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Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
([ˈt͡ʂɛswaf ˈmiwɔʂ] ( listen); 30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish[1][2] poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat. His World War II-era sequence The World is a collection of twenty "naïve" poems. Following the war, he served as Polish cultural attaché in Paris
Paris
and Washington, D.C., then in 1951 defected to the West. His nonfiction book The Captive Mind (1953) became a classic of anti-Stalinism. From 1961 to 1998 he was a professor of Slavic Languages
Slavic Languages
and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley. He became a U.S. citizen in 1970.[3] In 1978 he was awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and in 1980 the Nobel Prize in Literature. In 1999 he was named a Puterbaugh Fellow.[4] After the fall of the Iron Curtain, he divided his time between Berkeley, California, and Kraków, Poland.

Contents

1 Life in Europe

1.1 Early life 1.2 World War II

1.2.1 The Holocaust

1.3 Stalinism

2 Life in the United States 3 Death and legacy 4 Selected works

4.1 Poetry collections 4.2 Prose
Prose
collections 4.3 Novels 4.4 Translations by Miłosz

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

8.1 Profiles 8.2 Articles 8.3 Biographies, memoirs, photographs 8.4 Bibliography 8.5 Polemical articles

Life in Europe[edit] Early life[edit] Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
was born on June 30, 1911, in the village of Szetejnie (Lithuanian: Šeteniai), Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire (now Kėdainiai district, Kaunas County, Lithuania) on the border between two Lithuanian historical regions, Samogitia
Samogitia
and Aukštaitija, in central Lithuania. As the son of Aleksander Miłosz (d.1959), a Polish civil engineer of Lithuanian origin,[3][5][6][7][8] and Weronika, née Kunat (1887-1945), descendant of the Syruć noble family (she was a granddaughter of Szymon Syruć),[9] Miłosz was fluent in Polish, Lithuanian, Russian, English, and French.[10] His brother, Andrzej Miłosz
Andrzej Miłosz
(1917–2002), a Polish journalist, translator of literature and of film subtitles into Polish, was a documentary-film producer who created Polish documentaries about his brother.

Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
(right) with brother Andrzej Miłosz
Andrzej Miłosz
at PEN Club World Congress, Warsaw, May 1999

Miłosz was raised Catholic in rural Lithuania
Lithuania
and emphasized his identity with the multi-ethnic Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a stance that led to ongoing controversies. He refused to categorically identify himself as either a Pole or a Lithuanian.[11] He said of himself: "I am a Lithuanian to whom it was not given to be a Lithuanian",[12] and "My family in the sixteenth century already spoke Polish, just as many families in Finland spoke Swedish and in Ireland English, so I am a Polish not a Lithuanian poet. But the landscapes and perhaps the spirits of Lithuania
Lithuania
have never abandoned me".[13] Miłosz memorialised his Lithuanian childhood in a 1955 novel The Issa Valley and in the 1959 memoir Native Realm.[14] He employed a Lithuanian-language tutor late in life to improve the skills acquired in his childhood. His explanation was that it might be the language spoken in heaven.[15] He often is quoted as having said, "Language is the only homeland." In his youth, Miłosz came to adopt, as he put it, a "scientific, atheistic position mostly", although he was later to return to the Catholic faith.[16] After graduation from Sigismund Augustus
Sigismund Augustus
Gymnasium in Wilno
Wilno
(then in Poland, now Vilnius
Vilnius
in Lithuania), he studied law at Stefan Batory University. In 1931 he traveled to Paris, where he was influenced by his distant cousin Oscar Milosz, a French poet of Lithuanian descent and a Swedenborgian. In 1931, he formed the poetic group Żagary with the young poets Jerzy Zagórski, Teodor Bujnicki, Aleksander Rymkiewicz, Jerzy Putrament and Józef Maśliński.[17] Miłosz's first volume of poetry was published in 1934. After receiving his law degree that year, he again spent a year in Paris
Paris
on a fellowship. Upon returning, he worked as a commentator at Radio Wilno, but was dismissed, an action described as stemming from either his leftist views or for views overly sympathetic to Lithuania.[12][18] Miłosz wrote all his poetry, fiction and essays in Polish and translated the Old Testament Psalms
Psalms
into Polish. World War II[edit]

