Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting
traditional social institutions in the context of culture and
civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition,
human imperfection, organic society, hierarchy and authority and
property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of
institutions such as monarchy, religion, parliamentary government and
property rights with the aim of emphasizing social stability and
continuity while the more extreme elements called reactionaries
oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".
The first established use of the term in a political context
originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the
Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of
the French Revolution. Historically associated with right-wing
politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of
views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative
because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered
traditional in a given place and time. Thus conservatives from
different parts of the world—each upholding their respective
traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an
18th-century politician who opposed the
French Revolution but
supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main
theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s.
According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative
Party in 1959: "
Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an
attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the
development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and
permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the
tradition-based definition of conservatism, political theorists such
Corey Robin define conservatism primarily in terms of a general
defense of social and economic inequality. From this perspective,
conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and
more "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt
experience of having power, seeing it threatened, and trying to win it
1.1 Liberal conservatism
1.2 Conservative liberalism
1.3 Libertarian conservatism
1.4 Fiscal conservatism
1.5 National and traditional conservatism
1.6 Cultural and social conservatism
1.7 Religious conservatism
1.8 Progressive conservatism
1.9 Authoritarian conservatism
2.1 Development of Western conservatism
2.1.1 United Kingdom
2.1.3 United States
2.2 Historic conservatism in different countries
2.2.14 United Kingdom
3 Modern conservatism in different countries
3.5 South Korea
3.6 United States
4 Characteristics of conservatism in France, Italy, Russia, Poland,
United States and Israel
8 Further reading
9 External links
Main article: Liberal conservatism
Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of
minimal government intervention in the economy. Individuals should be
free to participate in the market and generate wealth without
government interference. However, individuals cannot be thoroughly
depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore
liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to
ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a
sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. Liberal
conservatism is a variant of conservatism that is strongly influenced
by liberal stances.
As these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and
across countries, liberal conservatism also has a wide variety of
meanings. Historically, the term often referred to the combination of
economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the
classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for
authority and religious values. It contrasted itself with classical
liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the
economic and social spheres.
Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted
economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was
replaced with conservatism. This is also the case in countries where
liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United
States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where
liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream,
Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be
synonymous. The liberal conservative tradition in the United States
combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a
Burkean form of conservatism (which has also become part of the
American conservative tradition, such as in the writings of Russell
A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has
Europe is a combination of more modern conservative (less
traditionalist) views with those of social liberalism. This has
developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of
socialism. Often this involves stressing what are now conservative
views of free market economics and belief in individual
responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights,
environmentalism and support for a limited welfare state. In
continental Europe, this is sometimes also translated into English as
Main article: Conservative liberalism
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines
liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more simply
the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of
conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of
liberalism. Until the two World Wars, in most European countries the
political class was formed by conservative liberals, from
Italy. Events after
World War I
World War I brought the more radical version of
classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type
Main article: Libertarian conservatism
Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within
United States and
Canada which combine libertarian economic issues
with aspects of conservatism. Its four main branches are
constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism
and Christian libertarianism. They generally differ from
paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and
Agorists such as
Samuel Edward Konkin III
Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian
In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support
strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any
national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are
vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare,
subsidies and other areas of economic intervention.
Many conservatives, especially in the United States, believe that the
government should not play a major role in regulating business and
managing the economy. They typically oppose efforts to charge high tax
rates and to redistribute income to assist the poor. Such efforts,
they argue, do not properly reward people who have earned their money
through hard work.
Main article: Fiscal conservatism
Taxpayer March on Washington, as conservative protesters walk down
Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., in 2009
Fiscal conservatism is the economic philosophy of prudence in
government spending and debt. In his Reflections on the Revolution
Edmund Burke argued that a government does not have the
right to run up large debts and then throw the burden on the taxpayer:
[I]t is to the property of the citizen, and not to the demands of the
creditor of the state, that the first and original faith of civil
society is pledged. The claim of the citizen is prior in time,
paramount in title, superior in equity. The fortunes of individuals,
whether possessed by acquisition or by descent or in virtue of a
participation in the goods of some community, were no part of the
creditor's security, expressed or implied...[T]he public, whether
represented by a monarch or by a senate, can pledge nothing but the
public estate; and it can have no public estate except in what it
derives from a just and proportioned imposition upon the citizens at
National and traditional conservatism
National conservatism and Traditional conservatism
Gianfranco Fini, former President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies,
National conservatism is a political term used primarily in
describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national
interests than standard conservatism as well as upholding cultural and
ethnic identity, while not being outspokenly nationalist or
supporting a far-right approach. In Europe, national
conservatives are usually eurosceptics.
National conservatism is heavily oriented towards the traditional
family and social stability as well as in favour of limiting
immigration. As such, national conservatives can be distinguished from
economic conservatives, for whom free market economic policies,
deregulation and fiscal conservatism are the main priorities. Some
commentators have identified a growing gap between national and
economic conservatism: "[M]ost parties of the Right [today] are run by
economic conservatives who, in varying degrees, have marginalized
social, cultural, and national conservatives". National
conservatism is also related to traditionalist conservatism.
Traditionalist conservatism is a political philosophy emphasizing the
need for the principles of natural law and transcendent moral order,
tradition, hierarchy and organic unity, agrarianism, classicism and
high culture as well as the intersecting spheres of loyalty. Some
traditionalists have embraced the labels "reactionary" and
"counterrevolutionary", defying the stigma that has attached to these
terms since the Enlightenment. Having a hierarchical view of society,
many traditionalist conservatives, including a few Americans, defend
the monarchical political structure as the most natural and beneficial
Cultural and social conservatism
Cultural conservatism and social conservatism
Cultural conservatives support the preservation of the heritage of one
nation, or of a shared culture that is not defined by national
boundaries. The shared culture may be as divergent as Western
culture or Chinese culture. In the United States, the term cultural
conservative may imply a conservative position in the culture war.
Cultural conservatives hold fast to traditional ways of thinking even
in the face of monumental change. They believe strongly in traditional
values and traditional politics and often have an urgent sense of
Social conservatism is distinct from cultural conservatism, although
there are some overlaps. Social conservatives may believe that society
is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be
upheld through duty, traditional values and established
institutions; and that the government has a role in encouraging or
enforcing traditional values or behaviours. A social conservative
wants to preserve traditional morality and social mores, often by
opposing what they consider radical policies or social engineering.
Social change is generally regarded as suspect.
