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Dacian Kingdom

168 BC–106 AD

Dacian Draco

Dacia
Dacia
during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC.

Capital Sarmizegetusa Regia[when?]

Languages Dacian, Greek,[citation needed] Latin[citation needed]

Religion Zamolxism

Government Non-hereditary[1] monarchy

King

 •  beginning of the 2nd century BC Rubobostes

 •  first half of the 2nd century BC Oroles

 •  82-44 BC Burebista

 •  44–27 BC Cotiso

 •  27–29 BC/AD Comosicus[3]

 •  29–69 AD Scorilo

 •  69–87 AD Duras

 •  87–106 AD Decebalus

High Priest Deceneus (viceroy[2]/king)

Comosicus
Comosicus
(later a king)

Historical era Classical antiquity

 •  Established 168 BC

 •  Domitian's Dacian War 84–88 AD

 •  Trajan's Dacian Wars 101–106 AD

 •  Disestablished 106 AD

Currency Koson, Denarius.

Succeeded by

Roman Dacia

Free Dacians

Today part of  Romania  Moldova  Bulgaria  Serbia  Ukraine  Hungary  Slovakia  Poland

This article is part of a series on

Dacia

Geography

Sarmizegetusa Argidava Capidava Ziridava Moesia Scythia Minor

Culture

People Language Religion Construction Pottery Art Warfare

History

Dromichaetes Burebista Decebalus Other kings Moesi Tribes Conflict with Rome

Roman Dacia

Trajan's Dacian Wars Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa Porolissum Castra Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana Free Dacians

Legacy

Thraco-Roman Daco-Romanian Archaeology Museums Books

v t e

In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia (/ˈdeɪʃiə, -ʃə/) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae
Getae
(east of Dacia) and the Romans as Daci. Dacia
Dacia
was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius
Danubius
river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros, or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons. Moesia
Moesia
(Dobruja), a region south-east of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae
Getae
lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus
Pontus Euxinus
(Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Southern Bug), and the Tisia
Tisia
(Tisza) to the west. At times Dacia
Dacia
included areas between the Tisa and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
are located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present day countries of Romania
Romania
and Moldova, as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in AD 106. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Dacia.

Contents

1 Nomenclature

1.1 Classical era

2 Geography

2.1 Periods

2.1.1 1st century BC 2.1.2 1st century AD 2.1.3 2nd century AD

2.2 Cities

3 Political entities

3.1 Rubobostes 3.2 Oroles 3.3 Burebista 3.4 Cotiso 3.5 Decebalus

4 Roman conquest 5 The reconquest of Dacia
Dacia
by Constantine the Great 6 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as the Dacian Empire 7 Dacia
Dacia
after the Romans 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Nomenclature[edit] Classical era[edit] Main article: Dacians
Dacians
§ Name and etymology The Dacians
Dacians
are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks, in Herodotus
Herodotus
(Histories Book
Book
IV XCIII: "[Getae] the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes") and Thucydides (Peloponnesian Wars, Book
Book
II: "[Getae] border on the Scythians and are armed in the same manner, being all mounted archers").[4] Geography[edit]

Dacia
Dacia
cf. Strabo
Strabo
(c. 20 AD) [5]

The map of Dacia
Dacia
by Brue Adrien Hubert (1826)

View of the sanctuary from Dacians' capital Sarmizegetusa Regia

Dacia
Dacia
map cf. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(2nd century AD)

Onomastic range of the Dacian towns with the dava ending, covering Dacia, Moesia, Thrace
Thrace
and Dalmatia

The extent and location of Dacia
Dacia
varied in its three distinct historical periods (see below): Periods[edit] For earlier events, see Prehistory of Transylvania, Prehistory of Romania, and Celts
Celts
in Transylvania.

