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Distribution map of the Corvidae.   Native   (Re)Introduced    Extinct
Extinct
(post-1500)    Extinct
Extinct
(pre-1500)

Corvidae
Corvidae
is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs, and nutcrackers.[1][2][3] In common English, they are known as the crow family, or, more technically, corvids. Over 120 species are described. The genus Corvus, including the jackdaws, crows, rooks, and ravens, makes up over a third of the entire family. Corvids display remarkable intelligence for animals of their size and are among the most intelligent birds thus far studied.[4] Specifically, members of the family have demonstrated self-awareness in mirror tests (European magpies) and tool-making ability (crows, rooks[5]), skills which until recently were thought to be possessed only by humans and a few other higher mammals. Their total brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to that of great apes and cetaceans, and only slightly lower than in humans.[6] They are medium to large in size, with strong feet and bills, rictal bristles, and a single moult each year (most passerines moult twice). Corvids are found worldwide except for the tip of South America
South America
and the polar ice caps.[3] The majority of the species are found in tropical South and Central America, southern Asia
Asia
and Eurasia, with fewer than 10 species each in Africa
Africa
and Australasia. The genus Corvus has re-entered Australia in relatively recent geological prehistory, with five species and one subspecies there. Several species of raven have reached oceanic islands, and some of these species are now highly threatened with extinction or have already gone extinct.

Contents

1 Systematics, taxonomy, and evolution

1.1 Fossil
Fossil
record

2 Morphology 3 Ecology 4 Behaviour

4.1 Food and feeding 4.2 Reproduction 4.3 Intelligence

5 Disease 6 Relationship with humans

6.1 Role in myth and culture 6.2 Status and conservation

7 Species 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Systematics, taxonomy, and evolution[edit] The family Corvidae
Corvidae
was introduced by the English zoologist William Elford Leach in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.[7][8] Over the years, much disagreement has arisen on the exact evolutionary relationships of the corvid family and their relatives. What eventually seemed clear was that corvids are derived from Australasian ancestors and from there spread throughout the world. Other lineages derived from these ancestors evolved into ecologically diverse, but often Australasian groups. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, Sibley and Ahlquist united the corvids with other taxa in the Corvida, based on DNA–DNA hybridization. The presumed corvid relatives included currawongs, birds of paradise, whipbirds, quail-thrushes, whistlers, monarch flycatchers and drongos, shrikes, vireos, and vangas,[2] but current research favors the theory that this grouping is partly artificial. The corvids constitute the core group of the Corvoidea, together with their closest relatives (the birds of paradise, Australian mud-nesters, and shrikes). They are also the core group of the Corvida, which includes the related groups, such as Old World
Old World
orioles and vireos.[9]

Crested Jays were thought to be in this family but may be a type of helmetshrike instead.

Clarification of the interrelationships of the corvids has been achieved based on cladistic analysis of several DNA sequences.[9][10] The jays and magpies do not constitute monophyletic lineages, but rather seem to split up into an American and Old World
Old World
lineage, and an Holarctic
Holarctic
and Oriental lineage, respectively. These are not closely related among each other. The position of the azure-winged magpie, which has always been a major enigma, is even less clear than before.[clarification needed] The crested jay (Platylophus galericulatus) is traditionally included in the Corvidae, but might not be a true member of this family, possibly being closer to the helmetshrikes (Malaconotidae) or shrikes (Laniidae); it is best considered Corvidae
Corvidae
incertae sedis for the time being.[1][11] Likewise, the Hume's ground "jay" (Pseudopodoces humilis) is in fact a member of the tit family Paridae.[12] The following tree represents current insights in the phylogeny of the Crow
Crow
family according to J. Boyd.[13]

Corvidae

Pyrrhocoracinae

Pyrrhocorax

Crypsirininae

Dendrocitta

Crypsirina

Temnurus

Platysmurus

Cissinae

Urocissa

Cissa

Perisoreinae

Perisoreus

Cyanopica

    Cyanocoracinae

Cyanocorax

Calocitta

Psilorhinus

Aphelocoma

Cyanocitta

Gymnorhinus

Cyanolyca

Corvinae

Corvus

Coloeus

Nucifraga

Pica

Garrulus

Podoces

Ptilostomus

Zavattariornis

Laniidae

Fossil
Fossil
record[edit] The earliest corvid fossils date to the mid-Miocene, about 17 million years ago; Miocorvus
Miocorvus
and Miopica may be ancestral to crows and some of the magpie lineage, respectively, or similar to the living forms due to convergent evolution. The known prehistoric corvid genera appear to be mainly of the New World and Old World
Old World
jay and Holarctic
Holarctic
magpie lineages:

Miocorvus
Miocorvus
( Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) Miopica ( Middle Miocene of SW Ukraine) Miocitta (Pawnee Creek Late Miocene
Miocene
of Logan County, US) Corvidae
Corvidae
gen. et sp. indet. (Edson Early Pliocene
Pliocene
of Sherman County, US)[14] Protocitta (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, US) Corvidae
Corvidae
gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pleistocene of Sicily) - probably belongs in an extant genus Henocitta (Arredondo Clay Middle Pleistocene of Williston, US)