A second meaning of the term social conservatism developed in the
Nordic countries and continental Europe, where it refers to liberal
conservatives supporting modern European welfare states.
Social conservatives (in the first meaning of the word) in many
countries generally favour the pro-life position in the abortion
controversy and oppose human embryonic stem cell research
(particularly if publicly funded); oppose both eugenics and human
enhancement (transhumanism) while supporting bioconservatism;
support a traditional definition of marriage as being one man and one
woman; view the nuclear family model as society's foundational unit;
oppose expansion of civil marriage and child adoption rights to
couples in same-sex relationships; promote public morality and
traditional family values; oppose atheism, especially militant
atheism, secularism and the separation of church and
state; support the prohibition of drugs, prostitution and
euthanasia; and support the censorship of pornography and what they
consider to be obscenity or indecency. Most conservatives in the
United States support the death penalty.
Religious conservatism 
Christian right and Religious fundamentalism
March for Life in Paris,
France in 2012
Religious conservatism principally apply the teachings of particular
religions to politics, sometimes by merely proclaiming the value of
those teachings, at other times by having those teachings influence
In most democracies, political conservatism seeks to uphold
traditional family structures and social values. Religious
conservatives typically oppose abortion, homosexual behavior, drug use
and sexual activity outside of marriage. In some cases, conservative
values are grounded in religious beliefs and some conservatives seek
to increase the role of religion in public life.
Main article: Centre-right politics
Progressive conservatism incorporates progressive policies alongside
conservative policies. It stresses the importance of a social safety
net to deal with poverty, support of limited redistribution of wealth
along with government regulation to regulate markets in the interests
of both consumers and producers.
Progressive conservatism first
arose as a distinct ideology in the
United Kingdom under Prime
Minister Benjamin Disraeli's "One Nation" Toryism.
There have been a variety of progressive conservative governments. In
the United Kingdom, the Prime Ministers Disraeli, Stanley Baldwin,
Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan and
previous Prime Minister
David Cameron are progressive
In the United States, the administration of President William Howard
Taft was a progressive conservative and he described himself as "a
believer in progressive conservatism" and President Dwight D.
Eisenhower declared himself an advocate of "progressive
conservatism". In Germany, Chancellor
Leo von Caprivi
Leo von Caprivi promoted a
progressive conservative agenda called the "New Course". In
Canada, a variety of conservative governments have been progressive
conservative, with Canada's major conservative movement being
officially named the Progressive Conservative Party of
1942 to 2003. In Canada, the Prime Ministers Arthur Meighen, R. B.
Bennett, John Diefenbaker, Joe Clark, Brian Mulroney,
Kim Campbell and
Stephen Harper led progressive conservative federal governments.
Main article: Far-right politics
Authoritarian conservatism refers to autocratic regimes that center
their ideology around conservative nationalism rather than ethnic
nationalism, though certain racial components such as antisemitism may
exist. Authoritarian conservative movements show strong devotion
towards religion, tradition and culture while also expressing fervent
nationalism akin to other far-right nationalist movements. Examples of
authoritarian conservative leaders include António de Oliveira
Salazar and Engelbert Dollfuss. Authoritarian conservative
movements were prominent in the same era as fascism, with which it
sometimes clashed. Although both ideologies shared core values such as
nationalism and had common enemies such as communism and materialism,
there was nonetheless a contrast between the traditionalist nature of
authoritarian conservatism and the revolutionary, palingenetic and
populist nature of fascism—thus it was common for authoritarian
conservative regimes to suppress rising fascist and National Socialist
movements. The hostility between the two ideologies is highlighted
by the struggle for power for the National Socialists in Austria,
which was marked by the assassination of Engelbert Dollfuss.
Seymour Martin Lipset
Seymour Martin Lipset has examined the class basis of
right wing extremist politics in the 1920–1960 era. He reports:
Conservative or rightist extremist movements have arisen at different
periods in modern history, ranging from the Horthyites in Hungary, the
Christian Social Party of Dollfuss in Austria, the Stahlhelm and other
nationalists in pre-Hitler Germany, and Salazar in Portugal, to the
pre-19S6 Gaullist movements and the monarchists in contemporary France
and Italy. The right extremists are conservative, not revolutionary.
They seek to change political institutions in order to preserve or
restore cultural and economic ones, while extremists of the centre and
left seek to use political means for cultural and social revolution.
The ideal of the right extremist is not a totalitarian ruler, but a
monarch, or a traditionalist who acts like one. Many such movements in
Spain, Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Italy-have been explicitly
monarchist....The supporters of these movements differ from those of
the centrists, tending to be wealthier, and more religious, which is
more important in terms of a potential for mass support.
Development of Western conservatism
Conservatism in the United Kingdom
Part of the Politics series on
High Church Anglicanism
Divine right of kings
Family Compact (Canada)
1st Earl of Clarendon
1st Earl of Rochester
1st Viscount Bolingbroke
3rd Earl of Bute
1st Duke of Wellington
G. K. Chesterton
In Great Britain, conservative ideas (though not yet called that)
emerged in the
Tory movement during the Restoration period
Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch
who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty
derived from the people and rejected the authority of parliament and
freedom of religion. Robert Filmer's Patriarcha: or the Natural Power
of Kings (published posthumously in 1680, but written before the
English Civil War
English Civil War of 1642–1651) became accepted as the statement of
their doctrine. However, the
Glorious Revolution of 1688 destroyed
this principle to some degree by establishing a constitutional
government in England, leading to the hegemony of the Tory-opposed
Whig ideology. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement,
now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown,
Lords and Commons rather than solely in the Crown.
marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th
Edmund Burke (1729–1797)
Conservatives typically see
Richard Hooker (1554–1600) as the
founding father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax
David Hume (1711–1776) and Edmund Burke
(1729–1797). Halifax promoted pragmatism in government whilst Hume
argued against political rationalism and utopianism. Burke
served as the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and as
official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig party.
Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th
century United Kingdom. Burke's views were a mixture of liberal
and conservative. He supported the
American Revolution of 1765–1783,
but abhorred the violence of the
French Revolution (1789–1799). He
accepted the liberal ideals of private property and the economics of
Adam Smith (1723–1790), but thought that economics should remain
subordinate to the conservative social ethic, that capitalism should
be subordinate to the medieval social tradition and that the business
class should be subordinate to aristocracy. He insisted on standards
of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition and saw the
aristocracy as the nation's natural leaders. That meant limits on
the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament
to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive. He
favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious
toleration. Burke justified the social order on the basis of
tradition: tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he
valued community and social harmony over social reforms. Burke was
a leading theorist in his day, finding extreme idealism (either Tory
or Whig) an endangerment to broader liberties and (like Hume)
rejecting abstract reason as an unsound guide for political theory.
Despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these
early contributors were explicitly involved in
Tory politics. Hooker
lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryism, whilst
Hume was an apolitical philosopher and Halifax similarly politically
independent. Burke described himself as a Whig.
Shortly after Burke's death in 1797, conservatism revived as a
mainstream political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal
divisions. This new generation of conservatives derived their politics
not from Burke but from his predecessor, the Viscount Bolingbroke
(1678–1751), who was a Jacobite and traditional Tory, lacking
Burke's sympathies for Whiggish policies such as Catholic emancipation
and American independence (famously attacked by
Samuel Johnson in
"Taxation No Tyranny"). In the first half of the 19th century, many
newspapers, magazines and journals promoted loyalist or right-wing
attitudes in religion, politics and international affairs. Burke was
seldom mentioned, but
William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger (1759–1806) became a
conspicuous hero. The most prominent journals included The Quarterly
Review, founded in 1809 as a counterweight to the Whigs' Edinburgh
Review and the even more conservative Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.
Sack finds that the Quarterly Review promoted a balanced Canningite
toryism as it was neutral on
Catholic emancipation and only mildly
critical of Nonconformist Dissent; it opposed slavery and supported
the current poor laws; and it was "aggressively imperialist". The
high-church clergy of the Church of England read the Orthodox
Churchman's Magazine which was equally hostile to Jewish, Catholic,
Methodist and Unitarian spokesmen. Anchoring the ultra
Tories, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine stood firmly against Catholic
emancipation and favoured slavery, cheap money, mercantilism, the
Navigation Acts and the Holy Alliance.
Conservatism evolved after 1820, embracing free trade in 1846 and a
commitment to democracy, especially under Disraeli. The effect was to
significantly strengthen conservatism as a grassroots political force.
Conservatism no longer was the philosophical defense of the landed
aristocracy, but had been refreshed into redefining its commitment to
the ideals of order, both secular and religious, expanding
imperialism, strengthened monarchy and a more generous vision of the
welfare state as opposed to the punitive vision of the Whigs and
liberals. As early as 1835, Disraeli attacked the Whigs and
utilitarians as slavishly devoted to an industrial oligarchy, while he
described his fellow Tories as the only "really democratic party of
England" and devoted to the interests of the whole people.
Nevertheless, inside the party there was a tension between the growing
numbers of wealthy businessmen on the one side and the aristocracy and
rural gentry on the other. The aristocracy gained strength as
businessmen discovered they could use their wealth to buy a peerage
and a country estate.
Although conservatives opposed attempts to allow greater
representation of the middle class in parliament, they conceded that
electoral reform could not be reversed and promised to support further
reforms so long as they did not erode the institutions of church and
state. These new principles were presented in the Tamworth Manifesto
of 1834, which historians regard as the basic statement of the beliefs
of the new Conservative Party.
Robert Peel (1788–1850)
Some conservatives lamented the passing of a pastoral world where the
ethos of noblesse oblige had promoted respect from the lower classes.
They saw the
Anglican Church and the aristocracy as balances against
commercial wealth. They worked toward legislation for improved
working conditions and urban housing. This viewpoint would later
Tory democracy. However, since Burke there has always
been tension between traditional aristocratic conservatism and the
wealthy business class.
Tory Prime Minister
Robert Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto
in which he pledged to endorse moderate political reform. This marked
the beginning of the transformation of British conservatism from High
Tory reactionism towards a more modern form based on "conservation".
The party became known as the Conservative Party as a result, a name
it has retained to this day. However, Peel would also be the root of a
split in the party between the traditional Tories (led by the Earl of
Derby and Benjamin Disraeli) and the "Peelites" (led first by Peel
himself, then by the Earl of Aberdeen). The split occurred in 1846
over the issue of free trade, which Peel supported, versus
protectionism, supported by Derby. The majority of the party sided
with Derby whilst about a third split away, eventually merging with
the Whigs and the radicals to form the Liberal Party. Despite the
split, the mainstream Conservative Party accepted the doctrine of free
trade in 1852.
Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013)
In the second half of the 19th century, the Liberal Party faced
political schisms, especially over Irish Home Rule. Leader William
Gladstone (himself a former Peelite) sought to give Ireland a degree
of autonomy, a move that elements in both the left and right-wings of
his party opposed. These split off to become the Liberal Unionists
(led by Joseph Chamberlain), forming a coalition with the
Conservatives before merging with them in 1912. The Liberal Unionist
influence dragged the Conservative Party towards the left as
Conservative governments passing a number of progressive reforms at
the turn of the 20th century. By the late 19th century, the
traditional business supporters of the Liberal Party had joined the
Conservatives, making them the party of business and commerce.
After a period of Liberal dominance before the First World War, the
Conservatives gradually became more influential in government,
regaining full control of the cabinet in 1922. In the interwar period,
conservatism was the major ideology in Britain as the
Liberal Party vied with the Labour Party for control of the left.
After the Second World War, the first Labour government (1945–1951)
Clement Attlee embarked on a program of nationalization of
industry and the promotion of social welfare. The Conservatives
generally accepted those policies until the 1980s. In the 1980s, the
Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, guided by neoliberal
economics, reversed many of Labour's programmes.
Other conservative political parties, such as the United Kingdom
Independence Party (founded in 1993) and the Democratic Unionist Party
(founded in 1971), began to appear, although they have yet to make any
significant impact at Westminster (as of 2014[update], the DUP
comprises the largest political party in the ruling coalition in the
Northern Ireland Assembly).
Conservatism in Germany
Conservative thought developed alongside nationalism in Germany,
culminating in Germany's victory over
France in the Franco-Prussian
War, the creation of the unified
German Empire in 1871 and the
simultaneous rise of
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck on the European political
stage. Bismarck's "balance of power" model maintained peace in Europe
for decades at the end of the 19th century. His "revolutionary
conservatism" was a conservative state-building strategy designed to
make ordinary Germans—not just the Junker elite—more loyal to
state and emperor, he created the modern welfare state in
the 1880s. According to Kees van Kersbergen and Barbara Vis, his
[G]ranting social rights to enhance the integration of a hierarchical
society, to forge a bond between workers and the state so as to
strengthen the latter, to maintain traditional relations of authority
between social and status groups, and to provide a countervailing
power against the modernist forces of liberalism and socialism.
