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Copenhagener [3]

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 1050–1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450, 2500

Area code(s) (+45) 3

Website www.kk.dk

Copenhagen[a] (Danish: København [købm̩ˈhɑwˀn] ( listen); Latin: Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. The city has a population of 775,033 (as of January 2018[update]), of whom 613,288 live in the Municipality of Copenhagen.[6][7] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund
Øresund
Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road. Originally a Viking
Viking
fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
became the capital of Denmark
Denmark
in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age
Danish Golden Age
brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan
Finger Plan
fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the cultural, economic and governmental centre of Denmark; it is one of the major financial centres of Northern Europe with the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Stock Exchange. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania
Scania
and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund
Øresund
Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks, promenades and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg
Amalienborg
and Christiansborg
Christiansborg
palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions. The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles (43 kilometers) northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark
Denmark
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs. The annual Copenhagen Marathon
Copenhagen Marathon
was established in 1980. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. The Copenhagen Metro
Copenhagen Metro
launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen
Copenhagen
while the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
S-train
S-train
and Lokaltog (private railway) and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, which is partly the result of increased traffic because of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link
road and rail construction is planned because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord
Roskilde Fjord
and Køge Bugt
Køge Bugt
( Køge
Køge
Bay) forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line
Copenhagen-Ringsted Line
will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde
Roskilde
and Copenhagen. Serving roughly two million passengers a month, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 16th and 17th centuries 2.4 18th century 2.5 19th century 2.6 20th century

2.6.1 World War II 2.6.2 Post-war decades

2.7 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Beaches 3.3 Climate

4 Administration

4.1 Law and order 4.2 Environmental planning

5 Demographics and society

5.1 Religion 5.2 Quality of living

6 Economy

6.1 Tourism

7 Cityscape

7.1 Architecture 7.2 Parks, gardens and zoo 7.3 Landmarks by district

7.3.1 Indre By 7.3.2 Christianshavn 7.3.3 Vesterbro 7.3.4 Nørrebro 7.3.5 Østerbro 7.3.6 Frederiksberg 7.3.7 Other districts

8 Culture and contemporary life

8.1 Museums 8.2 Entertainment and performing arts 8.3 Literature 8.4 Art 8.5 Cuisine 8.6 Nightlife
Nightlife
and festivals 8.7 Amusement parks

9 Education 10 Sport 11 Transport 12 Healthcare 13 Media 14 Twin cities 15 See also 16 Footnotes 17 Citations 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce. The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour", often simply Hafn or Havn ("harbour"). The literal English translation would be "chapman's haven".[8] The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German
Low German
name, Kopenhagen. The abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk (of Copenhagen).[9] The chemical element hafnium is named after Copenhagen
Copenhagen
( Latin
Latin
name Hafnia), where it was discovered.[10][11] The bacterium Hafnia is also named after Copenhagen: Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute
State Serum Institute
in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
named it in 1954.[12] History[edit] Main articles: History of Copenhagen
History of Copenhagen
and Timeline of Copenhagen

Reconstruction of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
c. 1500

Early history[edit] Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde
Pilestræde
have also led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century. The remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget
Strøget
meets Rådhuspladsen. These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.[13] Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard.[14] The natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century.[15] The first habitations were probably centred on Gammel Strand
Gammel Strand
(literally "old shore") in the 11th century or even earlier.[16] The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
in Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning Merchants' Harbour or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.[17] Traditionally, Copenhagen's founding has been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a modest fortress on the little island of Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
stands today.[18] The construction of the fortress was in response to attacks by Wendish pirates who plagued the coastline during the 12th century.[19] Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Clemens Church had been built. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Castle.[20] Middle Ages[edit] In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III
Pope Urban III
states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands, including the town of Hafn, were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde
Roskilde
1158–1191 and Archbishop of Lund
Lund
1177–1201, by King Valdemar I. On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.[15] Around 1200, the Church of Our Lady was constructed on higher ground to the northeast of the town, which began to develop around it.[15] As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League. As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.[19] In 1254, it received a charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen[21] who garnered support from the local fishing merchants against the king by granting them special privileges.[22] In the mid 1330s, the first land assessment of the city was published.[22] With the establishment of the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
(1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen
Copenhagen
had emerged as the capital of Denmark
Denmark
when Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania
moved his seat to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Castle.[23][20] The University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
was inaugurated on 1 June 1479 by King Christian I, following approval from Pope Sixtus IV.[24] This makes it the oldest university in Denmark
Denmark
and one of the oldest in Europe. Originally controlled by the Catholic Church, the university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark
Denmark
in the late 1530s.[24] 16th and 17th centuries[edit]

The Tøjhus Museum, former arsenal (1604)

Børsen, former stock exchange (completed 1640)

In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to Christian II, who was Catholic, was successfully besieged in 1523 by the forces of Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism. Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall. After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536, during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III. During the second half of the century, the city prospered from increased trade across the Baltic supported by Dutch shipping. Christoffer Valkendorff, a high-ranking statesman, defended the city's interests and contributed to its development.[15] The Netherlands
Netherlands
had also become primarily Protestant, as were northern German states. During the reign of Christian IV between 1588 and 1648, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
had dramatic growth as a city. On his initiative at the beginning of the 17th century, two important buildings were completed on Slotsholmen: the Tøjhus Arsenal and Børsen, the stock exchange. To foster international trade, the East India Company was founded in 1616. To the east of the city, inspired by Dutch planning, the king developed the district of Christianshavn
Christianshavn
with canals and ramparts. It was initially intended to be a fortified trading centre but ultimately became part of Copenhagen.[25] Christian IV also sponsored an array of ambitious building projects including Rosenborg Slot
Rosenborg Slot
and the Rundetårn.[19] In 1658–59, the city withstood a siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault.[25] By 1661, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
had asserted its position as capital of Denmark and Norway. All the major institutions were located there, as was the fleet and most of the army. The defences were further enhanced with the completion of the Citadel
Citadel
in 1664 and the extension of Christianshavns Vold
Christianshavns Vold
with its bastions in 1692, leading to the creation of a new base for the fleet at Nyholm.[25][26] 18th century[edit]

A mansion at Amalienborg
Amalienborg
in Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden
(1750), part of the Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Palace

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
lost around 22,000 of its population of 65,000 to the plague in 1711.[27] The city was also struck by two major fires which destroyed much of its infrastructure.[20] The Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Fire of 1728 was the largest in the history of Copenhagen. It began on the evening of 20 October, and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October, destroying approximately 28% of the city, leaving some 20% of the population homeless. No less than 47% of the medieval section of the city was completely lost. Along with the 1795 fire, it is the main reason that few traces of the old town can be found in the modern city.[28][29] A substantial amount of rebuilding followed. In 1733, work began on the royal residence of Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
which was completed in 1745. In 1749, development of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden
was initiated. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved
Nicolai Eigtved
in the Rococo
Rococo
style, its centre contained the mansions which now form Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Palace.[30] Major extensions to the naval base of Holmen were undertaken while the city's cultural importance was enhanced with the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.[31] In the second half of the 18th century, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
benefited from Denmark's neutrality during the wars between Europe's main powers, allowing it to play an important role in trade between the states around the Baltic Sea. After Christiansborg
Christiansborg
was destroyed by fire in 1794 and another fire caused serious damage to the city in 1795, work began on the classical Copenhagen
Copenhagen
landmark of Højbro Plads
Højbro Plads
while Nytorv
Nytorv
and Gammel Torv
Gammel Torv
were converged.[31] 19th century[edit] On 2 April 1801, a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker attacked and defeated the neutral Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
led the main attack.[32] He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed.[33] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar.[34] It was during this battle that Lord Nelson was said to have "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.[35]

Gottlieb Bindesbøll's Thorvaldsen Museum
Thorvaldsen Museum
(1848)

Danish soldiers return to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1849, after the First Schleswig War - painting by Otto Bache
Otto Bache
(1894)

The Second Battle of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet.[36] But from a Danish point of view the battle was a terror bombardment on their capital. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle the first terror attack against a major European city in modern times.[37][38]

Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
canal, as seen from the Børsen
Børsen
building (c. 1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Trinitatis Complex, St. Nicholas Church and Holmen Church

The British landed 30,000 men, they surrounded Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and the attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the city.[citation needed] The devastation was so great because Copenhagen
Copenhagen
relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery.[39] Despite the disasters of the early 19th century, Copenhagen experienced a period of intense cultural creativity known as the Danish Golden Age. Painting prospered under C.W. Eckersberg
C.W. Eckersberg
and his students while C.F. Hansen
C.F. Hansen
and Gottlieb Bindesbøll
Gottlieb Bindesbøll
brought a Neoclassical look to the city's architecture.[40] In the early 1850s, the ramparts of the city were opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. By the 1880s, the districts of Nørrebro
Nørrebro
and Vesterbro developed to accommodate those who came from the provinces to participate in the city's industrialization. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, as not only were the old ramparts out of date as a defence system but bad sanitation in the old city had to be overcome. From 1886, the west rampart (Vestvolden) was flattened, allowing major extensions to the harbour leading to the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen
Freeport of Copenhagen
1892–94.[41] Electricity came in 1892 with electric trams in 1897. The spread of housing to areas outside the old ramparts brought about a huge increase in the population. In 1840, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
was inhabited by approximately 120,000 people. By 1901, it had some 400,000 inhabitants.[31] 20th century[edit]

