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Colorado
Colorado
(/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ ( listen)[8][9]) is a state of the United States
United States
encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau
Plateau
and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado
Colorado
was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 10.17% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[10] The state was named for the Colorado
Colorado
River, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado
Colorado
for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado
Territory of Colorado
was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado
Colorado
to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado
Colorado
is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state a century after the signing of the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence. Colorado
Colorado
is bordered by Wyoming
Wyoming
to the north, Nebraska
Nebraska
to the northeast, Kansas
Kansas
to the east, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah
Utah
to the west, and touches Arizona
Arizona
to the southwest at the Four Corners. Colorado
Colorado
is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers, and desert lands. Colorado
Colorado
is part of the western or southwestern United States, and one of the Mountain States. Denver
Denver
is the capital and most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the term "Coloradoan" has been used archaically and lives on in the title of the Fort Collins Coloradoan newspaper.[11][12]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Mountains 1.2 Plains 1.3 Front range 1.4 Continental Divide 1.5 Southern region 1.6 Peaks 1.7 Colorado
Colorado
Western Slope

2 Climate

2.1 Eastern Plains 2.2 Front range foothills 2.3 Extreme weather 2.4 Records 2.5 Earthquakes

3 History

3.1 Territory act 3.2 Statehood

4 Demographics

4.1 Language 4.2 Religion 4.3 Health

5 Culture

5.1 Fine arts

5.1.1 Film

5.2 Cuisine 5.3 Wine and beer 5.4 Marijuana and hemp

5.4.1 Medicinal use 5.4.2 Recreational use

5.5 Sports

5.5.1 Professional sports teams 5.5.2 College athletics

6 Economy

6.1 Philanthropy 6.2 Natural resources

7 Transportation 8 Government and politics

8.1 State government 8.2 Counties

8.2.1 Metropolitan areas

8.3 Municipalities 8.4 Unincorporated communities 8.5 Special
Special
districts 8.6 Federal politics 8.7 Significant bills passed in Colorado

9 Education 10 Military installations 11 Protected areas 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Colorado Colorado
Colorado
is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, arid plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, and deep canyons. The borders of Colorado
Colorado
were originally defined to be lines of latitude and longitude, making its shape a latitude-longitude quadrangle which stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03'W to 109°03'W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian).[13] Colorado, Wyoming
Wyoming
and Utah
Utah
are the only states which have boundaries defined solely by lines of latitude and longitude.

The Elk Mountains near Aspen, Colorado
Aspen, Colorado
showing the Maroon Bells

Ten Mile Range and Dillon Reservoir near Breckenridge, Colorado

Mountains[edit] See also: Mountain peaks of Colorado The summit of Mount Elbert
Mount Elbert
at 14,440 feet (4,401.2 m) elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado
Colorado
and the Rocky Mountains of North America.[4] Colorado
Colorado
is the only U.S. state
U.S. state
that lies entirely above 1,000 meters' elevation. The point where the Arikaree River
Arikaree River
flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado
Colorado
at 3,317 feet (1,011 m) elevation. This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state,[5][14] is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.

A view of the arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado

The Calhan Paint Mines
Calhan Paint Mines
on the Colorado
Colorado
Eastern Plains

Plains[edit] A little less than one half of Colorado
Colorado
is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
are the Colorado Eastern Plains
Colorado Eastern Plains
of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains
Great Plains
within Nebraska
Nebraska
at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet (1,020 to 2,290 m).[15] The Colorado
Colorado
plains are mostly prairies but also include deciduous forests, buttes, and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 mm) annually.[16] Eastern Colorado
Colorado
is presently mainly farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns. Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from both surface and subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas
Arkansas
River, and a few other streams. Subterranean sources generally source water through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado
Colorado
hosts considerable livestock, such as cattle ranches and hog farms. Front range[edit]

Front Range
Front Range
Peaks west of Denver

Roughly 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor between Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. The "Front Range" includes Denver, Boulder, Fort Collins, Loveland, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Greeley and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado
Colorado
(which is not considered the "Front Range") are the cities of Grand Junction, Durango, and Montrose. Continental Divide[edit]

Continental Divide
Continental Divide
at Monarch Pass

The Continental Divide of the Americas
Continental Divide of the Americas
extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado
Colorado
to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. Drainage water west of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
flows to the southwest via the Colorado
Colorado
River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
is the North Park of Colorado. The North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming
Wyoming
and Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, which is drained by the Colorado
Colorado
River. The South Park of Colorado
Colorado
is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. Southern region[edit]

The tallest dunes in North America at Great Sand Dunes National Park in southern Colorado

In southmost Colorado
Colorado
is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
are located. The valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains
Sangre De Cristo Mountains
and San Juan Mountains, and consists of large desert lands that eventually run into the mountains. The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range
Sangre de Cristo Range
to the east of the San Luis Valley
San Luis Valley
lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Rift, a major geological formation of the Rocky Mountains, and its branches.

The high desert lands that make up the San Luis Valley
San Luis Valley
in Southern Colorado

Peaks[edit] Main article: Mountain peaks of Colorado To the west of the Great Plains
Great Plains
of Colorado
Colorado
rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Notable peaks of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
include Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks
Spanish Peaks
near Walsenburg, in southern Colorado. This area drains to the east and the southeast, ultimately either via the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
or the Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico.

