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COPTIC or COPTIC EGYPTIAN (Bohairic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ _ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi_ and Sahidic: ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ _t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme_) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language , a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt
Egypt
until at least the 17th century. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet , an adaptation of the Greek alphabet with the addition of six or seven signs from demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language
Greek language
did not have, in the first century AD.

Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are _Sahidic_, originating in parts of Upper Egypt
Egypt
, and _Bohairic_, originally from the western Nile Delta in Lower Egypt
Egypt
.

Coptic and Demotic are grammatically closely related to Late Egyptian , which was written with Egyptian hieroglyphs . Coptic flourished as a literary language from the second to thirteenth centuries, and its Bohairic dialect continues to be the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria . It was supplanted by Egyptian Arabic as a spoken language toward the early modern period , but language revitalization efforts have been underway since the 19th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geographic distribution

* 2.1 Influence on other languages

* 3 History

* 3.1 Pre-Islamic period * 3.2 Islamic period

* 4 Writing system
Writing system
* 5 Literature * 6 Vocabulary

* 7 Phonology

* 7.1 Vowels * 7.2 Consonants

* 8 Grammar

* 8.1 Nouns

* 8.1.1 Pronouns

* 8.2 Adjectives

* 8.3 Verbs

* 8.3.1 Verbal grade system * 8.3.2 Tense/aspect/mood inflection * 8.3.3 Second tenses

* 8.4 Prepositions * 8.5 Syntax

* 9 Sentential syntax

* 10 Dialects

* 10.1 Upper Egypt
Egypt

* 10.1.1 Sahidic * 10.1.2 Akhmimic * 10.1.3 Lycopolitan

* 10.2 Lower Egypt
Egypt

* 10.2.1 Bohairic * 10.2.2 Fayyumic * 10.2.3 Oxyrhynchite

* 11 See also * 12 References

* 13 Further reading

* 13.1 General studies * 13.2 Grammars and grammatical studies * 13.3 Dictionaries * 13.4 Phonology * 13.5 Bibliography

* 14 External links

NAME

The native Coptic name for the language is ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ /timetremenˈkʰeːmi/ in the Bohairic (Delta) dialect, ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ /tmentremenˈkiːme/ in the Sahidic (Valley) dialect. The particle prefix _me(n)t-_ from the verb ⲙⲟⲩϯ _mouti_ ('to speak') forms all abstract nouns in Coptic (not only those pertaining to "language"). The term _remenkhēmi/remenkēme_ meaning 'Egyptian', literally 'person of Egypt', is a compound of _rem-_, which is the construct state of the Coptic noun ⲣⲱⲙⲓ/ⲣⲱⲙⲉ, 'man, human being', + the genitive preposition _(e)n-_ 'of' + the word for 'Egypt', ⲭⲏⲙⲓ/ⲕⲏⲙⲉ _khēmi/kēme_ (cf. Kemet ). Thus, the whole expression literally means 'language of the people of Egypt', or simply 'Egyptian language'.

Another name by which the language has been called is ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ _/timentkuptaion/_ from the Copto-Greek form ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲓⲟⲛ _/timentaiguption/_ ('Egyptian language'). The term _logos ən aiguptios_ ('Egyptian language') is also attested in Sahidic, but _logos_ and _aiguptios_ are both Greek in origin. In the liturgy of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria , the name is more officially ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ _ti aspi ən rem ən kēmi_, 'the Egyptian language', _aspi_ being the Egyptian word for language.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

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Unicode
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Coptic is today spoken liturgically in the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Church (along with Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
). The language is spoken only in Egypt
Egypt
and historically has had little influence outside of the territory, except for monasteries located in Nubia
Nubia
. Coptic's most noticeable linguistic impact has been on the various dialects of Egyptian Arabic , which is characterized by a Coptic substratum in lexical , morphological , syntactical , and phonological features.

INFLUENCE ON OTHER LANGUAGES

In addition to influencing the grammar, vocabulary and syntax of Egyptian Arabic, Coptic has lent to both Arabic
Arabic
and Biblical Hebrew such words as:

* _timsāḥ_, تمساح (Arabic), תמסח (Hebrew) – "crocodile"; ⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ _emsaḥ_; this subsequently entered Turkish as _timsah_. It should be noted, however, that Coptic ⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ is grammatically masculine and hence would have been vocalised _pemsaḥ_ or _bemsaḥ_ (Sahidic: ⲡⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ; Bohairic: ⲡⲓⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ). Hence it is unclear why the word should have entered Arabic
Arabic
with an initial _t_, which would have required the word to be grammatically feminine (i.e. Sahidic: *ⲧⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ; Bohairic: *ϯⲉⲙⲥⲁϩ). * _ṭūbah_ طوبة "brick"; Sahidic ⲧⲱⲃⲉ _to:be_; Bohairic ⲧⲱⲃⲓ _to:bi_; this subsequently entered Catalan and Spanish (via Andalusian Arabic
Arabic
) as _tova_ and _adobe _ respectively, the latter of which was borrowed by American English . * _wāḥah_ واحة "oasis"; Sahidic ⲟⲩⲁϩⲉ _waḥe_, Bohairic ⲟⲩⲉϩⲓ _weḥi_; this subsequently entered Turkish as _vaha_

A few words of Coptic origin are found in the Greek language
Greek language
; some of the words were later lent to various European languages (such as _barge _, from Coptic ⲃⲁⲁⲣⲉ _bari_, "small boat").

