The COUNTER-REFORMATION (
* Reactionary defense of Catholic sacramental practice * Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration * Religious orders * Spiritual movements * Political dimensions
Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper
training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological
traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning
orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements
focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with
It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition . One primary emphasis of the Counter- Reformation was a mission to reach parts of the world that had been colonized as predominantly Catholic and also try to reconvert areas such as Sweden and England that were at one time Catholic, but had been Protestantized during the Reformation.
In explaining the sacraments and pious practices attacked by the reformers, Counter- Reformation theologians were on the defensive right up to the Second Vatican Council in 1962–1965. One of the "most dramatic moments" at that Council was the intervention of Belgian Bishop Emil de Smedt when, during the debate on the nature of the Church, he called for an end to the "triumphalism, clericalism, and legalism" that had typified the Church in the previous centuries.
* 1 Precursors * 2 Council of Trent * 3 Religious orders * 4 Politics: the Netherlands * 5 Spiritual movements
* 6.1 Decrees on art
* 7 Church music
* 7.1 Reforms before the Council of Trent
* 7.2 Reforms during the 22nd session
* 7.2.1 Saviour-Legend
* 7.3 Reforms following the Council of Trent
* 8 Calendrical studies * 9 Areas affected * 10 Major figures * 11 See also * 12 Footnotes * 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 14.1 Primary sources * 14.2 Historiography
* 15 External links
The 14th, 15th and 16th centuries saw a spiritual revival in Europe,
in which the question of salvation became central. This became known
as the Catholic Reformation. Several theologians harkened back to the
early days of
The reforms decreed at Lateran V (1512–1517) had only a small
effect. Some positions got further and further from the church's
official positions, leading to the break with Rome and the formation
of Protestant churches. Even so, conservative and reforming parties
still survived within the
The regular orders made their first attempts at reform in the 14th
century. The 'Benedictine Bull' of 1336 reformed the
Cistercians . In 1523, the
Camaldolese Hermits of Monte Corona were
recognized as a separate congregation of monks. In 1435,
In Italy, the first congregation of regular clergy was the Theatines
founded in 1524 by Gaetano and Cardinal Caraffa . This was followed by
Somaschi Fathers in 1528, the
Barnabites in 1530, the
COUNCIL OF TRENT
The Council upheld the basic structure of the Medieval Church , its sacramental system, religious orders, and doctrine. It rejected all compromise with the Protestants, restating basic tenets of the Roman Catholic faith. The Council upheld salvation appropriated by grace through faith _and_ works of that faith (not just by faith , as the Protestants insisted) because "faith without works is dead", as the Epistle of St. James states (2:22-26).
Transubstantiation , according to which the consecrated bread and wine are held to have been transformed really and substantially into _the body , blood , soul and divinity _ of Christ, was also reaffirmed, as were the traditional seven Sacraments of the Catholic Church. Other practices that drew the ire of Protestant reformers, such as pilgrimages , the veneration of saints and relics , the use of venerable images and statuary , and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed as spiritually commendable practices.
The Council, in the
Canon of Trent , officially accepted the Vulgate
listing of the
While the traditional fundamentals of the Church were reaffirmed,
there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the
Counter-Reformers were, tacitly, willing to admit were legitimate.
Among the conditions to be corrected by Catholic reformers was the
growing divide between the clerics and the laity; many members of the
clergy in the rural parishes, after all, had been poorly educated.
Often, these rural priests did not know
Parish priests were to be better educated in matters of theology and apologetics , while Papal authorities sought to educate the faithful about the meaning, nature and value of art and liturgy, particularly in monastic churches (Protestants had criticised them as "distracting"). Notebooks and handbooks became more common, describing how to be good priests and confessors.
Council of Trent attempted to improve the discipline and
administration of the Church. The worldly excesses of the secular
The Council, by virtue of its actions, repudiated the pluralism of
New religious orders were a fundamental part of the reforms. Orders
such as the Capuchins ,
Discalced Carmelites , Discalced Augustinians
Augustinian Recollects , Cistercian Feuillants ,
Forced to self-justify their position by unflattering prophetic
figures and epithets utilized by Protestant
POLITICS: THE NETHERLANDS
Further information: Dutch Revolt and Eighty Years\' War _ Peter Paul Rubens was the great Flemish artist of the Counter-Reformation. He painted Adoration of the Magii_ in 1624.
When the Calvinists took control of various parts of the Netherlands
Dutch Revolt , the Catholics led by
Philip II of Spain
Farnese led a successful campaign 1578–1592 against the Dutch
Revolt , in which he captured the main cities in the south Spanish –
The seven northern provinces as well as
Farnese finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp . The town
was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and well defended under the
Marnix van St. Aldegonde . Farnese cut off all access to
the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the
In a war composed mostly of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle. His strategy was to offer generous terms for surrender: there would be no massacres or looting; historic urban privileges were retained; there was a full pardon and amnesty; return to the Catholic Church would be gradual.
