Commandant (/ˌkɒmənˈdɑːnt/ or /ˌkɒmənˈdænt/) is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp (including concentration camps and prisoner of war camps).
1 France 2 India 3 Ireland 4 South Africa 5 New Zealand 6 Sri Lanka 7 United Kingdom 8 United States 9 See also 10 References 11 External links
South African army commandant insignia 1950-1994
In South Africa, commandant was the title of the commanding officer of
a commando (militia) unit in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During
the First World War, commandant was used as a title by officers
commanding Defence Rifle Association units, also known as Burgher
commandoes. The commandoes were militia units raised in emergencies
and constituted the third line of defence after the Permanent Force
and the part-time Active Citizen Force regiments. The commandant rank
was equivalent to major or lieutenant-colonel, depending on the
size of the commando. From 1950 to 1994 commandant (rank) was the rank
equivalent of lieutenant colonel. and commander of a battalion. The
rank was used by both the Army and the Air Force. The naval equivalent
was commander [kommandeur in Afrikaans]. The rank was not used by
the police, who continued with lieutenant colonel
[lieutenant-kolonel]. The rank insignia for a commandant (Kommandant
in Afrikaans) was initially a crown over a five-pointed
star.:113-128 In 1957 the crown was replaced by a pentagonal
castle device  based on the floor plan of the Castle of Good Hope
in Cape Town, South Africa's oldest military building. In 1994, the
rank of commandant / Kommandant reverted to lieutenant colonel.:4
From 1968 to 1970, a related rank, chief commandant, existed in the
commando forces (the part-time, territorial reserve, roughly
equivalent to a National Guard or Home Guard).
Recently, use of the term has followed the standard practice, i.e. the
commanding officer of a training institute.
In the New Zealand Defence Force, the term commandant is used for the
senior officer (or commander) of garrisoned units that do not deploy
and are not operational. This typically includes learning institutes
such as the New Zealand Defence College, the New Zealand Cadet Force,
and (formerly) the Command and Staff College. The title could also be
used for other non-deploying units such as the Services Corrective
Establishment in Burnham, or depot-level engineering units.
The equivalent term for operational units is 'commander', such as
commander of the Joint Force Headquarters New Zealand.
Under the 2010 creation of the Training and Education Directorate, an
additional position of commandant was established for the Training
Institute to complement the commandant of the Defence College.
In Sri Lanka, the
Commandant of the Volunteer Force is the head of the
Sri Lanka Army Volunteer Force.
Commandant is also the title used for
the commanding officer (one-star rank) of military academies - Sri
Lanka Military Academy,
Naval and Maritime Academy
Formerly, admirals were appointed as commandants of naval districts.
The commandant is the second most senior officer (after the
superintendent) of United States Service academies, such as West
Point, United States Naval Academy, and the United States Air Force
Academy, equivalent to the
Dean of Students at a civilian college.
Commandant is also the title of the commanding officer of many units
of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, including the
non-commissioned officer academies, whose commandants are typically
command sergeants major.
Commandant is also the title of the ranking officer in charge of each
War College of the United States military, and is responsible for the
administration, academic progress and success of the civilians and
military officers assigned to the college. He is a model for all
personnel, a military academy graduate of impeccable character and
bearing who has demonstrated accomplishment in both academic
excellence and active military service in the field. They include the
Naval War College, the Air War College, the Army War College, the
Commandant general, in Fascist Italy, was the head of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (National Security Volunteer Militia or "Blackshirts"), a position held by Benito Mussolini. Commandant's Service, a military police type force in some militaries.
^ a b Radburn, A. (1990). "South African Army Ranks and Insignia". Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies. 20 (2). ^ Naamlys, Lindley Kommando, Military Archives, Pretoria ^ Government Notice 2092 (25 Aug 1950) ^ Rank Chart, Paratus, 1974 ^ Jooste, L. (1996). "Die politieke koerswending van 1948 besorg 'n nuwe identiteit aan die Unieverdedigingsma". Militaria (in Afrikaans). 26 (2). ^ Radburn, A, South African Army Ranks and Insignia, In: Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 20, Nr 2, 1990 ^ Salut. 1 (1). May 1994. Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Retief, J.J. (December 1997). "Die rang van hoofkommandant in die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag". Military History Journal (in Afrikaans). 10 (6). ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
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