In addition, there are numerous fossil species of extant genera since the Mio–Pliocene, mainly European Corvus.[a] Morphology[edit] Corvids are large to very large passerines with a robust build, strong legs and all species except the pinyon jay have nostrils covered by bristle-like feathers.[15] Many corvids of temperate zones have mainly black or blue coloured plumage; however, some are pied black and white, some have a blue-purple iridescence and many tropical species are brightly coloured. The sexes are very similar in color and size. Corvids have strong, stout bills and large wingspans. The family includes the largest members of the passerine order. The smallest corvid is the dwarf jay ( Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
nana), at 41 g (1.4 oz) and 21.5 cm (8.5 in). The largest corvids are the common raven ( Corvus
Corvus
corax) and the thick-billed raven (Corvus crassirostris), both of which regularly exceed 1,400 grams (3.1 pounds) and 65 cm (26 in). Species can be identified based on size, shape, and geography; however, some, especially the Australian crows, are best identified by their raucous calls.[2] Ecology[edit] Corvids occur in most climatic zones. Most are sedentary and do not migrate significantly. However, during a shortage of food, eruptive migration can occur.[2] When species are migratory, they will form large flocks in the fall (around August in the Northern Hemisphere) and travel south.[16] One reason for the success of crows, compared to ravens, is their ability to overlap breeding territory. During breeding season, crows were shown to overlap breeding territory six times as much as ravens. This invasion of breeding ranges allowed a related increase in local population density.[17] Since crows and magpies have benefited and even increased in numbers due to human development, it was suggested that this might cause increased rates of nest predation of smaller bird species, leading to declines. Several studies have shown this concern to be unfounded. One study examined American crows, which had increased in numbers, were a suspect in nest predation of threatened marbled murrelets. However, Steller's jays, which are successful independently of human development, are more efficient in plundering small birds' nests than American crows and common ravens. Therefore, the human relationship with crows and ravens did not significantly increase nest predation, compared to other factors such as habitat destruction.[17] Similarly a study examining the decline of British songbirds found no link between Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
numbers and population changes of 23 songbird species.[18] Behaviour[edit] Some corvids have strong organization and community groups. Jackdaws, for example, have a strong social hierarchy, and are facultatively colonial during breeding.[19] Providing mutual aid has also been recorded within many of the corvid species. Young corvids have been known to play and take part in elaborate social games. Documented group games follow "king of the mountain", or "follow the leader", patterns. Other play involves the manipulation, passing, and balancing of sticks. Corvids also take part in other activities, such as sliding down smooth surfaces. These games are understood to play a large role in the adaptive and survival ability of the birds.[20] Mate selection is quite complex and accompanied with much social play in the Corvidae. Youngsters of social corvid species undergo a series of tests, including aerobatic feats, before being accepted as a mate by the opposite sex.[16] Some corvids can be aggressive. Blue jays, for example, are well known to attack anything that threatens their nest. Crows have been known to attack dogs, cats, ravens, and birds of prey. Most of the time these assaults take place as a distraction long enough to allow an opportunity for stealing food.[16] Food and feeding[edit]

Corvids are highly opportunistic foragers. Here a jungle crow feeds on a shark carcass.

The natural diet of many corvid species is omnivorous, consisting of invertebrates, nestlings, small mammals, berries, fruits, seeds, and carrion. However, some corvids, especially the crows, have adapted well to human conditions and have come to rely on anthropogenic foods. In a US study of American crows, common ravens and Steller's jays around campgrounds and human settlements, the crows appeared to have the most diverse diet of all, taking anthropogenic foods such as bread, spaghetti, fried potatoes, dog food, sandwiches, and livestock feed. The increase in available anthropogenic food sources is contributing to population increase in some corvid species.[17] Some corvids are predators of other birds. During the wintering months, corvids typically form foraging flocks.[2] However, some crows also eat many agricultural pests including cutworms, wireworms, grasshoppers, and harmful weeds.[16] Some corvids will eat carrion, and since they lack a specialized beak for tearing into flesh, they must wait until animals are opened, whether by other predators or as roadkill. Reproduction[edit]

A gray jay pair feeding their chicks.