Bismarck also enacted universal male suffrage in the new German Empire
in 1871. He became a great hero to German conservatives, who
erected many monuments to his memory after he left office in 1890.
With the rise of
Nazism in 1933, agrarian movements faded and was
supplanted by a more command-based economy and forced social
Adolf Hitler succeeded in garnering the support of
many German industrialists, prominent traditionalists openly and
secretly opposed his policies of euthanasia, genocide and attacks on
organized religion, including Claus von Stauffenberg, Dietrich
Bonhoeffer, Henning von Tresckow, Bishop Clemens August Graf von Galen
and the monarchist Carl Friedrich Goerdeler.
More recently, the work of conservative Christian Democratic Union
leader and Chancellor
Helmut Kohl helped bring about German
reunification, along with the closer integration of
Europe in the form
of the Maastricht Treaty.
Today, German conservatism is often associated with politicians such
as Chancellor Angela Merkel, whose tenure has been marked by attempts
to save the common European currency (Euro) from demise. The German
conservatives are divided under Merkel due to the refugee crisis in
Germany and many conservatives oppose the refugee policies under
Conservatism in the United States
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the
United States that is characterized by respect for American
traditions, support for Judeo-Christian values, economic liberalism,
anti-communism and a defense of Western culture.
Liberty is a core
value, with a particular emphasis on strengthening the free market,
limiting the size and scope of government and opposition to high taxes
and government or labor union encroachment on the entrepreneur.
American conservatives consider individual liberty, within the bounds
of conformity to American values, as the fundamental trait of
democracy, which contrasts with modern American liberals, who
generally place a greater value on social equity and social
Joseph de Maistre
Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821)
Another form of conservatism developed in
France in parallel to
conservatism in Britain. It was influenced by Counter-Enlightenment
works by men such as
Joseph de Maistre
Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald. Latin
conservatism was less pragmatic and more reactionary than the
conservatism of Burke. Many continental or
traditionalist conservatives do not support separation of church and
state, with most supporting state recognition of and cooperation with
the Catholic Church, such as had existed in
France before the
Eventually, conservatives added patriotism and nationalism to the list
of traditional values they support. Conservatives were the first to
embrace nationalism, which was previously associated with liberalism
Revolution in France.
Historic conservatism in different countries
Right-wing politics and Political spectrum
Conservative political parties vary widely from country to country in
the goals they wish to achieve. Both conservative and liberal parties
tend to favor private ownership of property, in opposition to
communist, socialist and green parties, which favor communal ownership
or laws requiring social responsibility on the part of property
owners. Where conservatives and liberals differ is primarily on social
issues. Conservatives tend to reject behavior that does not conform to
some social norm. Modern conservative parties often define themselves
by their opposition to liberal or labor parties. The United States
usage of the term "conservative" is unique to that country.
According to Alan Ware, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, France,
Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland
United Kingdom retained viable conservative parties into the
1980s. Ware said that Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Malta, New Zealand,
Spain and the
United States had no conservative
parties, although they had either Christian democrats or liberals as
major right-wing parties. Canada, Ireland and Portugal had right-wing
political parties that defied categorization: the Progressive
Conservative Party of Canada; Fianna Fáil,
Fine Gael and Progressive
Democrats in Ireland; and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal.
Since then, the
Swiss People's Party
Swiss People's Party has moved to the extreme right
and is no longer considered to be conservative.
Klaus von Beyme, who developed the method of party categorization,
found that no modern Eastern European parties could be considered
conservative, although the communist and communist-successor parties
had strong similarities.
In Italy, which was united by liberals and radicals (Risorgimento),
liberals not conservatives emerged as the party of the right. In
the Netherlands, conservatives merged into a new Christian democratic
party in 1980. In Austria, Germany, Portugal and Spain,
conservatism was transformed into and incorporated into fascism or the
far-right. In 1940, all Japanese parties were merged into a single
fascist party. Following the war, Japanese conservatives briefly
returned to politics, but were largely purged from public office.
Louis Hartz explained the absence of conservatism in Australia or the
United States as a result of their settlement as radical or liberal
fragments of Great Britain. Although he said English
Canada had a
negligible conservative influence, subsequent writers claimed that
loyalists opposed to the
American Revolution brought a
into Canada. Hartz explained conservatism in Quebec and Latin America
as a result of their settlement as feudal societies. The American
Russell Kirk provided the opinion that
conservatism had been brought to the
United States and interpreted the
American Revolution as a "conservative revolution".
Conservative elites have long dominated Latin American nations.
Mostly, this has been achieved through control of and support for
civil institutions, the church and the armed forces, rather than
through party politics. Typically, the church was exempt from taxes
and its employees immune from civil prosecution. Where national
conservative parties were weak or non-existent, conservatives were
more likely to rely on military dictatorship as a preferred form of
government. However, in some nations where the elites were able to
mobilize popular support for conservative parties, longer periods of
political stability were achieved. Chile, Colombia and Venezuela are
examples of nations that developed strong conservative parties.
Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador and Peru are examples of nations where
this did not occur. The Conservative Party of Venezuela
disappeared following the Federal Wars of 1858–1863. Chile's
conservative party, the National Party, disbanded in 1973 following a
military coup and did not re-emerge as a political force following the
subsequent return to democracy.
Having its roots in the conservative Catholic Party, the Christian
People's Party, retained a conservative edge through the twentieth
century, supporting the king in the Royal Question, supporting nuclear
family as the cornerstone of society, defending Christian education
and opposing euthanasia. The Christian People's Party dominated
politics in post-war Belgium. In 1999, the party's support collapsed
and it became the country's fifth largest party.
Currently, the N-VA (nieuw-vlaamse alliantie/New Flemish Alliance) is
the largest party in Belgium.
Conservatism in Canada
Canada's conservatives had their roots in the loyalists Tories who
left America after the American Revolution. They developed in the
socio-economic and political cleavages that existed during the first
three decades of the 19th century and had the support of the business,
professional and established Church (Anglican) elites in Ontario and
to a lesser extent in Quebec. Holding a monopoly over administrative
and judicial offices, they were called the "
Family Compact" in Ontario
and the "Chateau Clique" in Quebec. John A. Macdonald's successful
leadership of the movement to confederate the provinces and his
subsequent tenure as prime minister for most of the late 19th century
rested on his ability to bring together the English-speaking
Protestant oligarchy and the ultramontane Catholic hierarchy of Quebec
and to keep them united in a conservative coalition.