Central Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1939

By the beginning of the 20th century, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
had become a thriving industrial and administrative city. With its new city hall and railway station, its centre was drawn towards the west.[31] New housing developments grew up in Brønshøj and Valby
Valby
while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the city of Copenhagen.[42] The northern part of Amager
Amager
and Valby
Valby
were also incorporated into the City of Copenhagen in 1901–02.[43] As a result of Denmark's neutrality in the First World War, Copenhagen prospered from trade with both Britain and Germany
Germany
while the city's defences were kept fully manned by some 40,000 soldiers for the duration of the war.[44] In the 1920s there were serious shortages of goods and housing. Plans were drawn up to demolish the old part of Christianshavn
Christianshavn
and to get rid of the worst of the city's slum areas.[45] However, it was not until the 1930s that substantial housing developments ensued,[46] with the demolition of one side of Christianhavn's Torvegade
Torvegade
in order to build five large blocks of flats.[45] World War II[edit] See also: Denmark
Denmark
in World War II and Danish resistance movement

The RAF's bombing of Gestapo
Gestapo
headquarters in March 1945 was coordinated with the Danish resistance movement

People celebrating the liberation of Denmark
Denmark
at Strøget
Strøget
in Copenhagen, 5 May 1945. Germany
Germany
surrendered two days later

During World War II in Denmark, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
was occupied by German troops along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. German leader Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
hoped that Denmark
Denmark
would be "a model protectorate"[47] and initially the Nazi authorities sought to arrive at an understanding with the Danish government. The 1943 Danish parliamentary election was also allowed to take place, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, after the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were sunk in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Harbor
Harbor
by the Royal Danish Navy
Royal Danish Navy
to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although most managed to escape to Sweden.[48] In 1945 Ole Lippman, leader of the Danish section of the Special Operations Executive, invited the British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
to assist their operations by attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, Air Vice-Marshal Sir Basil Embry
Basil Embry
drew up plans for a spectacular precision attack on the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
and Gestapo building, the former offices of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building.[49] The attack, known as "Operation Carthage", came on 22 March 1945, in three small waves. In the first wave, all six planes (carrying one bomb each) hit their target, but one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Girls School. Because of this crash, four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the military target and aimed their bombs at the school, leading to the death of 123 civilians (of which 87 were schoolchildren).[49] However, 18 of the 26 political prisoners in the Shell Building managed to escape while the Gestapo
Gestapo
archives were completely destroyed.[49] On 8 May 1945 Copenhagen
Copenhagen
was officially liberated by British troops commanded by Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Bernard Montgomery
Bernard Montgomery
who supervised the surrender of 30,000 Germans situated around the capital.[50] Post-war decades[edit]

The Black Diamond (1999)

Shortly after the end of the war, an innovative urban development project known as the Finger Plan
Finger Plan
was introduced in 1947, encouraging the creation of new housing and businesses interspersed with large green areas along five "fingers" stretching out from the city centre along the S-train
S-train
routes.[51][52] With the expansion of the welfare state and women entering the work force, schools, nurseries, sports facilities and hospitals were established across the city. As a result of student unrest in the late 1960s, the former Bådsmandsstræde Barracks in Christianshavn
Christianshavn
was occupied, leading to the establishment of Freetown Christiania
Freetown Christiania
in September 1971.[53]

Øresund
Øresund
Bridge (1999)

Motor traffic in the city grew significantly and in 1972 the trams were replaced by buses. From the 1960s, on the initiative of the young architect Jan Gehl, pedestrian streets and cycle tracks were created in the city centre.[54] Activity in the port of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
declined with the closure of the Holmen naval base. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport underwent considerable expansion, becoming a hub for the Nordic countries. In the 1990s, large-scale housing developments were realized in the harbour area and in the west of Amager.[46] The national library's Black Diamond building on the waterfront was completed in 1999.[55] 21st century[edit]

Copenhagen Opera House
Copenhagen Opera House
(2004)

Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and the Swedish city of Malmö have been connected by the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge, which carries rail and road traffic. As a result, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area spanning both nations. The bridge has brought about considerable changes in the public transport system and has led to the extensive redevelopment of Amager.[53] The city's service and trade sectors have developed while a number of banking and financial institutions have been established. Educational institutions have also gained importance, especially the University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
with its 35,000 students.[56] Another important development for the city has been the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Metro, the railway system which opened in 2000 with additions until 2007, transporting some 54 million passengers by 2011.[57] On the cultural front, the lavish Copenhagen Opera
Copenhagen Opera
House, a gift to the city from the shipping magnate Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller
Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller
on behalf of the A.P. Møller foundation, was completed in 2004.[58] In December 2009 Copenhagen
Copenhagen
gained international prominence when it hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15.[59]

Geography[edit]

Satellite view

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is part of the Øresund
Øresund
Region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm
Bornholm
in Denmark
Denmark
and Scania
Scania
in Sweden.[60] It is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand, partly on the island of Amager
Amager
and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
faces the Øresund
Øresund
to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark
Denmark
from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea
North Sea
with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish towns of Malmö
Malmö
and Landskrona
Landskrona
lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from Copenhagen.[61] By road, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is 42 kilometres (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden, 85 kilometres (53 mi) northeast of Næstved, 164 kilometres (102 mi) northeast of Odense, 295 kilometres (183 mi) east of Esbjerg
Esbjerg
and 188 kilometres (117 mi) southeast of Aarhus
Aarhus
by sea and road via Sjællands Odde.[62] The city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring (Fæstningsringen) and kept as a partial green band around it.[63] Then come the late 19th and early 20th century residential neighbourhoods of Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro. The outlying areas of Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vigerslev, Vanløse, Brønshøj, Utterslev
Utterslev
and Sundby followed from 1920 to 1960. They consist mainly of residential housing and apartments often enhanced with parks and greenery.[64] Topography[edit] The central area of the city consists of relatively low-lying flat ground formed by moraines from the last ice age while the hilly areas to the north and west frequently rise to 50 m (160 ft) above sea level. The slopes of Valby
Valby
and Brønshøj reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft), divided by valleys running from the northeast to the southwest. Close to the centre are the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
lakes of Sortedams Sø, Peblinge Sø and Sankt Jørgens Sø.[64] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
rests on a subsoil of flint-layered limestone deposited in the Danian
Danian
period some 60 to 66 million years ago. Some greensand from the Selandian
Selandian
is also present. There are a few faults in the area, the most important of which is the Carlsberg fault which runs northwest to southeast through the centre of the city.[65] During the last ice age, glaciers eroded the surface leaving a layer of moraines up to 15 m (49 ft) thick.[66] Geologically Copenhagen
Copenhagen
lies in the northern part of Denmark
Denmark
where the land is rising because of post-glacial rebound. Beaches[edit]

Amager
Amager
Strandpark

Amager
Amager
Strandpark, which opened in 2005, is a 2 km (1 mi) long artificial island, with a total of 4.6 km (2.9 mi) of beaches. It is located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre.[67] In Klampenborg, about 10 kilometers from downtown Copenhagen, is Bellevue Beach. It is 700 metres (2,300 ft) long and has both lifeguards and freshwater showers on the beach.[68] The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge
Islands Brygge
and has won international acclaim for its design.[69] Climate[edit]

Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Palace in the snow

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is in the oceanic climate zone (Köppen: Cfb ).[70] Its weather is subject to low-pressure systems from the Atlantic which result in unstable conditions throughout the year. Apart from slightly higher rainfall from July to September, precipitation is moderate. While snowfall occurs mainly from late December to early March, there can also be rain, with average temperatures around the freezing point.[71] June is the sunniest month of the year with an average of about eight hours of sunshine a day. July is the warmest month with an average daytime high of 21 °C. By contrast, the average hours of sunshine are less than two per day in November and only one and a half per day from December to February. In the spring, it gets warmer again with four to six hours of sunshine per day from March to May. February is the driest month of the year.[72] Exceptional weather conditions can bring as much as 50 cm of snow to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in a 24-hour period during the winter months[73] while summer temperatures have been known to rise to heights of 33 °C (91 °F).[74] Because of Copenhagen's northern latitude, the number of daylight hours varies considerably between summer and winter. On the summer solstice, the sun rises at 04:26 and sets at 21:58, providing 17 hours 32 minutes of daylight. On the winter solstice, it rises at 08:37 and sets at 15:39 with 7 hours and 1 minute of daylight. There is therefore a difference of 10 hours and 31 minutes in the length of days and nights between the summer and winter solstices.[75]

Climate data for Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.4 (50.7) 12.8 (55) 15.9 (60.6) 25.7 (78.3) 26.4 (79.5) 30.2 (86.4) 31.2 (88.2) 31.1 (88) 26.2 (79.2) 20.7 (69.3) 14.7 (58.5) 12.4 (54.3) 31.2 (88.2)

Average high °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 2.8 (37) 5.5 (41.9) 10.2 (50.4) 15.5 (59.9) 19.1 (66.4) 21.2 (70.2) 21.0 (69.8) 16.7 (62.1) 11.9 (53.4) 6.9 (44.4) 4.1 (39.4) 11.4 (52.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 0.5 (32.9) 2.5 (36.5) 6.1 (43) 11.1 (52) 14.8 (58.6) 16.9 (62.4) 16.7 (62.1) 13.1 (55.6) 9.1 (48.4) 4.9 (40.8) 2.1 (35.8) 8.2 (46.8)

Average low °C (°F) −1.7 (28.9) −1.9 (28.6) −0.4 (31.3) 2.4 (36.3) 7.0 (44.6) 10.8 (51.4) 12.9 (55.2) 12.6 (54.7) 9.7 (49.5) 6.1 (43) 2.4 (36.3) −0.2 (31.6) 5.0 (41)

Record low °C (°F) −17.8 (0) −16.2 (2.8) −13.9 (7) −5.2 (22.6) −2.0 (28.4) 3.4 (38.1) 6.0 (42.8) 5.2 (41.4) 0.9 (33.6) −4.1 (24.6) −9.5 (14.9) −15.9 (3.4) −17.8 (0)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.3 (1.469) 22.7 (0.894) 35.0 (1.378) 32.5 (1.28) 40.5 (1.594) 50.0 (1.969) 51.4 (2.024) 50.1 (1.972) 58.9 (2.319) 50.2 (1.976) 48.0 (1.89) 46.0 (1.811) 522.6 (20.575)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14.9 11.4 13.5 11.5 10.8 12.0 12.4 12.0 13.6 14.5 15.4 15.4 157.4