Many species of corvid are territorial, protecting territories throughout the year or simply during the breeding season. In some cases territories may only be guarded during the day, with the pair joining off-territory roosts at night. Some corvids are well-known communal roosters. Some groups of roosting corvids can be very large, with a roost of 65,000 rooks counted in Scotland.[21] Some, including the rook and the jackdaw, are also communal nesters. The partner bond in corvids is extremely strong and even lifelong in some species. This monogamous lifestyle, however, can still contain extra-pair copulations.[22] Males and females build large nests together in trees or on ledges. The male will also feed the female during incubation.[23] The nests are constructed of a mass of bulky twigs lined with grass and bark. Corvids can lay between 3 and 10 eggs, typically ranging between 4 and 7. The eggs are usually greenish in colour with brown blotches. Once hatched, the young remain in the nests for up to 6–10 weeks depending on the species. Corvids provide biparental care. Jackdaws can breed in buildings or in rabbit warrens.[19] White-throated magpie-jays are cooperatively breeding corvids where the helpers are mostly female. Cooperative breeding
Cooperative breeding
takes place when additional adults help raise the nestlings. Such helpers at the nest in most cooperatively breeding birds are males, while females join other groups.[24] Intelligence[edit] See also: Bird
Bird
intelligence The brain-to-body weight ratios of corvid brains are among the largest in birds, equal to that of most great apes and cetaceans, and only slightly lower than a human.[6] Their intelligence is boosted by the long growing period of the young. By remaining with the parents, the young have more opportunities to learn necessary skills. When compared to dogs and cats in an experiment testing the ability to seek out food according to three-dimensional clues, corvids out-performed the mammals.[25] A meta-analysis testing how often birds invented new ways to acquire food in the wild found corvids to be the most innovative birds.[26] A 2004 review suggests that their cognitive abilities are on par with those of great apes.[27] Despite structural differences, the brains of corvids and great apes both evolved the ability to make geometrical measurements. Corvid ingenuity is represented through their feeding skills, memorization abilities, use of tools, and group behaviour. Living in large social groups has long been connected with high cognitive ability. To live in a large group, a member must be able to recognize individuals and track the social position and foraging of other members over time. Members must also be able to distinguish between sex, age, reproductive status, and dominance, and to update this information constantly. It might be that social complexity corresponds to their high cognition.[28] The Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
is the only non-mammal species known to be able to recognize itself in a mirror test.[4] Magpies have been observed taking part in elaborate grieving rituals, which have been likened to human funerals, including laying grass wreaths.[29][30] Marc Bekoff, at the University of Colorado, argues that it shows that they are capable of feeling complex emotions, including grief.[30] There are also specific examples of corvid cleverness. One carrion crow was documented to crack nuts by placing them on a crosswalk, letting the passing cars crack the shell, waiting for the light to turn red, and then safely retrieving the contents.[31] A group of crows in England took turns lifting garbage bin lids while their companions collected food.[citation needed] Members of the corvid family have been known to watch other birds, remember where they hide their food, then return once the owner leaves.[32][33] Corvids also move their food around between hiding places to avoid thievery, but only if they have previously been thieves themselves (that is, they remember previous relevant social contexts, use their own experience of having been a thief to predict the behavior of a pilferer, and can determine the safest course to protect their caches from being pilfered). Studies to assess similar cognitive abilities in apes have been inconclusive.[34] The ability to hide food requires highly accurate spatial memories. Corvids have been recorded to recall their food's hiding place up to nine months later. It is suggested that vertical landmarks (like trees) are used to remember locations. There has also been evidence that California scrub jays, which store perishable foods, not only remember where they stored their food, but for how long. This has been compared to episodic memory, previously thought unique to humans.[3] New Caledonian crows ( Corvus
Corvus
moneduloides) are notable for their highly developed tool fabrication. They make angling tools of twigs and leaves trimmed into hooks, then use the hooks to pull insect larvae from tree holes. Tools are engineered according to task and apparently also to learned preference. Recent studies revealed abilities to solve complicated problems, which suggests high level of innovation of a complex nature.[35] Other corvids that have been observed using tools include the American crow, blue jay and green jay. Diversity in tool design among corvids suggests cultural variation. Again, great apes are the only other animals known to use tools in such a fashion.[3] Clark's nutcrackers and jackdaws were compared in a 2002 study based on geometric rule learning. The corvids, along with a domestic pigeon, had to locate a target between two landmarks, while distances and landmarks were altered. The nutcrackers were more accurate in their searches than the jackdaws and pigeons.[36] The scarecrow is an archetypal scare tactic in the agricultural business. However, due to corvids' quick wit, scarecrows are soon ignored and used as perches. Despite farmers' efforts to rid themselves of corvid pests, their attempts have only expanded corvid territories and strengthened their numbers.[16] Contrary to earlier teleological classifications in which they were seen as "highest" songbirds due to their intelligence, current systematics might place corvids, based on their total number of physical characteristics instead of just their brains (which are the most developed of birds), in the lower middle of the passerine evolutionary tree, dependent on which subgroup is chosen as the most derived.[9] As per one observer:

During the 19th century there arose the belief that these were the 'most advanced' birds, based upon the belief that Darwinian evolution brings 'progress'. In such a classification the 'most intelligent' of birds were listed last reflecting their position 'atop the pyramid'. Modern biologists reject the concept of hierarchical 'progress' in evolution [...].[2]

The other major group of highly intelligent birds of the order Psittaciformes
Psittaciformes
(which includes 'true' parrots, cockatoos and New Zealand parrots) is not closely related to corvids. Disease[edit] Corvids are reservoirs (carriers) for the West Nile virus
West Nile virus
in the United States. They are infected by mosquitoes (the vectors), primarily of the Culex
Culex
species. Crows and ravens are quickly killed by this disease, so their deaths are an early-warning system when West Nile virus arrives in an area (as are horse and other bird species deaths). One of the first signs that West Nile virus
West Nile virus
first arrived in the US in 1999 was the death of crows in New York.[37] Relationship with humans[edit] Several different corvids, particularly ravens, have occasionally served as pets, although they are not able to speak as readily as parrots and do not like being caged.[citation needed] Role in myth and culture[edit] See also: Cultural depictions of ravens Folklore often represents corvids as clever, and even mystical, animals. Some Native Americans, such as the Haida, believed that a raven created the earth and despite being a trickster spirit, ravens were popular on totems, credited with creating man, and considered responsible for placing the Sun in the sky.[citation needed] Due to their carrion diet, the Celtic peoples strongly associated corvids with war, death and the battlefield – their great intelligence meant that they were often considered messengers, or manifestations of the gods such Bendigeidfran
Bendigeidfran
Blessed raven or the Irish Morrigan, underworld deities that may be related to the later Arthurian Fisher King. The Welsh Dream of Rhonabwy illustrates well the association of ravens with war. In many parts of Britain, gatherings of crows, or more often magpies, are counted using the divination rhyme: one for sorrow, two for joy, three for a girl, four for a boy, five for silver six for gold, seven for a secret never to be told. Cornish superstition holds that when a lone magpie is encountered, it must be loudly greeted with respect. Various Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
highly revered the raven. The major deity Odin
Odin
was so associated with ravens throughout history that he gained the kenning "raven god"[b] and the raven banner was the flag of various Viking Age
Viking Age
Scandinavian chieftains. He was also attended by Hugin and Munin, two ravens who whispered news into his ears.[38] The Valravn
Valravn
sometimes appears in modern Scandinavian folklore. The Sutton Hoo treasure features stylised corvids with scrolled beaks in the decorative enamel work on the shield and purse lid reflecting their common totemic status to the Anglo-Saxons, whose pre-Christian indigenous beliefs were of the same origin as that of the aforementioned Vikings. The 6th century BC Greek scribe Aesop
Aesop
featured corvids as intelligent antagonists in many fables. Later, in western literature, popularized by American poet Edgar Allan Poe's work "The Raven", the common raven becomes a symbol of the main character's descent into madness. In the book Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
and its film adaptation features a crow named Jeremy.