However, most words of Egyptian origin that entered into Greek and subsequently into other European languages came directly from Ancient Egyptian, often Demotic . An example is the Greek ὄασις _oasis_, which comes directly from Egyptian _wḥ3.t_ or demotic _wḥỉ_. However, Coptic reborrowed some words of Ancient Egyptian origin into its lexicon, via Greek. For example, both Sahidic and Bohairic use the word _ebenos_, which was taken directly from Greek ἔβενος "ebony", originally from Egyptian _hbny_.

Many major cities' names in modern Egypt
Egypt
are Arabic
Arabic
adaptations of their former Coptic names :

* Tanta – ⲧⲁⲛⲧⲁⲑⲟ (_Tantatho_) * Asyut
Asyut
– ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ (_Siowt_) * Faiyum – ⲡⲉⲓⲟⲙ (_Peiom_) * Dumyat – ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ (_Tamiati_) * Aswan
Aswan
– ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ (_Suan_) * Damanhur – ϯⲙⲓⲛϩⲱⲣ (_Timinhor_)

The Coptic name ⲡⲁⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ, _papnoute_ (from Egyptian _pa-ph-nuti_), means "the (man) of God". It was adapted into Arabic
Arabic
as Babnouda, which remains a common name among Egyptian Copts
Copts
to this day. It was also borrowed into Greek as the name Παφνούτιος (Paphnutius ). That, in turn, is the source of the Russian name Пафнутий (Pafnuty), like the mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshev .

The Old Nubian language and the modern Nobiin language borrowed many words of Coptic origin.

HISTORY

Fifth–sixth century Coptic liturgic inscription from Upper Egypt
Egypt
.

The Egyptian language may have the longest documented history of any language, from Old Egyptian that appeared just before 3200 BC to its final phases as Coptic in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Coptic belongs to the Later Egyptian phase, which started to be written in the New Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
. Later Egyptian represented colloquial speech of the later periods. It had analytic features like definite and indefinite articles and periphrastic verb conjugation. Coptic, therefore, is a reference to both the most recent stage of Egyptian after Demotic and the new writing system that was adapted from the Greek alphabet.

PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

The earliest attempts to write the Egyptian language using the Greek alphabet are Greek transcriptions of Egyptian proper names, most of which date to the Ptolemaic period . Scholars frequently refer to this phase as pre-Coptic. However, it is clear that by the late pharaonic period , demotic scribes regularly employed a more phonetic orthography, a testament to the increasing cultural contact between Egyptians and Greeks
Greeks
even before Alexander the Great 's conquest of Egypt
Egypt
. Coptic itself, or Old Coptic, takes root in the first century. The transition from the older Egyptian scripts to the newly adapted Coptic alphabet was in part due to the decline of the traditional role played by the priestly class of ancient Egyptian religion , who unlike most ordinary Egyptians, were literate in the temple scriptoria. Old Coptic is represented mostly by non-Christian texts such as Egyptian pagan prayers and magical and astrological papyri. Many of them served as glosses to original hieratic and demotic equivalents. The glosses may have been aimed at non-Egyptian speakers. Eighth century Coptic manuscript of Luke 5.5–9

Under late Roman rule , Diocletian persecuted many Egyptian converts to the new Christian faith , which forced new converts to flee to the Egyptian deserts. In time, the growth of these communities generated the need to write Christian Greek instructions in the Egyptian language. The early Fathers of the Egyptian Church, such as Anthony the Great , Pachomius the Great , Macarius of Egypt
Egypt
and Athanasius of Alexandria , who otherwise usually wrote in Greek, addressed some of their works to the Egyptian monks in Egyptian. The Egyptian language, now written in the Coptic alphabet, flourished in the second and third centuries. However, it was not until Shenoute that Coptic became a fully standardized literary language based on the Sahidic dialect. Shenouda's native Egyptian tongue and knowledge of Greek and rhetoric gave him the necessary tools to elevate Coptic, in content and style, to a literary height nearly equal to the position of the Egyptian language in Ancient Egypt
Egypt
.

ISLAMIC PERIOD

The Muslim conquest of Egypt
Egypt
by Arabs
Arabs
came with the spread of Islam in the seventh century. At the turn of the eighth century, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan decreed that Arabic
Arabic
replace Koine Greek and Coptic as the sole administrative language. Literary Coptic gradually declined, and within a few hundred years, Egyptian bishop Severus Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ found it necessary to write his _History of the Patriarchs_ in Arabic. However, the language ecclesiastically retained its important position, and many hagiographic texts were also composed during this period. Until the 10th century, Coptic remained the spoken language of the native population outside the capital.

Persecutions under the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517) led to the further decline of Coptic until it completely gave way to Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
around the 17th century, though it may have survived in isolated pockets for a little longer. In the second half of the 19th century, Pope Cyril IV of Alexandria started a national Church-sponsored movement to revive Coptic. Several works of grammar were published, along with a more comprehensive dictionary than had been previously available. The scholarly findings of the field of Egyptology and the inauguration of the Institute of Coptic Studies further contributed to the renaissance. Efforts at language revitalization continue to be undertaken, both inside and outside the Church , and have attracted the interest of Copts
Copts
and linguists in and outside of Egypt.

WRITING SYSTEM

Main article: Coptic alphabet Stone with Coptic inscription

Coptic uses a writing system almost wholly derived from the Greek alphabet , with the addition of a number of letters that have their origins in Demotic Egyptian . (That makes it comparable to the Latin-based Icelandic alphabet , which includes the runic letter thorn .) There is some variation in the number and forms of these signs depending on the dialect. Some of the letters in the Coptic alphabet that are of Greek origin were normally reserved for words that are themselves Greek. Old Coptic texts employed several graphemes that were not retained in the literary Coptic orthography of later centuries.