Average snowy days 5.9 4.4 4.1 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.7 3.9 21.4

Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 82 76 72 72 73 75 78 83 84 85 79

Mean monthly sunshine hours 46 65 117 188 262 247 260 241 154 103 58 38 1,780

Source: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity 1961–1990)[76][77]

Administration[edit]

The City Hall of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Municipality

According to Statistics Denmark, the urban area of Copenhagen (Hovedstadsområdet) consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Albertslund, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre, Tårnby
Tårnby
and Vallensbæk as well as parts of Ballerup, Rudersdal and Furesø municipalities, along with the cities of Ishøj
Ishøj
and Greve Strand.[3][78] They are located in the Capital Region (Region Hovedstaden). Municipalities are responsible for a wide variety of public services, which include land-use planning, environmental planning, public housing, management and maintenance of local roads, and social security. Municipal administration is also conducted by a mayor, a council, and an executive.[79] Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen Municipality
is by far the largest municipality, with the historic city at its core. The seat of Copenhagen's municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall
(Rådhus), which is situated on City Hall Square. The second largest municipality is Frederiksberg, an enclave within Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Municipality. Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen Municipality
is divided into ten districts (bydele):[80] Indre By, Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vanløse, Brønshøj-Husum, Bispebjerg, Amager
Amager
Øst, and Amager
Amager
Vest. Neighbourhoods of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
include Slotsholmen, Frederiksstaden, Islands Brygge, Holmen, Christiania, Carlsberg, Sluseholmen, Amagerbro, Ørestad, Nordhavnen, Bellahøj, Brønshøj, Ryparken, and Vigerslev. Law and order[edit]

Copenhagen Court House
Copenhagen Court House
at Nytorv

Copenhagen Police Headquarters
Copenhagen Police Headquarters
on Polititorvet

Most of Denmark's top legal courts and institutions are based in Copenhagen. A modern style court of justice, Hof- og Stadsretten, was introduced in Denmark, specifically for Copenhagen, by Johann Friedrich Struensee in 1771.[81] Now known as the City Court
Court
of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(Københavns Byret), it is the largest of the 24 city courts in Denmark
Denmark
with jurisdiction over the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør
Dragør
and Tårnby. With its 42 judges, it has a Probate Division, an Enforcement Division and a Registration and Notorial Acts Division while bankruptcy is handled by the Maritime and Commercial Court
Court
of Copenhagen.[82] Established in 1862, the Maritime and Commercial Court
Court
(Sø- og Handelsretten) also hears commercial cases including those relating to trade marks, marketing practices and competition for the whole of Denmark.[83] Denmark's Supreme Court (Højesteret), located in Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
on Prins Jørgens Gård in the centre of Copenhagen, is the country's final court of appeal. Handling civil and criminal cases from the subordinate courts, it has two chambers which each hear all types of cases.[84] The Danish National Police
Danish National Police
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Police headquarters is situated in the Neoclassical-inspired Politigården building built in 1918–24 under architects Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann
and Holger Alfred Jacobsen. The building also contains administration, management, emergency department and radio service offices.[85] In their efforts to deal with drugs, the police have noted considerable success in the two special drug consumption rooms opened by the city where addicts can use sterile needles and receive help from nurses if necessary. Use of these rooms does not lead to prosecution; the city treats drug use as a public health issue, not a criminal one.[86] The Copenhagen Fire Department
Copenhagen Fire Department
forms the largest municipal fire brigade in Denmark
Denmark
with some 500 fire and ambulance personnel, 150 administration and service workers, and 35 workers in prevention.[87] The brigade began as the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Royal Fire Brigade on 9 July 1687 under King Christian V. After the passing of the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Fire Act on 18 May 1868, on 1 August 1870 the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Fire Brigade became a municipal institution in its own right.[88] The fire department has its headquarters in the Copenhagen Central Fire Station
Copenhagen Central Fire Station
which was designed by Ludvig Fenger
Ludvig Fenger
in the Historicist style and inaugurated in 1892.[89] Environmental planning[edit] Main article: Energy in Denmark Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is recognized as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[90] As a result of its commitment to high environmental standards, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has been praised for its green economy, ranked as the top green city for the second time in the 2014 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI).[91][92] In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% of the city's energy.[93] Years of substantial investment in sewage treatment have improved water quality in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming with facilities at a number of locations.[94]

Middelgrunden
Middelgrunden
offshore wind farm

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
aims to be carbon-neutral by 2025. Commercial and residential buildings are to reduce electricity consumption by 20 percent and 10 percent respectively, and total heat consumption is to fall by 20 percent by 2025. Renewable energy features such as solar panels are becoming increasingly common in the newest buildings in Copenhagen. District heating
District heating
will be carbon-neutral by 2025, by waste incineration and biomass. New buildings must now be constructed according to Low Energy Class ratings and in 2020 near net-zero energy buildings. By 2025, 75% of trips should be made on foot, by bike, or by using public transit. The city plans that 20–30% of cars will run on electricity or biofuel by 2025. The investment is estimated at $472 million public funds and $4.78 billion private funds.[95] The city's architectural planning authorities continue to take full account of these priorities. Special
Special
attention is given both to climate issues and efforts to ensure maximum application of low-energy standards. Priorities include sustainable drainage systems,[96] recycling rainwater, green roofs and efficient waste management solutions. In city planning, streets and squares are to be designed to encourage cycling and walking rather than driving.[97] Demographics and society[edit]

First-generation immigrants by country of origin (Q12016)[98]

Nationality Population

Pakistan 5,409

Morocco 5,197

Poland 4,767

Germany 4,560

Iraq 4,407

Turkey 4,168

Sweden 4,471

Norway 3,836

United Kingdom 3,292

United States 3,244

Italy 3,098

China 3,002

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is the most populous city in Denmark
Denmark
and one of the most populous in the Nordic countries. For statistical purposes, Statistics Denmark
Denmark
considers the City of Copenhagen
City of Copenhagen
(Byen København) to consist of the Municipality of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
plus three adjacent municipalities: Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby.[6] Their combined population stands at 763,908 (as of December 2016[update]).[7] The Municipality of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is by far the most populous in the country and one of the most populous Nordic municipalities with 601,448 inhabitants (as of December 2016[update]).[3] There was a demographic boom in the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century, largely due to immigration to Denmark. According to figures from the first quarter of 2016, approximately 76% of the municipality's population was of Danish descent,[98] defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark
Denmark
and has Danish citizenship. Much of the remaining 24% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants (18%) or descendants of recent immigrants (6%).[98] There are no official statistics on ethnic groups. The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
residents. According to Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen's urban area has a larger population of 1,280,371 (as of 1 January 2016[update]).[3] The urban area consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
plus 16 of the 20 municipalities of the former counties Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Roskilde, though five of them only partially.[78] Metropolitan Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a total of 2,016,285 inhabitants (as of 2016[update]).[3][99] The area of Metropolitan Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is defined by the Finger Plan.[100] Since the opening of the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge in 2000, commuting between Zealand
Zealand
and Scania
Scania
in Sweden
Sweden
has increased rapidly, leading to a wider, integrated area. Known as the Øresund Region, it has 3.8 million inhabitants (of whom 2.5 million live in the Danish part of the region).[101] Religion[edit] See also: List of churches in Copenhagen
List of churches in Copenhagen
and Religion in Denmark

Church of Our Lady, situated on Frue Plads

With 58.1% a majority of those living in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark
Denmark
which is 1.2% lower than one year earlier according to 2017 figures.[102] The National Cathedral, the Church of Our Lady, is one of the dozens of churches in Copenhagen. There are also several other Christian communities in the city, of which the largest is Roman Catholic.[103] Foreign migration to Copenhagen, rising over the last three decades, has contributed to increasing religious diversity; the Grand Mosque of Copenhagen, the first in Denmark, opened in 2014.[104] Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion in Copenhagen, accounting for approximately 10% of the population.[105][106][107] While there are no official statistics, a significant portion of the estimated 175,000–200,000 Muslims in the country live in the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
urban area, with the highest concentration in Nørrebro
Nørrebro
and the Vestegnen.[108] There are also some 7,000 Jews in Denmark, most of them in the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
area where there are several synagogues.[109]

Quality of living[edit] For a number of years, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has ranked high in international surveys for its quality of life. Its stable economy together with its education services and level of social safety make it attractive for locals and visitors alike. Although it is one of the world's most expensive cities, it is also one of the most liveable with its public transport, facilities for cyclists and its environmental policies.[110] In elevating Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to "most liveable city" in 2013, Monocle pointed to its open spaces, increasing activity on the streets, city planning in favour of cyclists and pedestrians, and features to encourage inhabitants to enjoy city life with an emphasis on community, culture and cuisine.[111] Other sources have ranked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
high for its business environment, accessibility, restaurants and environmental planning.[112] However, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
ranks only 39th for student friendliness in 2012. Despite a top score for quality of living, its scores were low for employer activity and affordability.[113] Economy[edit] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is the major economic and financial centre of Denmark. The city's economy is based largely on services and commerce. Statistics for 2010 show that the vast majority of the 350,000 workers in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
are employed in the service sector, especially transport and communications, trade, and finance, while less than 10,000 work in the manufacturing industries. The public sector workforce is around 110,000, including education and healthcare.[114] From 2006 to 2011, the economy grew by 2.5% in Copenhagen, while it fell by some 4% in the rest of Denmark.[115] In 2010, the wider Capital Region of Denmark had a gross domestic product (GDP) of €88,366 million, and the 15th largest GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of regions in the European Union.[116]