The Hawaiian crow
Hawaiian crow
is extinct in the wild as a result of habitat loss and other factors.

Status and conservation[edit] Unlike many other bird families, corvid fitness and reproduction, especially with many crows, has increased due to human development. The survival and reproductive success of certain crows and ravens is assisted by their close relationship with humans.[17] Human development provides additional resources by clearing land, creating shrublands rich in berries and insects. When the cleared land naturally replenishes, jays and crows use the young dense trees for nesting sites. Ravens typically use larger trees in denser forests.[17] Despite the fact that most corvids are not threatened (many even increasing due to human activity) a few species are in danger. For example, the destruction of the Southeast Asian rainforests is endangering mixed-species feeding flocks with members from the family Corvidae.[39] Also, since its semiarid scrubland habitat is an endangered ecosystem, the Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay
has a small and declining population.[40][41] A number of island species, which are more vulnerable to introduced species and habitat loss, have been driven to extinction, such as the New Zealand raven, or are threatened, like the Mariana crow. The American crow
American crow
population of the United States has grown over the years. It is possible that the American crow, due to humans increasing suitable habitat, will cause Northwestern crows and fish crows to decline.[42] Species[edit] FAMILY CORVIDAE

Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
vagabunda

Yellow-billed blue magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
flavirostris

Eurasian jay
Eurasian jay
( Garrulus
Garrulus
glandarius)

Eurasian magpie, Pica pica

Plush-crested jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
chrysops

Common raven, Corvus
Corvus
corax

Hooded crow, Corvus
Corvus
cornix

Thick-billed raven, Corvus
Corvus
crassirostris

Australian raven, Corvus
Corvus
coronoides

Choughs

Genus
Genus
Pyrrhocorax

Alpine chough, Pyrrhocorax
Pyrrhocorax
graculus Red-billed chough, Pyrrhocorax
Pyrrhocorax
pyrrhocorax

Treepies

Genus
Genus
Crypsirina

Hooded treepie, Crypsirina
Crypsirina
cucullata Racket-tailed treepie, Crypsirina
Crypsirina
temia

Genus
Genus
Dendrocitta

Andaman treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
bayleyi Bornean treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
cinerascens Grey treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
formosae Collared treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
frontalis White-bellied treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
leucogastra Sumatran treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
occipitalis Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta
Dendrocitta
vagabunda

Genus
Genus
Platysmurus

Black magpie, Platysmurus
Platysmurus
leucopterus

Genus
Genus
Temnurus

Ratchet-tailed treepie, Temnurus
Temnurus
temnurus

Oriental magpies

Genus
Genus
Cissa

Common green magpie, Cissa chinensis Indochinese green magpie, Cissa hypoleuca Javan green magpie, Cissa thalassina Bornean green magpie, Cissa jefferyi

Genus
Genus
Urocissa

Taiwan blue magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
caerulea Red-billed blue magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
erythrorhyncha Yellow-billed blue magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
flavirostris Sri Lanka blue magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
ornata White-winged magpie, Urocissa
Urocissa
whiteheadi

Old World
Old World
jays

Genus
Genus
Garrulus

Eurasian jay, Garrulus
Garrulus
glandarius Black-headed jay, Garrulus
Garrulus
lanceolatus Lidth's jay, Garrulus
Garrulus
lidthi

Genus
Genus
Podoces
Podoces
– ground jays

Biddulph's ground jay, Podoces
Podoces
biddulphi Henderson's ground jay, Podoces
Podoces
hendersoni Pander's ground jay, Podoces
Podoces
panderi Pleske's ground jay, Podoces
Podoces
pleskei

Piapiac

Genus
Genus
Ptilostomus

Piapiac, Ptilostomus
Ptilostomus
afer

Stresemann's bushcrow

Genus
Genus
Zavattariornis

Stresemann's bushcrow, Zavattariornis
Zavattariornis
stresemanni

Nutcrackers

Genus
Genus
Nucifraga

Spotted nutcracker, Nucifraga
Nucifraga
caryocatactes Large-spotted nutcracker, Nucifraga
Nucifraga
multipunctata Clark's nutcracker, Nucifraga
Nucifraga
columbiana

Holarctic
Holarctic
magpies

Genus
Genus
Pica

Black-billed magpie, Pica hudsonia Yellow-billed magpie, Pica nuttalli Eurasian magpie, Pica pica

Korean magpie, Pica (pica) sericea

Genus
Genus
Cyanopica

Azure-winged magpie, Cyanopica
Cyanopica
cyanus Iberian magpie, Cyanopica
Cyanopica
cooki

True crows (crows, ravens, jackdaws and rooks)

Genus
Genus
Corvus

Australian and Melanesian species

Little crow, Corvus
Corvus
bennetti Australian raven, Corvus
Corvus
coronoides Bismarck crow, Corvus
Corvus
insularis Brown-headed crow, Corvus
Corvus
fuscicapillus Bougainville crow, Corvus
Corvus
meeki Little raven, Corvus
Corvus
mellori New Caledonian crow, Corvus
Corvus
moneduloides Torresian crow, Corvus
Corvus
orru Forest raven, Corvus
Corvus
tasmanicus