In Sahidic, syllable boundary may have been marked by a supralinear stroke. Such words in the northern dialects have ⲉ ( or ) in place of the superlinear stroke. Some scribal traditions use a diaeresis over /i/ and /u/ at the beginning of a syllable . Bohairic uses a superposed point or small stroke known as a _djinkim_. It may be related to the Sahidic supralinear stroke, or it may indicate a glottal stop . Most Coptic texts do not indicate a word division.

LITERATURE

Main article: Coptic literature

The oldest Coptic writings date to the pre-Christian era (Old Coptic), though Coptic literature consists mostly of texts written by prominent saints of the Coptic Church such as Anthony the Great, Pachomius the Great and Shenoute. Shenoute helped fully standardize the Coptic language
Coptic language
through his many sermons, treatises and homilies, which formed the basis of early Coptic literature.

VOCABULARY

The core lexicon of Coptic is Egyptian , most closely related to the preceding Demotic phase of the language. Up to 20% of the vocabulary of literary Coptic is drawn from Greek , but borrowings are not always fully adapted to the Coptic phonological system and may have semantic differences as well. There are instances of Coptic texts having passages that are almost entirely composed from Greek lexical roots. However, that is likely due to the fact that the majority of Coptic religious texts are direct translations of Greek works.

‘What invariably attracts the attention of the reader of a Coptic text, especially if it is written in the Sa'idic dialect, is the very liberal use which is made of Greek loan words, of which so few, indeed, are to be found in the Ancient Egyptian language. There Greek loan words occur everywhere in Coptic literature, be it Biblical, liturgical, theological, or non-literary, i.e. legal documents and personal letters. Though nouns and verbs predominate, the Greek loan words may come from any other part of speech except pronouns.’

Words or concepts for which no adequate Egyptian translation existed were taken directly from Greek to avoid altering the meaning of the religious message. In addition, other Egyptian words that would have adequately translated the Greek equivalents were not employed as they were perceived as having overt pagan associations. Old Coptic texts employ many such words, phrases and epithets; for example, the word ⲧⲃⲁⲓⲧⲱⲩ '(Who is) in (His) Mountain', is an epithet of Anubis . There are also traces of some archaic grammatical features, such as residues of the Demotic relative clause , lack of an indefinite article and possessive use of suffixes.

Thus, the transition from the 'old' traditions to the new Christian religion also contributed to the adoption of Greek words into the Coptic religious lexicon. It is safe to assume that the everyday speech of the native population retained, to a greater extent, its indigenous Egyptian character, which is sometimes reflected in Coptic nonreligious documents such as letters and contracts.

PHONOLOGY

Coptic provides the clearest indication of Later Egyptian phonology from its writing system, which fully indicates vowel sounds and occasionally stress pattern. The phonological system of Later Egyptian is also better known than that of the Classical phase of the language because of a greater number of sources indicating Egyptian sounds, including cuneiform letters containing transcriptions of Egyptian words and phrases, and Egyptian renderings of Northwest Semitic names. Coptic sounds, in addition, are known from a variety of Coptic-Arabic papyri in which Arabic
Arabic
letters were used to transcribe Coptic and vice versa. They date to the medieval Islamic period, when Coptic was still spoken.

VOWELS

There are some differences of opinion among Coptic language
Coptic language
scholars on the correct phonetic interpretation of the writing system of Coptic. Differences centre on how to interpret the pairs of letters ε/η and ο/ω. In Greek spelling, the first member of each pair is a short closed vowel /e,o/, and the second member is a long open vowel /ɛː, ɔː/. In some interpretations of Coptic phonology (Plumley 1948), it is assumed that the length difference is primary, with ε/η e/eː and ο/ω is o/oː. Other scholars (Greenberg 1962/1990, Lambdin 1983:xii-ix) argue for a different analysis in which ε/η and ο/ω are interpreted as e/ɛ and o/ɔ.

These two charts show the two theories of Coptic vowel phonology:

MONOPHTHONG PHONEMES (LENGTH THEORY)

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE iː

CLOSE-MID eː e

oː o

MID

ə

OPEN

a

MONOPHTHONG PHONEMES (VOWEL QUALITY THEORY)

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE iː

CLOSE-MID e

o

MID ɛ ə ɔ

OPEN

a

In the Upper Egyptian dialects, a superlinear stroke is placed over sonorants to mark a reduced /e/. The vowel does not undergo reduction in the northern dialects, where it is indicated by ⲉ in Bohairic and ⲏ or ⲩ in Fayyumic. For example, /ʃemʃə/ 'to worship' is Sah/Akh/Lyc ϣⲙ̅ϣⲉ, Bohairic ϣⲉⲙϣⲓ and Fayyumic ϣⲏⲙϣⲓ. The vowel quality of /e/ can vary: either or depending on the dialect. In Sahidic and other Upper Egyptian dialects, word-final ⲉ corresponds to word-final ⲓ in the northern dialects.

The vowel /ɑ/ is typically represented by ⲁ, and its presence may be an indicator of emphasis spread in the same syllable. For example, ⲥⲁ (used in the construction 'man of ') is transcribed ⟨sˤɑ⟩ in medieval Coptic- Arabic
Arabic
papyri. In some phonetic environments, /o/ is a more open , and /a/ is a more forward . The vowel /ə/ is always unstressed and can be reduced to zero as in earlier Egyptian scripts, which did not indicate unstressed and most stressed vowels.

