Distribution map of the Corvidae.
Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that
contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies,
choughs, and nutcrackers. In common English, they are known
as the crow family, or, more technically, corvids. Over 120 species
are described. The genus Corvus, including the jackdaws, crows, rooks,
and ravens, makes up over a third of the entire family.
Corvids display remarkable intelligence for animals of their size and
are among the most intelligent birds thus far studied.
Specifically, members of the family have demonstrated self-awareness
in mirror tests (European magpies) and tool-making ability (crows,
rooks), skills which until recently were thought to be possessed
only by humans and a few other higher mammals. Their total
brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to that of great apes and cetaceans,
and only slightly lower than in humans.
They are medium to large in size, with strong feet and bills, rictal
bristles, and a single moult each year (most passerines moult twice).
Corvids are found worldwide except for the tip of
South America and
the polar ice caps. The majority of the species are found in
tropical South and Central America, southern
Asia and Eurasia, with
fewer than 10 species each in
Africa and Australasia. The genus Corvus
has re-entered Australia in relatively recent geological prehistory,
with five species and one subspecies there. Several species of raven
have reached oceanic islands, and some of these species are now highly
threatened with extinction or have already gone extinct.
1 Systematics, taxonomy, and evolution
4.1 Food and feeding
6 Relationship with humans
6.1 Role in myth and culture
6.2 Status and conservation
10 Further reading
11 External links
Systematics, taxonomy, and evolution
Corvidae was introduced by the English zoologist William
Elford Leach in a guide to the contents of the British Museum
published in 1820. Over the years, much disagreement has arisen
on the exact evolutionary relationships of the corvid family and their
relatives. What eventually seemed clear was that corvids are derived
from Australasian ancestors and from there spread throughout the
world. Other lineages derived from these ancestors evolved into
ecologically diverse, but often Australasian groups. In the late 1970s
and throughout the 1980s, Sibley and Ahlquist united the corvids with
other taxa in the Corvida, based on DNA–DNA hybridization. The
presumed corvid relatives included currawongs, birds of paradise,
whipbirds, quail-thrushes, whistlers, monarch flycatchers and drongos,
shrikes, vireos, and vangas, but current research favors the theory
that this grouping is partly artificial. The corvids constitute the
core group of the Corvoidea, together with their closest relatives
(the birds of paradise, Australian mud-nesters, and shrikes). They are
also the core group of the Corvida, which includes the related groups,
Old World orioles and vireos.
Crested Jays were thought to be in this family but may be a type of
Clarification of the interrelationships of the corvids has been
achieved based on cladistic analysis of several DNA sequences.
The jays and magpies do not constitute monophyletic lineages, but
rather seem to split up into an American and
Old World lineage, and an
Holarctic and Oriental lineage, respectively. These are not closely
related among each other. The position of the azure-winged magpie,
which has always been a major enigma, is even less clear than
The crested jay (Platylophus galericulatus) is traditionally included
in the Corvidae, but might not be a true member of this family,
possibly being closer to the helmetshrikes (Malaconotidae) or shrikes
(Laniidae); it is best considered
Corvidae incertae sedis for the time
being. Likewise, the Hume's ground "jay" (Pseudopodoces
humilis) is in fact a member of the tit family Paridae. The
following tree represents current insights in the phylogeny of the
Crow family according to J. Boyd.
The earliest corvid fossils date to the mid-Miocene, about 17 million
Miocorvus and Miopica may be ancestral to crows and some of
the magpie lineage, respectively, or similar to the living forms due
to convergent evolution. The known prehistoric corvid genera appear to
be mainly of the New World and
Old World jay and
Middle Miocene of Sansan, France)
Middle Miocene of SW Ukraine)
Miocitta (Pawnee Creek Late
Miocene of Logan County, US)
Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Edson Early
Pliocene of Sherman County,
Protocitta (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, US)
Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pleistocene of Sicily) -
probably belongs in an extant genus
Henocitta (Arredondo Clay Middle Pleistocene of Williston, US)
In addition, there are numerous fossil species of extant genera since
the Mio–Pliocene, mainly European Corvus.[a]
Corvids are large to very large passerines with a robust build, strong
legs and all species except the pinyon jay have nostrils covered by
bristle-like feathers. Many corvids of temperate zones have mainly
black or blue coloured plumage; however, some are pied black and
white, some have a blue-purple iridescence and many tropical species
are brightly coloured. The sexes are very similar in color and size.