The Crystal, headquarters of Nykredit
Nykredit
bank

Several financial institutions and banks have headquarters in Copenhagen, including Alm. Brand, Danske Bank, Nykredit
Nykredit
and Nordea Bank Danmark. The Copenhagen Stock Exchange
Copenhagen Stock Exchange
(CSE) was founded in 1620 and is now owned by Nasdaq, Inc.. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is also home to a number of international companies including A.P. Møller-Mærsk, Novo Nordisk, Carlsberg and Novozymes.[117] City authorities have encouraged the development of business clusters in several innovative sectors, which include information technology, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, clean technology and smart city solutions.[118][119]

Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss
Swiss
pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals

Life science is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. Medicon Valley
Medicon Valley
is a leading bi-national life sciences cluster in Europe, spanning the Øresund
Øresund
Region. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on research and development within the field of biotechnology,[120] and the Medicon Valley initiative aims to strengthen this position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia. Many major Danish companies like Novo Nordisk and Lundbeck, both of which are among the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the world, are located in this business cluster.[121] Shipping is another import sector with Maersk, the world's largest shipping company, having their world headquarters in Copenhagen. The city has an industrial harbour, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Port. Following decades of stagnation, it has experienced a resurgence since 1990 following a merger with Malmö
Malmö
harbour. Both ports are operated by Copenhagen Malmö
Malmö
Port (CMP). The central location in the Øresund
Øresund
Region allows the ports to act as a hub for freight that is transported onward to the Baltic countries. CMP annually receives about 8,000 ships and handled some 148,000 TEU in 2012.[122] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has some of the highest gross wages in the world.[123] High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists has made Denmark
Denmark
an attractive location for foreign labour. It is however also among the most expensive cities in Europe.[124][125] Denmark's Flexicurity model features some of the most flexible hiring and firing legislation in Europe, providing attractive conditions for foreign investment and international companies looking to locate in Copenhagen.[126] In Dansk Industri's 2013 survey of employment factors in the ninety-six municipalities of Denmark, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
came in first place for educational qualifications and for the development of private companies in recent years, but fell to 86th place in local companies' assessment of the employment climate. The survey revealed considerable dissatisfaction in the level of dialogue companies enjoyed with the municipal authorities.[127] Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in Denmark Tourism is a major contributor to Copenhagen's economy, attracting visitors due to the city's harbour, cultural attractions and award-winning restaurants. Since 2009, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has been one of the fastest growing metropolitan destinations in Europe.[128] Hotel capacity in the city is growing significantly. From 2009 to 2013, it experienced a 42% growth in international bed nights (total number of nights spent by tourists), tallying a rise of nearly 70% for Chinese visitors.[128] The total number of bed nights in the Capital Region surpassed 9 million in 2013, while international bed nights reached 5 million.[128] In 2010, it is estimated that city break tourism contributed to DKK 2 billion in turnover. However, 2010 was an exceptional year for city break tourism and turnover increased with 29% in that one year.[129] 680,000 cruise passengers visited the port in 2015.[130] Cityscape[edit]

The city skyline features many towers and spires

The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a multitude of districts, each with its distinctive character and representing its own period. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
include the abundance of water, its many parks, and the bicycle paths that line most streets.[131] Architecture[edit] See also: Architecture in Copenhagen
Architecture in Copenhagen
and List of buildings in and around Copenhagen

Nyhavn
Nyhavn
is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses

The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages

Developing skyline of the Ørestad
Ørestad
district, located on the outskirts of Copenhagen

The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner city is often referred to as Middelalderbyen (the medieval city).[132] However, the city's most distinctive district is Frederiksstaden, developed during the reign of Frederick V. It has the Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Palace at its centre and is dominated by the dome of Frederik's Church
Frederik's Church
(or the Marble Church) and several elegant 18th-century Rococo
Rococo
mansions.[133] The inner city includes Slotsholmen, a little island on which Christiansborg
Christiansborg
Palace stands and Christianshavn
Christianshavn
with its canals.[134] Børsen
Børsen
on Slotsholmen and Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg Palace
in Hillerød
Hillerød
are prominent examples of the Dutch Renaissance
Dutch Renaissance
style in Copenhagen. Around the historical city centre lies a band of congenial residential boroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts when the city was finally allowed to expand beyond its fortifications.[135] Sometimes referred to as "the City of Spires", Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is known for its horizontal skyline, broken only by the spires and towers of its churches and castles. Most characteristic of all is the Baroque
Baroque
spire of the Church of Our Saviour with its narrowing external spiral stairway that visitors can climb to the top.[136] Other important spires are those of Christiansborg
Christiansborg
Palace, the City Hall and the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art venue. Not quite so high are the Renaissance spires of Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
and the "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange, so named because it resembles the intertwined tails of four dragons.[137] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is recognised globally as an exemplar of best practice urban planning.[138] Its thriving mixed use city centre is defined by striking contemporary architecture, engaging public spaces and an abundance of human activity. These design outcomes have been deliberately achieved through careful replanning in the second half of the 20th century. Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen[139] both for Danish architecture and for works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen, but since the turn of the millennium the city and its immediate surroundings have seen buildings and projects designed by top international architects. British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen
Copenhagen
the World's best design city 2008.[140] Copenhagen's urban development in the first half of the 20th century was heavily influenced by industrialisation. After World War II, Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen Municipality
adopted Fordism
Fordism
and repurposed its medieval centre to facilitate private automobile infrastructure in response to innovations in transport, trade and communication.[141] Copenhagen’s spacial planning in this time frame was characterised by the separation of land uses: an approach which requires residents to travel by car to access facilities of different uses.[142] The boom in urban development and modern architecture has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but several areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad
Ørestad
now has seen most of the recent development. Located near Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport, it currently boasts one of the largest malls in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as the IT University and a high school.[143] Parks, gardens and zoo[edit] Main article: Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen

Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
and park in central Copenhagen

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is a green city with many parks, both large and small. King's Garden
Garden
(Kongens Have), the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most frequented of them all.[144] It was Christian IV who first developed its landscaping in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitors[145] and in the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden with both a permanent display and temporary exhibits during the summer months.[144] Also located in the city centre are the Botanical Gardens noted for their large complex of 19th-century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen.[146] Fælledparken
Fælledparken
at 58 ha (140 acres) is the largest park in Copenhagen.[147] It is popular for sports fixtures and hosts several annual events including a free opera concert at the opening of the opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival and Labour Day celebrations, and the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Historic Grand Prix, a race for antique cars. A historical green space in the northeastern part of the city is Kastellet, a well-preserved Renaissance citadel that now serves mainly as a park.[148] Another popular park is the Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Gardens, a 32-hectare romantic landscape park. It houses a colony of tame grey herons and other waterfowl.[149] The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of the adjacent Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Zoo.[150] Langelinie, a park and promenade along the inner Øresund
Øresund
coast, is home to one of Copenhagen's most-visited tourist attractions, the Little Mermaid statue.[151] In Copenhagen, many cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing, reading and meditation. Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro
Nørrebro
and a Copenhagen
Copenhagen
institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard is the largest cemetery in Denmark
Denmark
(54 ha (130 acres)) and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, hedges, overgrown tombs, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.[152] It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
that by 2015 all citizens must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes.[153] In line with this policy, several new parks, including the innovative Superkilen
Superkilen
in the Nørrebro
Nørrebro
district, have been completed or are under development in areas lacking green spaces.[154] Landmarks by district[edit] Indre By[edit] The historic centre of the city, Indre By
Indre By
or the Inner City, features many of Copenhagen's most popular monuments and attractions. The area known as Frederiksstaden, developed by Frederik V in the second half of the 18th century in the Rococo
Rococo
style, has the four mansions of Amalienborg, the royal residence, and the wide-domed Marble Church at its centre.[155] Directly across the water from Amalienborg, the recently completed Copenhagen Opera
Copenhagen Opera
stands on the island of Holmen.[156] To the south of Frederiksstaden, the Nyhavn
Nyhavn
canal is lined with colourful houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, many now with lively restaurants and bars.[157] The canal runs from the harbour front to the spacious square of Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
which was laid out by Christian V
Christian V
in 1670. Important buildings include Charlottenborg Palace, famous for its art exhibitions, the Thott Palace (now the French embassy), the Royal Danish Theatre
Royal Danish Theatre
and the Hotel D'Angleterre, dated to 1755.[158] Other landmarks in Indre By
Indre By
include the parliament building of Christiansborg, the City Hall and Rundetårn, originally an observatory. There are also several museums in the area including Thorvaldsen Museum
Thorvaldsen Museum
dedicated to the 18th-century sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen.[159] Closed to traffic since 1964, Strøget, the world's oldest and longest pedestrian street, runs the 3.2 km (2.0 mi) from Rådhuspladsen
Rådhuspladsen
to Kongens Nytorv. With its speciality shops, cafés, restaurants, and buskers, it is always full of life and includes the old squares of Gammel Torv
Gammel Torv
and Amagertorv, each with a fountain.[160] Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
on Øster Voldgade
Øster Voldgade
was built by Christian IV in 1606 as a summer residence in the Renaissance style. It houses the Danish crown jewels and crown regalia, the coronation throne and tapestries illustrating Christian V's victories in the Scanian War.[161] Christianshavn[edit]

Christianshavn
Christianshavn
Canal

Christianshavn
Christianshavn
lies to the southeast of Indre By
Indre By
on the other side of the harbour. The area was developed by Christian IV in the early 17th century. Impressed by the city of Amsterdam, he employed Dutch architects to create canals within its ramparts which are still well preserved today.[25] The canals themselves, branching off the central Christianshavn
Christianshavn
Canal and lined with house boats and pleasure craft are one of the area's attractions. Another interesting feature is Freetown Christiania, a fairly large area which was initially occupied by squatters during student unrest in 1971. Today it still maintains a measure of autonomy. The inhabitants openly sell drugs on "Pusher Street" as well as their arts and crafts. Other buildings of interest in Christianshavn
Christianshavn
include the Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling steeple and the magnificent Rococo
Rococo
Christian's Church. Once a warehouse, the North Atlantic House
North Atlantic House
now displays culture from Iceland
Iceland
and Greenland
Greenland
and houses the Noma restaurant, known for its Nordic cuisine.[162][163] Vesterbro[edit]