Coptic also has three to four diphthongs (mainly , and ), but they may be interpreted as series of vowels and glides. In some dialects, they are monophthongized .

CONSONANTS

As with the vowels, there are differences of opinion over the correct interpretation of the Coptic consonant letters, particular the letters ϫ and Ϭ. ϫ is transcribed as ⟨j⟩ in many older Coptic sources and Ϭ as /ɡ/ (Plumley 1947) or /tʃ/. Lambdin (1983) notes that the current conventional pronunciations are different from the probable ancient pronunciations: ϫ was probably pronounced and Ϭ was probably pronounced . Reintges (2004:22) suggests that ϫ was pronounced .

The following chart shows the consonants that are represented in Sahidic Coptic orthography. Consonants that are rare or found primarily in Greek loanwords are shown in parentheses:

Sahidic Coptic consonants

LABIAL ALVEOLAR Post- alveolar VELAR GLOTTAL

PLAIN DEN. PLAIN PAL. PLAIN PAL.

NASAL m

n

STOP VOICELESS p

t tʲ

k kʲ ʔ

VOICED

(d )

(g )

AFFRICATE VOICELESS

(t͡ʃ )

VOICED

(d͡ʒ )

FRICATIVE VOICELESS

f s

ʃ

h

VOICED β

(z )

APPROXIMANT w

l

j

TRILL

r

Bohairic Coptic has an additional consonant, /x/, spelled Ϧ. It is possible that in the ancient pronunciation of Coptic that there were additional consonants not spelled in the writing system, such as /ʕ/.

Earlier phases of Egyptian may have contrasted voiceless and voiced bilabial plosives, but the distinction seems to have been lost. Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic all interchangeably use their respective graphemes to indicate either sound; for example, Coptic for 'iron' appears alternately as ⲡⲉⲛⲓⲡⲉ, ⲃⲉⲛⲓⲡⲉ and ⲃⲓⲛⲓⲃⲉ. That probably reflects dialect variation. Both letters were interchanged with ⲫ and ϥ to indicate /f/, and ⲃ was also used in many texts to indicate the bilabial approximant /w/. Coptologists believe that Coptic ⲃ was articulated as a voiced bilabial fricative . In the present-day Coptic Church services, this letter is realized as /v/, but it is almost certainly a result of the pronunciation reforms instituted in the 19th century.

Whereas Old Egyptian contrasts /s/ and /z/, the two sounds appear to be in free variation in Coptic, as they were since the Middle Egyptian period. However, they are contrasted only in Greek loans; for example, native Coptic ⲁⲛⲍⲏⲃⲉ (_anzībə_) and ⲁⲛⲥⲏⲃⲉ (_ansībə_) 'school' are homophonous. Other consonants that sometimes appear to be either in free variation or to have different distributions across dialects are and , and (especially in the Fayyumic dialect, a feature of earlier Egyptian) and and , with the voiceless stop consonants being more common in Coptic words and the voiced ones in Greek borrowings. Apart from the liquid consonants , this pattern may indicate a sound change in Later Egyptian, leading to a neutralization of voiced alveolar and velar plosives. When the voiced plosives are realized, it is usually the result of consonant voicing in proximity to /n/.

Old Coptic texts graphically express the Egyptian pharyngeals in a variety of ways. For example, the Old Coptic grapheme ⳍ was occasionally used to convey a voiceless pharyngeal fricative . In literary Coptic, the two sounds are not indicated by separate letters, suggesting loss of phonemic status. Instead, the adapted demotic grapheme ϩ, which normally stands for /h/, is used to express either sound. In unstressed initial syllables and stressed final syllables, the voiced pharyngeal fricative is sometimes conveyed by ⲁ as in ⲁϣⲁⲓ (_ʕšai_) 'to multiply'. Similarly, different methods are employed to graphically express the glottal stop : with ⲁ word-initially, with ⲓ word-finally in monosyllabic words in northern dialects and ⲉ in monosyllabic words in Akhmimic and Assiutic, by reduplication of a vowel's grapheme but mostly as .

GRAMMAR

Coptic is agglutinative with subject–verb–object word order but can be verb–subject–object with the correct preposition in front of the subject. Number, gender, tense, and mood are indicated by prefixes that come from Late Egyptian. The earlier phases of Egyptian did this through suffixation. Some vestiges of the suffix inflection survive in Coptic, mainly to indicate inalienable possession and in some verbs. Compare the Middle Egyptian form _*satāpafa_ 'he chooses' (written _stp.f_ in hieroglyphs) to Coptic (Sahidic) _f.sotp_ ϥⲥⲱⲧⲡ̅ 'he chooses'.

NOUNS

All Coptic nouns carry grammatical gender , either masculine or feminine, usually marked through a prefixed definite article as in the Romance languages
Romance languages
. Masculine nouns are marked with the article /pə, peː/ and feminine nouns with the article /tə, teː/ in the Sahidic dialect and /pi, əp/ and /ti, ət/ in the Bohairic dialect.

Bohairic: ⲡⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ /pi-roːmi/ - 'the man' / ϯϫⲓϫ /ti-dʒig/ - 'the hand'

Sahidic: ⲡⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ /pə-roːme/ - 'the man' / ⲧⲉϫⲓϫ /tə-ciɟ/ - 'the hand'

The definite and indefinite articles also indicate number ; however, only definite articles mark gender. Coptic has a number of broken plurals , a vestige of Older Egyptian, but in the majority of cases, the article marks number. Generally, nouns inflected for plurality end in /wə/, but there are some irregularities. The dual was another feature of earlier Egyptian that survives in Coptic in only few words, such as ⲥⲛⲁⲩ (_snau_) 'two'.