The conservatives combined pro-market liberalism and Toryism. They
generally supported an activist government and state intervention in
the marketplace and their policies were marked by noblesse oblige, a
paternalistic responsibility of the elites for the less well-off.
From 1942, the party was known as the Progressive Conservatives until
2003, when the national party merged with the
Canadian Alliance to
form the Conservative Party of Canada.
The conservative Union Nationale governed the province of Quebec in
periods from 1936 to 1960 and in a close alliance with English
Canadian business elites and the Catholic Church. This period, known
as the Great Darkness, ended with the
Quiet Revolution and the party
went into terminal decline.
Conservatism in Colombia
The Colombian Conservative Party, founded in 1849, traces its origins
to opponents of General Francisco de Paula Santander's 1833–1837
administration. While the term "liberal" had been used to describe all
political forces in Colombia, the conservatives began describing
themselves as "conservative liberals" and their opponents as "red
liberals". From the 1860s until the present, the party has supported
strong central government; supported the Catholic Church, especially
its role as protector of the sanctity of the family; and opposed
separation of church and state. Its policies include the legal
equality of all men, the citizen's right to own property and
opposition to dictatorship. It has usually been Colombia's second
largest party, with the
Colombian Liberal Party
Colombian Liberal Party being the largest.
Founded in 1915, the Conservative People's Party of Denmark. was the
successor of Højre (literally "Right"). The conservative party led
the government coalition from 1982 to 1993. The party was a junior
partner in coalition with the Liberals from 2001 to 2011. The
party is preceded by 11 years by the Young Conservatives (KU), today
the youth movement of the party. The party suffered a major defeat in
the parliamentary elections of September 2011 in which the party lost
more than half of its seat and also lost governmental power. A liberal
cultural policy dominated during the postwar period. However, by the
1990s disagreements regarding immigrants from entirely different
cultures ignited a conservative backlash.
The conservative party in Finland is the
National Coalition Party
National Coalition Party (in
Finnish Kansallinen Kokoomus, Kok). The party was founded in 1918 when
several monarchist parties united. Although in the past the party was
right-wing, today it is a moderate liberal conservative party. While
the party advocates economic liberalism, it is committed to the social
European People's Party
European People's Party Congress in Bucharest in 2012
France focused on the rejection of the French
Revolution, support for the
Catholic Church and the restoration of the
monarchy. The monarchist cause was on the verge of victory in the
1870s, but then collapsed because of disagreements on who would be
king and what the national flag should be. Religious tensions
heightened in the 1890–1910 era, but moderated after the spirit of
unity in fighting the First World War. An extreme form of
conservatism characterized the Vichy regime of 1940–1944 with
heightened antisemitism, opposition to individualism, emphasis on
family life and national direction of the economy.
Following the Second World War, conservatives in
Gaullist groups and have been nationalistic and emphasized tradition,
order and the regeneration of France. Gaullists held divergent
views on social issues. The number of conservative groups, their lack
of stability and their tendency to be identified with local issues
defy simple categorization.
Conservatism has been the major political
France since the Second World War. Unusually, post-war
French conservatism was formed around the personality of a leader,
Charles de Gaulle; and did not draw on traditional French
conservatism, but on the
France continues under The Republicans (formerly Union for a Popular
Movement). The word "conservative" itself is a term of abuse in
The main interwar conservative party was called the People's Party
(PP), which supported constitutional monarchy and opposed the
republican Liberal Party. Both it and the Liberal party were
suppressed by the authoritarian, arch-conservative and royalist 4th of
August Regime of
Ioannis Metaxas in 1936–1941. The PP was able to
re-group after the
Second World War
Second World War as part of a United Nationalist
Front which achieved power campaigning on a simple anticommunist,
ultranationalist platform during the
Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War (1946–1949).
However, the vote received by the PP declined during the so-called
"Centrist Interlude" in 1950–1952. In 1952, Marshal Alexandros
Papagos created the
Greek Rally as an umbrella for the right-wing
Greek Rally came to power in 1952 and remained the leading
Greece until 1963—after Papagos' death in 1955 reformed as
National Radical Union under Konstantinos Karamanlis. Right-wing
governments backed by the palace and the army overthrew the Centre
Union government in 1965 and governed the country until the
establishment of the far-right
Regime of the Colonels
Regime of the Colonels (1967–1974).
After the regime's collapse in August 1974, Karamanlis returned from
exile to lead the government and founded the New
Democracy party. The
new conservative party had four objectives: to confront Turkish
expansionism in Cyprus, to reestablish and solidify democratic rule,
to give the country a strong government and to make a powerful
moderate party a force in Greek politics.
The Independent Greeks, a newly formed political party in Greece, has
also supported conservatism, particularly national and religious
conservatism. The Founding Declaration of the Independent Greeks
strongly emphasises in the preservation of the Greek state and its
Greek people and the Greek Orthodox Church.
Founded in 1924 as the Conservative Party, Iceland's Independence
Party adopted its current name in 1929 after the merger with the
Liberal Party. From the beginning, they have been the largest
vote-winning party, averaging around 40%. They combined liberalism and
conservatism, supported nationalization of infrastructure and opposed
class conflict. While mostly in opposition during the 1930s, they
embraced economic liberalism, but accepted the welfare state after the
war and participated in governments supportive of state intervention
and protectionism. Unlike other Scandanivian conservative (and
liberal) parties, it has always had a large working-class
following. After the financial crisis in 2008, the party has sunk
to a lower support level around 20–25%.
War II, in
Italy the conservative theories were mainly
represented by the Christian
Democracy (DC) party, which government
form the foundation of the Republic until party's dissolution in 1994.
Officially, DC refused the ideology of conservatism, but in many
aspects, for example family values, it was a typical social
In 1994, the media tycoon and entrepreneur
Silvio Berlusconi founded
the liberal conservative party
Forza Italia (FI). Berlusconi won three
elections in 1994, 2001 and 2008, governing the country for almost ten
years as Prime Minister.
Forza Italia formed a coalition with
right-wing regional party
Lega Nord while in government.