Halmtorvet
Halmtorvet
in Vesterbro

Vesterbro, to the southwest of Indre By, begins with the Tivoli Gardens, the city's top tourist attraction with its fairground atmosphere, its Pantomime Theatre, its Concert Hall and its many rides and restaurants.[164] The Carlsberg neighbourhood has some interesting vestiges of the old brewery of the same name including the Elephant Gate and the Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse.[165] The Tycho Brahe Planetarium is located on the edge of Skt. Jørgens Sø, one of the Copenhagen lakes.[166] Halmtorvet, the old haymarket behind the Central Station, is an increasingly popular area with its cafés and restaurants. The former cattle market Øksnehallen has been converted into a modern exhibition centre for art and photography.[167] Radisson Blu Royal Hotel, built by Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen
Arne Jacobsen
for the airline Scandinavian Airlines System
Scandinavian Airlines System
(SAS) between 1956 and 1960 was once the tallest hotel in Denmark
Denmark
with a height of 69.60 m (228.3 ft) and the city's only skyscraper until 1969.[168] Completed in 1908, Det Ny Teater
Det Ny Teater
(the New Theatre) located in a passage between Vesterbrogade
Vesterbrogade
and Gammel Kongevej
Gammel Kongevej
has become a popular venue for musicals since its reopening in 1994, attracting the largest audiences in the country.[169] Nørrebro[edit]

Dronning Louises Bro
Dronning Louises Bro
leading into Nørrebrogade

Nørrebro
Nørrebro
to the northwest of the city centre has recently developed from a working-class district into a colourful cosmopolitan area with antique shops, ethnic food stores and restaurants. Much of the activity is centred on Sankt Hans Torv.[170] Copenhagen's historic cemetery, Assistens Kirkegård halfway up Nørrebrogade, is the resting place of many famous figures including Søren Kierkegaard, Niels Bohr, and Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
but is also used by locals as a park and recreation area.[171] Østerbro[edit]

The Gefion Fountain

Just north of the city centre, Østerbro
Østerbro
is an upper middle-class district with a number of fine mansions, some now serving as embassies.[172] The district stretches from Nørrebro
Nørrebro
to the waterfront where The Little Mermaid statue can be seen from the promenade known as Langelinie. Inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale, it was created by Edvard Eriksen and unveiled in 1913.[173] Not far from the Little Mermaid, the old Citadel (Kastellet) can be seen. Built by Christian IV, it is one of northern Europe's best preserved fortifications. There is also a windmill in the area.[174] The large Gefion Fountain
Gefion Fountain
(Gefionspringvandet) designed by Anders Bundgaard
Anders Bundgaard
and completed in 1908 stands close to the southeast corner of Kastellet. Its figures illustrate a Nordic legend.[175] Frederiksberg[edit]

Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Palace

Frederiksberg, a separate municipality within the urban area of Copenhagen, lies to the west of Nørrebro
Nørrebro
and Indre By
Indre By
and north of Vesterbro. Its landmarks include Copenhagen Zoo
Copenhagen Zoo
founded in 1869 with over 250 species from all over the world and Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Palace built as a summer residence by Frederick IV who was inspired by Italian architecture. Now a military academy, it overlooks the extensive landscaped Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Gardens with its follies, waterfalls, lakes and decorative buildings.[176] The wide tree-lined avenue of Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Allé connecting Vesterbrogade
Vesterbrogade
with the Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Gardens has long been associated with theatres and entertainment. While a number of the earlier theatres are now closed, the Betty Nansen Theatre and Aveny-T are still active.[177] Other districts[edit] Not far from Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport
on the Kastrup
Kastrup
coast, The Blue Planet completed in March 2013 now houses the national aquarium. With its 53 aquariums, it is the largest facility of its kind in Scandinavia.[178] Grundtvig's Church, located in the northern suburb of Bispebjerg, was designed by P.V. Jensen Klint
P.V. Jensen Klint
and completed in 1940. A rare example of Expressionist church architecture, its striking west façade is reminiscent of a church organ.[179] Culture and contemporary life[edit]

The Little Mermaid statue, an icon of the city and a popular tourist attraction

Apart from being the national capital, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
also serves as the cultural hub of Denmark
Denmark
and wider Scandinavia. Since the late 1990s, it has undergone a transformation from a modest Scandinavian capital into a metropolitan city of international appeal in the same league as Barcelona
Barcelona
and Amsterdam.[180] This is a result of huge investments in infrastructure and culture as well as the work of successful new Danish architects, designers and chefs.[139][181] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Fashion Week, the largest fashion event in Northern Europe, takes place every year in February and August.[182][183] Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in and around Copenhagen Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a wide array of museums of international standing. The National Museum, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of archaeology and cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alike.[184] Denmark's National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst) is the national art museum with collections dating from the 12th century to the present. In addition to Danish painters, artists represented in the collections include Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso, Braque, Léger, Matisse, Emil Nolde, Olafur Eliasson, Elmgreen and Dragset, Superflex
Superflex
and Jens Haaning.[185]

Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
art museum

Another important Copenhagen
Copenhagen
art museum is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek founded by second generation Carlsberg philanthropist Carl Jacobsen and built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian, Roman and Greek sculptures and antiquities and a collection of Rodin sculptures, the largest outside France. Besides its sculpture collections, the museum also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters such as Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as well as works by the Danish Golden Age
Danish Golden Age
painters.[186] Louisiana is a museum of modern art situated on the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located in the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. Its collection of over 3,000 items includes works by Picasso, Giacometti and Dubuffet.[187] The Danish Design Museum is housed in the 18th-century former Frederiks Hospital and displays Danish design
Danish design
as well as international design and crafts.[188] Other museums include: the Thorvaldsens Museum, dedicated to the oeuvre of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen
who lived and worked in Rome;[189] the Cisternerne
Cisternerne
museum dedicated to modern glass art, located in former cisterns that come complete with stalactites formed by the changing water levels;[190] and the Ordrupgaard
Ordrupgaard
Museum, located just north of Copenhagen, which features 19th-century French and Danish art and is noted for its works by Paul Gauguin.[191] Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

The Royal Danish Playhouse
Royal Danish Playhouse
(left) and Opera House (background, right)

The new Copenhagen Concert Hall
Copenhagen Concert Hall
opened in January 2009. Designed by Jean Nouvel, it has four halls with the main auditorium seating 1,800 people. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and along with the Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall
in Los Angeles is the most expensive concert hall ever built.[192] Another important venue for classical music is the Tivoli Concert Hall
Tivoli Concert Hall
located in the Tivoli Gardens.[193] Designed by Henning Larsen, the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Opera House (Operaen) opened in 2005. It is among the most modern opera houses in the world.[194] The Royal Danish Theatre
Royal Danish Theatre
also stages opera in addition to its drama productions. It is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one of the oldest ballet troupes in Europe, and is noted for its Bournonville style of ballet.[195]

The Royal Danish Theatre
Royal Danish Theatre
main building

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a significant jazz scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster, Thad Jones, Richard Boone, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew, Ed Thigpen, Bob Rockwell, Dexter Gordon, and others such as rock guitarist Link Wray
Link Wray
came to live in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
during the 1960s. Every year in early July, Copenhagen's streets, squares, parks as well as cafés and concert halls fill up with big and small jazz concerts during the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Jazz
Jazz
Festival. One of Europe's top jazz festivals, the annual event features around 900 concerts at 100 venues with over 200,000 guests from Denmark
Denmark
and around the world.[196] The largest venue for popular music in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is Vega in the Vesterbro district. It was chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by international music magazine Live. The venue has three concert halls: the great hall, Store Vega, accommodates audiences of 1,550, the middle hall, Lille
Lille
Vega, has space for 500 and Ideal Bar Live has a capacity of 250.[197] Every September since 2006, the Festival of Endless Gratitude (FOEG) has taken place in Copenhagen. This festival focuses on indie counterculture, experimental pop music and left field music combined with visual arts exhibitions.[198] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is home to the "K-Town" punk and hardcore music community. This community developed around the underground scene venue Ungdomshuset
Ungdomshuset
in the late 90's punk scene, with punk- and hardcore acts such as Snipers, Amdi Petersens Armé, Gorilla Angreb, Young Wasteners, and No Hope For The Kids emerging as significant bands.[199] The term "K-town" got international recognition within the punk-scene with the emergence of "K-Town" festivals. In 2001, the first of these was held in Ungdomshuset, on Jagtvej 69, Nørrebro, Copenhagen.[200] The festival temporarily moved to Freetown Christiania after Ungdomshuset
Ungdomshuset
was evicted from its original location until a new Ungdomshuset
Ungdomshuset
location was opened on Dortheavej 61.[201] For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget, especially between Nytorv
Nytorv
and Højbro Plads, which in the late afternoon and evening is a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus with musicians, magicians, jugglers and other street performers.[202] Literature[edit]