Relict raven, Corvus
Corvus
(tasmanicus) boreus

Grey crow, Corvus
Corvus
tristis Long-billed crow, Corvus
Corvus
validus White-billed crow, Corvus
Corvus
woodfordi

Pacific island species

ʻAlalā (Hawaiian crow), Corvus
Corvus
hawaiiensis (formerly Corvus tropicus) (extinct in the wild) Mariana crow, Corvus
Corvus
kubaryi

Tropical Asian species

Daurian jackdaw, Corvus
Corvus
dauuricus Slender-billed crow, Corvus
Corvus
enca Flores crow, Corvus
Corvus
florensis Large-billed crow, Corvus
Corvus
macrorhynchos Eastern jungle crow, Corvus
Corvus
levaillantii Indian jungle crow, Corvus
Corvus
culminatus House crow, Corvus
Corvus
splendens Collared crow, Corvus
Corvus
torquatus Piping crow, Corvus
Corvus
typicus Banggai crow, Corvus
Corvus
unicolor

Eurasian and North African species

Hooded crow, Corvus
Corvus
cornix

Mesopotamian crow, Corvus
Corvus
(cornix) capellanus

Carrion
Carrion
crow (western carrion crow), Corvus
Corvus
corone

Eastern carrion crow, Corvus
Corvus
(corone) orientalis

Rook, Corvus
Corvus
frugilegus Western jackdaw, Corvus
Corvus
monedula Fan-tailed raven, Corvus
Corvus
rhipidurus Brown-necked raven, Corvus
Corvus
ruficollis

Holarctic
Holarctic
species

Common raven, Corvus
Corvus
corax (see also next section)

Pied raven, Corvus
Corvus
corax varius morpha leucophaeus (an extinct color variant)

North and Central American species

American crow, Corvus
Corvus
brachyrhynchos Northwestern crow, Corvus
Corvus
caurinus Chihuahuan raven, Corvus
Corvus
cryptoleucus Tamaulipas crow, Corvus
Corvus
imparatus Jamaican crow, Corvus
Corvus
jamaicensis White-necked crow, Corvus
Corvus
leucognaphalus Cuban crow, Corvus
Corvus
nasicus Fish crow, Corvus
Corvus
ossifragus Palm crow, Corvus
Corvus
palmarum Sinaloan crow, Corvus
Corvus
sinaloae Western raven, Corvus
Corvus
(corax) sinuatus

Tropical African species

White-necked raven, Corvus
Corvus
albicollis Pied crow, Corvus
Corvus
albus Cape crow, Corvus
Corvus
capensis Thick-billed raven, Corvus
Corvus
crassirostris Somali crow
Somali crow
(dwarf raven), Corvus
Corvus
edithae

Boreal jays

Genus
Genus
Perisoreus

Gray jay, Perisoreus
Perisoreus
canadensis Siberian jay, Perisoreus
Perisoreus
infaustus Sichuan jay, Perisoreus
Perisoreus
internigrans

New World jays

Genus
Genus
Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
– scrub-jays

California scrub jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
californica Island scrub jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
insularis Woodhouse's scrub jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
woodhouseii Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens Mexican jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
wollweberi Transvolcanic jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
ultramarina Unicolored jay, Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
unicolor

Genus
Genus
Calocitta
Calocitta
– magpie-jays

Black-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta
Calocitta
colliei White-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta
Calocitta
formosa

Genus
Genus
Cyanocitta

Blue jay, Cyanocitta
Cyanocitta
cristata Steller's jay, Cyanocitta
Cyanocitta
stelleri

Genus
Genus
Cyanocorax

Black-chested jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
affinis Purplish-backed jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
beecheii Azure jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
caeruleus Cayenne jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
cayanus Plush-crested jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
chrysops Curl-crested jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
cristatellus Purplish jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
cyanomelas White-naped jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
cyanopogon Tufted jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
dickeyi Azure-naped jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
heilprini Bushy-crested jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
melanocyaneus White-tailed jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
mystacalis San Blas jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
sanblasianus Violaceous jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
violaceus Green jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
ynca Yucatan jay, Cyanocorax
Cyanocorax
yucatanicus

Genus
Genus
Psilorhinus

Brown jay, Psilorhinus
Psilorhinus
morio

Genus
Genus
Cyanolyca

Silvery-throated jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
argentigula Black-collared jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
armillata Azure-hooded jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
cucullata White-throated jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
mirabilis Dwarf jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
nana Beautiful jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
pulchra Black-throated jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
pumilo Turquoise jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
turcosa White-collared jay, Cyanolyca
Cyanolyca
viridicyana

Genus
Genus
Gymnorhinus

Pinyon jay, Gymnorhinus
Gymnorhinus
cyanocephalus

Notes[edit]

^ See the genus accounts for more. ^ e.g. Icelandic: hrafnaguð, as per the Gylfaginning.

References[edit]