Part of a series on the

History of Romania

Prehistory

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Hamangia culture Bronze Age in Romania Prehistory of Transylvania

Antiquity

Dacia Dacian Wars Roman Dacia Origin of the Romanians

Middle Ages (Early)

History of Transylvania Foundation of Wallachia Foundation of Moldavia

Early Modern Times

Principality of Transylvania Eyalet of Temesvar Varat Eyalet Phanariotes Danubian Principalities

National Awakening

Transylvanian School Organic Statute 1848 Moldavian Revolution 1848 Wallachian Revolution Union of the Romanian Principalities

United Principalities

ASTRA War of Independence

Kingdom of Romania

World War I Union with Banat Union with Bucovina Union with Transylvania Union with Bessarabia Greater Romania Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina World War II

Socialist Republic of Romania

Soviet occupation Revolution

Post-Revolution

Romania
Romania
since 1989

By topic

Timeline Military history Christianity Romanian language

By historical region

Banat Bessarabia Bukovina Dobruja Crișana Maramureș Moldavia Muntenia Oltenia Transylvania Wallachia

Commons Centuries in Romania

Romania
Romania
portal

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Moldova

Antiquity

Chernyakhov culture Dacia, Free Dacians Bastarnae

Early Middle Ages

Origin of the Romanians Tivertsi Brodnici Golden Horde

Principality of Moldavia

Foundation Stephen the Great Early Modern Era Phanariotes United Principalities

Bessarabia Governorate

Treaty of Bucharest

Moldavian Democratic Republic

Sfatul Țării

Greater Romania

Union of Bessarabia with Romania The Holocaust in Romanian-controlled territories

Moldavian ASSR

Moldovenism

Moldavian SSR

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Soviet deportations

Republic of Moldova

Independence of Moldova War of Transnistria History of independent Moldova

Moldova
Moldova
portal

v t e

1st century BC[edit] The Dacia
Dacia
of King Burebista
Burebista
(82–44 BC), stretched from the Black Sea to the source of the river Tisa and from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
to Bohemia.[6] During that period, the Geto- Dacians
Dacians
conquered a wider territory and Dacia
Dacia
extended from the Middle Danube
Danube
to the Black Sea littoral (between Apollonia and Olbia) and from present-day Slovakia's mountains to the Balkan mountains.[7] In 53 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
stated that the lands of the Dacians
Dacians
started on the eastern edge of the Hercynian Forest
Hercynian Forest
(Black Forest).[8] After Burebista's death, his kingdom split in four states, later five. 1st century AD[edit] Strabo, in his Geography written around AD 20, says:[9]

″As for the southern part of Germany beyond the Albis, the portion which is just contiguous to that river is occupied by the Suevi; then immediately adjoining this is the land of the Getae, which, though narrow at first, stretching as it does along the Ister on its southern side and on the opposite side along the mountain-side of the Hercynian Forest (for the land of the Getae
Getae
also embraces a part of the mountains), afterwards broadens out towards the north as far as the Tyregetae; but I cannot tell the precise boundaries″