Lithuanian stamp, 100th anniversary of Miłosz's birth

Miłosz spent World War II in Warsaw, under Nazi Germany's "General Government". Here he attended underground lectures by Władysław Tatarkiewicz, the Polish philosopher and historian of philosophy and aesthetics. He did not join the Polish Home Army's resistance or participate in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, partly from an instinct for self-preservation and partly because he saw its leadership as right-wing and dictatorial.[19] According to Irena Grudzińska-Gross, he saw the uprising as a "doomed military effort" and lacked "patriotic elation" — he called it "a blameworthy, lightheaded enterprise."[19][20] In his 1953 book The Captive Mind, however, Miłosz would later sharply criticize the Soviet military for remaining in their positions and making no effort to assist the Home Army's fighters. He accused them of watching through binoculars as the Polish Resistance was slaughtered and as the city was razed by Hitler's orders. Only then did the Soviets enter the city. The Holocaust[edit] During the Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland, Miłosz was active in the work of Organizacja Socjalistyczno-Niepodległościowa "Wolność" ("The 'Freedom' Socialist Pro-Independence Organisation"). Among other activities for "Wolność", Miłosz gave aid to Warsaw
Warsaw
Jews. His brother Andrzej Miłosz
Andrzej Miłosz
was also active in helping Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland, and in 1943 Andrzej transported the Polish Jew Seweryn Tross and his wife from Vilnius
Vilnius
to Warsaw. Czesław Miłosz took in the Trosses, found them a hiding place, and supported them financially. The Trosses ultimately died during the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. Miłosz helped at least three other Jews — Felicja Wołkomińska and her brother and sister. For these efforts, Miłosz received the medal of the Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
in Yad Vashem, Israel
Israel
in 1989.[21][22] Stalinism[edit] After World War II, Miłosz served as cultural attaché of the newly formed People's Republic of Poland
Poland
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Paris. For this he was criticized in some emigre circles. Conversely, he was attacked and censored in Poland
Poland
when, in 1951, he defected and obtained political asylum in France. He described his life in Paris
Paris
as difficult — there was still considerable intellectual sympathy for Communism. Albert Camus
Albert Camus
was supportive, but Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
denounced him as "The Man Who Ran Away."[23] His attempts to seek asylum in the US were denied for several years, due to the climate of McCarthyism.[24] Miłosz's 1953 book, The Captive Mind, is a study of how intellectuals behave under a repressive regime. Miłosz observed that those who became dissidents were not necessarily those with the strongest minds but rather those with the weakest stomachs; the mind can rationalize anything, he said, but the stomach can take only so much. Throughout the Cold War, the book was often cited by U.S. conservative commentators such as William F. Buckley, Jr., and it has been a staple in political science courses on totalitarianism. In 1953 he received the Prix Littéraire Européen (European Literary Prize). Life in the United States[edit]

Miłosz, 1998

In 1960 Miłosz emigrated to the United States, and in 1970 he became a U.S. citizen. In 1961 he began a professorship in the Department of Slavic Languages
Slavic Languages
and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley.[25] In 1978 he received the Neustadt International Prize for Literature.[25] He retired the same year but continued teaching at Berkeley. His attitude about living in Berkeley is sensitively portrayed in his poem, "A Magic Mountain," contained in a collection of translated poems, Bells in Winter (Ecco Press, 1985). In 1980 Miłosz received the Nobel Prize in Literature. Since his works had been banned in Poland
Poland
by the communist government, this was the first time that many Poles became aware of him.[26] After the Iron Curtain fell, he was able to return to Poland, at first to visit, later to live part-time in Kraków. He divided his time between his home in Berkeley and an apartment in Kraków. In 1977 he had been given an honorary doctorate by the University of Michigan; two weeks after he received the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature, he returned to Michigan to lecture, and in 1983 he became the Visiting Walgreen Professor of Human Understanding. In 1989 he received the U.S. National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
and an honorary doctorate from Harvard University. In a 1994 interview, Miłosz spoke of the difficulty of writing religious poetry in a largely post-religious world. He reported a recent conversation with his compatriot Pope John Paul II; the latter, commenting upon some of Miłosz's work, in particular Six Lectures in Verse, said to him: "You make one step forward, one step back." The poet answered: "Holy Father, how in the twentieth century can one write religious poetry differently?" The Pope smiled.[27] A few years later, in 2000, Miłosz dedicated a rather straightforward ode to John Paul II, on the occasion of the pope's eightieth birthday.[28] Death and legacy[edit]