Words of Greek origin keep their original grammatical gender, except for neuter nouns, which become masculine in Coptic.

Pronouns

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Coptic pronouns are of two kinds, dependent and independent. Independent pronouns are used when the pronoun is acting as the subject of a sentence, as the object of a verb, or with a preposition. Dependent pronouns are a series of prefixes and suffixes that can attach to verbs and other nouns. Coptic verbs can therefore be said to inflect for the person, number and gender of the subject and the object: a pronominal prefix marks the subject, and a pronominal suffix marks the object, e.g. "I I'have'it the ball." When (as in this case) the subject is a pronoun, it normally isn't also expressed independently, unless for emphasis.

As in other Afroasiatic languages, gender of pronouns differ only in the second and third person singular. The following table shows the pronouns of the Sahidian dialect:

INDEPENDENT PROCLITIC AS SUFFIX

STRESSED UNSTRESSED

SINGULAR 1. anok anəg- ti- =i

2. m. ənthok əntek- ək- =k

2. f. əntho ənte- te-, tr- =∅, =e, =r(e), =te

3. m. ənthof

əf- =f

3. f. ənthos

əs- =s

PLURAL 1. anon an- ten- =n

2. ənthōten ənten- teten- =ten, =teten

3. ənthōou

se- =ou

ADJECTIVES

Most Coptic adjectives are actually nouns that have the attributive particle _n_ to make them adjectival. In all stages of Egyptian, this morpheme is also used to express the genitive ; for example, the Bohairic word for 'Egyptian', ⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ /remenkʰeːmi/, is a combination of the nominal prefix _rem-_ (the reduced form of ⲣⲱⲙⲓ _rōmi_ 'man'), followed by the genitive morpheme _ən_ ('of') and finally the word for Egypt, _khēmi_.

VERBS

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Verbal Grade System

Coptic, like Ancient Egyptian and Semitic languages, has root-and-pattern or templatic morphology, and the basic meaning of a verb is contained in a root and various derived forms of root are obtained by varying the vowel pattern. For example, the root for 'build' is _kt_. It has four derived forms: kɔt (the absolute state grade); ket- (the nominal state grade), kot= (the pronominal state grade), and kɛt (the stative grade). (The nominal state grade is also called the construct state in some grammars of Coptic.)

The absolute, nominal, and pronominal state grades are used in different syntactic contexts. The absolute state grade of a transitive verb is used before a direct object with the accusative preposition /ən, əm/, and the nominal state grade is used before a direct object with no case-marking. The pronominal state grade is used before a pronominal direct object enclitic. In addition, many verbs also have a neutral state grade, used to express a state resulting from the action of the verb. Compare the following forms (Lambdin 1983:39):

ABSOLUTE STATE GRADE

ⲁⲓϫⲓⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲱⲧ

/a-i-dʒimi əm-p-a-joːt/

perfective-1sg-find.abs prep-def:masc:sg-1sg-father

'I found my father.'

NOMINAL STATE GRADE

ⲁⲓϫⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲱⲧ

/a-i-dʒem əm-p-a-joːt/

perfective-1sg-find.nom def:masc:sg-1sg-father

'I found my father.'

PRONOMINAL STATE GRADE

a-i-kʲənt=f

perfective-1sg-find.pronom=3msg

'I found him.'

For most transitive verbs, both absolute and nominal state grade verbs are available for non-pronominal objects. However, there is one important restriction, known as _Jernstedt's rule_ (or the _Stern-Jernstedt rule_) (Jernstedt 1927): present-tense sentences cannot be used in the nominal state grade. Thus sentences in the present tense always show a pattern like the first example above (absolute state), never the second pattern (nominal state).

In general, the four grades of Coptic verb are not predictable from the root, and are listed in the lexicon for each verb. The following chart shows some typical patterns of correspondence:

GLOSS ABSOLUTE STATE NOMINAL STATE PRONOMINAL STATE NEUTRAL STATE

spread poːrəʃ pərʃ poːrʃ porəʃ

dig ʃike ʃekt ʃakt ʃoke

comfort solsəl səlsəl səlsoːl səlsoːl

roll skorkər skərkər skərkoːr skərkoːr

build koːt ket kot keːt

It is hazardous to make firm generalizations about the relationships between these grade forms, but the nominal state is usually shorter than the corresponding absolute and neutral forms. Absolute and neutral state forms are usually bisyllabic or contain a long vowel; the corresponding nominal state forms are monosyllabic or have short vowels.

Tense/aspect/mood Inflection

Coptic has a very large number of distinct tense/aspect/mood categories, expressed by particles which are either before the verb or before the subject. The future I /na/ is a preverbal particle and follows the subject (Reintges 2010:210):

Pə-tʲoeis NA-krine ən-nə-Laos

def:m:sg-lord fut-judge prep-def:pl-people

'The lord will judge the nations.'

In contrast, the perfective /a/ is a pre-subject particle:

A te-f-soːne de ol ən-ne-f-keːs

perf def:f:sg-3msg-sister part carry.abs prep-def:pl-3msg-bone

'His sister carried his bones.'