On this basis, Lengyel and Radan (1980), Hoddinott (1981) and Mountain (1998) consider that the Geto- Dacians
Dacians
inhabited both sides of the Tisza
Tisza
river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians.[10] The hold of the Dacians between the Danube
Danube
and Tisza
Tisza
was tenuous.[11] However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisa dating from the time of Burebista.[12] According to Tacitus
Tacitus
(AD 56 – AD 117) Dacians
Dacians
bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east.[13] In the 1st century AD, the Iazyges
Iazyges
settled West of Dacia, on the plain between the Danube
Danube
and the Tisa rivers, according to the scholars' interpretation of Pliny's text: "The higher parts between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest
Hercynian Forest
(Black Forest) as far as the winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnutum and the plains and level country of the German frontiers there are occupied by the Sarmatian
Sarmatian
Iazyges, while the Dacians
Dacians
whom they have driven out hold the mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss".[14][15][16][17] 2nd century AD[edit] Main articles: Trajan's Dacian Wars
Trajan's Dacian Wars
and Roman Dacia Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of parts of Dacia
Dacia
in AD 105–106,[18] Ptolemy's Geographia
Geographia
included the boundaries of Dacia. According to the scholars' interpretation of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Hrushevskyi 1997, Bunbury 1879, Mocsy 1974, Barbulescu and Nagler 2005) Dacia
Dacia
was the region between the rivers Tisza, Danube, upper Dniester, and Siret.[19][20][21][22] Mainstream historians accept this interpretation: Avery (1972) Berenger (1994) Fol (1996) Mountain (1998), Waldman Mason (2006).[23][8][24][25][26] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
also provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland
Poland
in the Upper Vistula
Vistula
(Polish: Wisla) river basin: Susudava and Setidava (with a manuscript variant Getidava).[27][28][29][30] This could have been an "echo" of Burebista's expansion.[28] It seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170–180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group.[31][32] This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci/Lipiţa culture, is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language
Dacian language
ending "dava" i.e. Setidava.[29] The Roman province
Roman province
Dacia
Dacia
Traiana, established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during AD 101–106, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat, Oltenia, Transylvania, and was subsequently gradually extended to southern parts of Moldavia, while Dobruja
Dobruja
and Budjak
Budjak
belonged the Roman province
Roman province
of Moesia. In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana
Dacia Traiana
(the Roman province) as far east as the Hierasus (Siret) river, in the middle of modern Romania. Roman rule extended to the south-western area of the Dacian Kingdom (but not to what later became known as Maramureş), to parts of the later Principality of Moldavia
Moldavia
east of the Siret and north of the Upper Trajan
Trajan
Wall, and to areas in modern Muntenia
Muntenia
and Ukraine, except the Black Sea
Black Sea
shore. After the Marcomannic Wars
Marcomannic Wars
(AD 166–180), Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
had been set in motion. So were the 12,000 Dacians
Dacians
'from the neighbourhood of Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
sent away from their own country'. Their native country could have been the Upper Tisa region, but other places cannot be excluded.[33] The later Roman province
Roman province
Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana, was organized inside former Moesia
Moesia
Superior after the retreat of the Roman army from Dacia, during the reign of emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
during AD 271–275. It was reorganized as Dacia Ripensis
Dacia Ripensis
(as a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea
Dacia Mediterranea
(as a civil province).[34] Cities[edit] Main articles: Davae
Davae
and List of Dacian towns Ptolemy
Ptolemy
gives a list of 43 names of towns in Dacia, out of which arguably 33 were of Dacian origin. Most of the latter included the added suffix ‘dava’ (meaning settlement, village). But, other Dacian names from his list lack the suffix (e.g. Zarmisegethusa regia = Zermizirga) In addition, nine other names of Dacian origin seem to have been Latinised.[35] The cities of the Dacians
Dacians
were known as -dava, -deva, -δαυα ("-dawa" or "-dava", Anc. Gk.), -δεβα ("-deva", Byz. Gk.) or -δαβα ("-dava", Byz. Gk.), etc. .

In Dacia: Acidava, Argedava, Buridava, Dokidava, Carsidava, Clepidava, Cumidava, Marcodava, Netindava, Patridava, Pelendava, *Perburidava, Petrodaua, Piroboridaua, Rhamidaua, Rusidava, Sacidava, Sangidava, Setidava, Singidava, Tamasidava, Utidava, Zargidava, Ziridava, Sucidava—26 names altogether. In Lower Moesia
Moesia
(the present Northern Bulgaria) and Scythia minor (Dobrudja): Aedeba, *Buteridava, *Giridava, Dausadava, Kapidaua, Murideba, Sacidava, Scaidava
Scaidava
(Skedeba), Sagadava, Sukidaua (Sucidava)—10 names in total. In Upper Moesia
Moesia
(the districts of Nish, Sofia, and partly Kjustendil): Aiadaba, Bregedaba, Danedebai, Desudaba, Itadeba, Kuimedaba, Zisnudeba—seven names in total.