Miłosz's final resting place: Skałka
Skałka
Roman Catholic Church, Kraków

Miłosz's sarcophagus

Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
died on 14 August 2004 at his Kraków
Kraków
home, aged 93. He was buried in Kraków's Skałka
Skałka
Roman Catholic Church, becoming one of the last to be commemorated there.[29] Protesters threatened to disrupt the proceedings on the grounds that he was anti-Polish, anti-Catholic, and had signed a petition supporting gay and lesbian freedom of speech and assembly.[30] Pope John Paul II, along with Miłosz's confessor, issued public messages to the effect that Miłosz had been receiving the sacraments, which quelled the protest.[31] His first wife, Janina (née Dłuska, b. 1909), whom he married in 1944, died in 1986; they had two sons, Anthony (b. 1947) and John Peter (b. 1951). His second wife, Carol Thigpen (b. 1944), an American-born historian, died in 2002. Miłosz is honoured at Israel's Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
memorial to the Holocaust, as one of the "Righteous among the Nations". A poem by Miłosz appears on a Gdańsk
Gdańsk
memorial to protesting shipyard workers who had been killed by government security forces in 1970. His books and poems have been translated by many hands, including Jane Zielonko, Peter Dale Scott, Robert Pinsky, and Robert Hass. In November 2011, Yale University hosted a conference on Miłosz's relationship with America.[32] The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, which holds the Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
Papers,[33] also hosted an exhibition celebrating Miłosz's life and work, entitled Exile as Destiny: it talks about his tone in creating literary pieces was confrontational and how he focuses on history opposed to his real life experiences. Selected works[edit]

Poetry collections[edit]

1936: Trzy zimy (Three Winters); Warsaw: Władysława Mortkowicz 1945: Ocalenie (Rescue); Warsaw: Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza Czytelnik 1954: Światło dzienne (The Light of Day); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1957: Traktat poetycki (A Poetical Treatise); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1962: Król Popiel i inne wiersze (King Popiel and Other Poems); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1965: Gucio zaczarowany (Gucio Enchanted); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1969: Miasto bez imienia (City Without a Name); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1974: Gdzie słońce wschodzi i kedy zapada (Where the Sun Rises and Where it Sets); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1982: Hymn o Perle (The Poem of the Pearl); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1984: Nieobjęta ziemia (The Unencompassed Earth); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1989: Kroniki (Chronicles); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1991: Dalsze okolice (Farther Surroundings); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 1994: Na brzegu rzeki (Facing the River); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 2000: To (It), Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 2002: Druga przestrzen (The Second Space); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 2003: Orfeusz i Eurydyka (Orpheus and Eurydice); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 2006: Wiersze ostatnie (Last Poems) Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak

Prose
Prose
collections[edit]

1953: Zniewolony umysł (The Captive Mind); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1955: Zdobycie władzy (The Seizure of Power); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1955: Dolina Issy (The Issa Valley); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1959: Rodzinna Europa (Native Realm); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1969: The History of Polish Literature; London-New York: MacMillan 1969: Widzenia nad Zatoką San Francisco (A View of San Francisco Bay); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1974: Prywatne obowiązki (Private Obligations); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1976: Emperor of the Earth; Berkeley: University of California
University of California
Press 1977: Ziemia Ulro (The Land of Ulro); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1979: Ogród Nauk (The Garden of Science); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1981: Nobel Lecture; New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux 1983: The Witness of Poetry; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 1985: Zaczynając od moich ulic (Starting from My Streets); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1986: A mi Európánkról (About our Europe); New York: Hill and Wang 1989: Rok myśliwego (A year of the hunter); Paris: Instytut Literacki 1992: Szukanie ojczyzny (In Search of a Homeland); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 1995: Metafizyczna pauza (The Metaphysical Pause); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 1996: Legendy nowoczesności (Modern Legends, War Essays); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 1997: Zycie na wyspach (Life on Islands); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 1997: Piesek przydrożny (Roadside Dog); Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 1997: Abecadło Milosza (Milosz's Alphabet); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 1988: Inne Abecadło (A Further Alphabet); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 1999: Wyprawa w dwudziestolecie (An Excursion through the Twenties and Thirties); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 2001: To Begin Where I Am: Selected Essays; New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2004: Spiżarnia literacka (A Literary Larder); Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie 2004: Przygody młodego umysłu; Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak 2004: O podróżach w czasie; (On time travel) Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak

Novels[edit]

1987: The Mountains of Parnassus; Yale University Press

Translations by Miłosz[edit]

1996: Talking to My Body by Anna Swir translated by Czesław Miłosz and Leonard Nathan, Copper Canyon Press

See also[edit]

List of Poles Nike Award Nobel Prize in literature Polish literature

References[edit]