Corvids have strong, stout bills and large wingspans. The family
includes the largest members of the passerine order.
The smallest corvid is the dwarf jay (
Aphelocoma nana), at 41 g
(1.4 oz) and 21.5 cm (8.5 in). The largest corvids are
the common raven (
Corvus corax) and the thick-billed raven (Corvus
crassirostris), both of which regularly exceed 1,400 grams (3.1
pounds) and 65 cm (26 in).
Species can be identified based on size, shape, and geography;
however, some, especially the Australian crows, are best identified by
their raucous calls.
Corvids occur in most climatic zones. Most are sedentary and do not
migrate significantly. However, during a shortage of food, eruptive
migration can occur. When species are migratory, they will form
large flocks in the fall (around August in the Northern Hemisphere)
and travel south.
One reason for the success of crows, compared to ravens, is their
ability to overlap breeding territory. During breeding season, crows
were shown to overlap breeding territory six times as much as ravens.
This invasion of breeding ranges allowed a related increase in local
Since crows and magpies have benefited and even increased in numbers
due to human development, it was suggested that this might cause
increased rates of nest predation of smaller bird species, leading to
declines. Several studies have shown this concern to be unfounded. One
study examined American crows, which had increased in numbers, were a
suspect in nest predation of threatened marbled murrelets. However,
Steller's jays, which are successful independently of human
development, are more efficient in plundering small birds' nests than
American crows and common ravens. Therefore, the human relationship
with crows and ravens did not significantly increase nest predation,
compared to other factors such as habitat destruction. Similarly a
study examining the decline of British songbirds found no link between
Eurasian magpie numbers and population changes of 23 songbird
Some corvids have strong organization and community groups. Jackdaws,
for example, have a strong social hierarchy, and are facultatively
colonial during breeding. Providing mutual aid has also been
recorded within many of the corvid species.
Young corvids have been known to play and take part in elaborate
social games. Documented group games follow "king of the mountain", or
"follow the leader", patterns. Other play involves the manipulation,
passing, and balancing of sticks. Corvids also take part in other
activities, such as sliding down smooth surfaces. These games are
understood to play a large role in the adaptive and survival ability
of the birds.
Mate selection is quite complex and accompanied with much social play
in the Corvidae. Youngsters of social corvid species undergo a series
of tests, including aerobatic feats, before being accepted as a mate
by the opposite sex.
Some corvids can be aggressive. Blue jays, for example, are well known
to attack anything that threatens their nest. Crows have been known to
attack dogs, cats, ravens, and birds of prey. Most of the time these
assaults take place as a distraction long enough to allow an
opportunity for stealing food.
Food and feeding
Corvids are highly opportunistic foragers. Here a jungle crow feeds on
a shark carcass.
The natural diet of many corvid species is omnivorous, consisting of
invertebrates, nestlings, small mammals, berries, fruits, seeds, and
carrion. However, some corvids, especially the crows, have adapted
well to human conditions and have come to rely on anthropogenic foods.
In a US study of American crows, common ravens and Steller's jays
around campgrounds and human settlements, the crows appeared to have
the most diverse diet of all, taking anthropogenic foods such as
bread, spaghetti, fried potatoes, dog food, sandwiches, and livestock
feed. The increase in available anthropogenic food sources is
contributing to population increase in some corvid species.
Some corvids are predators of other birds. During the wintering
months, corvids typically form foraging flocks. However, some crows
also eat many agricultural pests including cutworms, wireworms,
grasshoppers, and harmful weeds. Some corvids will eat carrion,
and since they lack a specialized beak for tearing into flesh, they
must wait until animals are opened, whether by other predators or as
A gray jay pair feeding their chicks.
Many species of corvid are territorial, protecting territories
throughout the year or simply during the breeding season. In some
cases territories may only be guarded during the day, with the pair
joining off-territory roosts at night. Some corvids are well-known
communal roosters. Some groups of roosting corvids can be very large,
with a roost of 65,000 rooks counted in Scotland. Some, including
the rook and the jackdaw, are also communal nesters.
