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Czech Silesia
Silesia
(Czech: České Slezsko; Silesian: Czeski Ślůnsk; German: Tschechisch-Schlesien; Polish: Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia
Silesia
presently located in the Czech Republic. While not today an administrative entity in itself, Czech Silesia
Silesia
is, together with Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia, one of the three historical Czech lands. In this context, it is often mentioned as "Silesia" even though it is only around one tenth of the area of the historic land of Silesia. It lies in the north-east of the Czech Republic, predominantly in the Moravian-Silesian Region, with a section in the northern Olomouc Region. It is almost identical in extent with the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, also known as Austrian Silesia
Silesia
before 1918; between 1938 and 1945, part of the area was also alluded to as Sudeten Silesia: a reference to the Sudetenland.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 People 4 References

Geography[edit] Czech Silesia
Silesia
borders Moravia
Moravia
in the south, Poland
Poland
(Polish Silesia) in the north (in the northwest the County of Kladsko, until 1742/48 an integral part of Bohemia) and Slovakia
Slovakia
in the southeast. With the city of Ostrava
Ostrava
roughly in its geographic center, the area comprises much of the modern region of Moravian- Silesia
Silesia
(save for its southern edges) and, in its far west, a small part of the Olomouc Region
Olomouc Region
around the city of Jeseník. After Ostrava, the most important cities are Opava and Český Těšín. Historically Český Těšín
Český Těšín
is the western part of the city of Cieszyn which nowadays lies in Poland. Situated in the Sudetes, it is cornered by the Carpathians in the east. Its major rivers are the Oder
Oder
(Polish, Czech: Odra), Opava
Opava
and Olše (Polish: Olza) (which forms part of the natural border with Poland). History[edit] The first Germanic settlements were built in the second century. Later the Germanic tribes moved west and Slavs
Slavs
came into the country.[citation needed] Modern-day Czech Silesia
Silesia
derives primarily from a small part of Silesia
Silesia
that remained within the Bohemian Crown and the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
at the end of the First Silesian War
First Silesian War
in 1742, when the rest of Silesia
Silesia
was ceded to Prussia. It was re-organised as the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, with its capital at Opava
Opava
(German: Troppau, Polish: Opawa). In 1900, the Duchy occupied an area of 5,140 km² and had a population of 670,000. In 1918, the former Duchy formed part of the newly created state of Czechoslovakia, except the Cieszyn Silesia, which was split between Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Poland
Poland
in 1920, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
gaining its western portion. Hlučín Region
Hlučín Region
(Czech: Hlučínsko, German: Hultschiner Ländchen), formerly part of Prussian Silesia, also became part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
under the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1920. Following the Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement
of 1938, most of Czech Silesia
Silesia
became part of the Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Sudetenland
Sudetenland
and Poland
Poland
occupied the Zaolzie area on the west bank of the Olza (the Polish gains being lost when Germany occupied Poland
Poland
the following year). With the exception of the areas around Cieszyn, Ostrava
Ostrava
and Hlučín, Czech Silesia
Silesia
was predominantly settled by German-speaking populations up until 1945. Following the Second World War, Czech Silesia
Silesia
and Hlučínsko were returned to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and the ethnic Germans were expelled. The border with Poland
Poland
was once again set along the Olza (although not confirmed by treaty until 1958).

Czech Silesia
Silesia
now lies across several of the northern regions

People[edit] See also: List of people from Silesia The population mainly speaks Czech with altered vowels. Some of the native Slavic population speak Lach, which is classed by Ethnologue
Ethnologue
as a dialect of Czech,[1] although it also shows some similarities to Polish. In Cieszyn Silesia
Silesia
a unique dialect is also spoken, mostly by members of the Polish minority there. Notable people from Czech Silesia
Silesia
include:

Martin of Opava
Opava
(Martinus Polonus) (†1278), chronicler, chaplain of several popes Jiří Třanovský
Jiří Třanovský
(1592–1637), pastor and hymnwriter, the "Luther of the Slavs" Heinrich Franz Boblig von Edelstadt (c. 1612–1698), egregious inquisitor David Zeisberger
David Zeisberger
(1721–1808), Moravian Missionary in North America and "Apostle to the Indians" Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
(1822–1884), biologist, founder of genetics (inheritance laws) Hans Kudlich
Hans Kudlich
(1823–1917), politician, main figure in the struggle for abolition of serfdom in Austrian Empire Paweł Stalmach (1824–1891), journalist and national revivalist Vincenc Prasek
Vincenc Prasek
(1843–1912), historian Johann Palisa
Johann Palisa
(1848–1925), astronomer Petr Bezruč (1867–1958), poet Josef Koždon (1873–1949), politician, leader of Silesian autonomists, proponent of the idea of a distinct Silesian nation ("Slonzaks") Helen Zelezny-Scholz
Helen Zelezny-Scholz
(1882–1974), architectural sculptor Óndra Łysohorsky (1905–1989), poet, creator of the literary form of the Lach dialect Joy Adamson
Joy Adamson
(Friederike Victoria Gessner) (1910–1980), writer František Vláčil (1924–1999), film director and screenwriter Armin Delong
Armin Delong
(1925–), physicist specializing in electron microscopy Věra Chytilová
Věra Chytilová
(1929–2014), film director and screenwriter Jaromír Nohavica
Jaromír Nohavica
(1953–), songwriter and poet Iva Bittová
Iva Bittová
(1958–), avant-garde violinist, singer, and composer Ivan Lendl
Ivan Lendl
(1960–), tennis player, longtime world #1 and winner of eight Grand Slam titles (finalist of 19) Leon Koudelak
Leon Koudelak
(1961–) classical guitarist

References[edit]

^ "Czech". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 

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