Gil-doba, a village in Thracia, of unknown location. Thermi-daua, a town in Dalmatia. Probably a Grecized form of *Germidava. Pulpu-deva, (Phillipopolis) today Plovdiv
Plovdiv
in Bulgaria. Political entities[edit] Rubobostes[edit] Main article: Rubobostes Geto- Dacians
Dacians
inhabited both sides of the Tisa river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii
Boii
and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians
Dacians
under the king Burebista.[10] It seems likely that the Dacian state arose as a tribal confederacy, which was united only by charismatic leadership in both military-political and ideological-religious domains.[10] At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, under the rule of Rubobostes, a Dacian king in present-day Transylvania, the Dacians' power in the Carpathian basin
Carpathian basin
increased after they defeated the Celts, who previously held power in the region. Oroles[edit] Main article: Oroles A kingdom of Dacia
Dacia
also existed as early as the first half of the 2nd century BC under King Oroles. Conflicts with the Bastarnae
Bastarnae
and the Romans (112–109 BC, 74 BC), against whom they had assisted the Scordisci
Scordisci
and Dardani, greatly weakened the resources of the Dacians. Burebista[edit] Main article: Burebista Burebista
Burebista
(Boerebista), a contemporary of Julius Caesar, ruled Geto- Dacian tribes
Dacian tribes
between 82 BC and 44 BC. He thoroughly reorganised the army and attempted to raise the moral standard and obedience of the people by persuading them to cut their vines and give up drinking wine.[36] During his reign, the limits of the Dacian Kingdom were extended to their maximum. The Bastarnae
Bastarnae
and Boii
Boii
were conquered, and even the Greek towns of Olbia
Olbia
and Apollonia on the Black Sea
Black Sea
(Pontus Euxinus) recognized Burebista's authority. In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest.[8] Burebista
Burebista
suppressed the indigenous minting of coinages by four major tribal groups, adopting imported or copied Roman denarii as a monetary standard[10] During his reign, Burebista
Burebista
transferred Geto-Dacians capital from Argedava
Argedava
to Sarmizegetusa Regia.[37][38] For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegetusa was the Dacians' capital and reached its peak under King Decebalus. The Dacians
Dacians
appeared so formidable that Caesar contemplated an expedition against them, which his death in 44 BC prevented. In the same year Burebista
Burebista
was murdered, and the kingdom was divided into four (later five) parts under separate rulers. Cotiso[edit] Main article: Cotiso One of these entities was Cotiso's state, to whom Augustus betrothed his own five-year-old daughter Julia. He is well known from the line in Horace
Horace
(Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, Odes, III. 8. 18). The Dacians
Dacians
are often mentioned under Augustus, according to whom they were compelled to recognize Roman supremacy. However they were by no means subdued, and in later times to maintain their independence they seized every opportunity to cross the frozen Danube
Danube
during the winter and ravaging the Roman cities in the province of Moesia, which was under Roman occupation. Strabo
Strabo
testified: "although the Getae
Getae
and Daci once attained to very great power, so that they actually could send forth an expedition of two hundred thousand men, they now find themselves reduced to as few as forty thousand, and they have come close to the point of yielding obedience to the Romans, though as yet they are not absolutely submissive, because of the hopes which they base on the Germans, who are enemies to the Romans."[9] In fact, this occurred because Burebista's empire split after his death into four and later five smaller states, as Strabo
Strabo
explains, "only recently, when Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
sent an expedition against them, the number of parts into which the empire had been divided was five, though at the time of the insurrection it had been four. Such divisions, to be sure, are only temporary and vary with the times". Decebalus[edit] Main article: Decebalus Decebalus
Decebalus
ruled the Dacians
Dacians
between AD 87 and 106. The frontiers of Decebal's Dacia
Dacia
were marked by the Tisa River to the west, by the trans-Carpathians to the north and by the Dniester
Dniester
River to the east.[39] His name translates into "strong as ten men". Roman conquest[edit] Main articles: Domitian's Dacian War, Trajan's Dacian Wars, and Roman Dacia

Fiery battle scene between the Roman and Dacian armies, Trajan's Column, Rome

When Trajan
Trajan
turned his attention to Dacia, it had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Julius Caesar[40][41] when a Roman army had been beaten at the Battle of Histria.[42] From AD 85 to 89, the Dacians
Dacians
under Decebalus
Decebalus
were engaged in two wars with the Romans. In AD 85, the Dacians
Dacians
had swarmed over the Danube
Danube
and pillaged Moesia.[43][44] In AD 87, the Roman troops sent by the Emperor Domitian
Domitian
against them under Cornelius Fuscus, were defeated and Cornelius Fuscus was killed by the Dacians
Dacians
by authority of their ruler, Diurpaneus.[45] After this victory, Diurpaneus
Diurpaneus
took the name of Decebalus, but the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae
Tapae
in AD 88 and a truce was drawn up .[46] The next year, AD 88, new Roman troops under Tettius Julianus, gained a significant advantage, but were obligated to make peace following the defeat of Domitian
Domitian
by the Marcomanni, leaving the Dacians
Dacians
effectively independent. Decebalus
Decebalus
was given the status of "king client to Rome", receiving military instructors, craftsmen and money from Rome. To increase the glory of his reign, restore the finances of Rome, and end a treaty perceived as humiliating, Trajan
Trajan
resolved on the conquest of Dacia, the capture of the famous Treasure of Decebalus, and control over the Dacian gold mines of Transylvania. The result of his first campaign (101–102) was the siege of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa
Sarmizegethusa
and the occupation of part of the country. Emperor Trajan
Trajan
recommenced hostilities against Dacia
Dacia
and, following an uncertain number of battles,[47] and with Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa, Decebalus
Decebalus
once more sought terms.[48]

Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
and Moesia
Moesia
Inferior.