^ Drabble, Margaret, ed. (1985). The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 652. ISBN 0-19-866130-4.  ^ Krzyżanowski, Julian, ed. (1986). Literatura polska: przewodnik encyklopedyczny, Volume 1: A–M. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. pp. 671–672. ISBN 83-01-05368-2.  ^ a b "The Civic and the Tribal State: The State, Ethnicity, and the Multiethnic State" By Feliks Gross - Page 124 ^ "Puterbaugh Fellows Puterbaugh Festival of International Literature & Culture". World Literature Today. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ Saulius Sužiedėlis (1 February 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Scarecrow Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-8108-4914-3. Miłosz often emphasized his Lithuanian origins  ^ Irena Grudzińska-Gross (24 November 2009). Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
and Joseph Brodsky: fellowship of poets. Yale University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-300-14937-1. ...The "true" Poles reminded the nation of Milosz's Lithuanian origin, his religious unorthodoxy, and his leftist past  ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography, Volume 11 - Page 40 ^ Robinson Jeffers, Dimensions of a poet - Page 177 ^ Brus, Anna (2009). "Szymon Syruć". Polski Słownik Biograficzny. 46. Polska Akademia Nauk & Polska Akademia Umiejętności. p. 314.  ^ Anderson, Raymond H. (August 15, 2004). "Czeslaw Milosz, Poet
Poet
and Nobelist Who Wrote of Modern Cruelties, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2017.  ^ "In Memoriam". University of California. Retrieved 2008-03-17. Miłosz would always place emphasis upon his identity as one of the last citizens of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a place of competing and overlapping identities. This stance—not Polish enough for some, not Lithuanian to others—would give rise to controversies that have not ceased with his death in either country.  ^ a b (in Lithuanian) "Išėjus Česlovui Milošui, Lietuva neteko dalelės savęs". Mokslo Lietuva (Scientific Lithuania) (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2007.  ^ Aušra Paulauskienė: Lost and found: the discovery of Lithuania
Lithuania
in American fiction. Rodopi 2007, page 24 ^ Marech, Rona (15 August 2004). "CZESLAW MILOSZ 1911-2004". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 20, 2008.  ^ Czeslaw Milosz (4 April 2006). Selected Poems: 1931-2004 (Biographical note). HarperCollins. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-06-018867-2. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ Haven, Cynthia L., "'A Sacred Vision': An Interview with Czesław Miłosz", in Haven, Cynthia L. (ed.), Czesław Miłosz: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi, 2006, p. 145. ^ Between Anxiety and Hope: The Poetry and Writing of Czeslaw Milosz by Edward Możejko. University of Alberta Press, 1988. pp 2f. ^ "Czeslaw Milosz, a Polish émigré poet, died on August 14th, aged 93". The Economist. 2004-08-14. Retrieved 2011-04-06. In pre-war Poland
Poland
Mr Milosz felt stifled by the prevailing Catholic-nationalist ethos; he was sacked from a Polish radio station for being too pro-Lithuanian.  ^ a b Enda O’Doherty. "Apples at World's End". Dublin Review of Books. Retrieved 2014-06-05.  ^ "The Year of Czesław Miłosz" (PDF). Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies. August 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-18.  ^ Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
– his activity to save Jews' lives during the Holocaust, at Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website ^ " Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
(1911-2011)". [Leksykon Lublin].  ^ Cynthia L. Haven (2006). Czesław Miłosz: Conversations. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-57806-829-6.  ^ Eric Thomas Chester (26 June 1995). Covert Network: Progressives, the International Rescue Committee, and the CIA. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-0-7656-3495-5.  ^ a b "Czeslaw Milosz - Biographical". nobelprize.org (Nobel Prize Media). Retrieved 2014-06-04.  ^ Merriman, John; Winter, Jay (2006). "Milosz, Czeslaw (1911-2004)" in Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction, vol. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 1765–1766. ISBN 0684313707.  ^ " Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
Interviewed by Robert Faggen", The Paris
Paris
Review No. 133 (Winter 1994). ^ Andreas Dorschel, 'Es ist eine Lust zu beichten', Süddeutsche Zeitung nr. 192 (20 August 2004), p. 14. ^ Photos from Miłosz's funeral in Krakow ^ Agnieszka Tennant. "The Poet
Poet
Who Remembered - Poland
Poland
(mostly) honors Czeslaw Miłosz upon his death". booksandculture.com.  ^ Irena Grudzińska-Gross (2009). Czeslaw Milosz and Joseph Brodsky. Yale University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-300-14937-1. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ conference on Miłosz and America ^ Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
Papers