Meanwhile, Catholic refugees from the North regrouped in Cologne and
Douai and developed a more militant, Tridentine identity. They became
the mobilizing forces of a popular Counter-
Reformation in the South,
thereby facilitating the eventual emergence of the state of
THE BATTLE OF LEPANTO
Oil on canvas
DIMENSIONS 169 cm × 137 cm (67 in × 54 in)
Gallerie dell\'Accademia ,
Reformation was not only a political and Church policy
oriented movement, but it also included major figures such as Ignatius
of Loyola ,
Teresa of Ávila ,
John of the Cross ,
Francis de Sales
An important clarification about the word "mystical" is necessary.
When one considers its definition or the nature of "mysticism", a
common misunderstanding exists that if one is to become a mystic they
are required to seclude themselves physically from the outside world
to have this kind of experience. Although such seclusion can, indeed,
be the only apostolate (vocation) to which some are called to a life
of prayer, there are others who have dual apostolates. In fact, John
of the Cross himself served as both confessor/spiritual director
within the confines of the cloistered communities that he and Teresa
of Ávila worked vigorously to establish, but he also literally helped
to build a number of those convents and monasteries. It is true that
Ignatius of Loyola
The spirituality of Filippo Neri, who lived in Rome at the same time
as Ignatius, was practically oriented, too, but totally opposed to the
The Virgin Mary played an increasingly central role in Catholic
devotions. The victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 was accredited
to the Virgin Mary and signified the beginning of a strong resurgence
of Marian devotions. During and after the Catholic Reformation,
Marian piety experienced unforeseen growth with over 500 pages of
mariological writings during the 17th century alone. The Jesuit
The sacrament of penance was transformed from a social to a personal experience; that is, from a public community act to a private confession. It now took place in private in a confessional. It was a change from reconciliation with the Church to reconciliation directly with God and from emphasis on social sins of hostility to private sins (called "the secret sins of the heart.")
The Council of Trent proclaimed that architecture, painting and sculpture had a role in conveying Catholic theology . Any work that might arouse "carnal desire" was inadmissible in churches, while any depiction of Christ's suffering and explicit agony was desirable and proper. In an era when some Protestant reformers were destroying images of saints and whitewashing walls, Catholic reformers reaffirmed the importance of art, with special encouragement given to images of the Virgin Mary.
DECREES ON ART
THE LAST JUDGMENT
DIMENSIONS 1370 cm × 1200 cm (539.3 in × 472.4 in)
_The Last Judgment_ , a fresco in the
Italian painting after 1520, with the notable exception of the art of
The decree confirmed the traditional doctrine that images only represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid to the person, not the image, and further instructed that:
... every superstition shall be removed ... all lasciviousness be avoided; in such wise that figures shall not be painted or adorned with a beauty exciting to lust ... there be nothing seen that is disorderly, or that is unbecomingly or confusedly arranged, nothing that is profane, nothing indecorous, seeing that holiness becometh the house of God.
And that these things may be the more faithfully observed, the holy Synod ordains, that no one be allowed to place, or cause to be placed, any unusual image, in any place, or church, howsoever exempted, except that image have been approved of by the bishop ...
Ten years after the decree
The number of such decorative treatments of religious subjects
declined sharply, as did "unbecomingly or confusedly arranged"
Mannerist pieces, as a number of books, notably by the Flemish
According to the great medievalist
Émile Mâle , this was "the death
of medieval art", but it paled in contrast to the Iconclasm present
in some Protestant circles and did not apply to secular paintings.
Reformation painters and sculptors include
Start of the Reformation -------------------------
Protestant Reformers -------------------------
By location -------------------------
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REFORMS BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF TRENT
Council of Trent is believed to be the apex of the
Counter-Reformation's influence on church music in the 16th century.
However, the council's pronouncements on music were not the first
attempt at reform. The
Probably the most extreme move at reform came late in 1562 when, instructed by the legates, Egidio Foscarari (bishop of Modena) and Gabriele Paleotti began work on reforming cloisters of nuns and their practices involving the liturgy. The reforms proscribed to the cloisters, which included omitting the use of an organ, prohibiting professional musicians, and banishing polyphonic singing , were much more strict than any of the Council's edicts or even those to be found in the Palestrina legend.