The partner bond in corvids is extremely strong and even lifelong in
some species. This monogamous lifestyle, however, can still contain
extra-pair copulations. Males and females build large nests
together in trees or on ledges. The male will also feed the female
during incubation. The nests are constructed of a mass of bulky
twigs lined with grass and bark. Corvids can lay between 3 and 10
eggs, typically ranging between 4 and 7. The eggs are usually greenish
in colour with brown blotches. Once hatched, the young remain in the
nests for up to 6–10 weeks depending on the species. Corvids provide
Jackdaws can breed in buildings or in rabbit warrens.
White-throated magpie-jays are cooperatively breeding corvids where
the helpers are mostly female.
Cooperative breeding takes place when
additional adults help raise the nestlings. Such helpers at the nest
in most cooperatively breeding birds are males, while females join
The brain-to-body weight ratios of corvid brains are among the largest
in birds, equal to that of most great apes and cetaceans, and only
slightly lower than a human. Their intelligence is boosted by the
long growing period of the young. By remaining with the parents, the
young have more opportunities to learn necessary skills.
When compared to dogs and cats in an experiment testing the ability to
seek out food according to three-dimensional clues, corvids
out-performed the mammals. A meta-analysis testing how often birds
invented new ways to acquire food in the wild found corvids to be the
most innovative birds. A 2004 review suggests that their cognitive
abilities are on par with those of great apes. Despite structural
differences, the brains of corvids and great apes both evolved the
ability to make geometrical measurements.
Corvid ingenuity is represented through their feeding skills,
memorization abilities, use of tools, and group behaviour. Living in
large social groups has long been connected with high cognitive
ability. To live in a large group, a member must be able to recognize
individuals and track the social position and foraging of other
members over time. Members must also be able to distinguish between
sex, age, reproductive status, and dominance, and to update this
information constantly. It might be that social complexity corresponds
to their high cognition.
Eurasian magpie is the only non-mammal species known to be able to
recognize itself in a mirror test. Magpies have been observed
taking part in elaborate grieving rituals, which have been likened to
human funerals, including laying grass wreaths. Marc Bekoff,
at the University of Colorado, argues that it shows that they are
capable of feeling complex emotions, including grief.
There are also specific examples of corvid cleverness. One carrion
crow was documented to crack nuts by placing them on a crosswalk,
letting the passing cars crack the shell, waiting for the light to
turn red, and then safely retrieving the contents. A group of
crows in England took turns lifting garbage bin lids while their
companions collected food.
Members of the corvid family have been known to watch other birds,
remember where they hide their food, then return once the owner
leaves. Corvids also move their food around between hiding
places to avoid thievery, but only if they have previously been
thieves themselves (that is, they remember previous relevant social
contexts, use their own experience of having been a thief to predict
the behavior of a pilferer, and can determine the safest course to
protect their caches from being pilfered). Studies to assess similar
cognitive abilities in apes have been inconclusive.
The ability to hide food requires highly accurate spatial memories.
Corvids have been recorded to recall their food's hiding place up to
nine months later. It is suggested that vertical landmarks (like
trees) are used to remember locations. There has also been evidence
that California scrub jays, which store perishable foods, not only
remember where they stored their food, but for how long. This has been
compared to episodic memory, previously thought unique to humans.
New Caledonian crows (
Corvus moneduloides) are notable for their
highly developed tool fabrication. They make angling tools of twigs
and leaves trimmed into hooks, then use the hooks to pull insect
larvae from tree holes. Tools are engineered according to task and
apparently also to learned preference. Recent studies revealed
abilities to solve complicated problems, which suggests high level of
innovation of a complex nature. Other corvids that have been
observed using tools include the American crow, blue jay and green
jay. Diversity in tool design among corvids suggests cultural
variation. Again, great apes are the only other animals known to use
tools in such a fashion.
Clark's nutcrackers and jackdaws were compared in a 2002 study based
on geometric rule learning. The corvids, along with a domestic pigeon,
had to locate a target between two landmarks, while distances and
landmarks were altered. The nutcrackers were more accurate in their
searches than the jackdaws and pigeons.
The scarecrow is an archetypal scare tactic in the agricultural
business. However, due to corvids' quick wit, scarecrows are soon
ignored and used as perches. Despite farmers' efforts to rid
themselves of corvid pests, their attempts have only expanded corvid
territories and strengthened their numbers.