^ a b Madge, S.; Burn, H. (1993). Crows and Jays. Helm. ISBN 1-873403-18-6.  ^ a b c d e f Robertson, Don (30 January 2000): Bird
Bird
Families of the World: Corvidae. Retrieved 2007-NOV-10. ^ a b c d Clayton, Nicola; Emery, Nathan (2005). "Corvid cognition". Current Biology. 15 (3): R80–R81. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.020. PMID 15694292.  ^ a b Prior, Helmut; Schwarz, Ariane; Güntürkün, Onur (2008). De Waal, Frans, ed. "Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie
Magpie
(Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLoS Biology. 6 (8): e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202. PMC 2517622 . PMID 18715117.  ^ "Rooks reveal remarkable tool-use". BBC News. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ a b Birding in India and South Asia: Corvidae. Retrieved 2007-NOV-10 ^ Leach, William Elford (1820). "Eleventh Room". Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum (17th ed.). London: British Museum. pp. 65–70. OCLC 6213801.  The name of the author is not specified in the document. ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 118, 222.  ^ a b c Jønsson, Knud A.; Fjeldså, Jon (2006). "A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri)". Zoologica Scripta. 35 (2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x.  ^ Ericson, Per G. P.; Jansén, Anna-Lee; Johansson, Ulf S.; Ekman, Jan (2005). "Inter-generic relationships of the crows, jays, magpies and allied groups (Aves: Corvidae) based on nucleotide sequence data" (PDF). Journal of Avian Biology. 36 (3): 222–234. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2001.03409.x.  ^ Goodwin, D. (1986) Crows of the world. (2nd edition). British Museum of Natural History. ISBN 0-565-00979-6 ^ James, Helen F.; Ericson, Per G.P.; Slikas, Beth; Lei, Fu-min; Olson, Storrs L. (2003). "Pseudopodoces humilis, a misclassified terrestrial tit (Aves: Paridae) of the Tibetan Plateau: evolutionary consequences of shifting adaptive zones" (PDF). Ibis. 145 (2): 185–202. doi:10.1046/j.1474-919X.2003.00170.x.  ^ Boyd, J. " Corvoidea genus tree" (PDF). jboyd.net. Retrieved 2017-06-19.  ^ Proximal right coracoid of a jay-sized bird, perhaps an Holarctic magpie distinct from Pica: Wetmore, Alexander (1937). "The Eared Grebe and other Birds from the Pliocene
Pliocene
of Kansas" (PDF). Condor. 39 (1): 40. doi:10.2307/1363487. JSTOR 1363487.  ^ Perrins, Christopher (2003): The New Encyclopedia of Birds Oxford University Press: Oxford ISBN 0-19-852506-0 ^ a b c d e Shades of Night: The Aviary. Version of 2004-JUL-21. Retrieved 2007-NOV-10. ^ a b c d e Marzluff, John M.; Neatherlin, Eric (2006). "Corvid response to human settlements and campgrounds: Causes, consequences, and challenges for conservation". Biological Conservation. 130 (2): 301–314. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.12.026.  ^ Thompson, D. L.; Green, R. E.; Gregory, R. D.; Baillie, S. R. (1998). "The widespread declines of songbirds in rural Britain do not correlate with the spread of their avian predators". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 265 (1410): 2057–2062. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0540.  ^ a b Verhulst, Sion; Salomons, H. Martijn (2004). "Why fight? Socially dominant jackdaws, Corvus
Corvus
monedula, have low fitness". Animal Behaviour. 68 (4): 777–783. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.12.020.  ^ Gill, F.B. (2003) Ornithology (2nd edition). W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. ISBN 0-7167-2415-4 ^ Patterson, I. J.; Dunnet, G. M.; Fordham, R. A. (1971). "Ecological studies of the Rook Corvus
Corvus
frugilegus L. in northeast Scotland. Dispersion". J. Appl. Ecol. 8 (3): 815–833. doi:10.2307/2402685. JSTOR 2402685.  ^ Li, Shou-Hsien; Brown, Jerram L. (2000). "High frequency of extrapair fertilization in a plural breeding bird, the Mexican jay, revealed by DNA microsatellites". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 60 (6): 867–877. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1554. PMID 11124886.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Corvidae. Free subscription required. ^ Berg, Elena C. (2005). "Parentage and reproductive success in the white-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta
Calocitta
formosa, a cooperative breeder with female helpers". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 70 (2): 375–385. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.11.008.  ^ Krushinskii, L. V.; Zorina, Z. A.; Dashevskiy, B. A. (1979). "Ability of birds of the Corvidae
Corvidae
family to operate by the empirical dimensions of figures". Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatelnosti imeni I P Pavlova. 29 (3): 590–7. PMID 112801.  ^ Rincon, Paul (22 February 2005) Crows and jays top bird IQ scale. BBC. ^ Emery, Nathan; Clayton, Nicola (2004). "The Mentality of Crows: Convergent Evolution of Intelligence in Corvids and Apes". Science. 306 (5703): 1903–7. Bibcode:2004Sci...306.1903E. doi:10.1126/science.1098410. PMID 15591194.  ^ Bond, Alan B.; Kamil, Alan C.; Balda, Russell P. (2003). "Social complexity and transitive inference in corvids" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 65 (3): 479–487. doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2101.  ^ Magpies grieve for their dead (and even turn up for funerals) By DAVID DERBYSHIRE FOR MAILONLINE, UPDATED: 01:57, 24 October 2009 ^ a b Animal
Animal
emotions, wild justice and why they matter: Grieving magpies, a pissy baboon, and empathic elephants Emotion, Space and Society xxx (2009) 1–4, Marc Bekoff ^ "Attenborough – Crows in the City". YouTube.com. 12 February 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ Burnell, Kristi L.; Tomback, Diane F. (1985). "Steller's jays steal Grey Jay
Jay
caches: field and laboratory observation". Auk. 102 (2): 417–419. doi:10.2307/4086793. JSTOR 4086793.  ^ Waite, Thomas A. (1992). "Social hoarding and a load size-distance relationship in Gray Jays". The Condor. 94 (4): 995–998. doi:10.2307/1369297. JSTOR 1369297.  ^ Owen, James (9 December 2004) Crows as Clever as Great Apes, Study Says. National Geographic News, Retrieved 2007-NOV-10. ^ Morelle, Rebecca (20 April 2010). "BBC On-line: Clever New Caledonian crows can use three tools". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ Jones, Juli E.; Antoniadis, Elena; Shettleworth, Sara J.; Kamil, Alan C. (2002). "A Comparative Study of Geometric Rule Learning by Nutcrackers ( Nucifraga
Nucifraga
columbiana), Pigeons (Columba livia), and Jackdaws ( Corvus
Corvus
monedula)" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Psychology. 116 (4): 350–356. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.116.4.350. PMID 12539930.  ^ Eidson, M; Komar, N; Sorhage, F; Nelson, R; Talbot, T; Mostashari, F; McLean, R; West Nile Virus Avian Mortality Surveillance Group (2001). " Crow
Crow
deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 7 (4): 615–20. doi:10.3201/eid0704.010402. PMC 2631775 . PMID 11585521.  ^ Chappell, J. (2006). "Living with the Trickster: Crows, Ravens, and Human Culture". PLoS Biology. 4 (1): e14. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040014. PMC 1326277 .  ^ Lee, T. M.; Soh, M. C. K.; Sodhi, N.; Koh, L. P.; Lim, S. L. H. (2005). "Effects of habitat disturbance on mixed species bird flocks in a tropical sub-montane rainforest". Biological Conservation. 122 (2): 193–204. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.07.005.  ^ BirdLife International. (2016). Aphelocoma
Aphelocoma
coerulescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22705629A94028132.en ^ Breininger, D. R.; Toland, B.; Oddy, D. M.; Legare, M. L. (2006). "Landcover characterizations and Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) population dynamics" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 128 (2): 169–181. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.026.  ^ Marzluff, John M.; Angell, T. (2005). In the Company of Crows and Ravens. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10076-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward ([1991]): Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, ISBN 0-300-04085-7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corvidae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Corvidae