Besides FI, now the conservative ideas are mainly expressed by the New
Centre-Right party led by Angelino Alfano, Berlusconi form a new
party, which is the reborn
Forza Italia founding a new conservative
movement. Alfano is the current Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Christian democratic conservative party, the
Christian Social People's Party
Christian Social People's Party (CSV or PCS), was formed as the Party
of the Right in 1914 and adopted its present name in 1945. It was
consistently the largest political party in Luxembourg and dominated
politics throughout the 20th century.
The Conservative Party of Norway (Norwegian: Høyre, literally
"right") was formed by the old upper class of state officials and
wealthy merchants to fight the populist democracy of the Liberal
Party, but lost power in 1884 when parliamentarian government was
first practised. It formed its first government under parliamentarism
in 1889 and continued to alternate in power with the Liberals until
the 1930s, when Labour became the dominant political party. It has
elements both of paternalism, stressing the responsibilities of the
state and of economic liberalism. It first returned to power in the
1960s. During Kåre Willoch's premiership in the 1980s, much
emphasis was laid on liberalizing the credit and housing market and
NRK TV and radio monopoly, while supporting law and
order in criminal justice and traditional norms in education
Sweden's conservative party, the Moderate Party, was formed in 1904,
two years after the founding of the liberal party. The party
emphasizes tax reductions, deregulation of private enterprise and
privatization of schools, hospitals and kindergartens.
There are a number of conservative parties in Switzerland's
parliament, the Federal Assembly. These include the largest, the Swiss
People's Party (SVP), the Christian Democratic People's Party
(CVP) and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland
(BDP), which is a splinter of the SVP created in the aftermath to
the election of Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf as Federal Council. The
right-wing parties have a majority in the Federal Assembly.
Swiss People's Party
Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) was formed from the 1971 merger
of the Party of Farmers, Traders and Citizens, formed in 1917 and the
smaller Swiss Democratic Party, formed in 1942. The SVP emphasized
agricultural policy and was strong among farmers in German-speaking
Protestant areas. As Switzerland considered closer relations with the
European Union in the 1990s, the SVP adopted a more militant
protectionist and isolationist stance. This stance has allowed it to
expand into German-speaking Catholic mountainous areas. The
Anti-Defamation League, a non-Swiss lobby group based in the United
States has accused them of manipulating issues such as immigration,
Swiss neutrality and welfare benefits, awakening antisemitism and
racism. The Council of
Europe has called the SVP "extreme right",
although some scholars dispute this classification. For instance,
Hans-Georg Betz describes it as "populist radical right".
Conservatism in the United Kingdom
According to historian James Sack, English conservatives celebrate
Edmund Burke as their intellectual father. Burke was affiliated
with the Whig Party which eventually became the Liberal Party, but the
modern Conservative Party is generally thought to derive from the Tory
party and the MPs of the modern conservative party are still
frequently referred to as Tories.
Modern conservatism in different countries
While conservatism has been seen as an appeal to traditional,
hierarchical society, some writers such as
Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington see it
as situational. Under this definition, conservatives are seen as
defending the established institutions of their time.
Conservatism in Australia
Liberal Party of Australia
Liberal Party of Australia adheres to the principles of social
conservatism and liberal conservatism. It is liberal in the sense
of economics. Other conservative parties are the National Party of
Australia, a sister party of the Liberals,
Family First Party,
Democratic Labor Party, Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party,
Australian Conservatives and the Katter's Australian Party.
The second largest party in the country is the Australian Labor Party
and its dominant faction is Labor Right, a socially conservative
element. Australia undertook significant economic reform under the
Labor Party in the mid-1980s. Consequently, issues like protectionism,
welfare reform, privatization and deregulation are no longer debated
in the political space as they are in
Europe or North America. Moser
and Catley explain: "In America, 'liberal' means left-of-center, and
it is a pejorative term when used by conservatives in adversarial
political debate. In Australia, of course, the conservatives are in
the Liberal Party". Jupp points out that, "[the] decline in
English influences on Australian reformism and radicalism, and
appropriation of the symbols of Empire by conservatives continued
under the Liberal Party leadership of Sir Robert Menzies, which lasted
Conservatism in Brazil
Conservatism in Brazil originates from the cultural and historical
tradition of Brazil, whose cultural roots are Luso-Iberian and Roman
Catholic. Brazilian conservatism from the 20th century on
includes names such as Gerardo Melo Mourão and
Otto Maria Carpeaux in
literature; Oliveira Lima and Oliveira Torres in historiography;
Sobral Pinto and
Miguel Reale in law;
Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira and
Father Paulo Ricardo in the Catholic Church; Roberto Campos and
Mario Henrique Simonsen in economics; Carlos Lacerda in the
political arena; and
Olavo de Carvalho
Olavo de Carvalho in philosophy. Brazilian
Labour Renewal Party, Patriota, Progressistas, Social Christian Party
and Social Liberal Party are the conservative parties in Brazil.
In India, the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) represents conservative
politics and is the largest right-wing conservative party. It promotes
Under Vladimir Putin, the dominant leader since 1999,
promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and
political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked
globalism and economic liberalism as well as scientific and
technological progress. Putin has promoted new think tanks
that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For
example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by Aleksandr Prokhanov,
stresses Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia's historical
greatness and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and
policies. Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has
been one of the key ideologists during Putin's presidency.
In cultural and social affairs, Putin has collaborated closely with
the Russian Orthodox Church. Mark Woods provides specific examples of
how the Church under
Patriarch Kirill of Moscow
Patriarch Kirill of Moscow has backed the
expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine. More
broadly, The New York Times reports in September 2016 how that
Church's policy prescriptions support the Kremlin's appeal to social
A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual
rights above those of family, community or nation, the Russian
Orthodox Church helps project
Russia as the natural ally of all those
who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the
tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism and
women’s and gay rights.
Conservatism in South Korea
South Korea's major conservative party, the Saenuri Party
(새누리당), has changed its form throughout its history. First it
was the Democratic-Republican Party (1963–1980) and its head was
Park Chung-hee, who seized power in a 1961 military coup d'état and
ruled as an unelected military strongman until his formal election as
President in 1963. He was President for 16 years until his
assassination on 26 October 1979. The Democratic
inherited the same ideology as the Democratic-Republican Party. Its
head, Chun Doo-hwan, also gained power through a coup and his
followers called themselves the Hanahae. The Democratic
changed its form and acted to suppress the opposition party and to
follow the people's demand for direct elections. The party's Roh
Tae-woo became the first President who was elected through direct
election. The next form of the major conservative party was the
Democratic-Liberal Party and again through election its second leader,
Kim Young-sam, became the fourteenth President of Korea. When the
conservative party was beaten by the opposition party in the general
election, it changed its form again to follow the party members'
demand for reforms. It became the New Korean Party, but it changed
again one year later since the President
Kim Young-sam was blamed by
the citizen for the International Monetary Fund.[clarification needed]
It changed its name to Grand National Party (GNP). Since the late Kim
Dae-jung assumed the presidency in 1998, GNP had been the opposition
Lee Myung-bak won the presidential election of 2007.