Contrary to earlier teleological classifications in which they were
seen as "highest" songbirds due to their intelligence, current
systematics might place corvids, based on their total number of
physical characteristics instead of just their brains (which are the
most developed of birds), in the lower middle of the passerine
evolutionary tree, dependent on which subgroup is chosen as the most
derived. As per one observer:
During the 19th century there arose the belief that these were the
'most advanced' birds, based upon the belief that Darwinian evolution
brings 'progress'. In such a classification the 'most intelligent' of
birds were listed last reflecting their position 'atop the pyramid'.
Modern biologists reject the concept of hierarchical 'progress' in
The other major group of highly intelligent birds of the order
Psittaciformes (which includes 'true' parrots, cockatoos and New
Zealand parrots) is not closely related to corvids.
Corvids are reservoirs (carriers) for the
West Nile virus
West Nile virus in the
United States. They are infected by mosquitoes (the vectors),
primarily of the
Culex species. Crows and ravens are quickly killed by
this disease, so their deaths are an early-warning system when West
Nile virus arrives in an area (as are horse and other bird species
deaths). One of the first signs that
West Nile virus
West Nile virus first arrived in
the US in 1999 was the death of crows in New York.
Relationship with humans
Several different corvids, particularly ravens, have occasionally
served as pets, although they are not able to speak as readily as
parrots and do not like being caged.
Role in myth and culture
See also: Cultural depictions of ravens
Folklore often represents corvids as clever, and even mystical,
animals. Some Native Americans, such as the Haida, believed that a
raven created the earth and despite being a trickster spirit, ravens
were popular on totems, credited with creating man, and considered
responsible for placing the Sun in the sky.
Due to their carrion diet, the Celtic peoples strongly associated
corvids with war, death and the battlefield – their great
intelligence meant that they were often considered messengers, or
manifestations of the gods such
Bendigeidfran Blessed raven or the
Irish Morrigan, underworld deities that may be related to the later
Arthurian Fisher King. The Welsh
Dream of Rhonabwy illustrates well
the association of ravens with war. In many parts of Britain,
gatherings of crows, or more often magpies, are counted using the
divination rhyme: one for sorrow, two for joy, three for a girl, four
for a boy, five for silver six for gold, seven for a secret never to
be told. Cornish superstition holds that when a lone magpie is
encountered, it must be loudly greeted with respect.
Germanic peoples highly revered the raven. The major deity
Odin was so associated with ravens throughout history that he gained
the kenning "raven god"[b] and the raven banner was the flag of
Viking Age Scandinavian chieftains. He was also attended by
Hugin and Munin, two ravens who whispered news into his ears. The
Valravn sometimes appears in modern Scandinavian folklore. The Sutton
Hoo treasure features stylised corvids with scrolled beaks in the
decorative enamel work on the shield and purse lid reflecting their
common totemic status to the Anglo-Saxons, whose pre-Christian
indigenous beliefs were of the same origin as that of the
The 6th century BC Greek scribe
Aesop featured corvids as intelligent
antagonists in many fables. Later, in western literature, popularized
by American poet Edgar Allan Poe's work "The Raven", the common raven
becomes a symbol of the main character's descent into madness.
In the book
Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH and its film adaptation
features a crow named Jeremy.
Hawaiian crow is extinct in the wild as a result of habitat loss
and other factors.
Status and conservation
Unlike many other bird families, corvid fitness and reproduction,
especially with many crows, has increased due to human development.
The survival and reproductive success of certain crows and ravens is
assisted by their close relationship with humans.