Peaks of the San Juan Mountains

The Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
within Colorado
Colorado
contain 53 peaks that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners.[17] These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers and aspens up to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet (3,700 m) in southern Colorado
Colorado
to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado. Above this only alpine vegetation grows. Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
are snow-covered year round. Much of the alpine snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few snowcapped peaks and a few small glaciers. The Colorado
Colorado
Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains
San Juan Mountains
in the southwest to Boulder
Boulder
and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado. Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains. The 30 highest major summits of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
of North America all lie within the state.

Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
near Montrose

Rim Arch in the Black Ridge Canyons Wilderness
Black Ridge Canyons Wilderness
in western Colorado

Sandstone cliffs along the Colorado River
Colorado River
north of Wolcott

Hanging Lake
Hanging Lake
near Glenwood Springs

Colorado
Colorado
Western Slope[edit]

The Grand Valley in Western Colorado, a large valley made up of high desert terrain. The city of Grand Junction is located in the heart of the valley

The Western Slope area of Colorado
Colorado
includes the western face of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and all of the state to the western border. This area includes several terrains and climates from alpine mountains to arid deserts. The Western Slope includes many ski resort towns in the Rocky Mountains and towns west of the mountains. It is less populous than the Front Range
Front Range
but includes a large number of national parks and monuments. From west to east, the land of Colorado
Colorado
consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
is located just west of Colorado
Colorado
Springs. Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south.[18] The northwestern corner of Colorado
Colorado
is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument, which is not only a paleontological area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeds. Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado. Desert lands in Colorado
Colorado
are located in and around areas such as the Pueblo, Canon City, Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado
Grand Junction, Colorado
National Monument, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau
Plateau
and Uncompahgre National Forest. The Western Slope of Colorado
Colorado
is drained by the Colorado River
Colorado River
and its tributaries (primarily the Gunnison River, Green River and the San Juan River) or by evaporation in its arid areas. The Colorado
Colorado
River flows through Glenwood Canyon
Glenwood Canyon
and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle to Parachute, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley, where the city of Grand Junction is located. Also prominent in or near the southern portion of the Western Slope are the Grand Mesa, which lies to the southeast of Grand Junction; the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range; and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah. The city of Grand Junction, Colorado
Grand Junction, Colorado
is the largest city on the Western Slope. Grand Junction and Durango
Durango
are the only major centers of television broadcasting west of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
in Colorado, though most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers. Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70, the only major highway in Western Colorado. Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific. This railroad also provides the tracks for Amtrak's California Zephyr
California Zephyr
passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
between Denver
Denver
and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways.

The Colorado National Monument
Colorado National Monument
near Grand Junction. The monument is made up of high desert canyons and sandstone rock formations

The Western Slope includes multiple notable destinations in the Colorado
Colorado
Rocky Mountains, including Glenwood Springs, with its resort hot springs, and the ski resorts of Aspen, Breckenridge, Vail, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride. Higher education in and near the Western Slope can be found at Colorado Mesa University
Colorado Mesa University
in Grand Junction, Western State College of Colorado
Colorado
in Gunnison, Fort Lewis College
Fort Lewis College
in Durango, and Colorado Mountain College in Glenwood Springs and Steamboat Springs.

The Four Corners
Four Corners
Monument, with Ute Mountain
Ute Mountain
in the distance

Colorado
Colorado
is one of four states in the United States
United States
that share a common geographic point – the Four Corners
Four Corners
together with Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once. See also: Colorado
Colorado
cities and towns, List of counties in Colorado, Colorado
Colorado
municipalities, Colorado
Colorado
rivers, and Four Corners
Four Corners
Monument Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of Colorado

The climate of Colorado
Colorado
is more complex than states outside of the Mountain States
Mountain States
region. Unlike most other states, southern Colorado
Colorado
is not always warmer than northern Colorado. Most of Colorado
Colorado
is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado
Colorado
are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains. Northwest and west Colorado
Colorado
are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in. Southwest and southern Colorado
Colorado
are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas. Eastern Plains[edit] The climate of the Eastern Plains
Eastern Plains
is semiarid (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 millimeters) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool, clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range. The difference between the highs of the days and the lows of the nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds. The Front Range
Front Range
urban corridor, where most of the population of Colorado
Colorado
resides, lies in a pronounced precipitation shadow as a result of being on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains.[19] In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and often 100 °F (38 °C).[20] On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 to −10 °F (−4 to −23 °C). About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter and early spring. Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold.[21] In much of the region, March is the snowiest month. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. The Front Range
Front Range
cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to Chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 70 °F (21 °C) or higher in the winter.[21] The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 90 °F (32 °C) in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 18 °F (−8 °C) in the morning and 48 °F (9 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (20 °C). Front range foothills[edit] Just west of the plains and into the foothills, there are a wide variety of climate types. Locations merely a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography. Most valleys have a semi-arid climate not unlike the eastern plains, which transitions to an alpine climate at the highest elevations. Microclimates also exist in local areas that run nearly the entire spectrum of climates, including subtropical highland (Cfb/Cwb), humid subtropical (Cfa), humid continental (Dfa/Dfb), Mediterranean (Csa/Csb) and subarctic (Dfc).[22] Extreme weather[edit]

Snow highlights the rugged mountains, as well as the urban and agricultural landscapes of the Colorado
Colorado
plains.

Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although the majority of extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
in the spring and summer, yet are usually brief. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains
Eastern Plains
have had some of the biggest hail storms in North America.[16] Notable examples are the severe hailstorms that hit Denver
Denver
on July 11, 1990[23] and May 8, 2017, the latter being the costliest ever in the state.[24] The Eastern Plains
Eastern Plains
are part of the extreme western portion of Tornado Alley; some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains
Eastern Plains
include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the small town.[25] The plains are also susceptible to occasional floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Notable examples include the 1965 Denver
Denver
Flood,[26] the Big Thompson River
Big Thompson River
flooding of 1976 and the 2013 Colorado
Colorado
floods. Denver's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken during the summer of 2008. The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week.[27] Much of Colorado
Colorado
is a very dry state averaging only 17 inches (430 millimeters) of precipitation per year statewide and rarely experiences a time when some portion of the state is not in some degree of drought.[28] The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state, such as the Hayman Fire
Hayman Fire
of 2002, one of the largest wildfires in American history, and the Fourmile Canyon Fire of 2010, which until the Waldo Canyon Fire
Waldo Canyon Fire
and High Park Fire of June 2012, and the Black Forest Fire
Black Forest Fire
of June 2013, was the most destructive wildfire in Colorado's recorded history. However, some of the mountainous regions of Colorado
Colorado
receive a huge amount of moisture from winter snowfalls. The spring melts of these snows often cause great waterflows in the Yampa River, the Colorado River, the Rio Grande, the Arkansas
Arkansas
River, the North Platte River, and the South Platte River.

The Yampa River, from a high overlook

Water flowing out of the Colorado
Colorado
Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of the southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, as well as the Midwest, such as Nebraska
Nebraska
and Kansas, and the southern states of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Texas. A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently), the flow of water reaches northern Mexico. Records[edit] The highest ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado
Colorado
was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 11, 1888, at Bennett. The lowest air temperature was −61 °F (−52 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.[29][30]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Colorado cities[31] (°F) (°C)

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Alamosa 34/−2 2/−19 40/6 4/−14 50/17 10/−8 59/24 15/−4 69/33 21/1 79/41 26/5 82/47 28/8 80/46 27/8 73/40 23/4 62/25 17/−4 47/12 8/−11 35/1 2/−17

Colorado
Colorado
Springs 43/18 6/−8 45/20 7/−7 52/26 11/−3 60/33 16/1 69/43 21/6 79/51 26/11 85/57 29/14 82/56 28/13 75/47 24/8 63/36 17/2 51/25 11/−4 42/18 6/−8

Denver 49/20 9/−7 49/21 9/−6 56/29 13/−2 64/35 18/2 73/46 23/8 84/54 29/12 92/61 33/16 89/60 32/16 81/50 27/10 68/37 20/3 55/26 13/−3 47/18 8/−8

Grand Junction 38/17 3/−8 45/24 7/−4 57/31 14/-1 65/38 18/3 76/47 24/8 88/56 31/13 93/63 34/17 90/61 32/16 80/52 27/11 66/40 19/4 51/28 11/−2 39/19 4/−7

Pueblo 47/14 8/−10 51/17 11/−8 59/26 15/−3 67/34 19/1 77/44 25/7 87/53 31/12 93/59 34/15 90/58 32/14 82/48 28/9 69/34 21/1 56/23 13/−5 46/14 8/−10

Earthquakes[edit] Despite its mountainous terrain, Colorado
Colorado
is relatively quiet seismically. The U.S. National Earthquake Information Center
National Earthquake Information Center
is located in Golden. On August 22, 2011, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake occurred 9 miles (14 km) west-southwest of the city of Trinidad.[32] There were no casualties and only a small amount of damage was reported. It was the second largest earthquake in Colorado. A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973.[33] History[edit]

Ruins of Cliff Palace
Cliff Palace
at Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park
as photographed by Gustaf Nordenskiöld
Gustaf Nordenskiöld
in 1891.

Great Kiva at Chimney Rock in the San Juan Mountains
San Juan Mountains
of Southwestern Colorado. It is said to have been built by the Ancient Pueblo peoples.

Main articles: History of Colorado
History of Colorado
and Timeline of Colorado
Colorado
history The region that is today the state of Colorado
Colorado
has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years. The Lindenmeier Site
Lindenmeier Site
in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BC to 3000 BC. The eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
was a major migration route that was important to the spread of early peoples throughout the Americas. The Ancient Pueblo peoples
Ancient Pueblo peoples
lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau.[34] The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains
Southern Rocky Mountains
and the Western Rocky Mountains, even as far east as the Front Range
Front Range
of present day. The Apache
Apache
and the Comanche
Comanche
also inhabited Eastern and Southeastern parts of the state. At times, the Arapaho Nation
Arapaho Nation
and the Cheyenne Nation
Cheyenne Nation
moved west to hunt across the High Plains. The U.S. acquired a territorial claim to the eastern Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
from France in 1803. This U.S. claim conflicted with the claim by Spain to the upper Arkansas River
Arkansas River
Basin as the exclusive trading zone of its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo México. In 1806, Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike
led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region. Colonel Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalrymen in the San Luis Valley
San Luis Valley
the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from Mexico the following July. The U.S. relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
and south of 42nd parallel north
42nd parallel north
and west of the 100th meridian west as part of its purchase of Florida
Florida
from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
of 1819. The treaty took effect February 22, 1821. Having settled its border with Spain, the U.S. admitted the southeastern portion of the Territory of Missouri
Missouri
to the Union as the state of Missouri
Missouri
on August 10, 1821. The remainder of Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and remained so for 33 years over the question of slavery. After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba
Treaty of Córdoba
signed on August 24, 1821. Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
in 1831. The Texian Revolt
Texian Revolt
of 1835–36 fomented a dispute between the U.S. and Mexico which eventually erupted into the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
in 1846. Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
at the conclusion of the war in 1848.