Fueling the cry for reform from many ecclesial figures was the compositional technique popular in the 15th and 16th centuries of using musical material and even the accompanying texts from other compositions such as motets , madrigals , and chansons . Several voices singing different texts in different languages made any of the text difficult to distinguish from the mixture of words and notes. The parody mass would then contain melodies (usually the tenor line) and words from songs that could have been, and often were, on sensual subjects. The musical liturgy of the church was being more and more influenced by secular tunes and styles. The Council of Paris, which met in 1528, as well as the Council of Trent were making attempts to restore the sense of sacredness to the church setting and what was appropriate for the mass. The councils were simply responding to issues of their day.
REFORMS DURING THE 22ND SESSION
The Council of Trent met sporadically from December 13, 1545 to December 4, 1563 to reform many parts of the Catholic Church. The 22nd session of the council, which met in 1562, dealt with church music in Canon 8 in the section of "Abuses in the Sacrifice of the Mass" during a meeting of the council on September 10, 1562.
Canon 8 states that "Since the sacred mysteries should be celebrated with utmost reverence, with both deepest feeling toward God alone, and with external worship that is truly suitable and becoming, so that others may be filled with devotion and called to religion: ... Everything should be regulated so that the Masses, whether they be celebrated with the plain voice or in song, with everything clearly and quickly executed, may reach the ears of the hearers and quietly penetrate their hearts. In those Masses where measured music and organ are customary, nothing profane should be intermingled, but only hymns and divine praises. If something from the divine service is sung with the organ while the service proceeds, let if first be recited in a simple, clear voice, lest the reading of the sacred words be imperceptible. But the entire manner of singing in musical modes should be calculated not to afford vain delight to the ear, but so that the words may be comprehensible to all; and thus may the hearts of the listeners be caught up into the desire for celestial harmonies and contemplation of the joys of the blessed."
Canon 8 is often quoted as the Council of Trent's decree on church music, but that is a glaring misunderstanding of the canon; it was only a proposed decree. In fact, the delegates at the Council never officially accepted canon 8 in its popular form but bishops of Granada, Coimbra, and Segovia pushed for the long statement about music to be attenuated and many other prelates of the Council joined enthusiastically. The only restrictions actually given by the 22nd session was to keep secular elements out of the music, making polyphony implicitly allowed. The issue of textual intelligibility did not make its way into the final edicts of the 22nd session but were only featured in preliminary debates. The 22nd session only prohibited "lascivious" and "profane" things to be intermingled with the music but Paleotti, in his Acts, brings to equal importance the issues of intelligibility.
The idea that the Council called to remove all polyphony from the church is widespread, but there is no documentary evidence to support that claim. It is possible, however, that some of the Fathers had proposed such a measure. The emperor Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor has been attributed to be the "saviour of church music" because he said polyphony ought not to be driven out of the church. But Ferdinand was most likely an alarmist and read into the Council the possibility of a total ban on polyphony. The Council of Trent did not focus on the style of music but on attitudes of worship and reverence during the mass.
The crises regarding polyphony and intelligibility of the text and
the threat that polyphony was to be removed completely, which was
assumed to be coming from the Council, has a very dramatic legend of
resolution. The legend goes that
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
REFORMS FOLLOWING THE COUNCIL OF TRENT
Like his contemporary Palestrina, the Flemish composer Jacobus de Kerle (1531/32–1591) was also credited with giving a model of composition for the Council of Trent. His composition in four-parts, Preces , marks the "official turning point of the Counter Reformation's a cappella ideal." Kerle was the only ranking composer of the Netherlands to have acted in conformity with the Council. Another musical giant on equal standing with Palestrina, Orlando di Lasso (1530/32–1594) was an important figure in music history though less of a purist than Palestrina. He expressed sympathy for the Council's concerns but still showed favor for the "Parady chanson Masses."
Despite the dearth of edicts from the Council regarding polyphony and textual clarity, the reforms that followed from the 22nd session filled in the gaps left by the Council in stylistic areas. In the 24th session the Council gave authority to "Provincial Synods" to discern provisions for church music. The decision to leave practical application and stylistic matters to local ecclesiastical leaders was important in shaping the future of Catholic church music. It was left then up to the local church leaders and church musicians to find proper application for the Council's decrees.
Though originally theological and directed towards the attitudes of the musicians, the Council's decrees came to be thought of by church musicians as a pronouncement on proper musical styles. This understanding was most likely spread through musicians who sought to implement the Council's declarations but did not read the official Tridentine pronouncements. Church musicians were probably influenced by order from their ecclesiastical patrons. Composers who reference the Council's reforms in prefaces to their compositions do not adequately claim a musical basis from the Council but a spiritual and religious basis of their art.