Human development provides additional resources by clearing land,
creating shrublands rich in berries and insects. When the cleared land
naturally replenishes, jays and crows use the young dense trees for
nesting sites. Ravens typically use larger trees in denser
Despite the fact that most corvids are not threatened (many even
increasing due to human activity) a few species are in danger. For
example, the destruction of the Southeast Asian rainforests is
endangering mixed-species feeding flocks with members from the family
Corvidae. Also, since its semiarid scrubland habitat is an
endangered ecosystem, the
Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay has a small and declining
population. A number of island species, which are more
vulnerable to introduced species and habitat loss, have been driven to
extinction, such as the New Zealand raven, or are threatened, like the
American crow population of the United States has grown over the
years. It is possible that the American crow, due to humans increasing
suitable habitat, will cause Northwestern crows and fish crows to
Yellow-billed blue magpie,
Eurasian jay (
Eurasian magpie, Pica pica
Common green magpie, Cissa chinensis
Indochinese green magpie, Cissa hypoleuca
Javan green magpie, Cissa thalassina
Bornean green magpie, Cissa jefferyi
Taiwan blue magpie,
Red-billed blue magpie,
Yellow-billed blue magpie,
Sri Lanka blue magpie,
Old World jays
Podoces – ground jays
Biddulph's ground jay,
Henderson's ground jay,
Pander's ground jay,
Pleske's ground jay,
Black-billed magpie, Pica hudsonia
Yellow-billed magpie, Pica nuttalli
Eurasian magpie, Pica pica
Korean magpie, Pica (pica) sericea
True crows (crows, ravens, jackdaws and rooks)
Australian and Melanesian species
New Caledonian crow,
Corvus (tasmanicus) boreus
Pacific island species
ʻAlalā (Hawaiian crow),
Corvus hawaiiensis (formerly Corvus
tropicus) (extinct in the wild)
Tropical Asian species
Eastern jungle crow,
Indian jungle crow,
Eurasian and North African species
Corvus (cornix) capellanus
Carrion crow (western carrion crow),
Eastern carrion crow,
Corvus (corone) orientalis
Corvus corax (see also next section)
Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus (an extinct color
North and Central American species
Corvus (corax) sinuatus
Tropical African species
Somali crow (dwarf raven),
New World jays
Aphelocoma – scrub-jays
California scrub jay,
Island scrub jay,
Woodhouse's scrub jay,
Florida scrub jay,
Calocitta – magpie-jays
San Blas jay,
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doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040014. PMC 1326277 .
^ Lee, T. M.; Soh, M. C. K.; Sodhi, N.; Koh, L. P.; Lim, S. L. H.
(2005). "Effects of habitat disturbance on mixed species bird flocks
in a tropical sub-montane rainforest". Biological Conservation. 122
(2): 193–204. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.07.005.
^ BirdLife International. (2016).
Aphelocoma coerulescens. The IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species.
^ Breininger, D. R.; Toland, B.; Oddy, D. M.; Legare, M. L. (2006).
"Landcover characterizations and Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma
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^ Marzluff, John M.; Angell, T. (2005). In the Company of Crows and
Ravens. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward (): Phylogeny
and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale
University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, ISBN 0-300-04085-7
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corvidae.
Wikispecies has information related to Corvidae
Corvidae videos on the Internet
corvids.de – Corvids-Literature-Database
Corvidae sounds on xeno-canto.org
Corvid Corner A site about the Corvidae
AvesNoir A site about corvids in art, culture, and literature.
Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow
Rooks reveal remarkable tool use
Clever New Caledonian crows can use three tools
Eurasian magpie Pica pica
Rare crow shows a talent for tool use
Extant species of family Corvidae
Alpine chough (P. graculus)
Red-billed chough (P. pyrrhocorax)
Hooded treepie (C. cucullata)
Black racket-tailed treepie
Black racket-tailed treepie (C. temia)
Andaman treepie (D. bayleyi)
Bornean treepie (D. cinerascens)
Grey treepie (D. formosae)
Black-faced treepie (D. frontalis)
White-bellied treepie (D. leucogastra)