There is some variation in the labels for the tense/aspect/mood categories. The chart below shows the labels from Reintges (2004), Lambdin (1983), Plumley (1948). (Where they agree, only one label is shown.) Each form lists the morphology found with a nonpronominal subject and a third person singular masculine pronominal subject('he'):

TENSE NAME (REINTGES) TENSE NAME (LAMBDIN) TENSE NAME (PLUMLEY) NOMINAL SUBJECT 3RD MASC SG PRONOMINAL SUBJECT

First Present

Present I ø NP f-

Second Present

ere NP ef-

Relative of First Present

etere NP etəf-

Circumstantial

ere NP ef-

Preterite Present Imperfect Imperfect nere NP nef-

Preterite Past

nea NP neaf-

Future I

NP na- fna-

Future II

ere NP na- efna-

Future III

ere NP efe-

Negative Future III Negative Future III ənne NP ənnef-

Imperfect of Future Future Imperfect nere NP na- nefna-

Perfect I

a NP af-

Negative Perfect I

əmpe NP əmpef-

Perfect II

ənta NP əntaf-

Habitual I

ʃare NP ʃaf-

Habitual II

eʃare NP eʃaf-

Negative Habitual

mere NP mef-

Jussive Injunctive Optative mare NP maref-

Conditional

erʃan NP efʃan-

Conjunctive

ənte NP nəf-

Inferential Future Conjunctive of Result Future IV tare NP taref-

Temporal

əntere NP ənteref-

Terminative "Until" "Unfulfilled action" ʃante NP ʃantəf-

"Not yet" "Unfulfilled action" əmpate NP əmpatəf-

An approximate range of use for most of the tense/aspect/mood categories is shown in the following table:

TENSE NAME (LAMBDIN) APPROXIMATE RANGE OF USE

Present I Present time in narrative (predicate focus)

Relative of Present I Non-subject relative clause in present tense

Circumstantial Background clauses; relative clauses with indefinite heads

Imperfect Action in progress in the past

Future I Simple future tense (predicate focus)

Future II Simple future tense (adverbial focus)

Future III Future tense conveyed as necessary, inevitable, or obligatory

Perfect I Primary narrative tense (predicate focus)

Negative Perfect I Negative of Perfect I

Perfect II Primary narrative tense (adverbial focus); relative clause form of Perfect I

Habitual Characteristic or habitual action

Negative Habitual Negative of Habitual

Injunctive Imperative for first and third persons ('let me', 'let him', etc.)

Conditional Protasis (if-clause) of a conditional (if-then) statement

Conjunctive Event shares the TAM of a preceding initial verb

Future Conjunctive of Result Used in clauses that express a resultant action

Temporal Past action in a subordinate temporal clause ("when NP V-ed, ...")

Second Tenses

An unusual feature of Coptic is the extensive use of a set of "second tenses", which are required in certain syntactic contexts. "Second tenses" are also called "relative tenses" in some work (Reintges 2004).

PREPOSITIONS

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Coptic has prepositions, rather than postpositions:

hi p-tʲoi

on def:masc:sg-ship

'on the ship'

Pronominal objects of prepositions are indicated with enclitic pronouns:

ero=k 'to you (m.sg)'

na=n 'for us'

Many prepositions have different forms before the enclitic pronouns (Lambdin 2003:30–31). Compare

e p-tʲoi 'to the ship'

ero=f 'to him'

SYNTAX

SENTENTIAL SYNTAX

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Coptic typically shows subject–verb–object (SVO) word order, as in the following examples:

A tə-kʲamaule mise ən-u-ʃeːre ən-shime

perfective def:fem:sg-camel deliver.abs prep-indef:sg-girl link-woman

'The she-camel delivered a daughter.'

Pə-tʲoeis na-krine ən-nə-Laos

def:m:sg-lord fut-judge prep-def:pl-people

'The Lord will judge the people.'

A-i-kʲine əm-p-a-eioːt

perfective-1sg-find.abs prep-def:masc:sg-1sg-father

'I found my father.'

The verbs in these sentences are in the _absolute state grade_ (Reintges 2010:208), which requires that its direct object be introduced with the preposition /ən, əm/. This preposition functions like accusative case .

There is also an alternative _nominal state grade_ of the verb in which the direct object of the verb follows with no preposition:

a-i-kʲən p-a-eioːt

perfective-1sg-find.nom def:masc:sg-1sg-father

'I found my father.'

DIALECTS

Sandstone stela, inscribed with Coptic text. The names Phoibammon and Abraham appear. From Egypt, find spot unknown, date known. The British Museum, London Coptic and Arabic inscriptions in an Old Cairo church

There is little written evidence of dialectal differences in the pre-Coptic phases of the Egyptian language due to the centralized nature of the political and cultural institutions of ancient Egyptian society. However, literary Old and Middle (Classical) Egyptian represent the spoken dialect of Lower Egypt
Egypt
around the city of Memphis , the capital of Egypt
Egypt
in the Old Kingdom . Later Egyptian is more representative of the dialects spoken in Upper Egypt, especially around the area of Thebes as it became the cultural and religious center of the New Kingdom.

Coptic more obviously displays a number of regional dialects that were in use from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in northern Egypt, south into Nubia
Nubia
, and in the western oases. However, while many of these dialects reflect actual regional linguistic (namely phonological and some lexical) variation, they mostly reflect localized orthographic traditions with very little grammatical differences.