Copenhagen's main public library

Most of Denmarks's major publishing houses are based in Copenhagen.[203] These include the book publishers Gyldendal
Gyldendal
and Akademisk Forlag and newspaper publishers Berlingske
Berlingske
and Politiken (the latter also publishing books).[204][205] Many of the most important contributors to Danish literature such as Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) with his fairy tales, the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) and playwright Ludvig Holberg
Ludvig Holberg
(1684–1754) spent much of their lives in Copenhagen. Novels set in Copenhagen include Baby (1973) by Kirsten Thorup, The Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Connection (1982) by Barbara Mertz, Number the Stars (1989) by Lois Lowry, Miss Smilla's Feeling for Snow (1992) and Borderliners (1993) by Peter Høeg, Music and Silence
Music and Silence
(1999) by Rose Tremain, The Danish Girl (2000) by David Ebershoff, and Sharpe's Prey
Sharpe's Prey
(2001) by Bernard Cornwell. Michael Frayn's 1998 play Copenhagen
Copenhagen
about the meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
and Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
in 1941 is also set in the city. On 15–18 August 1973, an oral literature conference took place in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
as part of the 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences.[206] The Royal Library, belonging to the University of Copenhagen, is the largest library in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
with an almost complete collection of all printed Danish books since 1482. Founded in 1648, the Royal Library is located at four sites in the city, the main one being on the Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
waterfront.[207] Copenhagen's public library network has over 20 outlets, the largest being the Central Library (Københavns Hovedbibliotek) on Krystalgade
Krystalgade
in the inner city.[208] Art[edit]

Interior of the National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst), combining new and old architecture

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a wide selection of art museums and galleries displaying both historic works and more modern contributions. They include Statens Museum for Kunst, i.e. the Danish national art gallery, in the Østre Anlæg
Østre Anlæg
park, and the adjacent Hirschsprung Collection specialising in the 19th and early 20th century. Kunsthal Charlottenborg in the city centre exhibits national and international contemporary art. Den Frie Udstilling
Den Frie Udstilling
near the Østerport Station exhibits paintings created and selected by contemporary artists themselves rather than by the official authorities. The Arken Museum of Modern Art is located in southwestern Ishøj.[209] Among artists who have painted scenes of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
are Martinus Rørbye (1803–1848),[210] Christen Købke
Christen Købke
(1810–1848)[211] and the prolific Paul Gustav Fischer
Paul Gustav Fischer
(1860–1934).[212] A number of notable sculptures can be seen in the city. In addition to The Little Mermaid on the waterfront, there are two historic equestrian statues in the city centre: Jacques Saly's Frederik V on Horseback (1771) in Amalienborg
Amalienborg
Square[213] and the statue of Christian V
Christian V
on Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
created by Abraham-César Lamoureux in 1688 who was inspired by the statue of Louis XIII in Paris.[214] Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens
contains several sculptures and monuments including August Saabye's Hans Christian Andersen, Aksel Hansen's Echo, and Vilhelm Bissen's Dowager Queen Caroline Amalie.[215] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is believed to have invented the photomarathon photography competition, which has been held in the City each year since 1989.[216][217] Cuisine[edit] For a broader look at this topic, see Danish cuisine.

Noma is an example of Copenhagen's renowned experimental restaurants, and has gained two Michelin stars.

As of 2014[update], Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has 15 Michelin-starred restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian city.[218] The city is increasingly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination.[219] These include Den Røde Cottage, Formel B Restaurant, Grønbech & Churchill, Søllerød Kro, Kadeau, Kiin Kiin (Denmark's first Michelin-starred Asian gourmet restaurant), the French restaurant Kong Hans Kælder, Relæ, Restaurant AOC, Noma (short for Danish: nordisk mad, English: Nordic food) with two Stars and Geranium with three. Noma, was ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World by Restaurant in 2010, 2011, 2012, and again in 2014,[220] sparking interest in the New Nordic Cuisine.[221] Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
offers a great variety of Danish, ethnic and experimental restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød – a traditional, Danish lunch dish; however, most restaurants serve international dishes.[222] Danish pastry
Danish pastry
can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Baker's Association dates back to the 1290s and Denmark's oldest confectioner's shop still operating, Conditori La Glace, was founded in 1870 in Skoubogade by Nicolaus Henningsen, a trained master baker from Flensburg.[223] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises on the border between the Vesterbro and Valby
Valby
districts since 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth in the number of microbreweries so that Denmark
Denmark
today has more than 100 breweries, many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro
Nørrebro
Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat on the premises.[224][225] Nightlife
Nightlife
and festivals[edit]

Copenhagen Pride
Copenhagen Pride
Parade, 2008

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has one of the highest number of restaurants and bars per capita in the world.[226] The nightclubs and bars stay open until 5 or 6 in the morning, some even longer. Denmark
Denmark
has a very liberal alcohol culture and a strong tradition for beer breweries, although binge drinking is frowned upon and the Danish Police take driving under the influence very seriously.[227] Inner city
Inner city
areas such as Istedgade
Istedgade
and Enghave Plads
Enghave Plads
in Vesterbro, Sankt Hans Torv
Sankt Hans Torv
in Nørrebro
Nørrebro
and certain places in Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
are especially noted for their nightlife. Notable nightclubs include Bakken Kbh, ARCH (previously ZEN), Jolene, The Jane, Chateau Motel, KB3, At Dolores (previously Sunday Club), Rust, Vega Nightclub, Culture Box and Gefährlich, which also serves as a bar, café, restaurant, and art gallery.[228][229] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has several recurring community festivals, mainly in the summer. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Carnival
Carnival
has taken place every year since 1982 during the Whitsun
Whitsun
Holiday in Fælledparken
Fælledparken
and around the city with the participation of 120 bands, 2,000 dancers and 100,000 spectators.[230] Since 2010, the old B&W Shipyard at Refshaleøen in the harbour has been the location for Copenhell, a heavy metal rock music festival. Copenhagen Pride
Copenhagen Pride
is a gay pride festival taking place every year in August. The Pride has a series of different activities all over Copenhagen, but it is at the City Hall Square that most of the celebration takes place. During the Pride the square is renamed Pride Square.[231] Copenhagen Distortion
Copenhagen Distortion
has emerged to be one of the biggest street festivals in Europe with 100.000 people joining to parties in the beginning of June every year. Amusement parks[edit]

The Pantomime Theatre, opened in 1874, is the oldest building in the Tivoli Gardens

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has the two oldest amusement parks in the world.[232][233] Dyrehavsbakken, a fair-ground and pleasure-park established in 1583, is located in Klampenborg
Klampenborg
just north of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in a forested area known as Dyrehaven. Created as an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV, it is the oldest surviving amusement park in the world.[232] Pierrot (Danish: Pjerrot), a nitwit dressed in white with a scarlet grin wearing a boat-like hat while entertaining children, remains one of the park's key attractions. In Danish, Dyrehavsbakken
Dyrehavsbakken
is often abbreviated as Bakken. There is no entrance fee to pay and Klampenborg
Klampenborg
Station on the C-line, is situated nearby.[234] The Tivoli Gardens
Tivoli Gardens
is an amusement park and pleasure garden located in central Copenhagen
Copenhagen
between the City Hall Square and the Central Station. It opened in 1843, making it the second oldest amusement park in the world. Among its rides are the oldest still operating rollercoaster Rutschebanen from 1915 and the oldest ferris wheel still in use, opened in 1943.[235] Tivoli Gardens
Tivoli Gardens
also serves as a venue for various performing arts and as an active part of the cultural scene in Copenhagen.[236] Education[edit]

The main building of the University of Copenhagen

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has over 94,000 students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
(38,867 students),[237] Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School
(19,999 students),[238] Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College
and University College Capital (10,000 students each),[239] Technical University of Denmark
Denmark
(7,000 students),[240] KEA (c. 4,500 students),[241] IT University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(2,000 students) and Aalborg
Aalborg
University – Copenhagen (2,300 students).[242] The University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
is Denmark's oldest university founded in 1479. It attracts some 1,500 international and exchange students every year. The Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
placed it 30th in the world in 2016.[243] The Technical University of Denmark
Denmark
is located in Lyngby in the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2013, it was ranked as one of the leading technical universities in Northern Europe.[244] The IT University is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business aspects of information technology.[245] The Danish Academy of Fine Arts
Danish Academy of Fine Arts
has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years. It includes the historic School of Visual Arts, and has in later years come to include a School of Architecture, a School of Design and a School of Conservation.[246] Copenhagen Business School (CBS) is an EQUIS-accredited business school located in Frederiksberg.[247] There are also branches of both University College Capital and Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College
inside and outside Copenhagen.[248][249] Sport[edit] The city has a variety of sporting teams. The major football teams are the historically successful FC København[250] and Brøndby. FC København plays at Parken in Østerbro. Formed in 1992, it is a merger of two older Copenhagen
Copenhagen
clubs, B 1903 (from the inner suburb Gentofte) and KB (from Frederiksberg).[251] Brøndby plays at Brøndby Stadion in the inner suburb of Brøndbyvester. BK Frem
BK Frem
is based in the southern part of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(Sydhavnen, Valby). Other teams are FC Nordsjælland (from suburban Farum), Fremad Amager, B93, AB, Lyngby and Hvidovre
Hvidovre
IF.[252]

Copenhagen Marathon
Copenhagen Marathon
2008

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has several handball teams—a sport which is particularly popular in Denmark. Of clubs playing in the "highest" leagues, there are Ajax, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup).[252] The København Håndbold women's club has recently been established.[253] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
also has ice hockey teams, of which three play in the top league, Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev
Herlev
Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey
Hvidovre Ligahockey
all inner suburban clubs. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Ice Skating Club founded in 1869 is the oldest ice hockey team in Denmark
Denmark
but is no longer in the top league.[254] Rugby union
Rugby union
is also played in the Danish capital with teams such as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School
Sport Rugby, Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
RK, Exiles RUFC
Exiles RUFC
and Rugbyklubben Speed. Rugby league
Rugby league
is now played in Copenhagen, with the national team playing out of Gentofte Stadion. The Danish Australian Football League, based in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is the largest Australian rules football
Australian rules football
competition outside of the English-speaking world.[252][255] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Marathon, Copenhagen's annual marathon event, was established in 1980.[256] Round Christiansborg
Christiansborg
Open Water Swim Race is a 2-kilometre (1.2-mile) open water swimming competition taking place each year in late August.[257] This amateur event is combined with a 10-kilometre (6-mile) Danish championship.[258] In 2009 the event included a 10-kilometre (6-mile) FINA World Cup competition in the morning. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
hosted the 2011 UCI Road World Championships
2011 UCI Road World Championships
in September 2011, taking advantage of its bicycle-friendly infrastructure. It was the first time that Denmark
Denmark
had hosted the event since 1956, when it was also held in Copenhagen.[259] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Copenhagen See also: Transport in Denmark
Denmark
and Cycling advocacy § Copenhagenization