Map of the Mexican cession, with the white representing the territory the United States
United States
received from Mexico. Well over half of Colorado
Colorado
was received during this treaty.

Most American settlers traveling overland west to the Oregon
Oregon
Country, namely the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon
Mormon
settlements of the State of Deseret
State of Deseret
in the Salt Lake Valley, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains, and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River to South Pass (Wyoming), the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
between the Southern Rocky Mountains
Southern Rocky Mountains
and the Central Rocky Mountains. In 1849, the Mormons of the Salt Lake Valley organized the extralegal State of Deseret, claiming the entire Great Basin and all lands drained by the rivers Green, Grand, and Colorado. The federal government of the U.S. flatly refused to recognize the new Mormon
Mormon
government, because it was theocratic and sanctioned plural marriage. Instead, the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
divided the Mexican Cession and the northwestern claims of Texas
Texas
into a new state and two new territories, the state of California, the Territory of New Mexico, and the Territory of Utah. On April 9, 1851, Mexican American
Mexican American
settlers from the area of Taos settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement.

The Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores

In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
persuaded the U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
to divide the unorganized territory east of the Continental Divide
Continental Divide
into two new organized territories, the Territory of Kansas
Kansas
and the Territory of Nebraska, and an unorganized southern region known as the Indian territory. Each new territory was to decide the fate of slavery within its boundaries, but this compromise merely served to fuel animosity between free soil and pro-slavery factions. The gold seekers organized the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson on August 24, 1859, but this new territory failed to secure approval from the Congress of the United States
United States
embroiled in the debate over slavery. The election of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
for the President of the United States
United States
on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of nine southern slave states and the threat of civil war among the states. Seeking to augment the political power of the Union states, the Republican Party-dominated Congress quickly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas
Kansas
into the Union as the free State of Kansas
Kansas
on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the Kansas
Kansas
Territory, and its gold-mining areas, as unorganized territory. Territory act[edit]

The territories of New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska
Nebraska
before the creation of the Territory of Colorado

Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an Act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado.[35] The original boundaries of Colorado
Colorado
remain unchanged today. The name Colorado
Colorado
was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River
Colorado River
originated in the territory.[36] In 1776, Spanish priest Silvestre Vélez de Escalante
Silvestre Vélez de Escalante
recorded that Native Americans in the area knew the river as el Rio Colorado
Colorado
for the red-brown silt that the river carried from the mountains.[citation needed] In 1859, a U.S. Army topographic expedition led by Captain John Macomb located the confluence of the Green River with the Grand River in what is now Canyonlands National Park
Canyonlands National Park
in Utah.[37] The Macomb party designated the confluence as the source of the Colorado
Colorado
River. On April 12, 1861, South Carolina
South Carolina
artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter to start the American Civil War. While many gold seekers held sympathies for the Confederacy, the vast majority remained fiercely loyal to the Union cause. In 1862, a force of Texas
Texas
cavalry invaded the Territory of New Mexico and captured Santa Fe on March 10. The object of this Western Campaign was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado
Colorado
and California
California
and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy. A hastily organized force of Colorado
Colorado
volunteers force-marched from Denver
Denver
City, Colorado
Colorado
Territory, to Glorieta Pass, New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory, in an attempt to block the Texans. On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and dispersed 500 of their horses and mules. The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe. Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio in defeat. The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States. In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans appointed the Reverend John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado
Colorado
Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
warriors who were accused of stealing cattle. Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
encamped along Sand Creek. Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors. The militia returned to Denver
Denver
City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been hideously mutilated and desecrated. Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished. This event is now known as the Sand Creek massacre.

Mount of the Holy Cross
Mount of the Holy Cross
was photographed by William Henry Jackson
William Henry Jackson
in 1874

In the midst and aftermath of Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a few stayed and developed mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in Colorado
Colorado
Territory. On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass, the first of many silver strikes. In 1867, the Union Pacific
Union Pacific
Railroad laid its tracks west to Weir, now Julesburg, in the northeast corner of the Territory. The Union Pacific
Union Pacific
linked up with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Denver
Denver
Pacific Railway reached Denver
Denver
in June the following year, and the Kansas
Kansas
Pacific arrived two months later to forge the second line across the continent. In 1872, rich veins of silver were discovered in the San Juan Mountains
San Juan Mountains
on the Ute Indian reservation
Indian reservation
in southwestern Colorado. The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year. Statehood[edit]

The Georgetown Loop
Georgetown Loop
of the Colorado Central Railroad
Colorado Central Railroad
as photographed by William Henry Jackson
William Henry Jackson
in 1899

The United States
United States
Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado
Territory of Colorado
to become a state.[13] On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
signed a proclamation admitting Colorado
Colorado
to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".[38] The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878 triggered the Colorado
Colorado
Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 invigorated silver mining, and Colorado's last, but greatest, gold strike at Cripple Creek a few months later lured a new generation of gold seekers. Colorado
Colorado
women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado
Colorado
the second state to grant universal suffrage and the first one by a popular vote (of Colorado men). The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered. Between the 1880s and 1930s, Denver's floriculture industry developed into a major industry in Colorado.[39][40] This period became known locally as the Carnation Gold Rush.[41] Colorado
Colorado
became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver
Denver
in 1908. By the U.S. Census in 1930, the population of Colorado
Colorado
first exceeded one million residents. Colorado
Colorado
suffered greatly through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimated that the population of Colorado
Colorado
exceeded five million in 2009. Three warships of the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
have been named the USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado
Colorado
River. The later two ships were named in honor of the state, including the battleship USS Colorado
Colorado
which served in World War II in the Pacific beginning in 1941. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, this USS Colorado was located at the naval base in San Diego, Calif. and hence went unscathed.