UPPER EGYPT

Sahidic

Shred of a pottery vessel inscribed with 5 lines, Coptic Sahidic language. Byzantine period, 6th century CE. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

SAHIDIC (also known as THEBAIC) is the dialect in which most known Coptic texts are written, and was the leading dialect in the pre-Islamic period. It is thought to have originally been a regional dialect from the area around Hermopolis (Coptic Ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛⲉⲓⲛ _Shmounein_). Around 300 it began to be written in literary form, including translations of major portions of the Bible
Bible
(see Coptic versions of the Bible
Bible
). By the 6th century, a standardized spelling had been attained throughout Egypt. Almost all native authors wrote in this dialect of Coptic. Sahidic was, beginning in the 9th century challenged by Bohairic, but is attested as late as the 14th century.

While texts in other Coptic dialects are primarily translations of Greek literary and religious texts, Sahidic is the only dialect with a considerable body of original literature and non-literary texts. Because Sahidic shares most of its features with other dialects of Coptic with few peculiarities specific to itself, and has an extensive corpus of known texts, it is generally the dialect studied by learners of Coptic, particularly by scholars outside of the Coptic Church.

Akhmimic

AKHMIMIC was the dialect of the area around the town of Akhmim (Greek _Panopolis_). It flourished during the fourth and fifth centuries, after which no writings are attested. Akhmimic is phonologically the most archaic of the Coptic dialects. One characteristic feature is the retention of the phoneme /x/, which is realized as /ʃ/ in most other dialects. Similarly, it uses an exceptionally conservative writing system strikingly similar to Old Coptic.

Lycopolitan

LYCOPOLITAN (also known as SUBAKHMIMIC and ASSIUTIC) is a dialect closely related to Akhmimic in terms of when and where it was attested, but manuscripts written in Lycopolitan tend to be from the area of Asyut
Asyut
. The main differences between the two dialects seem to be graphic in nature. The Lycopolitan variety was used extensively for translations of Gnostic and Manichaean works, including the texts of the Nag Hammadi library
Nag Hammadi library
.

LOWER EGYPT

Bohairic

The BOHAIRIC (also known as MEMPHITIC) dialect originated in the western Nile Delta . The earliest Bohairic manuscripts date to the 4th century, but most texts come from the 9th century and later; this may be due to poor preservation conditions for texts in the humid regions of northern Egypt. It shows several conservative features in lexicon and phonology not found in other dialects. Bohairic is the dialect used today as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church, replacing Sahidic some time in the eleventh century. In contemporary liturgical use, there are two traditions of pronunciation, arising from successive reforms in the 19th and 20th centuries (see Coptic pronunciation reform ). Modern revitalization efforts are based on this dialect.

Fayyumic

FAYYUMIC (also written as FAIYUMIC; in older works it is often called BASHMURIC) was spoken primarily in the Faiyum west of the Nile Valley. It is attested from the 3rd to the 10th centuries. It is most notable for writing ⲗ (which corresponds to /l/), where other dialects generally use ⲣ /r/ (probably corresponding to a flap ). In earlier stages of Egyptian, the liquids were not distinguished in writing until the New Kingdom, when Late Egyptian became the administrative language. Late Egyptian orthography utilized a grapheme that combined the graphemes for /r/ and /n/ in order to express /l/. Demotic for its part indicated /l/ using a diacritic variety of /r/.

Oxyrhynchite

OXYRHYNCHITE (also known as MESOKEMIC or MIDDLE EGYPTIAN) is the dialect of Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
and surrounding areas. It shows similarities with Fayyumic and is attested in manuscripts from the fourth and fifth centuries.

SEE ALSO

* Egypt
Egypt
portal * Languages portal

* British Library Coptic Language Collection * Coptic alphabet * Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria * Egyptian language * Egyptian Arabic * Nag Hammadi library
Nag Hammadi library
* List of Coptic place names

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Coptic". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Coptic Encyclopedia; http://cdm15831.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/cce/id/520 * ^ Reintges, Chris H. (2004). _Coptic Egyptian (Sahidic Dialect)_. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. ISBN 978-3-89645-570-3 . * ^ Allen, James P. (2010). _Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs_ (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-139-48635-4 . Retrieved 19 May 2014. * ^ http://www.suscopts.org/deacons/coptic/coptic_alphabet.pdf * ^ Girgis, WA (1963–64). Greek loan words in Coptic. _Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte_ 17:63–73. * ^ Gignac, Francis Thomas, p. 174 * ^ Sijpesteijn, Petra; Lennart Sundelin (2004). _Papyrology and the History of Early Islamic Egypt_. Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-13886-5 . * ^ Lambdin 1983:2 * ^ Reintges (2010:211) Lambdin (1983:39)

FURTHER READING

GENERAL STUDIES

* Emmel, Stephen. 1992. "Languages (Coptic)". In _The Anchor Bible Dictionary_, edited by David Noel Freedman. Vol. 4 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday. 180–188. * Gessman, A. M. (1976). "The Birth of the Coptic Script". _University of South Florida Language Quarterly 14_. 2–3. * Gignac, Francis Thomas. 1991. "Old Coptic". In _The Coptic Encyclopedia_, edited by Aziz Suryal Atiya. Vol. 8 of 8 vols. New York and Toronto: Macmillan Publishing Company and Collier Macmillan Canada. 169–188. * Kasser, Radolphe . 1991. "Dialects". In _The Coptic Encyclopedia _, edited by Aziz Suryal Atiya . Vol. 8 of 8 vols. New York and Toronto: Macmillan Publishing Company and Collier Macmillan Canada. 87–96. * Wolfgang Kosack . Lehrbuch des Koptischen.Teil I:Koptische Grammatik.Teil II:Koptische Lesestücke, Graz 1974. * Loprieno, Antonio. 1995. _Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Polotsky, Hans Jakob . 1971. "Coptic". In _Afroasiatic: A Survey_, edited by Carleton Taylor Hodge. (Jana Linguarum: Series Practica; 163). 's Gravenhage and Paris: Mouton. 67–79.