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport, Kastrup

The greater Copenhagen
Copenhagen
area has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport, opened in 1925, is Scandinavia's largest airport, located in Kastrup on the island of Amager. It is connected to the city centre by metro and main line railway services.[260] October 2013 was a record month with 2.2 million passengers, and November 2013 figures reveal that the number of passengers is increasing by some 3% annually, about 50% more than the European average.[261]

4th generation S-train
S-train
at Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Central Station

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has an extensive road network including motorways connecting the city to other parts of Denmark
Denmark
and to Sweden
Sweden
over the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge.[262] The car is still the most popular form of transport within the city itself, representing two-thirds of all distances travelled. This can however lead to serious congestion in rush hour traffic.[263] The Øresund
Øresund
train links Copenhagen
Copenhagen
with Malmö
Malmö
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is also served by a daily ferry connection to Oslo
Oslo
in Norway.[264] In 2012, Copenhagen Harbour handled 372 cruise ships and 840,000 passengers.[264]

The intense use of bicycles here illustrated at the Christianshavn Metro Station

The Copenhagen
Copenhagen
S-Train, Copenhagen Metro
Copenhagen Metro
and the regional train networks are used by about half of the city's passengers, the remainder using bus services. Nørreport Station
Nørreport Station
near the city centre serves passengers travelling by main-line rail, S-train, regional train, metro and bus. Some 750,000 passengers make use of public transport facilities every day.[262] Copenhagen Central Station
Copenhagen Central Station
is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark
Denmark
and international destinations.[265] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is cited by urban planners for its exemplary integration of public transport and urban development. In implementing its Finger Plan, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is considered the world's first example of a transit metropolis[52] and areas around S-Train stations like Ballerup
Ballerup
and Brøndby Strand
Brøndby Strand
are among the earliest examples of transit-oriented development. The Danish capital is known as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, with bicycles actually outnumbering its inhabitants.[266][267] In 2012 some 36% of all working or studying city-dwellers cycled to work, school, or university. With 1.27 million km covered every working day by Copenhagen's cyclists (including both residents and commuters), and 75% of Copenhageners cycling throughout the year.[268] The city's bicycle paths are extensive and well used, boasting 400 kilometres (250 miles) of cycle lanes not shared with cars or pedestrians, and sometimes have their own signal systems – giving the cyclists a lead of a couple of seconds to accelerate.[267][269]

Healthcare[edit] See also: Healthcare in Denmark Promoting health is an extremely important issue for Copenhagen's municipal authorities. Central to its sustainability mission is its "Long Live Copenhagen" (Længe Leve København) scheme in which it has the goal of increasing the life expectancy of citizens, improving quality of life through better standards of health, and encouraging more productive lives and equal opportunities.[270] The city has targets to encourage people to exercise regularly and to reduce the number who smoke and consume alcohol.[270]

Rigshospitalet
Rigshospitalet
is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark.

Copenhagen University Hospital forms a conglomerate of several hospitals in Region Hovedstaden
Region Hovedstaden
and Region Sjælland, together with the faculty of health sciences at the University of Copenhagen; Rigshospitalet
Rigshospitalet
and Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg
Hospital in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
belong to this group of university hospitals.[271] Rigshospitalet
Rigshospitalet
began operating in March 1757 as Frederiks Hospital,[272] and became state-owned in 1903. With 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet
Rigshospitalet
has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. It seeks to be the number one specialist hospital in the country, with an extensive team of researchers into cancer treatment, surgery and radiotherapy.[273] In addition to its 8,000 personnel, the hospital has training and hosting functions. It benefits from the presence of in-service students of medicine and other healthcare sciences, as well as scientists working under a variety of research grants. The hospital became internationally famous as the location of Lars von Trier's television horror mini-series The Kingdom. Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg
Hospital was built in 1913, and serves about 400,000 people in the Greater Copenhagen
Copenhagen
area, with some 3,000 employees.[274] Other large hospitals in the city include Amager
Amager
Hospital (1997),[275] Herlev
Herlev
Hospital (1976),[276] Hvidovre Hospital (1970),[277] and Gentofte Hospital (1927).[278] Media[edit]

Aller Media
Aller Media
conglomerate building in Havneholm

Many Danish media corporations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the major Danish public service broadcasting corporation consolidated their activities in a new headquarters, DR Byen, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly TV2 which is based in Odense
Odense
has concentrated its Copenhagen activities in a modern media house in Teglholmen.[279] The two national daily newspapers Politiken
Politiken
and Berlingske
Berlingske
Tidende and the two tabloids Ekstra Bladet and B.T. are based in Copenhagen.[280] Kristeligt Dagblad is based in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and is published six days a week.[281] Other important media corporations include Aller Media which is the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia,[282] the Egmont media group[283] and Gyldendal, the largest Danish publisher of books.[284] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
also has a sizable film and television industry. Nordisk Film, established in Valby, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1906 is the oldest continuously operating film production company in the world.[230] In 1992 it merged with the Egmont media group and currently runs the 17-screen Palads Cinema
Palads Cinema
in Copenhagen. Filmbyen (movie city), located in a former military camp in the suburb of Hvidovre, houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie companies is Zentropa, co-owned by Danish movie director Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
who is behind several international movie productions as well as a founding force behind the Dogme Movement.[285] CPH:PIX is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion of the 20-year-old Natfilm festival and the four-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April. CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. On top of its documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event programme with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town.[286]

Twin cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Denmark Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is twinned or cooperating with several cities, including:

Beijing, China[287]

Paris, France
France
(friendship and cooperation agreement only)[288]

Reykjavík, Iceland[289]

Campeche, Mexico[289]

See also[edit]

Denmark
Denmark
portal European Union
European Union
portal

Category: People from Copenhagen 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference
2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference
in Copenhagen Architecture in Copenhagen Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Climate Council Outline of Denmark Ports of the Baltic Sea List of urban areas in Denmark
Denmark
by population

Footnotes[edit]

^ Pronounced /ˌkoʊpənˈheɪɡən, -ˈhɑː-/ KOHP-ən-HAY-gən, -HAH- or /ˈkoʊpənheɪɡən, -hɑː-/ KOHP-ən-hay-gən, -hah-.[5]

Citations[edit]

^ "ARE207: Area by region". Statbank.dk. Statistics Denmark. January 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ "Statistics Denmark: Copenhagen
Copenhagen
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Traffic Department. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ Stanners, Peter. "Committee presents ideas for reducing Copenhagen's congestion". The Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Post. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ a b "DFDS Seaways". AOK. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ "Travelling in Denmark". DSB. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ "11 most bicycle-friendly cities in the world". Virgin Vacations. Archived from the original on 1 January 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ a b "Copenhagen's piles of bicycles". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ "Bicycle statistics". subsite.kk.dk. City of Copenhagen. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ Lindholm, Lasse. " Cycling in Copenhagen
Cycling in Copenhagen
— the easy way". Denmark. Retrieved 24 November 2013.  ^ a b "Vi vil forbedre københavnernes sundhed" (in Danish). Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Kjaer, Krogsgaard & Magnusson 2008, p. 11. ^ Schaldemose 2005, p. 107. ^ "Research". Rigshospitalet. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.  ^ "About Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg
Hospital". Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg
Hospital. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.  ^ " Amager
Amager
Hospitals historie" (in Danish). Amager
Amager
Hospital. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ GmbH, Emporis. " Herlev
Herlev
Hospital, Herlev
Herlev
– 136661 – EMPORIS". emporis.com.  ^ "Historie" (in Danish). Hvidovre
Hvidovre
Hospital. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ " Gentofte Hospital
Gentofte Hospital
eller Amtssygehuset i Gentofte" (in Danish). Gentofte Historie. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.  ^ "TV2 samles på Teglholmen". Berlingske
Berlingske
Tidende. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2009.  ^ Jauert, Per; Ghita Nørby. "Media Landscapes: Denmark". European Journalism Centre. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ " Kristeligt Dagblad – Vælg din gave her!". director.dk.  ^ "Aller" (in Danish). Den Store Danske. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ "Egmont Gruppen" (in Danish). Den Store Danske. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ "Gyldendal" (in Danish). Den Store Danske. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ Schepelern, Peter. "Internationalist med rejsefobi" (in Danish). Kulturarv. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ "Cph:Pix". Cphpix.dk. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ " Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Beijing
Beijing
Become Sister Cities". Københavns Kommune. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  ^ "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération" (in French). Mairie de Paris. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2015.  ^ a b " Copenhagen
Copenhagen
key facts". engineering-timelines.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015. 