Conservatism in the United States
Ronald Reagan in 1982
The meaning of "conservatism" in the
United States has little in
common with the way the word is used elsewhere. As Ribuffo (2011)
notes, "what Americans now call conservatism much of the world calls
liberalism or neoliberalism". Since the 1950s, conservatism in
United States has been chiefly associated with the Republican
Party. However, during the era of segregation many Southern Democrats
were conservatives and they played a key role in the Conservative
coalition that largely controlled domestic policy in Congress from
1937 to 1963.
Major priorities within
American conservatism include support for
tradition, law-and-order, Christianity, anti-communism and a defense
of "Western civilization from the challenges of modernist culture and
totalitarian governments". Economic conservatives and
libertarians favor small government, low taxes, limited regulation and
free enterprise. Some social conservatives see traditional social
values threatened by secularism, so they support school prayer and
oppose abortion and homosexuality.
Neoconservatives want to
expand American ideals throughout the world and show a strong support
for Israel. Paleoconservatives, in opposition to
multiculturalism, press for restrictions on immigration. Most
U.S. conservatives prefer Republicans over Democrats and most factions
favor a strong foreign policy and a strong military. The conservative
movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent
strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of
"Godless communism", which Reagan later labeled an "evil empire".
During the Reagan administration, conservatives also supported the
so-called "Reagan Doctrine" under which the U.S. as part of a Cold War
strategy provided military and other support to guerrilla insurgencies
that were fighting governments identified as socialist or communist.
Other modern conservative positions include opposition to world
government and opposition to environmentalism. On average,
American conservatives desire tougher foreign policies than liberals
Most recently, the Tea Party movement, founded in 2009, has proven a
large outlet for populist American conservative ideas. Their stated
goals include rigorous adherence to the U.S. Constitution, lower taxes
and opposition to a growing role for the federal government in health
care. Electorally, it was considered a key force in Republicans
reclaiming control of the U.S. House of Representatives in
Characteristics of conservatism in France, Italy, Russia, Poland,
United States and Israel
This is a broad checklist of modern conservatism in seven countries.
Les Républicains, Arise the Republic, Movement for France, Front
Forza Italia, Northern League, Brothers of Italy, New Centre-Right,
Conservatives and Reformists
United Russia, Liberal Democratic Party
Law and Justice, Solidary Poland, Right Wing of the Republic, Poland
Conservative Party, UK Independence Party, Democratic Unionist Party,
Ulster Unionist Party
Likud, The Jewish Home, Yisrael Beiteinu
Strong defenders of republicanism. Opposed to federalism.
Proponents of presidentialism and federalism.
Strong defenders of historical Russian sphere of influence.
Celebratory of Russia's Tsarist and Soviet strong-man rule.
Proponents of presidentialism. Opposed to federalism.
Defends monarchism and unionism.
Supports unelected House of Lords chamber.
Defends first-past-the-post voting system.
Originally opposed to, but now accepting of Scottish Devolution and
In favour of English Votes for English Laws and sympathetic to ideas
of English devolution.
Supports federalism and republicanism.
Opposed to federalism. Proponents of presidentialism and Zionism.
Small sized, but centralized state.
FI, LN: small decentralized state.
FdI, NCR and CR: small centralized state.
UR: statism. Strong, powerful, centralized state.
LDPR: strong, powerful, centralized imperialist state
Strong, centralized state.
Allegations of statism and authoritarianism.
Small centralized state.
Small, minimal, decentralized state particularly at federal level.
Strongly influenced by libertarianism.
Small, semi-central state.
Rule of law, traditionalism, authority, liberty, promotion of
traditional gender roles, public healthcare.
Strongly supportive of French culture, Francophone and against
Generally critical of abortion.
Traditionalism, opposition to immigration, criticism of
multiculturalism, individualism, cult of personality, law and order,
against abortion, same-sex marriage, civil unions and euthanasia.
Supportive of legal prostitution.
Critics of the Italian constitution and the Italian judiciary
Rule of law, authority, cult of personality, state unity, public
unity, law and order, traditionalism.
Against modernism and Western culture.
Law and order, solidarism, national (non-liberal) democracy model,
national unity, strong cult of cultural and historical heritage.
Promotion of traditional gender roles and Catholicism, opposes
abortion, euthanasia, in-vitro, civil unions, same-sex marriage.
Anti-communism. Critics of
Polish constitution and judiciary.
Hierarchy, rule of law, liberty, freedom, traditionalism, British
stoicism, against abortion and same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland.
Individualism, traditionalism, law and order, gun ownership, promotion
of traditional gender roles, against euthanasia, abortion,
prostitution, pornography and same-sex marriage.
Strong supporters of a textualist interpretation of the American
Constitution and the separation of powers.
Law and order, traditionalism, nationalism, individualism, defenders
of the nature of the Jewish state, opposition to non-Jewish
immigration, supporters of West Bank settlements.
Influenced by Catholic social teaching.
Critics of laicism, influenced by the Catholic Church
Strong adherents to the Russian Orthodox Church.
Strong adherents to the Catholic Church.
Presbyterianism in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The 2012 Republican platform states: "We support the public display of
the Ten Commandments as a reflection of our history and of our
country’s Judeo-Christian heritage". Heavily influenced by
Evangelical Protestantism in southern and midwestern states and
Mormonism in western states.
Influenced by secularism and Modern Orthodox Judaism. Critical of
state assistance to followers of Haredi Judaism.
LR, DLR and MPF: social market economy, distributism, nationalisation
of major industries, loosely influenced by neoliberalism, moderate
FN: nationalisation of major industries, protectionism and moderate
re-distribution of wealth.
Neoliberalism, protectionism, low taxation, opposition to wealth taxes
Mixture of state regulation and market freedoms, nationalisation only
of strategic industries, low taxation, moderate re-distribution of
wealth, rejection of communism.
