated. It is uncertain where these refugees settled. Some of these people might have mingled with the existing ethnic Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
beyond the Carpathians (the Costoboci and Carpi). After Trajan's conquest of Dacia
Dacia
there was recurring trouble involving Dacian groups excluded from the Roman province, as finally defined by Hadrian. By the early third century the "Free Dacians", as they were earlier known, were a significantly troublesome group, then identified as the Carpi, requiring imperial intervention on more than one occasion.[106] In 214 Caracalla
Caracalla
dealt with their attacks. Later, Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
came in person to deal with them; he assumed the triumphal title Carpicus Maximus and inaugurated a new era for the province of Dacia
Dacia
(July 20, 246). Later both Decius and Gallienus assumed the titles Dacicus Maximus. In 272, Aurelian
Aurelian
assumed the same title as Philip.[106] In about 140 AD, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
lists the names of several tribes residing on the fringes of the Roman Dacia
Dacia
(west, east and north of the Carpathian range), and the ethnic picture seems to be a mixed one. North of the Carpathians are recorded the Anarti, Teurisci
Teurisci
and Costoboci.[107] The Anarti
Anarti
(or Anartes) and the Teurisci
Teurisci
were originally probably Celtic peoples or mixed Dacian-Celtic.[95] The Anarti, together with the Celtic Cotini, are described by Tacitus
Tacitus
as vassals of the powerful Quadi
Quadi
Germanic people.[108] The Teurisci
Teurisci
were probably a group of Celtic Taurisci
Taurisci
from the eastern Alps. However, archaeology has revealed that the Celtic tribes had originally spread from west to east as far as Transylvania, before being absorbed by the Dacians
Dacians
in the 1st century BC.[109][110] Costoboci[edit] Main article: Costoboci The main view is that the Costoboci
Costoboci
were ethnically Dacian.[111] Others considered them a Slavic or Sarmatian
Sarmatian
tribe.[112][113] There was also a Celtic influence, so that some consider them a mixed Celtic and Thracian group that appear, after Trajan's conquest, as a Dacian group within the Celtic superstratum.[114] The Costoboci
Costoboci
inhabited the southern slopes of the Carpathians.[115] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
named the Coestoboci ( Costoboci
Costoboci
in Roman sources) twice, showing them divided by the Dniester and the Peucinian (Carpathian) Mountains. This suggests that they lived on both sides of the Carpathians, but it is also possible that two accounts about the same people were combined.[115] There was also a group, the Transmontani, that some modern scholars identify as Dacian Transmontani Costoboci
Costoboci
of the extreme north.[116][117] The name Transmontani was from the Dacians' Latin,[118] literally "people over the mountains". Mullenhoff identified these with the Transiugitani, another Dacian tribe north of the Carpathian
Carpathian
mountains.[119] Based on the account of Dio Cassius, Heather (2010) considers that Hasding Vandals, around 171 AD, attempted to take control of lands which previously belonged to the free Dacian group called the Costoboci.[120] Hrushevskyi (1997) mentions that the earlier widespread view that these Carpathian
Carpathian
tribes were Slavic has no basis. This would be contradicted by the Coestobocan names themselves that are known from the inscriptions, written by a Coestobocan and therefore presumably accurately. These names sound quite unlike anything Slavic.[112] Scholars such as Tomaschek (1883), Shutte (1917) and Russu (1969) consider these Costobocian names to be Thraco-Dacian.[121][122][123] This inscription also indicates the Dacian background of the wife of the Costobocian king "Ziais Tiati filia Daca".[124] This indication of the socio-familial line of descent seen also in other inscriptions (i.e. Diurpaneus qui Euprepes Sterissae f(ilius) Dacus) is a custom attested since the historical period (beginning in the 5th century BC) when Thracians
Thracians
were under Greek influence.[125] It may not have originated with the Thracians, as it could be just a fashion borrowed from Greeks
Greeks
for specifying ancestry and for distinguishing homonymous individuals within the tribe.[126] Shutte (1917), Parvan, and Florescu (1982) pointed also to the Dacian characteristic place names ending in '–dava' given by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in the Costoboci's country.[127][128] Carpi[edit] Main article: Carpi (people) The Carpi were a sizeable group of tribes, who lived beyond the north-eastern boundary of Roman Dacia. The majority view among modern scholars is that the Carpi were a North Thracian tribe and a subgroup of the Dacians.[129] However, some historians classify them as Slavs.[130] According to Heather (2010), the Carpi were Dacians
Dacians
from the eastern foothills of the Carpathian
Carpathian
range – modern Moldavia and Wallachia
Wallachia
– who had not been brought under direct Roman rule at the time of Trajan's conquest of Transylvania
Transylvania
Dacia. After they generated a new degree of political unity among themselves in the course of the third century, these Dacian groups came to be known collectively as the Carpi.[131]

Dacian cast in Pushkin Museum, after original in Lateran Museum. Early second century AD.

The ancient sources about the Carpi, before 104 AD, located them on a territory situated between the western side of Eastern European Galicia and the mouth of the Danube.[132] The name of the tribe is homonymous with the Carpathian
Carpathian
mountains.[116] Carpi and Carpathian are Dacian words derived from the root (s)ker- "cut" cf. Albanian Karp "stone" and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
kar- "cut".[133][134] A quote from the 6th-century Byzantine chronicler Zosimus referring to the Καρποδάκαι (Latin: Carpo-Dacae or "Carpo-Dacians"), who attacked the Romans in the late 4th century, is seen as evidence of their Dacian ethnicity. In fact, Carpi/Carpodaces is the term used for Dacians
Dacians
outside of Dacia
Dacia
proper.[135] However, that the Carpi were Dacians
Dacians
is shown not so much by the form Καρποδάκαι (Latin: Carpo-Dacae) of Zosimus as by their characteristic place-names in –dava, given by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in their country.[136] The origin and ethnic affiliations of the Carpi have been debated over the years; in modern times they are closely associated with the Carpathian
Carpathian
Mountains, and a good case has been made for attributing to the Carpi a distinct material culture, "a developed form of the Geto-Dacian La Tene culture", often known as the Poienesti culture, which is characteristic of this area.[137] Physical characteristics[edit]

Roman monument commemorating the Battle of Adamclisi
Battle of Adamclisi
clearly shows two giant Dacian warriors wielding a two-handed falx

Dacians
Dacians
are represented in the statues surmounting the Arch of Constantine and on Trajan's Column.[1] The artist of the Column took some care to depict, in his opinion, a variety of Dacian people—from high-ranking men, women, and children to the near-savage. Although the artist looked to models in Hellenistic
Hellenistic
art for some body types and compositions, he does not represent the Dacians
Dacians
as generic barbarians.[138] Classical authors applied a generalized stereotype when describing the "barbarians"—Celts, Scythians, Thracians—inhabiting the regions to the north of the Greek world.[139] In accordance with this stereotype, all these peoples are described, in sharp contrast to the "civilized" Greeks, as being much taller, their skin lighter and with straight light-coloured hair and blue eyes.[139] For instance, Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote that "the Scythians
Scythians
on the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Thracians
Thracians
are straight-haired, for both they themselves and the environing air are moist";[140] according to Clement of Alexandria, Xenophanes
Xenophanes
described the Thracians
Thracians
as "ruddy and tawny".[139][141] On Trajan's column, Dacian soldiers' hair is depicted longer than the hair of Roman soldiers and they had trimmed beards.[142] Body-painting was customary among the Dacians.[specify] It is probable that the tattooing originally had a religious significance.[143] They practiced symbolic-ritual tattooing or body painting for both men and women, with hereditary symbols transmitted up to the fourth generation.[144] History[edit] Early history[edit]