References[edit]

Booth, Michael (1 January 2003). Time Out Copenhagen. Penguin Group USA. ISBN 978-0-14-100839-4.  Brebbia, C. A. (1 May 2013). Sustainable Development and Planning VI. WIT Press. ISBN 978-1-84564-714-8.  Cardarelli, François (19 March 2008). Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference. Springer. ISBN 978-1-84628-669-8.  Cervero, Robert (1 October 1998). The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726-931-5.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Copenhagen". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Christopher, Paul J. (31 July 2006). Greatest Cities in the World You Should Visit. Encouragement Press, LLC. ISBN 978-1-933766-01-0.  Cowie, Leonard W. (1 September 1990). Lord Nelson, 1758–1805: A Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28082-5.  Cunningham, Antonia (2 April 2013). DK Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Copenhagen. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-1-4093-2964-0.  Davies, Elwyn (1944). Denmark. Naval Intelligence Division.  Fountain, Jane; Korf, Dirk J. (1 January 2007). Drugs in Society: European Perspectives. Radcliffe Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84619-093-3.  Harding, Paul (2009). Scandinavian Europe. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-928-2.  Hinde, Wendy (1973). George Canning. Collins.  Jason, Heda; Segal, Dimitri (1 January 1977). Patterns in Oral Literature. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-081002-8.  Kjaer, Michael; Krogsgaard, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Lars Engebretsen, Harald Roos, Timo Takala, Savio L-Y. Woo (15 April 2008). Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-4057-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Lauring, Kåre (2003). Byen brænder – den store brand i København 1728 (in Danish). Copenhagen: Gyldendal. ISBN 87-02-01895-0.  Nelson, Viscount Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
(2005). Nelson, the New Letters. Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-130-3.  O'Brien, Sally (2005). Copenaghen. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-035-7.  Phillips, Ron (January 2011). Arts Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Can Every City be "Austintatious"?. Now Publishers Inc. ISBN 978-1-60198-412-8.  Pocock, Tom (1994). Horatio Nelson. Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6123-2.  Raabyemagle, Hanne (1998). "Harsdorff shows the way". In Raabyemagle, H.; Smidt, C. Classicism in Copenhagen. Denmark: Gyldendal. ISBN 87-00-34356-0.  Schaldemose, Anne Prytz (2005). Copenhagen, People and Places. Gyldendal
Gyldendal
A/S. ISBN 978-87-02-02751-8.  Skaarup, Bi; Jensen, Johan R. M. (2002). Arkæologien i metroens spor — The archaeology in the tracks of the metro (in Danish and English). The Orestad Development Corporation and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
City Museum. ISBN 87-90143-15-9.  Smith, Digby George (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic wars data book. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-276-7.  Woodward, Christopher (1998). Copenhagen. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5193-7. 

Further reading[edit] Further information: Bibliography of Copenhagen External links[edit]

VisitCopenhagen.dk – Official Visit Copenhagen
Copenhagen
tourism website

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Copenhagen

See also: Urban area of Copenhagen

Official districts

Amager
Amager
Vest Amager
Amager
Øst Bispebjerg Brønshøj-Husum Indre By Nørrebro Østerbro Valby Vanløse Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave

Notable localities and neighbourhoods

Indre By Bellahøj Carlsberg Christiania Christianshavn Frederiksberg Frederiksstaden Holmen Islands Brygge Kongens Nytorv Nyboder Nyhavn Slotsholmen

Parks and open spaces

Amager
Amager
Strandpark Assistens Cemetery Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Gardens Kastellet Kongens Have Superkilen

Churches

St. Alban's Alexander Nevsky Church St. Andrew's Anna Church St. Ansgar's Cathedral St. Augustine's Bernstorff Palace Bethlehem Church Brorson's Church Christian's Church Christ Church Elijah's Church Frederik's Church Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Church Godthaab Church Grundtvig's Church Gustaf Church Hans Tausen's Church Holmen Church Holy Ghost Church Immanuel Church Isaiah Church St. James's Jerusalem Church Jesus Church St. John's Church Kildevæld Church St. Luke's Church Mariendal Church St. Mark's St. Matthew's Nathanael's Church St. Paul's St. Peter's Philip's Church Reformed Church Church of Our Saviour Simon Peter's Church Solbjerg Church Sundby Church Trinitatis Church Zion's Church

Museums

Cisternerne Amber Museum Danish Design Centre Danish Museum of Art & Design Danish Revue Museum Fotografisk Center University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
Geological Museum Hirschsprung Collection Jewish Museum Kastrupgård Kunsthal Charlottenborg Medical Museion Museum of Copenhagen National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Photography Natural History Museum of Denmark North Atlantic House Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Police Museum Revue Museum Royal Danish Naval Museum National Gallery of Denmark Storm P. Museum Tøjhus Museum Tycho Brahe Planetarium

Landmarks

Amalienborg Børsen Charlottenborg Palace Christiansborg
Christiansborg
Palace Copenhagen
Copenhagen
City Hall Harbour Baths Fortifications Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Palace Hotel Astoria Kongens Nytorv Lakes Langelinie The Little Mermaid Medicon Valley Nørreport Station Opera House Øresund
Øresund
Bridge Palace Hotel Radisson Blu Royal Hotel Rosenborg Castle Royal Danish Playhouse Royal Library Tivoli

Politics and administration

Capital Region Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Municipality

Lord mayors of Copenhagen

Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Municipality

Education

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Business School Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation Technical University of Denmark University of Copenhagen UCC

Transport

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Central Station Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Metro S-train Cycling (Super Bikeways)

Districts History Lists Transport

Articles related to Copenhagen

v t e

Capital cities of the Kingdom of Denmark

National capital: Copenhagen (Seat of government: Folketing)

Constituent countries: Provinces of Denmark:

Copenhagen, Denmark Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Nuuk, Greenland

Hillerød, Capital Region of Denmark Viborg, Central Denmark
Denmark
Region Aalborg, North Denmark
Denmark
Region Vejle, Region of Southern Denmark Sorø, Region Zealand

See also: List of cities in Denmark, the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland

v t e

Municipal seats of Denmark

Capital Region

Albertslund Ballerup Brøndbyvester Buddinge Charlottenlund Copenhagen Dragør
Dragør
and Store Magleby Frederiksberg Frederikssund Frederiksværk Glostrup Helsinge Helsingør Herlev Hillerød Holte Hørsholm Hvidovre Ishøj Kokkedal Kongens Lyngby Lillerød Rønne Rødovre Stenløse Taastrup Tårnby Værløse Vallensbæk

Central Denmark
Denmark
Region

Aarhus Grenå Herning Hadsten, Hinnerup, Hammel
Hammel
and Hvorslev Hedensted Holstebro Horsens Ikast Lemvig Odder Randers Ringkøbing
Ringkøbing
and Skjern Rønde Silkeborg Skanderborg Skive Struer Tranebjerg Viborg

North Denmark
Denmark
Region

Aabybro Aalborg Aars Brønderslev Byrum Frederikshavn Hjørring Hobro
Hobro
and Hadsund Nykøbing Mors Støvring Thisted

Region Zealand

Greve Strand Haslev Højby Holbæk Hvalsø Kalundborg Køge Maribo Næstved Nykøbing Falster Ringsted Roskilde Slagelse Solrød Strand Sorø Store Heddinge Vordingborg

South Denmark
Denmark
Region

Aabenraa Assens Bogense Esbjerg Fredericia Grindsted Haderslev Kerteminde Kolding Marstal Middelfart Nyborg Nordby Odense Ringe Rudkøbing Svendborg Sønderborg Tønder Varde Vejen Vejle

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Counties (amter) of Denmark, 1970–2006

Amter

Århus Copenhagen Frederiksborg Funen North Jutland Ribe Ringkjøbing Roskilde South Jutland Storstrøm Vejle Viborg West Zealand

Municipalities (kommuner) with county privileges

Bornholm1 Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Municipality Frederiksberg
Frederiksberg
Municipality

1 Local county abolished in 2003.

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30 most populous urban areas of Denmark

as of 1 January 2016, according to Statistics Denmark, see table BEF44 at statbank.dk.

1. Copenhagen 1,280,371

2. Aarhus 264,716

3. Odense 175,245

4. Aalborg 112,194

5. Esbjerg 72,151

6. Randers 62,342

7. Kolding 59,712

8. Horsens 57,517

9. Vejle 54,862

10. Roskilde 50,046

11. Herning 48,531

12. Hørsholm 47,000

13. Helsingør 46,829

14. Silkeborg 43,885

15. Næstved 42,979

16. Fredericia 40,248

17. Viborg 39,856

18. Køge 36,831

19. Holstebro 35,392

20. Taastrup 33,971

21. Slagelse 33,000

22. Hillerød 31,897

23. Sønderborg 27,595

24. Holbæk 27,579

25. Svendborg 27,074

26. Hjørring 25,626

27. Frederikshavn 23,402

28. Nørresundby 22,478

29. Ringsted 22,231

30. Haderslev 21,994

Note: The population figure for metropolitan Copenhagen
Copenhagen
includes Frederiksberg, Albertslund, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre, Tårnby
Tårnby
and Vallensbæk municipalities; parts of Ballerup, Rudersdal and Furesø; Ishøj
Ishøj
and Greve Strand.

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50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Copenhagen 1,263,698

3. Helsinki 1,214,210

4. Oslo 958,378

5. Gothenburg 549,839

6. Tampere 325,025

7. Malmö 280,415

8. Aarhus 261,570

9. Turku 260,367

10. Bergen 250,420

11. Stavanger 210,874

12. Reykjavík 209,510

13. Oulu 193,817

14. Trondheim 175,068

15. Odense 173,814

16. Uppsala 140,454

17. Aalborg 132,578

18. Jyväskylä 120,306

19. Lahti 117,424

20. Drammen 113,534

21. Västerås 110,877

22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636

23. Örebro 107,038

24. Linköping 104,232

25. Helsingborg 97,122

26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737

27. Jönköping 89,396

28. Norrköping 87,247

29. Kuopio 86,034

30. Pori 84,509

31. Lund 82,800

32. Umeå 79,594

33. Esbjerg 72,060

34. Gävle 71,033

35. Vaasa 66,911

36. Borås 66,273

37. Joensuu 65,686

38. Eskilstuna 64,679

39. Södertälje 64,619

40. Karlstad 61,685

41. Randers 61,664

42. Täby 61,272

43. Växjö 60,887

44. Kristiansand 60,583

45. Kolding 58,757

46. Halmstad 58,577

47. Horsens 56,536

48. Lappeenranta 55,429

49. Vejle 53,975

50. Kotka 52,600

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

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Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

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Other awards

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OGAE
OGAE
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OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

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European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

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