Demographics[edit]

Colorado
Colorado
population density map

Historical population

Census Pop.

1860 34,277

1870 39,864

16.3%

1880 194,327

387.5%

1890 413,249

112.7%

1900 539,700

30.6%

1910 799,024

48.0%

1920 939,629

17.6%

1930 1,035,791

10.2%

1940 1,123,296

8.4%

1950 1,325,089

18.0%

1960 1,753,947

32.4%

1970 2,207,259

25.8%

1980 2,889,964

30.9%

1990 3,294,394

14.0%

2000 4,301,262

30.6%

2010 5,029,196

16.9%

Est. 2017 5,607,154

11.5%

Sources: 1910–2010[42] 2015 estimate[10]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado
Colorado
was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, a 10.17% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[10] Colorado's most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora- Boulder
Boulder
Combined Statistical Area with an estimated 2013 population of 3,277,309, has 60% of the state's residents. The largest increases are expected in the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver
Denver
metropolitan area. The state's fastest-growing counties are Douglas and Weld.[43] The center of population of Colorado
Colorado
is located just north of the village of Critchell in Jefferson County.[44] According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, Colorado
Colorado
had a population of 5,029,196. Racial composition of the state's population was:

81.3% White American
White American
(70.0% Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White, 11.3% Hispanic
Hispanic
white) 20.7% Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
(of any race) heritage 7.2% Some Other Race 4.0% Black or African American 3.4% Multiracial American 2.8% Asian American 1.1% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.1% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander

Colorado
Colorado
racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1970[45] 1990[45] 2000[46] 2010[47]

White (includes White Hispanics) 7001957000000000000♠95.7% 7001882000000000000♠88.2% 7001828000000000000♠82.8% 7001813000000000000♠81.3%

Black 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 7000400000000000000♠4.0% 7000380000000000000♠3.8% 7000400000000000000♠4.0%

Asian 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 7000220000000000000♠2.2% 7000280000000099999♠2.8%

Native 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 7000110000000000000♠1.1%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander 6996100000000000000♠– 6996100000000000000♠– 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 6999100000000000000♠0.1%

Other race 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 7000510000000099999♠5.1% 7000720000000000000♠7.2% 7000720000000000000♠7.2%

Two or more races 6996200000000000000♠– 6996200000000000000♠– 7000280000000099999♠2.8% 7000340000000000000♠3.4%

People of Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
(of any race made) heritage, made up 20.7% of the population.[48] According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado
Colorado
are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Mexican (18%), Irish (12%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains. Colorado
Colorado
has a high proportion of Hispanic, mostly Mexican-American, citizens in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado
Colorado
Springs, as well as the smaller cities of Greeley and Pueblo, and elsewhere. Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado
Colorado
has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of the early Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic
Hispanic
and 90.3% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white.[49] The Hispanic
Hispanic
population of Colorado
Colorado
has continued to grow quickly over the past decades. By 2012, Hispanics made up 21% of Colorado's population, and Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites made up 69%.[50] Spoken English in Colorado has many Spanish idioms.[51] Colorado
Colorado
also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver
Denver
areas. A relatively large population of African Americans are also found in Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs
on the east and southeast side of the city. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Mongolian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese descent. The highest population of Asian Americans
Asian Americans
can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side. The Denver
Denver
metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns. There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado
Colorado
in 2006. (Birth rate of 14.6 per thousand.) In 2007, non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births.[52] Some 14.06% of those births involved a non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic. A birth where at least one Hispanic
Hispanic
person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado.[53] As of the 2010 Census, Colorado
Colorado
has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico
New Mexico
(46.3%), California
California
(37.6%), Texas
Texas
(37.6%), Arizona
Arizona
(29.6%), Nevada
Nevada
(26.5%), and Florida
Florida
(22.5%). Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic
Hispanic
population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population. Colorado
Colorado
has the 5th-largest population of Mexican-Americans
Mexican-Americans
behind California, Texas, Arizona, and Illinois. In percentages, Colorado
Colorado
has the 6th-highest percentage of Mexican-Americans
Mexican-Americans
behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada.[54] In 2011, 46% of Colorado's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white.[55] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[56] 2014[57] 2015[58]

White: 57,491 (88.4%) 58,117 (88.3%) 58,756 (88.2%)

Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White 39,872 (61.3%) 40,629 (61.7%) 40,878 (61.4%)

Black 3,760 (5.8%) 3,926 (6.0%) 4,049 (6.1%)

Asian 2,863 (4.4%) 3,010 (4.6%) 2,973 (4.5%)

Native 793 (1.2%) 777 (1.2%) 803 (1.2%)

Hispanic
Hispanic
(of any race) 17,821 (27.4%) 17,665 (26.8%) 18,139 (27.2%)