Getae
Getae
on the World Map according to Herodotus

In the absence of historical records written by the Dacians
Dacians
(and Thracians) themselves, analysis of their origins depends largely on the remains of material culture. On the whole, the Bronze Age witnessed the evolution of the ethnic groups which emerged during the Eneolithic
Eneolithic
period, and eventually the syncretism of both autochthonous and Indo-European elements from the steppes and the Pontic regions.[145] Various groups of Thracians
Thracians
had not separated out by 1200 BC, [145] but there are strong similarities between the ceramic types found at Troy and the ceramic types from the Carpathian area.[145] About the year 1000 BC, the Carpatho-Danubian countries were inhabited by a northern branch of the Thracians.[146] At the time of the arrival of the Scythians
Scythians
(c. 700 BC), the Carpatho-Danubian Thracians
Thracians
were developing rapidly towards the Iron Age
Iron Age
civilization of the West. Moreover, the whole of the fourth period of the Carpathian Bronze Age
Bronze Age
had already been profoundly influenced by the first Iron Age as it developed in Italy and the Alpine lands. The Scythians, arriving with their own type of Iron Age
Iron Age
civilization, put a stop to these relations with the West.[147] From roughly 500 BC (the second Iron Age), the Dacians
Dacians
developed a distinct civilization, which was capable of supporting large centralised kingdoms by 1st BC and 1st AD.[148] Since the very first detailed account by Herodotus, Getae
Getae
are acknowledged as belonging to the Thracians.[9] Still, they are distinguished from the other Thracians
Thracians
by particularities of religion and custom.[139] The first written mention of the name "Dacians" is in Roman sources, but classical authors are unanimous in considering them a branch of the Getae, a Thracian people known from Greek writings. Strabo
Strabo
specified that the Daci are the Getae
Getae
who lived in the area towards the Pannonian plain
Pannonian plain
(Transylvania), while the Getae
Getae
proper gravitated towards the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast (Scythia Minor). Relations with Thracians[edit] See also: Dromichaetes Since the writings of Herodotus
Herodotus
in the 5th century BC,[9] Getae/ Dacians
Dacians
are acknowledged as belonging to the Thracian sphere of influence. Despite this, they are distinguished from other Thracians by particularities of religion and custom.[139] Geto- Dacians
Dacians
and Thracians
Thracians
were kin people but they were not the same.[149] The differences from the southern Thracians
Thracians
or from the neighboring Scythians
Scythians
were probably faint, as several ancient authors make confusions of identification with both groups.[139] In the 19th century, Tomaschek considered a close affinity between the Besso- Thracians
Thracians
and Getae-Dacians, an original kinship of both people with Iranian peoples.[150] They are Aryan
Aryan
tribes, several centuries before Scolotes of the Pont and Sauromatae
Sauromatae
left the Aryan
Aryan
homeland and settled in the Carpathian
Carpathian
chain, in the Haemus (Balkan) and Rhodope mountains.[150] The Besso- Thracians
Thracians
and Getae- Dacians
Dacians
separated very early from Aryans, since their language still maintains roots that are missing from Iranian and it shows non-Iranian phonetic characteristics (i.e. replacing the Iranian "l" with "r").[150] He considered that the Geto- Dacians
Dacians
and Besso- Thracians
Thracians
would represent a new layer of people that extended in the autochthonous fund, probably Illyrian or Armenian-Phrygian.[150] Relations with Celts[edit] See also: Celts
Celts
in Transylvania, Gallic invasion of the Balkans, Boii, Taurisci, Scordisci, Anartes, Burebista, List of Celtic cities in Thrace
Thrace
and Dacia, and Púchov culture

Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:   core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC   maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC

Geto- Dacians
Dacians
inhabited both sides of the Tisa River
Tisa River
before the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians
Dacians
under king Burebista.[151] During the second half of the 4th century BC, Celtic cultural influence appears in the archaeological records of the middle Danube, Alpine region, and north-western Balkans, where it was part of the Middle La Tène
La Tène
material culture. This material appears in north-western and central Dacia, and is reflected especially in burials.[148] The Dacians
Dacians
absorbed the Celtic influence from the northwest in the early third century BC.[152] Archaeological investigation of this period has highlighted several Celtic warrior graves with military equipment. It suggests the forceful penetration of a military Celtic elite within the region of Dacia, now known as Transylvania, that is bounded on the east by the Carpathian
Carpathian
range.[148] The archaeological sites of the third and second centuries BC in Transylvania
Transylvania
revealed a pattern of co-existence and fusion between the bearers of La Tène
La Tène
culture and indigenous Dacians. These were domestic dwellings with a mixture of Celtic and Dacian pottery, and several graves in the Celtic style containing vessels of Dacian type.[148] There are some seventy Celtic sites in Transylvania, mostly cemeteries, but most if not all of them indicate that the native population imitated Celtic art forms that took their fancy, but remained obstinately and fundamentally Dacian in their culture.[152]