Decebalus
Decebalus
rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in AD 105. In response Trajan
Trajan
again marched into Dacia,[49] attacking the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegethusa, and razing it to the ground;[50] the defeated Dacian king Decebalus
Decebalus
committed suicide to avoid capture.[51] With part of Dacia
Dacia
quelled as the Roman province
Roman province
Dacia
Dacia
Traiana.[52] Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east. His conquests brought the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to its greatest extent. Rome's borders in the east were governed indirectly in this period, through a system of client states, which led to less direct campaigning than in the west.[53] The history of the war is given by Cassius Dio, but the best commentary upon it is the famous Column of Trajan
Trajan
in Rome.

Dacia
Dacia
and environs

Although the Romans conquered and destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, a large remainder of the land remained outside of Roman Imperial authority. Additionally, the conquest changed the balance of power in the region and was the catalyst for a renewed alliance of Germanic and Celtic tribes and kingdoms against the Roman Empire. However, the material advantages of the Roman Imperial system was attractive to the surviving aristocracy. Afterwards, many of the Dacians
Dacians
became Romanised (see also Origin of Romanians). In AD 183, war broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne of emperor Commodus, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. According to Lactantius,[54] the Roman emperor Decius
Decius
(AD 249–251) had to restore Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
from the Carpo- Dacians
Dacians
of Zosimus "having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia
Dacia
and Moesia".

Tarabostes on the Arch of Constantine

Even so, the Germanic and Celtic kingdoms, particularly the Gothic tribes, slowly moved toward the Dacian borders, and within a generation were making assaults on the province. Ultimately, the Goths succeeded in dislodging the Romans and restoring the "independence" of Dacia
Dacia
following Emperor Aurelian's withdrawal, in 275. In AD 268–269, at Naissus, Claudius II
Claudius II
(Gothicus Maximus) obtained a decisive victory over the Goths. Since at that time Romans were still occupying Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
it is assumed that the Goths
Goths
didn't cross the Danube
Danube
from the Roman province. The Goths
Goths
who survived their defeat didn't even attempt to escape through Dacia, but through Thrace.[55] At the boundaries of Roman Dacia, Carpi (Free Dacians) were still strong enough to sustain five battles in eight years against the Romans from AD 301–308. Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia
was left in AD 275 by the Romans, to the Carpi again, and not to the Goths. There were still Dacians
Dacians
in AD 336, against whom Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
fought. The province was abandoned by Roman troops, and, according to the Breviarium historiae Romanae by Eutropius, Roman citizens "from the towns and lands of Dacia" were resettled to the interior of Moesia.[56] Under Diocletian, c. AD 296, in order to defend the Roman border, fortifications were erected by the Romans on both banks of the Danube.[34] The reconquest of Dacia
Dacia
by Constantine the Great[edit]

Dacia
Dacia
during Constantine the Great

In 328 the emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
inaugurated the Constantine's Bridge (Danube) at Sucidava, (today Celei in Romania)[57] in hopes of reconquering Dacia, a province that had been abandoned under Aurelian. In the late winter of 332, Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths. The weather and lack of food cost the Goths
Goths
dearly: reportedly, nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Rome. In 334, after Sarmatian
Sarmatian
commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe. He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the region, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate.[58] Constantine resettled some Sarmatian
Sarmatian
exiles as farmers in Illyrian and Roman districts, and conscripted the rest into the army. The new frontier in Dacia
Dacia
was along the Brazda lui Novac
Brazda lui Novac
line supported by Castra of Hinova, Rusidava
Rusidava
and Castra of Pietroasele[59] The limes passed to the north of Castra of Tirighina-Bărboși
Castra of Tirighina-Bărboși
and ended at Sasyk Lagoon
Sasyk Lagoon
near Dniester
Dniester
river[60] Constantine took the title Dacicus maximus in 336.[61] Some Roman territories North of Danube
Danube
resisted until Justinian. Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as the Dacian Empire[edit] According to Lactantius, emperor Galerius
Galerius
(c. 260 – April or May 311) affirmed his Dacian identity and avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name once made emperor, even proposing that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian Empire, much to the horror of the patricians and senators. He exhibited anti-Roman attitude as soon as he had attained the highest power, treating the Roman citizens with ruthless cruelty, like the conquerors treated the conquered, all in the name of the same treatment that the victorious Trajan
Trajan
had applied to the part of conquered Dacians, forefathers of Galerius, two centuries before.[62] [63][non-primary source needed] Dacia
Dacia
after the Romans[edit] Main article: Romania
Romania
in the Early Middle Ages