Corvidae
Corvidae
videos on the Internet Bird
Bird
Collection corvids.de – Corvids-Literature-Database Corvidae
Corvidae
sounds on xeno-canto.org Corvid Corner A site about the Corvidae AvesNoir A site about corvids in art, culture, and literature. Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow Rooks reveal remarkable tool use Clever New Caledonian crows can use three tools Talking Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
Pica pica Rare crow shows a talent for tool use

v t e

Extant species of family Corvidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Subclass: Neornithes Superorder: Neognathae Order: Passeriformes

Family Corvidae

Choughs

Pyrrhocorax

Alpine chough
Alpine chough
(P. graculus) Red-billed chough
Red-billed chough
(P. pyrrhocorax)

Treepies

Crypsirina

Hooded treepie
Hooded treepie
(C. cucullata) Black racket-tailed treepie
Black racket-tailed treepie
(C. temia)

Dendrocitta

Andaman treepie
Andaman treepie
(D. bayleyi) Bornean treepie
Bornean treepie
(D. cinerascens) Grey treepie
Grey treepie
(D. formosae) Black-faced treepie
Black-faced treepie
(D. frontalis) White-bellied treepie
White-bellied treepie
(D. leucogastra) Sumatran treepie
Sumatran treepie
(D. occipitalis) Rufous treepie
Rufous treepie
(D. vagabunda)

Platysmurus

Black magpie
Black magpie
(P. leucopterus)

Bornean black magpie (P. l. aterrimus)

Temnurus

Ratchet-tailed treepie
Ratchet-tailed treepie
(T. temnurus)

Oriental magpies

Cissa

Common green magpie
Common green magpie
(C. chinensis) Indochinese green magpie
Indochinese green magpie
(C. hypoleuca) Bornean green magpie
Bornean green magpie
(C. jefferyi) Javan green magpie
Javan green magpie
(C. thalassina)

Urocissa

Taiwan blue magpie
Taiwan blue magpie
(U. caerulea) Red-billed blue magpie
Red-billed blue magpie
(U. erythrorhyncha) Yellow-billed blue magpie
Yellow-billed blue magpie
(U. flavirostris) Sri Lanka blue magpie
Sri Lanka blue magpie
(U. ornata) White-winged magpie
White-winged magpie
(U. whiteheadi)

Old World
Old World
jays

Garrulus

Eurasian jay
Eurasian jay
(G. glandarius) Lanceolated jay
Lanceolated jay
(G. lanceolatus) Lidth's jay
Lidth's jay
(G. lidthi)

Podoces (Ground jays)

Biddulph's ground jay
Biddulph's ground jay
(P. biddulphi) Henderson's ground jay
Henderson's ground jay
(P. hendersoni) Pander's ground jay
Pander's ground jay
(P. panderi) Persian ground jay (P. pleskei)

Ptilostomus

Piapiac
Piapiac
(P. afer)

Stresemann's bushcrow

Zavattariornis

Stresemann's bushcrow
Stresemann's bushcrow
(Z. stresemanni)

Family Corvidae
Corvidae
(continued)

Nutcrackers

Nucifraga

Spotted nutcracker
Spotted nutcracker
(N. caryocatactes) Clark's nutcracker
Clark's nutcracker
(N. columbiana)

Holarctic magpies

Pica

Black-billed magpie
Black-billed magpie
(P. hudsonia) Yellow-billed magpie
Yellow-billed magpie
(P. nuttalli) Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
(P. pica) Korean magpie
Korean magpie
(P. sericea)

True crows (crows, ravens, jackdaws and rooks)

Corvus

Australian and Melanesian species Little crow (C. bennetti) Australian raven
Australian raven
(C. coronoides) Bismarck crow
Bismarck crow
(C. insularis) Brown-headed crow
Brown-headed crow
(C. fuscicapillus) Bougainville crow
Bougainville crow
(C. meeki) Little raven
Little raven
(C. mellori) New Caledonian crow
New Caledonian crow
(C. moneduloides) Torresian crow
Torresian crow
(C. orru) Forest raven
Forest raven
(C. tasmanicus) Grey crow
Grey crow
(C. tristis) Long-billed crow
Long-billed crow
(C. validus) White-billed crow
White-billed crow
(C. woodfordi)