Replica of the raven-totem helmet from Satu Mare County

The Celtic Helmet from Satu Mare, Romania
Romania
(northern Dacia), an Iron Age raven totem helmet, dated around the 4th century BC. A similar helmet is depicted on the Thraco-Celtic Gundestrup cauldron, being worn by one of the mounted warriors (detail tagged here). See also an illustration of Brennos wearing a similar helmet. Around 150 BC, La Tène material disappears from the area. This coincides with the ancient writings which mention the rise of Dacian authority. It ended the Celtic domination, and it is possible that Celts
Celts
were driven out of Dacia. Alternatively, some scholars have proposed that the Transylvanian Celts
Celts
remained, but merged into the local culture and thus ceased to be distinctive.[148][152] Archaeological discoveries in the settlements and fortifications of the Dacians
Dacians
in the period of their kingdoms (1st century BC and 1st century AD) included imported Celtic vessels, and others made by Dacian potters imitating Celtic prototypes, showing that relations between the Dacians
Dacians
and the Celts
Celts
from the regions north and west of Dacia
Dacia
continued.[153] In present-day Slovakia, archaeology has revealed evidence for mixed Celtic-Dacian populations in the Nitra
Nitra
and Hron
Hron
river basins.[154] After the Dacians
Dacians
subdued the Celtic tribes, the remaining Cotini stayed in the mountains of Central Slovakia, where they took up mining and metalworking. Together with the original domestic population, they created the Puchov culture that spread into central and northern Slovakia, including Spis, and penetrated northeastern Moravia
Moravia
and southern Poland. Along the Bodrog
Bodrog
River in Zemplin they created Celtic-Dacian settlements which were known for the production of painted ceramics.[154] Relations with Greeks[edit] See also: Decree of Dionysopolis, List of Greek cities in Thrace
Thrace
and Dacia, and Lysimachus Greek and Roman chroniclers record the defeat and capture of the Macedonian general Lysimachus
Lysimachus
in the 3rd century BC by the Getae (Dacians) ruled by Dromihete, their military strategy, and the release of Lysimachus
Lysimachus
following a debate in the assembly of the Getae. Relations with Persians[edit] Herodotus
Herodotus
says: "before Darius reached the Danube, the first people he subdued were the Getae, who believed that they never die".[9] It is possible that the Persian expedition and the subsequent occupation may have altered the way in which the Getae
Getae
expressed the immortality belief. The influence of thirty years of Achaemenid
Achaemenid
presence may be detected in the emergence of an explicit iconography of the "Royal Hunt" that influenced Dacian and Thracian metalworkers, and of the practice of hawking by their upper class.[155] Relations with Scythians[edit] See also: Agathyrsi, Scythia Minor, Alans, Roxolani, and Iazyges Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
Transylvania[edit] The Scythians' arrival in the Carpathian
Carpathian
mountains is dated to 700 BC.[156] The Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
of Transylvania
Transylvania
had been mentioned by Herodotus (fifth century BC),[157] who regarded them as not a Scythian people, but closely related to them. In other respects their customs were close to those of the Thracians.[158] The Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
were completely denationalized at the time of Herodotus
Herodotus
and absorbed by the native Thracians.[159][160] The opinion that the Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
were almost certainly Thracians
Thracians
results also from the writings preserved by Stephen of Byzantium, who explains that the Greeks
Greeks
called the Trausi the Agathyrsi, and we know that the Trausi lived in the Rhodope Mountains. Certain details from their way of life, such as tattooing, also suggest that the Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi
were Thracians. Their place was later taken by the Dacians.[161] That the Dacians
Dacians
were of Thracian stock is not in doubt, and it is safe to assume that this new name also encompassed the Agathyrsi, and perhaps other neighboring Thracian people as well, as a result of some political upheaval.[161] Relations with Germanic tribes[edit] See also: Suebi, Bastarnae, Goths, Marcomannic Wars, and Chernyakhov culture

Map showing the Dacian-speaking Carpi place in invading Roman Dacia
Dacia
in AD 250-1, under the Gothic leader Kniva

The Goths, a confederation of east German peoples, arrived in the southern Ukraine
Ukraine
no later than 230.[162] During the next decade, a large section of them moved down the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast and occupied much of the territory north of the lower Danube.[162] The Goths' advance towards the area north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
involved competing with the indigenous population of Dacian-speaking Carpi, as well as indigenous Iranian-speaking Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Roman garrison forces.[163] The Carpi, often called "Free Dacians", continued to dominate the anti-Roman coalition made up of themselves, Taifali, Astringi, Vandals, Peucini, and Goths
Goths
until 248, when the Goths
Goths
assumed the hegemony of the loose coalition.[164] The first lands taken over by the Thervingi
Thervingi
Goths
Goths
were in Moldavia, and only during the fourth century did they move in strength down into the Danubian plain.[165] The Carpi found themselves squeezed between the advancing Goths
Goths
and the Roman province of Dacia.[162] In 275 AD, Aurelian
Aurelian
surrendered the Dacian territory[clarification needed] to the Carpi and the Goths.[166] Over time, Gothic power in the region grew, at the Carpi's expense. The Germanic-speaking Goths
Goths
replaced native Dacian-speakers as the dominant force around the Carpathian
Carpathian
mountains.[167] Large numbers of Carpi, but not all of them, were admitted into the Roman empire in the twenty-five years or so after 290 AD.[168] Despite this evacuation of the Carpi around 300 AD, considerable groups of the natives (non- Romanized
Romanized
Dacians, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and others) remained in place under Gothic domination.[169] In 330 the Gothic Thervingi
Thervingi
contemplated moving to the Middle Danube region,[citation needed] and from 370 relocated with their fellow Gothic Greuthungi to new homes in the Roman Empire.[168] The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
were still more isolated, but even the Visigoths
Visigoths
preferred to live among their own kind. As a result, the Goths
Goths
settled in pockets. Finally, although Roman towns continued on a reduced level, there is no question as to their survival.[165] In 336 AD, Constantine took the title Dacicus Maximus ("The great victory over Dacians"), implying at least partial reconquest of Trajan Dacia.[170] In an inscription of 337, Constantine was commemorated officially as Germanicus Maximus, Sarmaticus, Gothicus Maximus, and Dacicus Maximus, meaning he had defeated the Germans, Sarmatians, Goths, and Dacians.[171] Dacian kingdoms[edit] Main article: Dacia Further information: Burebista
Burebista
and Decebalus

Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC

Dacian polities arose as confederacies that included the Getae, the Daci, the Buri, and the Carpi[dubious – discuss] (cf. Bichir 1976, Shchukin 1989),[151] united only periodically by the leadership of Dacian kings such as Burebista
Burebista
and Decebal. This union was both military-political and ideological-religious[151] on ethnic basis. The following are some of the attested Dacian kingdoms: The kingdom of Cothelas, one of the Getae, covered an area near the Black Sea, between northern Thrace
Thrace
and the Danube, today Bulgaria, in the 4th century BC.[172] The kingdom of Rubobostes controlled a region in Transylvania
Transylvania
in the 2nd century BC.[173] Gaius Scribonius Curio (proconsul 75–73 BC) campaigned successfully against the Dardani and the Moesi, becoming the first Roman general to reach the river Danube with his army.[174] His successor, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, brother of the famous Lucius Lucullus, campaigned against the Thracian Bessi tribe and the Moesi, ravaging the whole of Moesia, the region between the Haemus (Balkan) mountain range and the Danube. In 72 BC, his troops occupied the Greek coastal cities of Scythia Minor
Scythia Minor
(the modern Dobrogea
Dobrogea
region in Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria), which had sided with Rome's Hellenistic
Hellenistic
arch-enemy, king Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
of Pontus, in the Third Mithridatic War.[175] Greek geographer Strabo
Strabo
claimed that the Dacians and Getae
Getae
had been able to muster a combined army of 200,000 men during Strabo's era, the time of Roman emperor Augustus.[176] The kingdom of Burebista[edit] The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum extent under king Burebista (ruled 82 – 44 BC). The capital of the kingdom was possibly the city of Argedava, also called Sargedava in some historical writings, situated close to the river Danube. The kingdom of Burebista
Burebista
extended south of the Danube, in what is today Bulgaria, and the Greeks believed their king was the greatest of all Thracians.[177][better source needed] During his reign, Burebista
Burebista
transferred the Geto-Dacians' capital from Argedava
Argedava
to Sarmizegetusa.[178][179] For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegethusa was the Dacian capital, reaching its peak under king Decebalus. Burebista
Burebista
annexed the Greek cities on the Pontus.(55–48 BC).[180] Augustus
Augustus
wanted to avenge the defeat of Gaius Antonius Hybrida at Histria (Sinoe)
Histria (Sinoe)
32 years before, and to recover the lost standards. These were held in a powerful fortress called Genucla (Isaccea, near modern Tulcea, in the Danube
Danube
delta region of Romania), controlled by Zyraxes, the local Getan petty king.[181] The man selected for the task was Marcus Licinius Crassus, grandson of Crassus the triumvir, and an experienced general at 33 years of age, who was appointed proconsul of Macedonia in 29 BC.[182] The kingdom of Decebalus
Decebalus
87 – 106[edit] By the year AD 100, more than 400,000 square kilometers were dominated by the Dacians, who numbered two million.[b] Decebalus
Decebalus
was the last king of the Dacians, and despite his fierce resistance against the Romans was defeated, and committed suicide rather than being marched through Rome in a triumph as a captured enemy leader. Conflict with Rome[edit] Main articles: Domitian's Dacian War and Trajan's Dacian Wars Burebista's Dacian state was powerful enough to threaten Rome, and Caesar contemplated campaigning against the Dacians.[183] Despite this, the formidable Dacian power under Burebista
Burebista
lasted only until his death in 44 BC. The subsequent division of Dacia
Dacia
continued for about a century until the reign of Scorilo. This was a period of only occasional attacks on the Roman Empire's border, with some local significance.[184] The unifying actions of the last Dacian king Decebalus
Decebalus
(ruled 87–106 AD) were seen as dangerous by Rome. Despite the fact that the Dacian army could now gather only some 40,000 soldiers,[184] Decebalus' raids south of the Danube
Danube
proved unstoppable and costly. In the Romans' eyes, the situation at the border with Dacia
Dacia
was out of control, and Emperor Domitian
Domitian
(ruled 81 to 96 AD) tried desperately to deal with the danger through military action. But the outcome of Rome's disastrous campaigns into Dacia
Dacia
in AD 86 and AD 88 pushed Domitian
Domitian
to settle the situation through diplomacy.[184] Emperor Trajan
Trajan
(ruled 97–117 AD) opted for a different approach and decided to conquer the Dacian kingdom, partly in order to seize its vast gold mines wealth. The effort required two major wars (the Dacian Wars), one in 101–102 AD and the other in 105–106 AD. Only fragmentary details survive of the Dacian war: a single sentence of Trajan's own Dacica; little more of the Getica
Getica
written by his doctor, T. Statilius Crito; nothing whatsoever of the poem proposed by Caninius Rufus (if it was ever written), Dio Chrysostom's Getica
Getica
or Appian's Dacica. Nonetheless, a reasonable account can be pieced together.[185]

Dacian wars depicted on Trajan's column

In the first war, Trajan
Trajan
invaded Dacia
Dacia
by crossing the river Danube with a boat-bridge and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Dacians
Dacians
at the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. The Dacian king Decebalus
Decebalus
was forced to sue for peace. Trajan
Trajan
and Decebalus
Decebalus
then concluded a peace treaty which was highly favourable to the Romans. The peace agreement required the Dacians
Dacians
to cede some territory to the Romans and to demolish their fortifications. Decebalus' foreign policy was also restricted, as he was prohibited from entering into alliances with other tribes. However, both Trajan
Trajan
and Decebalus
Decebalus
considered this only a temporary truce, and readied themselves for renewed war. Trajan
Trajan
had Greek engineer Apollodorus of Damascus
Apollodorus of Damascus
construct a stone bridge over the Danube
Danube
river, while Decebalus
Decebalus
secretly plotted alliances against the Romans(citation needed). In 105, Trajan
Trajan
crossed the Danube
Danube
river and besieged Decebalus' capital, Sarmizegetusa, but the siege failed because of Decebalus' allied tribes. However, Trajan
Trajan
was an optimist. He returned with a newly constituted army and took Sarmizegetusa by treachery. Decebalus
Decebalus
fled into the mountains, but was cornered by pursuing Roman cavalry. Decebalus
Decebalus
committed suicide rather than being captured by the Romans and be paraded as a slave, then be killed. The Roman captain took his head and right hand to Trajan, who had them displayed in the Forums. Trajan's Column
Trajan's Column
in Rome was constructed to celebrate the conquest of Dacia.

Death of Decebalus
Decebalus
(Trajan's Column, Scene CXLV)

The Roman people hailed Trajan's triumph in Dacia
Dacia
with the longest and most expensive celebration in their history, financed by a part of the gold taken from the Dacians.[186] For his triumph, Trajan
Trajan
gave a 123-day festival (ludi) of celebration, in which approximately 11,000 animals were slaughtered and 11,000 gladiators fought in combats. This surpassed Emperor Titus's celebration in AD 70, when a 100-day festival included 3,000 gladiators and 5,000 to 9,000 wild animals.[187][188] Roman rule[edit] Main article: Roman Dacia See also: Danubian provinces Only about half part of Dacia
Dacia
then became a Roman province,[189] with a newly built capital at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, 40 km away from the site of Old Sarmisegetuza Regia, which was razed to the ground. The name of the Dacians' homeland, Dacia, became the name of a Roman province, and the name Dacians
Dacians
was used to designate the people in the region.[190] Roman Dacia, also Dacia
Dacia
Traiana or Dacia
Dacia
Felix, was a province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from 106 to 271 or 275 AD.[191][192][193] Its territory consisted of eastern and southeastern Transylvania, and the regions of Banat
Banat
and Oltenia
Oltenia
(located in modern Romania).[191] Dacia
Dacia
was organised from the beginning as an imperial province, and remained so throughout the Roman occupation.[194] It was one of the empire's Latin
Latin
provinces; official epigraphs attest that the language of administration was Latin.[195] Historian estimates of the population of Roman Dacia
Dacia
range from 650,000 to 1,200,000.[196]

Roman Dacia, Moesia
Moesia
Inferior, Moesia
Moesia
Superior and other Roman provinces