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Victohali, Taifals
Taifals
and Thervingians are tribes mentioned for inhabiting Dacia
Dacia
in 350, after the Romans left. Archeological evidence suggests that Gepids
Gepids
were disputing Transylvania
Transylvania
with Taifals
Taifals
and Tervingians. Taifals, once independent from Gothia became federati of the Romans, from whom they obtained the right to settle Oltenia. In 376 the region was conquered by Huns, who kept it until the death of Attila in 453. The Gepid tribe, ruled by Ardaric, used it as their base, until in 566 it was destroyed by Lombards. Lombards
Lombards
abandoned the country and the Avars (second half of the 6th century) dominated the region for 230 years, until their kingdom was destroyed by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 791. At the same time Slavic people
Slavic people
arrived. See also[edit]

Dacia
Dacia
portal

Dacians

Dacian warfare

Falx
Falx
(weapon)

List of Dacian kings List of Dacian cities List of Dacian tribes

Getae Carpians Costoboci

Dacian bracelets Dacian Draco Dacian language

List of Dacian names List of Dacian plant names

Trajan's Column Trajan's Bridge

Notes[edit]

^ (in Romanian) http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/intemeiat-burebista-primul-stat-dacic ^ (in Romanian) http://enciclopediaromaniei.ro/wiki/Statul_geto-dac_%C3%AEn_timpul_lui_Burebista ^ (in Romanian) http://www.dacia.co.ro/di.html ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 145-146. ^ Müller 1877, tabulae XV. ^ "History of Romania
Romania
– Antiquity – The Dacians". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Murray 2001, p. 1120. ^ a b c Mountain 1998, p. 59. ^ a b Strabo, Geography ^ a b c d Taylor 2001, p. 215. ^ Lengyel & Radan 1980, p. 87: "No matter where the Boii first settled after they left Italia, however, when they arrived at the Danube
Danube
they had to fight the Dacians
Dacians
who held the entire territory — or at least part of it. Strabo
Strabo
tells us that later animosity between the Dacians
Dacians
and the Boii
Boii
stemmed from the fact that the Dacians
Dacians
demanded the land from the latter which the Dacians
Dacians
pretended to have possessed earlier." ^ Ehrich 1970, p. 228. ^ Gruen 2011, p. 204: Germany as a whole is separated from the Gauls and from the Raetians and Pannonians by the rivers Rhine and Danube, from the Sarmatians and Dacians
Dacians
by mutual fear or mountains; the ocean surrounds the rest of it ^ Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 93. ^ Bosworth 1980, p. 60. ^ Carnap-Bornheim 2003, p. 228. ^ Scott Shelley 1997, p. 10. ^ Mattern 2002, p. 61. ^ Hrushevskyi 1997, p. 97: "Dacia, as described by Ptolemy, occupied the region between the Tisa, Danube, upper Dnister, and Seret, while the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast — namely, the Greek colonies of Tyras, Olbia, and others — were included in Lower Moesia." ^ Bunbury 1979, p. 517. ^ Mocsy 1974, p. 21. ^ Barbulescu & Nägler 2005, p. 71. ^ Berenger 1994, p. 25. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 205. ^ Avery 1972, p. 113. ^ Fol 1996, p. 223. ^ Dobiás 1964, p. 70. ^ a b Berindei & Candea 2001, p. 429. ^ a b Shutte 1952, p. 270. ^ Giurescu C & Giurescu D 1974, p. 31. ^ Gordon Childe 1930, p. 245. ^ Shutte 1917, p. 109 & 143. ^ Opreanu 1997, p. 249. ^ a b Odahl 2003. ^ Oltean 2007, p. 114. ^ Strabo, Geography, VII:3.11 ^ MacKendrick 1975, p. 48. ^ Goodman & Sherwood 2002, p. 227. ^ Vico, Pinton & 2001 325. ^ Goldsworthy 2004, p. 322. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 213. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 215. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 216. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 53. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 217. ^ "De Imperatoribus Romanis" (Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions). An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved 2007-11-08. Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), AD 105. During Trajan's reign Rome achieved victory over the Dacians. The first important confrontation between the Romans and the Dacians
Dacians
took place in the year AD 87 and was initiated by Domitian. The praetorian prefect Cornelius led five or six legions across the Danube
Danube
on a bridge of ships and advanced towards Banat
Banat
(in Romania). The Romans were surprised by a Dacian attack at Tapae
Tapae
(near the village of Bucova, in Romania). Legion V Alaude was crushed and Cornelius Fuscus was killed. The victorious general was originally known as Diurpaneus
Diurpaneus
(see Manea, p.109), but after this victory he was called Decebalus
Decebalus
(the brave one).  ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 219. ^ Goldsworthy 2004, p. 329. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 222. ^ Matyszak 2004, p. 223. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 54. ^ Stoica 1919, p. 52. ^ Luttwak 1976, p. 39. ^ "Of the Manner in which the persecutors died" by Lactantius