Total Colorado 65,007 (100%) 65,830 (100%) 66,581 (100%)

Language[edit] Spanish is the second-most spoken language in Colorado, after English.[59] There is one Native Coloradan language still spoken in Colorado, Colorado River
Colorado River
Numic (Ute). Religion[edit]

The Cadet Chapel at the United States
United States
Air Force Academy near Colorado Springs

Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado
Colorado
are 64% Christian, of whom there are 44% Protestants, 19% Roman Catholics, and 3% Latter Day Saint/Mormon.[60] Other religious breakdowns are 2% Jewish, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist
Buddhist
and 0.5% Hindu. The religiously unaffiliated make up 25% of the population.[61] The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 811,630; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 229,981; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 142,473.[62]

Religion in Colorado
Colorado
(2014)[63]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

43%

None

29%

Catholic

16%

Mormon

2%

Eastern Orthodox

1%

Other Christian

1%

Jewish

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other

2%

Don't know

2%

Health[edit] According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US.[64] As of 2007[update], 18% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% in 2004.[65] According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of Colorado
Colorado
had a 2014 life expectancy of 80.21 years, the longest of any U.S. state.[66] Culture[edit]

History Colorado Center
History Colorado Center
in Denver

Street art in Denver

List of museums in Colorado

Fine arts[edit]

Music of Colorado Theater in Colorado

Film[edit] A number of film productions have shot on location in Colorado, especially prominent Westerns like True Grit, The Searchers, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. A number of historic military forts, railways with trains still operating, mining ghost towns have been utilized and transformed for historical accuracy in well known films. There are also a number of scenic highways and mountain passes that helped to feature the open road in films such as Vanishing Point, Bingo and Starman. Some Colorado
Colorado
landmarks have been featured in films, such as The Stanley Hotel
The Stanley Hotel
in Dumb and Dumber
Dumb and Dumber
and The Shining and the Sculptured House
Sculptured House
in Sleeper. In 2015, Furious 7
Furious 7
to film driving sequences Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Highway in Colorado. The TV Series, Good Luck Charlie was being filmed in Denver, Colorado. The Colorado
Colorado
Office of Film and Television has noted that over 400 films have been shot in Colorado.[67] There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen
Aspen
Shortsfest, Boulder
Boulder
International Film Festival, Castle Rock Film Festival, Denver
Denver
Film Festival, Festivus film festival, Mile High Horror Film Festival, Moondance International Film Festival, Mountainfilm in Telluride, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival, and Telluride Film Festival. Cuisine[edit] Colorado
Colorado
is known for its Southwest and Rocky Mountain cuisine. Mexican restaurants are prominent throughout the state. Boulder, Colorado
Boulder, Colorado
was named America's Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit.[68] Boulder, and Colorado
Colorado
in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Boulder, Colorado
Boulder, Colorado
also has more Master Sommeliers per capita than any other city, including San Francisco
San Francisco
and New York.[69] The Food & Wine Classic is held annually each June in Aspen, Colorado. Aspen
Aspen
also has a reputation as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountain region.[70] Denver
Denver
is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many restaurants.[71] Wine and beer[edit] Main article: Colorado
Colorado
wine Colorado
Colorado
wines include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state.[72] With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera
grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado
Colorado
wines have won top national and international awards for their quality.[73] Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards in the United States,[74] with most viticulture in the state practiced between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (1,219 and 2,134 m) above sea level. The mountain climate ensures warm summer days and cool nights. Colorado
Colorado
is home to two designated American Viticultural Areas of the Grand Valley AVA
Grand Valley AVA
and the West Elks AVA,[75] where most of the vineyards in the state are located. However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range.[76] In 2018, Wine Enthusiast Magazine
Wine Enthusiast Magazine
named Colorado's Grand Valley AVA
Grand Valley AVA
one of the Top Ten wine travel destinations in the world.[77] Main article: Colorado
Colorado
beer Colorado
Colorado
is home to many nationally praised microbreweries,[78] including New Belgium Brewing Company, Odell Brewing Company, Great Divide Brewing Company, and Oskar Blues Brewery. The area of northern Colorado
Colorado
near and between the cities of Denver, Boulder, and Fort Collins is known as the "Napa Valley of Beer" due to its high density of craft breweries.[79] Marijuana and hemp[edit] Colorado
Colorado
is open to cannabis (marijuana) tourism.[80] With the adoption of their 64th state amendment In 2013 Colorado
Colorado
became the first state in the union to legalize the medicinal (2000), industrial (2013), and recreational (2014) use of marijuana. Colorado's marijuana industry sold $1.31 billion worth of marijuana in 2016 and $1.26 billion in the first three quarters of 2017.[81] The state generated tax, fee, and license revenue of $194 million in 2016 on legal marijuana sales.[82] Colorado
Colorado
regulates hemp as any part of the plant with less than 0.3% THC.[83] Amendment 64, adopted by the voters in the 2014 general election, forces the Colorado
Colorado
state legislature to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing and sale of recreational marijuana and industrial hemp.[84] On April 4, 2014 Senate Bill 14–184 addressing oversight of Colorado's industrial hemp program was first introduced, ultimately being signed into law by Governor John Hickenlooper
John Hickenlooper
on May 31, 2014.[85] Medicinal use[edit] On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado
Colorado
voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado
Colorado
State constitution to allow the medical use of marijuana.[86] A patient's medical use of marijuana, within the following limits, is lawful:

(I) No more than 2 ounces (57 g) of a usable form of marijuana; and (II) No more than twelve marijuana plants, with six or fewer being mature, flowering plants that are producing a usable form of marijuana.[87]

Currently Colorado
Colorado
has listed "eight medical conditions for which patients can use marijuana—cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia, or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy."[88] Colorado
Colorado
Governor John Hickenlooper has allocated about half of the state's $13 million "Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund"[89] to medical research in the 2014 budget.[90][91] Recreational use[edit] On November 6, 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol.[92] The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.[93] Sports[edit]

The Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
baseball club at Coors Field

Sports Authority Field at Mile High, home of the Denver
Denver
Broncos and the Denver
Denver
Outlaws

Pepsi Center, home of the Denver
Denver
Nuggets, the Colorado
Colorado
Avalanche, and the Colorado
Colorado
Mammoth

Dick's Sporting Goods Park, home of the Colorado
Colorado
Rapids

Main article: Sports in Colorado Colorado
Colorado
has five major professional sports leagues, all based in the Denver
Denver
metropolitan area. Colorado
Colorado
is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues. The Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
International Hill Climb is a major hillclimbing motor race held at the Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Highway. The Cherry Hills Country Club
Cherry Hills Country Club
has hosted several professional golf tournaments, including the U.S. Open, U.S. Senior Open, U.S. Women's Open, PGA Championship
PGA Championship
and BMW Championship. Professional sports teams[edit]

Team Home First game Sport League

Boulder
Boulder
County Bombers Boulder November 2011 Roller Derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association

Denver
Denver
Broncos Denver 000000001960-09-09-0000September 9, 1960 Football National Football League

Denver
Denver
Barbarians Denver 000000001967-05-01-0000Spring 1967 Rugby union Pacific Rugby Premiership

Denver
Denver
Nuggets Denver 000000001967-09-27-0000September 27, 1967 Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association

Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs
Sky Sox Colorado
Colorado
Springs 000000001988-06-18-0000June 18, 1988 Baseball Minor League Baseball
Baseball
(AAA)

Colorado
Colorado
Rockies Denver 000000001993-04-05-0000April 5, 1993 Baseball Major League Baseball

Colorado
Colorado
Avalanche Denver 000000001995-10-06-0000October 6, 1995 Ice hockey National Hockey League

Colorado
Colorado
Rapids Commerce City 000000001996-04-13-0000April 13, 1996 Soccer Major League Soccer

Colorado
Colorado
Mammoth Denver 000000002003-01-03-0000January 3, 2003 Lacrosse National Lacrosse
Lacrosse
League

Colorado
Colorado
Eagles Loveland 000000002003-10-17-0000October 17, 2003 Ice hockey ECHL

Denver
Denver
Outlaws Denver 000000002006-05-20-0000May 20, 2006 Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse

Glendale Raptors Glendale 000000002006-08-01-0000Fall 2006 Rugby union Pacific Rugby Premiership

Grand Junction Rockies Grand Junction 000000002012-06-18-0000June 18, 2012 Baseball Minor League Baseball
Baseball
(Rookie)

Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs
Switchbacks FC Colorado
Colorado
Springs 000000002015-03-28-0000March 28, 2015 Soccer United Soccer League

College athletics[edit] Main article: List of college athletic programs in Colorado The following universities and colleges participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. The most popular college sports program is the University of Colorado
Colorado
Buffaloes, who used to play in the Big-12 but now play in the Pac-12. They have won the 1957 and 1991 Orange Bowl, 1995 Fiesta Bowl
Fiesta Bowl
and 1996 Cotton Bowl Classic.

NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
athletic programs in Colorado

Team School City Conference

Air Force Falcons United States
United States
Air Force Academy Colorado
Colorado
Springs Mountain West[94]

Colorado
Colorado
Buffaloes University of Colorado
Colorado
Boulder Boulder Pac-12[95]

Colorado
Colorado
State Rams Colorado
Colorado
State University Fort Collins Mountain West

Denver
Denver
Pioneers University of Denver Denver Summit[96]

Northern Colorado
Northern Colorado
Bears University of Northern Colorado Greeley Big Sky[97]

Economy[edit]

Denver
Denver
Energy Center The Denver
Denver
financial district along 17th Street is known as the Wall Street of the West.

Main article: Economy of Colorado See also: Colorado
Colorado
locations by per capita income CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Colorado
Colorado
as the third-best state in the nation, falling short to only Texas
Texas
and Virginia.[98]

Corn growing in Larimer County

The total state product in 2015 was $318,600 million.[99] Per capita personal income in 2010 was $51 940, ranking Colorado
Colorado
11th in the nation.[100] The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th-century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay. The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD
NORAD
(North American Aerospace Defense Command), United States
United States
Air Force Academy, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs within El Paso County; NOAA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey
and other government agencies at the Denver
Denver
Federal Center near Lakewood; the Denver
Denver
Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals and the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building and United States
United States
Courthouse in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state.[101] In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, the extraction of metals such as gold (see Gold mining in Colorado), silver, and molybdenum. Colorado
Colorado
now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state.[102] Denver
Denver
is an important financial center. A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver
Denver
came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite
Samsonite
luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies
Russell Stover Candies
in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek
CoorsTek
industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. Holly Sugar was first milled from beets in Holly in 1905, and later moved its headquarters to Colorado
Colorado
Springs. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins
Fort Collins
has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder
Boulder
since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango
Durango
in 1981. Colorado
Colorado
has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado
Colorado
taxes are based on taxable income—income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions.[103][104] Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, according to Colorado's Taxpayer Bill of Rights
Taxpayer Bill of Rights
legislation, full-year Colorado
Colorado
residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply. Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado
Colorado
Legislature
Legislature
in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007. As of August 2014, the state's unemployment rate is 5.3%.[105] Philanthropy[edit] Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado
Colorado
include the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation grant each year from approximately $7 billion[106] of assets. Natural resources[edit]