Dacians
Dacians
that remained outside the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
after the Dacian wars of AD 101–106 had been named Dakoi prosoroi ( Latin
Latin
Daci limitanei), "neighbouring Dacians".[21] Modern historians use the generic name "Free Dacians" or Independent Dacians.[197][198][121] The tribes Daci Magni (Great Dacians), Costoboci
Costoboci
(generally considered a Dacian subtribe), and Carpi remained outside the Roman empire, in what the Romans called Dacia
Dacia
Libera (Free Dacia).[190] By the early third century the "Free Dacians" were a significantly troublesome group, by now identified as the Carpi.[197] Bichir argues that the Carpi were the most powerful of the Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
who had become the principal enemy of the Romans in the region.[199] In 214 AD, Caracalla campaigned against the Free Dacians.[200] There were also campaigns against the Dacians
Dacians
recorded in 236 AD.[201] Roman Dacia
Dacia
was evacuated by the Romans under emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
(ruled 271–5 AD). Aurelian
Aurelian
made this decision on account of counter-pressures on the Empire there caused by the Carpi, Visigoths, Sarmatians, and Vandals; the lines of defense needed to be shortened, and Dacia
Dacia
was deemed not defensible given the demands on available resources. Roman power in Thracia rested mainly with the legions stationed in Moesia. The rural nature of Thracia's populations, and the distance from Roman authority, encouraged the presence of local troops to support Moesia's legions. Over the next few centuries, the province was periodically and increasingly attacked by migrating Germanic tribes. The reign of Justinian
Justinian
saw the construction of over 100 legionary fortresses to supplement the defense. Thracians
Thracians
in Moesia
Moesia
and Dacia
Dacia
were Romanized, while those within the Byzantine empire were their Hellenized descendants that had mingled with the Greeks. After the Aurelian
Aurelian
Retreat[edit] See also: Free Dacians, Carpi (people), Costoboci, and Origin of the Romanians

Dacian on the Constantine Arch

Roman Dacia
Dacia
was never a uniformly or fully Romanized
Romanized
area. Post-Aurelianic Dacia
Dacia
fell into three divisions: the area along the river, usually under some type of Roman administration even if in a highly localized form; the zone beyond this area, from which Roman military personnel had withdrawn, leaving a sizable population behind that was generally Romanized; and finally what is now the northern parts of Moldavia, Crisana, and Maramures, which were never occupied by the Romans. These last areas were always peripheral to the Roman province, not militarily occupied but nonetheless influenced by Rome as part of the Roman economic sphere. Here lived the free, unoccupied Carpi, often called "Free Dacians".[165] The Aurelian
Aurelian
retreat was a purely military decision to withdraw the Roman troops to defend the Danube. The inhabitants of the old province of Dacia
Dacia
displayed no awareness of impending dissolution. There were no sudden flights or dismantling of property.[166] It is not possible to discern how many civilians followed the army out of Dacia; it is clear that there was no mass emigration, since there is evidence of continuity of settlement in Dacian villages and farms; the evacuation may not at first have been intended to be a permanent measure.[166] The Romans left the province, but they didn't consider that they lost it.[166] Dobrogea
Dobrogea
was not abandoned at all, but continued as part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
for over 350 years.[202] As late as AD 300, the tetrarchic emperors had resettled tens of thousands of Dacian Carpi inside the empire, dispersing them in communities the length of the Danube, from Austria to the Black Sea.[203] Society[edit]

Dacian tarabostes (nobleman) – (Hermitage Museum)

Comati on Trajan's Column, Rome

Dacians
Dacians
were divided into two classes: the aristocracy (tarabostes) and the common people (comati). Only the aristocracy had the right to cover their heads, and wore a felt hat. The common people, who comprised the rank and file of the army, the peasants and artisans, might have been called capillati in Latin. Their appearance and clothing can be seen on Trajan's Column. Occupations[edit]

Dacian tools: compasses, chisels, knives, etc.

The chief occupations of the Dacians
Dacians
were agriculture, apiculture, viticulture, livestock, ceramics and metalworking. They also worked the gold and silver mines of Transylvania. At Pecica, Arad, a Dacian workshop was discovered, along with equipment for minting coins and evidence of bronze, silver, and iron-working that suggests a broad spectrum of smithing.[204] Evidence for the mass production of iron is found on many Dacian sites, indicating guild-like specialization.[204] Dacian ceramic manufacturing traditions continue from the pre-Roman to the Roman period, both in provincial and unoccupied Dacia, and well into the fourth and even early fifth centuries.[205] They engaged in considerable external trade, as is shown by the number of foreign coins found in the country (see also Decebalus
Decebalus
Treasure). On the northernmost frontier of "free Dacia", coin circulation steadily grew in the first and second centuries, with a decline in the third and a rise again in the fourth century; the same pattern as observed for the Banat
Banat
region to the southwest. What is remarkable is the extent and increase in coin circulation after Roman withdrawal from Dacia, and as far north as Transcarpathia.[206] Currency[edit]

Geto-Dacian Koson, mid 1st century BC

The first coins produced by the Geto- Dacians
Dacians
were imitations of silver coins of the Macedonian kings Philip II and Alexander III (the Great). Early in the 1st century BC, the Dacians
Dacians
replaced these with silver denarii of the Roman Republic, both official coins of Rome exported to Dacia, as well as locally made imitations of them. The Roman province Dacia
Dacia
is represented on the Roman sestertius coin as a woman seated on a rock, holding an aquila, a small child on her knee. The aquila holds ears of grain, and another small child is seated before her holding grapes. Construction[edit] See also: Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains
Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains
and Murus dacicus Dacians
Dacians
had developed the murus dacicus (double-skinned ashlar-masonry with rubble fill and tie beams) characteristic to their complexes of fortified cities, like their capital Sarmisegetuza Regia in what is today Hunedoara County, Romania.[204] This type of wall has been discovered not only in the Dacian citadel of the Orastie mountains, but also in those at Covasna, Breaza near Făgăraș, Tilișca near Sibiu, Căpâlna in the Sebeș
Sebeș
valley, Bănița not far from Petroșani, and Piatra Craivii to the north of Alba Iulia.[207] The degree of their urban development was displayed on Trajan's Column
Trajan's Column
and in the account of how Sarmizegetusa Regia
Sarmizegetusa Regia
was defeated by the Romans. The Romans were given by treachery the locations of aqueducts and pipelines of the Dacian capital, only after destroying the water supply being able to end the long siege of Sarmisegetuza. Material culture[edit] See also: Thracology, Dacology, and Romanian archaeology See also: the categories Dacian archaeology, Museums of Dacia, and Dacian art. According to archaeological findings, the cradle of the Dacian culture is considered to be north of the Danube
Danube
towards the Carpathian mountains, in the historical Romanian province of Muntenia. It is identified as an evolution of the Iron Age
Iron Age
Basarabi culture. The earlier Iron Age
Iron Age
Basarabi evidence in the northern lower Danube
Danube
area connects to the iron-using Ferigile-Birsesti group. This is an archaeological manifestation of the historical Getae
Getae
who, along with the Agathyrsae, are one of a number of tribal formations recorded by Herodotus.[157][208] In archaeology, "free Dacians" are attested by the Puchov culture (in which there are Celtic elements) and Lipiţa culture to the east of the Carpathians.[209] The Lipiţa culture
Lipiţa culture
has a Dacian/North Thracian origin.[210] [211] This North Thracian population was dominated by strong Celtic influences, or had simply absorbed Celtic ethnic components.[212] Lipiţa culture
Lipiţa culture
has been linked to the Dacian tribe of Costoboci.[213][214] Specific Dacian material culture includes: wheel-turned pottery that is generally plain but with distinctive elite wares, massive silver dress fibulae, precious metal plate, ashlar masonry, fortifications, upland sanctuaries with horseshoe-shaped precincts, and decorated clay heart altars at settlement sites. Among many discovered artifacts, the Dacian bracelets
Dacian bracelets
stand out, depicting their cultural and aesthetic sense.[204] There are difficulties correlating funerary monuments chronologically with Dacian settlements; a small number of burials are known, along with cremation pits, and isolated rich burials as at Cugir.[204] Dacian burial ritual continued under Roman occupation and into the post-Roman period.[215] Language[edit] Main article: Dacian language See also: Davae, Thracian language, and Languages of the Roman Empire The Dacians
Dacians
are generally considered to have been Thracian speakers, representing a cultural continuity from earlier Iron Age communities.[80] Some historians and linguists consider Dacian language to be a dialect of or the same language as Thracian.[139][216] The vocalism and consonantism differentiate the Dacian and Thracian languages.[217] Others consider that Dacian and Illyrian form regional varieties (dialects) of a common language. ( Thracians
Thracians
inhabited modern southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. Illyrians
Illyrians
lived in modern Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia.) The ancient languages of these people became extinct, and their cultural influence highly reduced, after the repeated invasions of the Balkans
Balkans
by Celts, Huns, Goths, and Sarmatians, accompanied by persistent hellenization, romanisation and later slavicisation. Therefore, in the study of the toponomy of Dacia, one must take account of the fact that some place-names were taken by the Slavs from as yet unromanised Dacians.[218] A number of Dacian words are preserved in ancient sources, amounting to about 1150 anthroponyms and 900 toponyms, and in Discorides some of the rich plant lore of the Dacians
Dacians
is preserved along with the names of 42 medicinal plants.[11] Symbols[edit] The Dacians
Dacians
knew about writing.[219][220][221] Permanent contacts with the Graeco-Roman world had brought the use of the Greek and later the Latin
Latin
alphabet.[222] It is also certainly not the case that writing with Greek and Latin
Latin
letters and knowledge of Greek and Latin
Latin
were known in all the settlements scattered throughout Dacia, but there is no doubt about the existence of such knowledge in some circles of Dacian society.[223] However, the most revealing discoveries concerning the use of the writing by the Dacians
Dacians
occurred in the citadels on the Sebes mountains.[222] Some groups of letters from stone blocks at Sarmisegetuza might express personal names; these can not now be read because the wall is ruined, and because it is impossible to restore the original order of the blocks in the wall.[224] Religion[edit] Main article: Dacian mythology