Lactantius
(early Christian author AD 240–320) ^ Battle of Naissus
Naissus
and Cladius Gothicus. Beside Zosimuss account there is also Historia Augusta, The Life of Claudius. ^ EUTROPIUS. "Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History (Historiae Romanae Breviarium)". www.ccel.org.  ^ Madgearu, Alexandru (2008). Istoria Militară a Daciei Post Romane 275-376. Cetatea de Scaun. ISBN 978-973-8966-70-3, p.64 -126 ^ Barnes, Timothy D. (1981). Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1. p 250. ^ Madgearu, Alexandru(2008). Istoria Militară a Daciei Post Romane 275-376. Cetatea de Scaun. ISBN 978-973-8966-70-3, p.64-126 ^ Costin Croitoru, (Romanian) Sudul Moldovei in cadrul sistemului defensiv roman. Contributii la cunosterea valurilor de pamant. Acta terrae septencastrensis, Editura Economica, Sibiu 2002, ISSN 1583-1817, p.111. ^ Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1, p.261. ^ Lactantius
Lactantius
1871, p. 190: "And thus did he, once a Roman emperor, but now the ravager of Italy, retire into his own territories, after having afflicted all men indiscriminately with the calamities of war. Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire." ^ Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum, CHAP. XXIII: But that which gave rise to public and universal calamity, was the tax imposed at once on each province and city. Surveyors having been spread abroad, and occupied in a general and severe scrutiny, horrible scenes were exhibited, like the outrages of victorious enemies, and the wretched state of captives. Each spot of ground was measured, vines and fruit-trees numbered, lists taken of animals of every kind, and a capi- tation-roll made up. In cities, the common people, whether residing within or without the walls, were assembled, the market-places filled with crowds of families, all attended with their children and slaves, the noise of torture and scourges resounded, sons were hung on the rack to force discovery of the effects of their fathers, the most trusty slaves compelled by pain to bear witness against their masters, and wives to bear witness against their husbands, In default of all other evidence, men were tortured to speak against themselves; and no sooner did agony oblige them to acknowledge what they had not, but those imaginary effects were noted down in the lists. Neither youth, nor old age, nor sickness, afforded any exemption. The diseased and the infirm were carried in; the age of each was estimated; and, that the capitation -tax might be enlarged, years were added to the young and struck off from the old. General lamentation and sorrow prevailed. Whatever, by the laws of war, conquerors had done to the conquered, the like did this man presume to perpetrate against Romans and the subjects of Rome, because his forefathers had been made liable to a like tax imposed by the victorious Trajan, as a penalty on the Dacians
Dacians
for their frequent rebellions. After this, money was levied for each head, as if a price had been paid for liberty to exist; yet full trust was not reposed on the same set of surveyors, but others and others still were sent round to make further discoveries; and thus the tributes were redoubled, not because the new surveyors made any fresh discoveries, but because they added at pleasure to the former rates, lest they should seem to have been employed to no purpose. Meanwhile the number of animals decreased, and men died; nevertheless taxes were paid even for the dead, so that no one could either live or cease to live without being subject to impositions. There remained mendicants alone, from whom nothing could be exacted, and whom their misery and wretchedness secured from ill- treatment. But this pious man had compassion on them, and determining that they should remain no longer in indigence, he caused them all to be assembled, put on board vessels, and sunk in the sea. So merciful was he in making provision that under his administration no man should want! And thus, while he took effectual measures that none, under the reigned pretext of poverty, should elude the tax, he put to death a multitude of real wretches, in violation of every law of humanity. [...] So the parts of Italy through which that pestilent band took its course were wasted, all things pillaged, matrons forced, virgins violated, parents and husbands compelled by torture to disclose where they had concealed their goods, and their wives and daughters; flocks and herds of cattle were driven off like spoils taken from barbarians. And thus did he, once a Roman emperor, but now the ravager of Italy, retire into his own territories, after having afflicted all men indiscriminately with the calamities of war. Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire.[excessive citation][unattributed translation]