Further reading[edit]

Zagajewski, Adam, editor (2007) Polish Writers on Writing featuring Czeslaw Milosz. Trinity University Press Faggen, Robert, editor (1996) Striving Towards Being: The Letters of Thomas Merton and Czesław Miłosz. Farrar Straus & Giroux Haven, Cynthia L., editor (2006) Czeslaw Milosz: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi ISBN 1-57806-829-0 Miłosz, Czesław (2006) New and Collected Poems 1931-2001. Penguin Modern Classics Poetry ISBN 0-14-118641-0 (posthumous collection) Miłosz, Czesław (2010) Proud To Be A Mammal: Essays on War, Faith and Memory. Penguin Translated Texts ISBN 0-14-119319-0 (posthumous collection)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Czesław Miłosz.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Czesław Miłosz

Profiles[edit]

Works by Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
at Open Library 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
(official site). Accessed 2010-08-04 Profile at the American Academy of Poets. Accessed 2010-08-04 Profile and works at the Poetry Foundation

Articles[edit]

Profile at Culture PL. Accessed 2011-03-17 Robert Faggen (Winter 1994). "Czeslaw Milosz, The Art of Poetry No. 70". The Paris
Paris
Review.  Interview with Nathan Gardels for the New York Review of Books, February 1986. Accessed 2010-08-04 Georgia Review 2001. Accessed 2010-08-04 Obituary The Economist. Accessed 2010-08-04 Obituary New York Times. Accessed 2010-08-04 Biography and selected works listing. The Book Institute. Accessed 2010-08-04 Czeslaw Milosz Papers. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

Biographies, memoirs, photographs[edit]

Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
1911-2004 – The life („Gazeta.pl”) My Milosz - the memories of Nobel Prize winners, including Seamus Heaney and Maria Janion Genealogia Czesława Miłosza w: M.J. Minakowski, Genealogy descendants of the Great Diet Barbara Gruszka-Zych, Mój Poeta – osobiste wspomnienia o Czesławie Miłoszu, VIDEOGRAF II, ISBN 978-83-7183-499-8 Milosz - the centenary since the birth

Bibliography[edit]

Presentation of the subject-object Bibliography in question 1981-2010 (journal articles in chronological order, the title) Translations into other languages Bibliography in question in the choice in alphabetical order Bibliografia subject-object Bibliography subject-object Bibliografiasubject-object in choosing Polskie wydawnictwa niezależne 1976-1989. Printed compact Milosz

Polemical articles[edit]

Błotne kąpiele artykuł nt. wybiórczych cytatów z Miłosza w twórczości Waldemara Łysiaka i Jerzego R. Nowaka Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
– lewy profil – esej Jacka Trznadla „Były poputczik Miłosz”, krytyczny tekst Sergiusza Piaseckiego (Wiadomości 1951, nr 44)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

Neustadt International Prize for Literature
Neustadt International Prize for Literature
Laureates

Giuseppe Ungaretti
Giuseppe Ungaretti
(1970) Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel García Márquez
(1972) Francis Ponge (1974) Elizabeth Bishop
Elizabeth Bishop
(1976) Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
(1978) Josef Škvorecký
Josef Škvorecký
(1980) Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1982) Paavo Haavikko
Paavo Haavikko
(1984) Max Frisch
Max Frisch
(1986) Raja Rao
Raja Rao
(1988) Tomas Tranströmer
Tomas Tranströmer
(1990) João Cabral de Melo Neto (1992) Kamau Brathwaite (1994) Assia Djebar
Assia Djebar
(1996) Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
(1998) David Malouf
David Malouf
(2000) Álvaro Mutis (2002) Adam Zagajewski
Adam Zagajewski
(2004) Claribel Alegría
Claribel Alegría
(2006) Patricia Grace (2008) Duo Duo (2010) Rohinton Mistry (2012) Mia Couto
Mia Couto
(2014) Dubravka Ugrešić
Dubravka Ugrešić
(2016)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 110389400 LCCN: n50033350 ISNI: 0000 0001 2147 6233 GND: 118733974 SELIBR: 77409 SUDOC: 027030733 BNF: cb11916194z (data) BIBSYS: 90075399 MusicBrainz: b7c96285-1ee0-4673-98e6-5fcbce04950f NLA: 35533593 NDL: 00515041 NKC: jn19990005739 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV28094 BNE: XX984178 CiNii: DA03372

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