Detail of the main fresco of the Aleksandrovo kurgan. The figure is identified with Zalmoxis.[225][226]

Dacian religion was considered by the classic sources as a key source of authority, suggesting to some that Dacia
Dacia
was a predominantly theocratic state led by priest-kings. However, the layout of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa indicates the possibility of co-rulership, with a separate high king and high priest.[151] Ancient sources recorded the names of several Dacian high priests (Deceneus, Comosicus
Comosicus
and Vezina) and various orders of priests: "god-worshipers", "smoke-walkers" and "founders".[151] Both Hellenistic
Hellenistic
and Oriental influences are discernible in the religious background, alongside chthonic and solar motifs.[151] According to Herodotus' account of the story of Zalmoxis or Zamolxis,[9] the Getae
Getae
(speaking the same language as the Dacians
Dacians
and the Thracians, according to Strabo) believed in the immortality of the soul, and regarded death as merely a change of country. Their chief priest held a prominent position as the representative of the supreme deity, Zalmoxis, who is called also Gebeleizis by some among them.[9][227] Strabo
Strabo
wrote about the high priest of King Burebista Deceneus: "a man who not only had wandered through Egypt, but also had thoroughly learned certain prognostics through which he would pretend to tell the divine will; and within a short time he was set up as god (as I said when relating the story of Zamolxis)."[228]

Votive stele representing Bendis
Bendis
wearing a Dacian cap (British Museum)

The Goth Jordanes
Jordanes
in his Getica
Getica
(The origin and deeds of the Goths), also gives an account of Deceneus the highest priest, and considered Dacians
Dacians
a nation related to the Goths. Besides Zalmoxis, the Dacians believed in other deities, such as Gebeleizis, the god of storm and lightning, possibly related to the Thracian god Zibelthiurdos.[229] He was represented as a handsome man, sometimes with a beard. Later Gebeleizis was equated with Zalmoxis as the same god. According to Herodotus, Gebeleizis (*Zebeleizis/ Gebeleizis who is only mentioned by Herodotus) is just another name of Zalmoxis.[230][9][231][232] Another important deity was Bendis, goddess of the moon and the hunt.[233] By a decree of the oracle of Dodona, which required the Athenians to grant land for a shrine or temple, her cult was introduced into Attica by immigrant Thracian residents,[c] and, though Thracian and Athenian processions remained separate, both cult and festival became so popular that in Plato's time (c. 429–13 BC) its festivities were naturalised as an official ceremony of the Athenian city-state, called the Bendideia.[d] Known Dacian theonyms include Zalmoxis, Gebeleïzis and Darzalas.[234][e] Gebeleizis is probably cognate to the Thracian god Zibelthiurdos (also Zbelsurdos, Zibelthurdos), wielder of lightning and thunderbolts. Derzelas (also Darzalas) was a chthonic god of health and human vitality. The pagan religion survived longer in Dacia than in other parts of the empire; Christianity made little headway until the fifth century.[166] Pottery[edit]

Fragment of a vase collected by Mihail Dimitriu
Mihail Dimitriu
at the site of Poiana, Galaţi (Piroboridava), Romania
Romania
illustrating the use of Greek and Latin
Latin
letters by a Dacian potter (source: Dacia
Dacia
journal, 1933)

Fragments of pottery with different "inscriptions" with Latin
Latin
and Greek letters incised before and after firing have been discovered in the settlement at Ocnita – Valcea.[235] An inscription carries the word Basileus (Βασιλεύς in Greek, meaning "king") and seems to have been written before the vessel was hardened by fire.[236] Other inscriptions contain the name of the king, believed to be Thiemarcus,[236] and Latin
Latin
groups of letters (BVR, REB).[237] BVR indicates the name of the tribe or union of tribes, the Buridavensi Dacians
Dacians
who lived at Buridava
Buridava
and who were mentioned by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in the second century AD under the name of Buridavensioi.[238] Clothing and science[edit] The typical dress of Dacians, both men and women, can be seen on Trajan's column.[143] Dio Chrysostom
Dio Chrysostom
described the Dacians
Dacians
as natural philosophers.[239]

A 19th century depiction of Dacian women

Warfare[edit] Main article: Dacian warfare The history of Dacian warfare
Dacian warfare
spans from c. 10th century BC up to the 2nd century AD in the region typically referred to by Ancient Greek and Latin
Latin
historians as Dacia. It concerns the armed conflicts of the Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
and their kingdoms in the Balkans. Apart from conflicts between Dacians
Dacians
and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
as well. Weapons[edit] See also: Falx
Falx
and Sica The weapon most associated with the Dacian forces that fought against Trajan's army during his invasions of Dacia
Dacia
was the falx, a single-edged scythe-like weapon. The falx was able to inflict horrible wounds on opponents, easily disabling or killing the heavily armored Roman legionaries that they faced. This weapon, more so than any other single factor, forced the Roman army to adopt previously unused or modified equipment to suit the conditions on the Dacian battlefield.[240] Notable individuals[edit] See also: List of Dacian kings, Burebista, and Decebalus This is a list of several important Dacian individuals or those of partly Dacian origin.