Pacific island species Hawaiian crow
Hawaiian crow
(C. hawaiiensis) Mariana crow
Mariana crow
(C. kubaryi)

Tropical Asian species Daurian jackdaw
Daurian jackdaw
(C. dauuricus) Slender-billed crow
Slender-billed crow
(C. enca) Flores crow
Flores crow
(C. florensis) Large-billed crow
Large-billed crow
(C. macrorhynchos) Eastern jungle crow
Eastern jungle crow
(C. levaillantii) Indian jungle crow
Indian jungle crow
(C. culminatus) House crow
House crow
(C. splendens) Collared crow
Collared crow
(C. torquatus) Piping crow
Piping crow
(C. typicus) Banggai crow
Banggai crow
(C. unicolor) Violet crow (C. violaceus)

Eurasian and North African species Mesopotamian crow
Mesopotamian crow
(C. capellanus) Hooded crow
Hooded crow
(C. cornix) Carrion
Carrion
crow (C. corone) Rook (C. frugilegus) Jackdaw
Jackdaw
(C. monedula ) Eastern carrion crow
Eastern carrion crow
(C. orientalis) Fan-tailed raven
Fan-tailed raven
(C. rhipidurus) Brown-necked raven
Brown-necked raven
(C. ruficollis)

Holarctic
Holarctic
species Common raven
Common raven
(C. corax)

North and Central American species American crow
American crow
(C. brachyrhynchos) Northwestern crow
Northwestern crow
(C. caurinus) Chihuahuan raven
Chihuahuan raven
(C. cryptoleucus) Tamaulipas crow
Tamaulipas crow
(C. imparatus) Jamaican crow
Jamaican crow
(C. jamaicensis) White-necked crow
White-necked crow
(C. leucognaphalus) Cuban crow
Cuban crow
(C. nasicus) Fish crow
Fish crow
(C. ossifragus) Palm crow
Palm crow
(C. palmarum) Sinaloan crow
Sinaloan crow
(C. sinaloae)

Tropical African species White-necked raven
White-necked raven
(C. albicollis) Pied crow
Pied crow
(C. albus) Cape crow
Cape crow
(C. capensis) Thick-billed raven
Thick-billed raven
(C. crassirostris) Somali crow
Somali crow
(C. edithae)

Family Corvidae
Corvidae
(continued)

Azure-winged magpies

Cyanopica

Iberian magpie
Iberian magpie
(C. cooki) Azure-winged magpie
Azure-winged magpie
(C. cyanus)

Grey jays

Perisoreus

Grey jay
Grey jay
(P. canadensis) Siberian jay
Siberian jay
(P. infaustus) Sichuan jay
Sichuan jay
(P. internigrans)

New World jays

Aphelocoma (Scrub jays)

California scrub jay
California scrub jay
(A. californica) Island scrub jay
Island scrub jay
(A. insularis) Woodhouse's scrub jay
Woodhouse's scrub jay
(A. woodhouseii) Florida scrub jay
Florida scrub jay
(A. coerulescens) Transvolcanic jay
Transvolcanic jay
(A. ultramarina) Unicolored jay
Unicolored jay
(A. unicolor) Mexican jay
Mexican jay
(A. wollweberi)

Calocitta (Magpie-Jays)

Black-throated magpie-jay
Black-throated magpie-jay
(C. colliei) White-throated Magpie-jay (C. formosa)

Cyanocitta

Blue jay
Blue jay
(C. cristata) Steller's jay
Steller's jay
(C. stelleri)

Cyanocorax

Black-chested jay
Black-chested jay
(C. affinis) Purplish-backed jay
Purplish-backed jay
(C. beecheii) Azure jay
Azure jay
(C. caeruleus) Cayenne jay
Cayenne jay
(C. cayanus) Plush-crested jay
Plush-crested jay
(C. chrysops) Curl-crested jay
Curl-crested jay
(C. cristatellus) Purplish jay
Purplish jay
(C. cyanomelas) White-naped jay
White-naped jay
(C. cyanopogon) Tufted jay
Tufted jay
(C. dickeyi) Azure-naped jay
Azure-naped jay
(C. heilprini) Bushy-crested jay
Bushy-crested jay
(C. melanocyaneus) Brown jay
Brown jay
(C. morio) White-tailed jay
White-tailed jay
(C. mystacalis) San Blas jay
San Blas jay
(C. sanblasianus) Violaceous jay
Violaceous jay
(C. violaceus) Green jay
Green jay
(C. ynca) Yucatan jay
Yucatan jay
(C. yucatanicus)

Cyanolyca

Silvery-throated jay
Silvery-throated jay
(C. argentigula) Black-collared jay
Black-collared jay
(C. armillata) Azure-hooded jay
Azure-hooded jay
(C. cucullata) White-throated jay
White-throated jay
(C. mirabilis) Dwarf jay
Dwarf jay
(C. nana) Beautiful jay
Beautiful jay
(C. pulchra) Black-throated jay
Black-throated jay
(C. pumilo) Turquoise jay
Turquoise jay
(C. turcosa) White-collared jay
White-collared jay
(C. viridicyana)

Gymnorhinus

Pinyon jay
Pinyon jay
(G. cyanocephalus)

Birds portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q25565 EoL: 7557 EPPO: 1CORVF Fauna Europaea: 10847 Fossilworks: 39445 GBIF: 5235 ITIS: 179665 NCBI: 28725 WoRMS: 159386

Authority control

LCCN: sh85033

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