Ruffo took Borromeo's commission seriously and set out to compose in a style that presented the text so that all words would be intelligible and the textual meaning be the most important part of the composition. His approach was to move all the voices in a homorhythmic manner with no complicated rhythms, and to use dissonance very conservatively. Ruffo's approach was certainly a success for textual clarity and simplicity, but if his music was very theoretically pure it was not an artistic success despite Ruffo's attempts to bring interest to the monotonous four-part texture. Ruffo's compositional style which favored the text was well in line with the Council's perceived concern with intelligibility. Thus the belief in the Council's strong edicts regarding textual intelligibility became to characterize the development of sacred church music.
The effects of the
Council of Trent and the counter-reformation also
paved the way for Ruthenian Orthodox Christians to return to full
communion with the Roman
More celebrations of holidays and similar events raised a need to have these events followed closely throughout the dioceses. But there was a problem with the accuracy of the calendar : by the sixteenth century the Julian calendar was almost ten days out of step with the seasons and the heavenly bodies. Among the astronomers who were asked to work on the problem of how the calendar could be reformed was Nicolaus Copernicus , a canon at Frombork (Frauenburg). In the dedication to _ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium _ (1543), Copernicus mentioned the reform of the calendar proposed by the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517). As he explains, a proper measurement of the length of the year was a necessary foundation to calendar reform. By implication, his work replacing the Ptolemaic system with a heliocentric model was prompted in part by the need for calendar reform.
An actual new calendar had to wait until the
Gregorian calendar in
1582. At the time of its publication, _De revolutionibus_ passed with
relatively little comment: little more than a mathematical convenience
that simplified astronomical references for a more accurate calendar.
Physical evidence suggesting Copernicus's theory regarding the Earth's
motion was literally true promoted the apparent heresy against the
religious thought of the time. As a result,
Reformation succeeded in diminishing
* ^ "Counter Reformation".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
* ^ "Counter-
Reformation religious history". _Encyclopedia
Britannica_. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
* ^ "Anniversary Thoughts" in _America_, 7 October 2002.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Michel Péronnet, _Le XVe siècle_, Hachette U, 1981, p
* ^ Michel Péronnet, p 214
Eastern Orthodox churches, following the
Septuagint , generally
include the deuterocanonical works with even a few additional items
not found in Catholic Bibles, but they consider them of secondary
importance and not on the same level as the other scriptures. The
Church of England may use Bibles that place the deuterocanonical works
* Froom, LeRoy (1950). _The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers_ ( DjVu and PDF). 1.
* Bireley, Robert. _The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450–1700: A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation_ (1999) excerpt and text search * Dickens, A. G. _The Counter Reformation_ (1979) expresses the older view that it was a movement of reactionary conservatism. * Harline, Craig. "Official Religion: Popular Religion in Recent Historiography of the Catholic Reformation", _Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte_ (1990), Vol. 81, pp 239–262. * Jones, Martin D. W. _The Counter Reformation: Religion and Society in Early Modern Europe_ (1995), emphasis on historiography * Jones, Pamela M. and Thomas Worcester, eds. _From Rome to Eternity: Catholicism and the Arts in Italy, ca. 1550–1650_ (Brill 2002) online * Mullett, Michael A. "The Catholic Reformation _(Routledge 1999) online_ * O'Connell, Marvin. _Counter-reformation, 1550–1610_ (1974) * Ó hAnnracháin, Tadhg. _Catholic Europe, 1592–1648: Centre and Peripheries_ (2015) DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199272723.001.0001 * Ogg, David. _Europe in the Seventeenth Century_ (6th ed. 1965). pp 82-117. * Olin, John C _The Catholic Reformation: Savonarola to Ignatius Loyola: Reform in the Church, 1495–1540_ (Fordham University Press, 1992) online * Pollen, John Hungerford. _The Counter-Reformation_ (2011) excerpt and text search * Soergel, Philip M. _Wondrous in His Saints: Counter Reformation Propaganda in Bavaria._ Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1993 * Unger, Rudolph M. _Counter-Reformation_ (2006) * Wright, A. D. _The Counter-reformation: Catholic Europe and the Non-christian World_ (2nd ed. 2005), advanced
* Luebke, David, ed. _The Counter-Reformation: The Essential Readings_ (1999) excerpt and text search
* Bradshaw, Brendan. "The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation", _History Today_ (1983) 33#11 pp 42–45. * Marnef, Guido. "Belgian and Dutch Post-war Historiography on the Protestant and Catholic Reformation in the Netherlands", _Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte_ (2009) Vol. 100, pp 271–292. * Menchi, Silvana Seidel. "The Age of Reformation and Counter- Reformation in Italian Historiography, 1939–2009", _Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte_ (2009) Vol. 100, pp 193–217.
* The Counter-Reformation
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* Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th