Zalmoxis, a semi-legendary social and religious reformer, eventually deified by the Getae
Getae
and Dacians
Dacians
and regarded as the only true god. Zoltes Burebista
Burebista
was a king of Dacia, 70–44 BC, who united under his rule Thracians
Thracians
in a large territory, from today's Moravia
Moravia
in the West, to the Southern Bug
Southern Bug
river (Ukraine) in the East, and from the Northern Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
to Southern Dionysopolis. The Greeks
Greeks
considered him the first and greatest king of Thrace.[177][better source needed] Decebalus, a king of Dacia
Dacia
who was ultimately defeated by the forces of Trajan. Diegis was a Dacian chief, general and brother of Decebalus, and his representative at the peace negotiations held with Domitian
Domitian
(89 CE)

Trivia[edit] "The ducks come from the trucks" – Romanian language pun about a mistranslation (duck and truck sound like dac and trac, the ethnonyms for Dacian and Thracian).[241] In Romanian nationalism[edit] Main article: Origin of the Romanians

Modern Romanian statue of the Dacian King Burebista
Burebista
(located in Călărași).

Study of the Dacians, their culture, society and religion is not purely a subject of ancient history, but has present day implications in the context of Romanian nationalism. Positions taken on the vexed question of the Origin of the Romanians
Origin of the Romanians
and to what degree are present-day Romanians descended from the Dacians
Dacians
might have contemporary political implications. For example, The government of Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
claimed an uninterrupted continuity of a Dacian-Romanian state, from King Burebista
Burebista
to Ceaușescu himself.[242] The Ceaușescu government conspicuously commemorated the supposed 2,050th anniversary of the founding of the "unified and centralized" country that was to become Romania, on which occasion the historical film "Burebista" was produced. See also[edit]

Moesi Thracians Illyrians Scythians Sarmatians Cimmerians Dacia

List of rulers of Thrace
Thrace
and Dacia List of cities in Thrace
Thrace
and Dacia Dacian language

List of Dacian names

Thrace

Thracology Odrysian kingdom Thracian language Thracian mythology Thraco-Dacian Thraco-Cimmerian Thraco-Illyrian Thraex

Notes[edit]

^ Dioscorides's book (known in English by its Latin
Latin
title De Materia Medica 'Regarding Medical Materials') has all the Dacian names of the plants preceded by Δάκοι Dakoi i.e. Δάκοι Dakoi προποδιλα Latin
Latin
Daci propodila " Dacians
Dacians
propodila" ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis Retrieved 2007-11-08. "In the year 88, the Romans resumed the offensive. The Roman troops were now led by the general Tettius Iulianus. The battle took place again at Tapae but this time the Romans defeated the Dacians. For fear of falling into a trap, Iulianus abandoned his plans of conquering Sarmizegetuza and, at the same time, Decebalus
Decebalus
asked for peace. At first, Domitian
Domitian
refused this request, but after he was defeated in a war in Pannonia against the Marcomanni (a Germanic tribe), the emperor was obliged to accept the peace." ^ Extensive discussion of whether the date is 429 or 413 BC was reviewed and newly analyzed in Christopher Planeaux, "The Date of Bendis' Entry into Attica" The Classical Journal 96.2 (December 2000:165–192). Planeaux offers a reconstruction of the inscription mentioning the first introduction, p ^ Fifth-century fragmentary inscriptions that record formal descrees regarding formal aspects of the Bendis
Bendis
cult, are reproduced in Planeaux 2000:170f ^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898),(Zalmoxis) or Zamolxis (Zamolxis). Said to have been so called from the bear's skin (zalmos) in which he was clothed as soon as he was born. He was, according to the story current among the Greeks
Greeks
on the Hellespont, a Getan, who had been a slave to Pythagoras in Samos, but was manumitted, and acquired not only great wealth, but large stores of knowledge from Pythagoras, and from the Egyptians, whom he visited in the course of his travels. He returned among the Getae, introducing the civilization and the religious ideas which he had gained, especially regarding the immortality of the soul. Herodotus, however, suspects that he was an indigenous Getan divinity (Herod.iv. 95)

References[edit]