GRAMMARS AND GRAMMATICAL STUDIES

* Chaîne, Marius . 1933. _Éléments de grammaire dialectale copte: bohairique, sahidique, achmimique, fayoumique_. Paris: Paul Geuthner. * Eberle, Andrea, N.S., 20). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. * Layton, Bentley. 2007. _Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises and Vocabularies_. Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1810-1 . * Mallon, Alexis. 1956. _Grammaire copte: bibliographie, chrestomathie et vocabulaire_. 4th edition. Beyrouth. * Mattar, Nabil. 1990. _A Study in Bohairic Coptic_. Pasadena: Hope Publishing House. * Plumley, John Martin. 1948. _Introductory Coptic Grammar_. London: Home & Van Thal. * Polotsky, Hans Jakob . 1987. _Grundlagen des koptischen Satzbaus_. American Studies in Papyrology 28. Decatur, Ga.: Scholars Press. * Reintges Chris H. 2004. _Coptic Egyptian (Sahidic dialect): a learner's grammar_. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. * Reintges, Chris H. 2010. Coordination, converbs, and clause-chaining in Coptic Egyptian typology. in Isabelle Bril, ed. _Clause linking and clause hierarchy_ Studies in Language Companion Series 128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, ISBN 978-90-272-0588-9 . * Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 1988. _Coptic Grammatical Chrestomathy: a course for academic and private study_. Orientalia lovaniensia analecta 30. Leuven: Peeters. * Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 1986. _Coptic Grammatical Categories: Structural Studies in the Syntax of Shenoutean Sahidic_. Analecta Orientalia 53. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. ISBN 88-7653-255-2 . * Shisha-Halevy, Ariel. 2007. _Topics in Coptic Syntax: Structural Studies in the Bohairic Dialect_. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 160. Leuven – Paris – Dudley, MA: Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1875-7 . * Tattam, Henry , _A compendious grammar of the Egyptian language as contained in the Coptic, Sahidic, and Bashmuric Dialects_ (London 1863) * Till, Walter C. 1994. _Koptische Dialektgrammatik_. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter. * Vergote, Jozef . 1973–1983. _Grammaire copte_. Leuven: Peeters. * Younan, Sameh. 2005. _So, you want to learn Coptic? A guide to Bohairic Grammar_. Sydney: St.Mary, St.Bakhomious and St.Shenouda Coptic Orthodox Church.

DICTIONARIES

* Černý, Jaroslav . 1976. _Coptic Etymological Dictionary_. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. * Crum, Walter Ewing . 1939. _A Coptic Dictionary_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted by Sandpiper Books Ltd, London & Powells Books, Chicago, 2000. * Wolfgang Kosack : _Koptisches Handlexikon des Bohairischen._ Koptisch – Deutsch – Arabisch. Verlag Christoph Brunner, Basel 2013, ISBN 978-3-9524018-9-7 . * Vycichl, Werner. 1983. _Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue copte_. Leuven: Éditions Peeters. * Westendorf, Wolfhart. 1965/1977. _Koptisches Handwörterbuch_. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

PHONOLOGY

* Depuydt, Leo. 1993. “On Coptic Sounds,” _Orientalia_ 62 (new series): 338-75. * Greenberg, Joseph H (originally published 1962). “The interpretation of the Coptic vowel system,” _On Language: Selected Writings of Joseph H. Greenberg_, eds., K Denning & S Kemmer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990: 428–38. * Grossman, Eitan and Martin Haspelmath. 2015. “The Leipzig-Jerusalem Transliteration of Coptic,” _Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective_, eds., Eitan Grossman, Martin Haspelmath 2). Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Kammerer, Winifred (compiler), _A Coptic Bibliography_, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1950. (Reprint New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969) * Wolfgang Kosack : _Der koptische Heiligenkalender. Deutsch – Koptisch – Arabisch nach den besten Quellen neu bearbeitet und vollständig herausgegeben mit Index Sanctorum koptischer Heiliger, Index der Namen auf Koptisch, Koptische Patriarchenliste, Geografische Liste_. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-9524018-4-2 . * Wolfgang Kosack : _Schenute von Atripe De judicio finale._ Papyruskodex 63000.IV im Museo Egizio di Torino. Einleitung, Textbearbeitung und Übersetzung herausgegeben von Wolfgang Kosack. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-9524018-5-9 . * Wolfgang Kosack : _Basilios "De archangelo Michael": sahidice Pseudo – Euhodios "De resurrectione": sahidice Pseudo – Euhodios "De dormitione Mariae virginis": sahidice ">ⲡⲓⲥⲁϧⲟ: Coptic language internet links and bibliography * Coptica.ch Online library of Coptic texts at University of Geneva (site text in French) * New Athena Unicode
Unicode
font; includes the new Coptic range * Online Coptic tutorial * A comprehensive Coptic language
Coptic language
resource (Remenkimi) * Coptic block in the Unicode
Unicode
4.1 standard * Heike Behlmer, Selected Bibliography on the Coptic Language * Coptic texts and manuscripts at Leiden University Library * Ifao N Copte – A professional Coptic font for researchers. * a set of Coptic fonts * GNU FreeFont—FreeSerif face includes a Coptic range.

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