References[edit]

Brodersen, Kai (2013). "Könige im Karpatenbogen" [Kings in the Carpathian Mountains]. Zeitschrift für Siebenbürgische Landeskunde (in German). Heidelberg: Arbeitskreis für Siebenbürgische Landeskunde (36).  Croitoru, Costin (2002). "Sudul Moldovei in cadrul sistemului defensiv roman. Contributii la cunosterea valurilor de pamant.(Romanian)" [South of Moldova
Moldova
in the Roman defence system. Contributions to the knowledge of the turf walls]. Acta terrae septencastrensis. Editura Economica (I). ISSN 1583-1817.  Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297846666.  Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: Migration, Development, and the Birth of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973560-0.  Hoddinott, Ralph F., The Thracians, 1981. Hrushevskyi, Mykhailo (1997). History of Ukraine-Rus'. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. ISBN 978-1-895571-19-6.  Lactantius, Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus (1871). "26". In Roberts, Alexander. The Works of Lactantius: A treatise on the anger of God. 2. Edinburgh: T & T Clack. Retrieved 2012-04-15.  Lengyel, Alfonz; Radan, George T. (1980). The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9789630518864.  Luttwak, Edward (1976). The grand strategy of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the first century A.D. to the third. Johns Hopkins University Press.  Madgearu, Alexandru (2002). Istoria Militară a Daciei Post Romane 275-376 (Romanian)In:. Cetatea de Scaun. ISBN 978-973-8966-70-3.  Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. London and Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn. ISBN 9781884964985. Retrieved 2015-12-15.  Matyszak, Philip (2004). The Enemies of Rome: From Hannibal to Attila the Hun. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0500251249.  Mocsy, Andras (1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia: History of the Middle Danube
Danube
Provinces of the Roman Empire. Routledge & Kegan Paul Books. ISBN 978-0-7100-7714-1.  Mountain, Harry (1998). The Celtic Encyclopedia. Universal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58112-890-1.  Murray, Tim (2001). Encyclopedia of archaeology: Volume 1, Part 1. ABC-Clio; illustrated edition. ISBN 978-1-57607-198-4.  Odahl, Charles (2003). Constantine and the Christian Empire. Routledge. ISBN 9781134686315.  Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company.  Taylor, Timothy (2001). Northeastern European Iron Age pages 210–221 and East Central European Iron Age pages 79–90’'. Springer Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files. ISBN 978-0-306-46258-0.  Vico, Giambattista; Pinton, Giorgio A. (2004). Statecraft: The Deeds of Antonio Carafa. Peter Lang Pub Inc. ISBN 978-0-8204-6828-0.  Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples, 2-Volume Set. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-4964-6. 

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– The historic region in East-Central Europe (includes Roman Castra) Ptolemy's Geography, book III, chapter 5 UNRV Dacia
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article sights.seindal.dk – Dacians
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as they appear on the Arch of Constantine www.fectio.org.uk – Draco Late Roman military standard www.stoa.org/trajan – Dacian Wars on Trajan's Column Journey to the Land of the Cloud Rovers – photographic slide show of Sarmizegetusa. Dacian history Dacia
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