^ a b Westropp 2003, p. 104. ^ a b c d Strabo
Strabo
& 20 AD, VII 3,12. ^ Dionysius Periegetes, Graece et Latine, Volume 1, Libraria Weidannia, 1828, p. 145. ^ a b Nandris 1976, p. 731. ^ Husovská 1998, p. 187. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica – Dacia. ^ Millar 2004, p. 189: "the Getae
Getae
over the Danube, whom they call Dacians" ^ Appian
Appian
& 165 AD, Praef. 4/14-15, quoted in [7] ^ a b c d e f g Herodotus
Herodotus
& 440 BC, 4.93–4.97. ^ a b c d Fol 1996, p. 223. ^ a b Nandris 1976, p. 730: Strabo
Strabo
and Trogus Pompeius "Daci quoque suboles Getarum sunt" ^ a b Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 837. ^ a b Roesler 1864, p. 89. ^ Zumpt & Zumpt 1852, pp. 140 & 175. ^ a b c d e Van Den Gheyn 1886, p. 170. ^ Everitt 2010, p. 151. ^ a b Bunbury 1979, p. 150. ^ Oltean 2007, p. 44. ^ Bunbury 1979, p. 151. ^ a b Riley 2007, p. 107. ^ a b Garašanin, Benac (1973) 243 ^ Parvan, Vulpe & Vulpe 2002, p. 158. ^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 397. ^ Mulvin 2002, p. 59: "…A tombstone inscription from Aquincum reads M. Secundi Genalis domo Cl. Agrip /pina/ negotiat. Dacisco. This is of a second century date and suggests the presence of some Dacian traders in Pannonia…" ^ Petolescu 2000, p. 163: "…patri incom[pa-] rabili, decep [to] a Daciscis in bel- loproclio …" ^ Groh 2000, p. 43: "…CIL V 3372 inscription at Verona Papirio Marcellino, decepto a Daciscis in bello proelio…" ^ Gibbon 2008, p. 313: "… Aurelian
Aurelian
calls these soldiers Hiberi, Riparienses, Castriani, and Dacisci " conform to "Vopiscus in Historia Augusta XXVI 38" ^ Kephart 1949, p. 28: The Persians knew that the Dahae
Dahae
and the other Massagetae were kin of the inhabitants of Scythia west of the Caspian Sea. ^ Chakraberty 1948, p. 34: "Dasas or Dasyu of the RigVeda are the Dahae
Dahae
of Avesta, Daci of the Romans, Dakaoi (Hindi Dakku) of the Greeks" ^ Pliny (the Elder) & Rackham 1971, p. 375. ^ a b c White 1991, p. 239. ^ Grumeza 2009. ^ Sidebottom 2007, p. 6. ^ Florov 2001, p. 66. ^ a b Papazoglu 1978, p. 434. ^ a b Barbulescu & Nagler 2005, p. 68. ^ Vraciu 1980, p. 45. ^ Lemny & Iorga 1984, p. 210. ^ Toynbee 1961, p. 435. ^ Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 8375. ^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 404. ^ a b c Paliga 1999, p. 77. ^ Eisler 1951, p. 136. ^ Parvan, Vulpe & Vulpe 2002, p. 149. ^ Alecu-Călușiță 1992, p. 19. ^ Eisler 1951, p. 33. ^ Eliade 1995, p. 12. ^ Vulpe 2001, pp. 420–421. ^ Russu 1967, p. 133. ^ a b Eliade 1995, p. 11. ^ Eisler 1951, p. 137. ^ a b c d Eliade 1995, p. 13. ^ Jeanmaire 1975, p. 540. ^ a b Eisler 1951, p. 144. ^ a b c Eliade 1995, p. 15. ^ Zambotti 1954, p. 184, fig. 13-14, 16. ^ a b Eliade 1995, p. 23. ^ Eliade 1995, p. 27. ^ Eliade 1986. ^ Hoddinott, p. 27. ^ Casson, p. 3. ^ Mountain 1998, p. 58. ^ Dumitrescu et al. 1982, p. 53. ^ a b c d e Mountain 1998, p. 59. ^ Pârvan 1926, p. 279. ^ Strabo, Jones & Sterrett 1967, p. 28. ^ Abramea 1994, p. 17. ^ Dio 2008, Volume 3. ^ Papazoglu 1978, p. 67. ^ a b c Pârvan 1926, p. 221: Agrippa comments "Dacia, Getico finiuntur ab oriente desertis Sarmatiae, ab occidente flumine Vistula, a septentrione Oceano, a meridie flumine Histro. Quae patent in longitudine milia passuum CCLXXX, in latitudine qua cogitum est milia passuum CCCLXXXVI" ^ Schütte 1917, p. 109. ^ Schütte 1917, pp. 101 and 109. ^ Treptow 1996, p. 10. ^ Ellis 1861, p. 70. ^ Brixhe 2008, p. 72. ^ Fisher 2003, p. 570. ^ Rosetti 1982, p. 5. ^ Duridanov 1985, p. 130. ^ a b Polomé 1982, p. 876. ^ a b Peregrine & Ember 2001, p. 215. ^ a b c Price 2000, p. 120. ^ Renfrew 1990, p. 71. ^ Hainsworth 1982, p. 848. ^ Polomé 1983, p. 540. ^ National Geographic, Hubble at 25, April 2015, Story by Andrew Curry, p.128. ^ Crossland & Boardman 1982, p. 838. ^ a b c Oltean 2007, p. 46. ^ Koch 2007, p. 1471. ^ Schütte 1917, p. 88. ^ Schütte 1917, p. 89. ^ Bennett 1997, p. 47. ^ a b c Pârvan 1926, p. 250. ^ a b Wilcox 2000, p. 18. ^ Wilcox 2000, p. 24. ^ a b Pârvan 1926, pp. 222–223. ^ Ptolemy
Ptolemy
III.5 and 8 ^ Barrington Plate 22 ^ Ruscu 2004, p. 78. ^ Wilcox (2000)27 ^ MacKenzie 1986, p. 51. ^ MacKendrick 2000, p. 90. ^ Millar 1981. ^ Bunson 2002, p. 167. ^ Pop 2000, p. 22. ^ Denne Parker 1958, pp. 12 and 19. ^ a b Wilkes 2005, p. 224. ^ Ptolemy
Ptolemy
III.8 ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
G.43 ^ Oltean 2007, p. 47. ^ Pârvan 1926, pp. 461–462. ^

Heather 2010, p. 131 Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 184 Poghirc 1989, p. 302 Pârvan 1928, pp. 184 and 188 Nandris 1976, p. 729 Oledzki 2000, p. 525 Astarita 1983, p. 62

^ a b Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 100. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 184. ^ Nandris 1976, p. 729. ^ a b Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 98. ^ a b Shutte 1917, p. 100. ^ Parvan & Florescu 1982, p. 135. ^ Sir Smith 1856, p. 961. ^ Shutte 1917, p. 18. ^ Heather 2010, p. 131. ^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 407. ^ Shutte 1917, p. 143. ^ Russu 1969, pp. 99,116. ^ VI, 1 801=ILS 854 ^ VI, 16, 903 ^ Russu 1967, p. 161. ^ Shutte 1917, p. 101. ^ Parvan & Florescu 1982, pp. 142 and 152. ^

Goffart 2006, p. 205 Bunson 1995, p. 74 MacKendrick 2000, p. 117 Parvan & Florescu 1982, p. 136 Burns 1991, pp. 26 and 27 Odahl 2004, p. 19 Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 19 Millar 1970

^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 129. ^ Heather 2010, p. 114. ^ Pârvan 1926, p. 239. ^ Russu 1969, pp. 114–115. ^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 403. ^ Goffart 2006, p. 205. ^ Minns 2011, p. 124. ^ Nixon & Saylor Rodgers 1995, p. 116. ^ Clarke 2003, p. 37. ^ a b c d e f g Oltean 2007, p. 45. ^ Aristotle
Aristotle
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Clothing

Language

Belagines Words of possible Dacian origin Dacian plant names Dacian names Dacian script Sinaia lead plates Daco-Thracian Thracian language Thraco-Illyrian

Religion

Deities

Bendis Deceneus Derzelas Dionysus Gebeleizis Kotys Pleistoros Sabazios Semele Seirenes Silenus Zalmoxis

Dacian Draco Kogaionon

Towns and fortresses

Sarmizegetusa Argidava Buridava Cumidava Piroboridava Sucidava More towns... Davae Dacian Fortresses of the Orăștie Mountains Murus Dacicus

Foreign relations

Greeks Celts Germanic tribes Romans

Warfare

Falx Sica Thracian warfare

Wars with the Roman Empire

Domitian

First Battle of Tapae

Trajan

First War

Second Battle of Tapae Battle of Adamclisi

Second War

Battle of Sarmisegetusa

Roman Dacia

Dacia
Dacia
Traiana Moesia Scythia Minor Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana Diocese of Dacia Dacia
Dacia
Mediterranea Dacia
Dacia
Ripensis Trajan

Bridge Column

Towns and cities Castra

Limes

Alutanus Moesiae Porolissensis Sarmatiae (Devil's Dykes) Transalutanus Trajan's Wall Brazda lui Novac

Culture

Daco-Roman Thraco-Roman Eastern Romance substratum

Research

Archaeology

sites in Romania

Books Dacology Protochronism Thracology

Category Commons Portal WikiProject

Authority control

GND: 40701

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