Sumatran treepie (D. occipitalis)
Rufous treepie (D. vagabunda)
Black magpie (P. leucopterus)
Bornean black magpie (P. l. aterrimus)
Ratchet-tailed treepie (T. temnurus)
Common green magpie
Common green magpie (C. chinensis)
Indochinese green magpie
Indochinese green magpie (C. hypoleuca)
Bornean green magpie
Bornean green magpie (C. jefferyi)
Javan green magpie
Javan green magpie (C. thalassina)
Taiwan blue magpie
Taiwan blue magpie (U. caerulea)
Red-billed blue magpie
Red-billed blue magpie (U. erythrorhyncha)
Yellow-billed blue magpie
Yellow-billed blue magpie (U. flavirostris)
Sri Lanka blue magpie
Sri Lanka blue magpie (U. ornata)
White-winged magpie (U. whiteheadi)
Old World jays
Eurasian jay (G. glandarius)
Lanceolated jay (G. lanceolatus)
Lidth's jay (G. lidthi)
Biddulph's ground jay
Biddulph's ground jay (P. biddulphi)
Henderson's ground jay
Henderson's ground jay (P. hendersoni)
Pander's ground jay
Pander's ground jay (P. panderi)
Persian ground jay (P. pleskei)
Piapiac (P. afer)
Stresemann's bushcrow (Z. stresemanni)
Spotted nutcracker (N. caryocatactes)
Clark's nutcracker (N. columbiana)
Black-billed magpie (P. hudsonia)
Yellow-billed magpie (P. nuttalli)
Eurasian magpie (P. pica)
Korean magpie (P. sericea)
jackdaws and rooks)
Australian and Melanesian species
Little crow (C. bennetti)
Australian raven (C. coronoides)
Bismarck crow (C. insularis)
Brown-headed crow (C. fuscicapillus)
Bougainville crow (C. meeki)
Little raven (C. mellori)
New Caledonian crow
New Caledonian crow (C. moneduloides)
Torresian crow (C. orru)
Forest raven (C. tasmanicus)
Grey crow (C. tristis)
Long-billed crow (C. validus)
White-billed crow (C. woodfordi)
Pacific island species
Hawaiian crow (C. hawaiiensis)
Mariana crow (C. kubaryi)
Tropical Asian species
Daurian jackdaw (C. dauuricus)
Slender-billed crow (C. enca)
Flores crow (C. florensis)
Large-billed crow (C. macrorhynchos)
Eastern jungle crow
Eastern jungle crow (C. levaillantii)
Indian jungle crow
Indian jungle crow (C. culminatus)
House crow (C. splendens)
Collared crow (C. torquatus)
Piping crow (C. typicus)
Banggai crow (C. unicolor)
Violet crow (C. violaceus)
Eurasian and North African species
Mesopotamian crow (C. capellanus)
Hooded crow (C. cornix)
Carrion crow (C. corone)
Rook (C. frugilegus)
Jackdaw (C. monedula )
Eastern carrion crow
Eastern carrion crow (C. orientalis)
Fan-tailed raven (C. rhipidurus)
Brown-necked raven (C. ruficollis)
Common raven (C. corax)
North and Central American species
American crow (C. brachyrhynchos)
Northwestern crow (C. caurinus)
Chihuahuan raven (C. cryptoleucus)
Tamaulipas crow (C. imparatus)
Jamaican crow (C. jamaicensis)
White-necked crow (C. leucognaphalus)
Cuban crow (C. nasicus)
Fish crow (C. ossifragus)
Palm crow (C. palmarum)
Sinaloan crow (C. sinaloae)
Tropical African species
White-necked raven (C. albicollis)
Pied crow (C. albus)
Cape crow (C. capensis)
Thick-billed raven (C. crassirostris)
Somali crow (C. edithae)
Iberian magpie (C. cooki)
Azure-winged magpie (C. cyanus)
Grey jay (P. canadensis)
Siberian jay (P. infaustus)
Sichuan jay (P. internigrans)
New World jays
California scrub jay
California scrub jay (A. californica)
Island scrub jay
Island scrub jay (A. insularis)
Woodhouse's scrub jay
Woodhouse's scrub jay (A. woodhouseii)
Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay (A. coerulescens)
Transvolcanic jay (A. ultramarina)
Unicolored jay (A. unicolor)
Mexican jay (A. wollweberi)
Black-throated magpie-jay (C. colliei)
White-throated Magpie-jay (C. formosa)
Blue jay (C. cristata)
Steller's jay (C. stelleri)
Black-chested jay (C. affinis)
Purplish-backed jay (C. beecheii)
Azure jay (C. caeruleus)
Cayenne jay (C. cayanus)
Plush-crested jay (C. chrysops)
Curl-crested jay (C. cristatellus)
Purplish jay (C. cyanomelas)
White-naped jay (C. cyanopogon)
Tufted jay (C. dickeyi)
Azure-naped jay (C. heilprini)
Bushy-crested jay (C. melanocyaneus)
Brown jay (C. morio)
White-tailed jay (C. mystacalis)
San Blas jay
San Blas jay (C. sanblasianus)
Violaceous jay (C. violaceus)
Green jay (C. ynca)
Yucatan jay (C. yucatanicus)
Silvery-throated jay (C. argentigula)
Black-collared jay (C. armillata)
Azure-hooded jay (C. cucullata)
White-throated jay (C. mirabilis)
Dwarf jay (C. nana)
Beautiful jay (C. pulchra)
Black-throated jay (C. pumilo)
Turquoise jay (C. turcosa)
White-collared jay (C. viridicyana)
Pinyon jay (G. cyanocephalus)
Fauna Europaea: 10847