Social market economy, industrialization, nationalisation of strategic
industries, moderate protectionism, economic nationalism and
developmentalism, favours moderate-sized welfare state, broadly
social-conservative policies and centralized, national health care
Neoliberalism, low taxation, privatisation, free trade, small welfare
state, but unopposed to nationalized healthcare.
Neoliberalism, economic liberalism, free market, factions are
variously free or fair trade, low taxation, minimal welfare state.
Opposes government-run healthcare.
Generally economic liberalism, privatisation, small welfare state,
free trade, but with some more economically statist factions.
LR: supportive of the
United Nations and NATO. Supportive of the
FN, DLR and MPF: sceptical about the United Nations,
NATO and the
FI, NCR and CR: supportive of NATO, various factions are moderately
supportive or sceptical about the EU.
LN and FdI: sceptical about the EU and NATO.
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States and the Eurasian
Sceptical about the
United Nations and the
European Union and critical
Atlanticism. Mostly supportive of NATO, various factions are soft- and
Supportive of the United Nations,
NATO and the Commonwealth. Sceptical
about the European Union.
NATO and the so-called "regime change".
Critical of the United Nations.
Critical of the
United Nations and sceptical of the European Union.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
In favour of nuclear disarmament.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
LR: interventionist, favor closer ties with the United States.
FN, MPF and DLR: non-interventionist, strong scepticism in relations
with the United States.
All support closer ties with Russia.
Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionist. Support
closer ties with the United States,
Israel and Russia.
Interventionist, strong scepticism in relations with the United
States, Georgia and Ukraine. Support strong relations with other CIS
countries, India, Syria, Iran and China.
Mostly interventionist, strong scepticism in relations with
Germany, majority support strong relations with the United States.
Conservatives, UUP and DUP: interventionist, favour closer ties with
Saudi Arabia and Ukraine.
UKIP: non-interventionist, favour closer ties with Russia.
All favour closer ties with the United States, other Anglosphere
states and Israel.
Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionist. Strong
scepticism in relations with Cuba and Iran. Favor close ties with
United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia.
Interventionist. strong scepticism in relations with Iran, Turkey,
Palestine and the Arab League. Favors closer ties with the United
States, India and Russia.
See also: Biology and political orientation
Following the Second World War, psychologists conducted research into
the different motives and tendencies that account for ideological
differences between left and right. The early studies focused on
conservatives, beginning with Theodor W. Adorno's The Authoritarian
Personality (1950) based on the F-scale personality test. This book
has been heavily criticized on theoretical and methodological grounds,
but some of its findings have been confirmed by further empirical
In 1973, British psychologist Glenn Wilson published an influential
book providing evidence that a general factor underlying conservative
beliefs is "fear of uncertainty". A meta-analysis of research
literature by Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski and Sulloway in 2003 found that
many factors, such as intolerance of ambiguity and need for cognitive
closure, contribute to the degree of one's political
conservatism. A study by Kathleen Maclay stated these traits
"might be associated with such generally valued characteristics as
personal commitment and unwavering loyalty". The research also
suggested that while most people are resistant to change, liberals are
more tolerant of it.
According to psychologist Bob Altemeyer, individuals who are
politically conservative tend to rank high in right-wing
authoritarianism (RWA) on his RWA scale. This finding was echoed
by Theodor Adorno. A study done on Israeli and Palestinian students in
Israel found that RWA scores of right-wing party supporters were
significantly higher than those of left-wing party supporters.
However, a 2005 study by H. Michael Crowson and colleagues suggested a
moderate gap between RWA and other conservative positions: "The
results indicated that conservatism is not synonymous with RWA".
Psychologist Felicia Pratto and her colleagues have found evidence to
support the idea that a high social dominance orientation (SDO) is
strongly correlated with conservative political views and opposition
to social engineering to promote equality, though Pratto's
findings have been highly controversial as Pratto and
her colleagues found that high SDO scores were highly correlated with
measures of prejudice. However,
David J. Schneider argued for a more
complex relationships between the three factors, writing "correlations
between prejudice and political conservative are reduced virtually to
zero when controls for SDO are instituted, suggesting that the
conservatism–prejudice link is caused by SDO". Kenneth Minogue
criticized Pratto's work, saying: "It is characteristic of the
conservative temperament to value established identities, to praise
habit and to respect prejudice, not because it is irrational, but
because such things anchor the darting impulses of human beings in
solidities of custom which we do not often begin to value until we are
already losing them. Radicalism often generates youth movements, while
conservatism is a condition found among the mature, who have
discovered what it is in life they most value".
A 1996 study on the relationship between racism and conservatism found
that the correlation was stronger among more educated individuals,
though "anti-Black affect had essentially no relationship with
political conservatism at any level of educational or intellectual
sophistication". They also found that the correlation between racism
and conservatism could be entirely accounted for by their mutual
relationship with social dominance orientation.
A 2008 research report found that conservatives are happier than
liberals and that—as income inequality increases—this difference
in relative happiness increases because conservatives (more than
liberals) possess an ideological buffer against the negative hedonic
effects of economic inequality.
^ Heywood 2012, p. 68.
^ Heywood 2012, p. 69.
^ Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan, "Conservatism", Concise Oxford
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that is considered right for all time. It can take a 'reactionary'
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which existed in an earlier period", Oxford University Press, 2009,
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Retrieved on 1 November 2009.
^ Jerry Z. Muller (1997). Conservatism: An Anthology of Social and
Political Thought from
David Hume to the Present. Princeton U.P.
p. 26. ISBN 0691037116. Terms related to 'conservative'
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French weekly journal, Le Conservateur, founded in 1818 by
François-René de Chateaubriand
François-René de Chateaubriand with the aid of Louis de
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^ Robin, Corey (8 January 2012). "The Conservative Mind". The
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^ a b McAnulla 2006, p. 71.
^ Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics. Cengage Learning.
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^ Gallagher, M.; Laver, M.; Mair, P. Representative Government in
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^ Allen, R.T. Beyond Liberalism. p. 13.
^ "New Libertarian Manifesto" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)
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^ Freeman, Robert M. (1999). Correctional Organization and Management:
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^ Mandal, V.C. (2007). Dictionary Of Public Administration. Sarup
& Sons. p. 306. ISBN 978-81-7625-784-8.
^ Wilson, Jason (August 23, 2016). "'A sense that white identity is
under attack': making sense of the alt-right". The Guardian. Retrieved
September 7, 2016.
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