An oil well in western Colorado

Colorado
Colorado
has significant hydrocarbon resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado
Colorado
hosts seven of the Nation's 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado
Colorado
basins typically account for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Colorado's oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3) of oil—nearly as much oil as the entire world's proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated.[107] Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are found in the state. Uranium mining in Colorado
Uranium mining in Colorado
goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado. The Colorado uranium industry has seen booms and busts, but continues to this day. Not counting byproduct uranium from phosphate, Colorado
Colorado
is considered to have the third largest uranium reserves of any U.S. state, behind Wyoming
Wyoming
and New Mexico. Uranium price increases from 2001 to 2007 prompted a number of companies to revive uranium mining in Colorado. However, price drops and financing problems in late 2008 forced these companies to cancel or scale back uranium-mining projects. There are no currently producing uranium mines in Colorado. Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Much of the state is sunny and could produce solar power. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol production. Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Colorado

A Colorado
Colorado
state welcome sign

Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system. Interstate 25 (I-25) is the primary north–south highway in the state, connecting Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Denver, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming
Wyoming
and south to New Mexico. I-70 is the primary east–west corridor. It connects Grand Junction and the mountain communities with Denver, and enters Utah
Utah
and Kansas. The state is home to a network of US and Colorado
Colorado
highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state. Many smaller communities are only connected to this network via county roads.

The main terminal of Denver
Denver
International Airport evokes the peaks of the Front Range.

Denver
Denver
International Airport (DIA) is the fourth-busiest domestic U.S. airport and eighteenth busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic.[108] DIA handles by far the largest volume of commercial air traffic in Colorado, and is the busiest U.S. hub airport between Chicago and the Pacific coast, making Denver
Denver
the most important airport for connecting passenger traffic in the western United States. Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver
Denver
metro area's extensive RTD services. The Regional Transportation District
Regional Transportation District
(RTD) operates the popular RTD Bus & Rail transit system in the Denver Metropolitan Area. As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light-rail vehicles, serving 47 miles (76 km) of track.

The westbound and eastbound California
California
Zephyrs meet in the Glenwood Canyon.

Amtrak
Amtrak
operates two passenger rail lines in Colorado, the California Zephyr and Southwest Chief. Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver
Denver
and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Western Railroad which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading. In 1988 the "Rio Grande" acquired, but was merged into, the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
by their joint owner Philip Anschutz. On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad, creating the largest railroad network in the United States. The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading. Both Union Pacific
Union Pacific
and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado. Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage. It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states.[109]

In August 2014, Colorado
Colorado
began to issue driver licenses to aliens not lawfully in the United States
United States
who lived in Colorado.[110] In September 2014, KCNC
KCNC
reported that 524 non-citizens were issued Colorado
Colorado
driver licenses that are normally issued to U.S. citizens living in Colorado.[111] Government and politics[edit]

Colorado
Colorado
registered voters as of April 1, 2016[112]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Unaffiliated 1,315,973 36.51%

Democratic 1,119,655 31.06%

Republican 1,117,244 30.99%

Libertarian 32,450 0.9%

Green 9,916 0.28%

American Constitution 9,193 0.26%

UNI 271 0.007%

Total 3,604,702 100%

The Five Executive Officers of the State of Colorado

Office Incumbent Party Term

Governor John Hickenlooper Democratic 2011–2019

Lieutenant Governor Donna Lynne Democratic 2016–2019

Secretary of State Wayne W. Williams Republican 2015–2019

State Treasurer Walker Stapleton Republican 2011–2019

Attorney General Cynthia Coffman Republican 2015–2019

Main articles: Government of Colorado
Government of Colorado
and Politics of Colorado State government[edit] See also: Political party strength in Colorado Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches. The Governor of Colorado
Governor of Colorado
heads the state's executive branch. The current governor is John Hickenlooper, a Democrat. Colorado's other statewide elected executive officers are the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado
Colorado
(elected on a ticket with the Governor), Secretary of State of Colorado, Colorado
Colorado
State Treasurer, and Attorney General of Colorado, all of whom serve four-year terms.

Gubernatorial election results

Year Republican Democratic

2014 45.95% 938,195 49.3% 1,006,433

2010 11.3% 199,034 51.0% 912,005

2006 40.16% 625,886 56.98% 888,096

2002 62.62% 884,584 33.65% 475,373

1998 49.06% 648,202 48.43% 639,905

1994 38.70% 432,042 55.47% 619,205

1990 35.43% 358,403 61.89% 626,032

The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court
Colorado Supreme Court
is the highest judicial court in the state. The state legislative body is the Colorado
Colorado
General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. As of 2014[update], the Republican Party holds an 18 to 17 majority in the Senate and a 31 to 34 minority in the House. Most Coloradans are native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census),[113] and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973). In the 2016 election, the Democratic party won the Colorado
Colorado
electoral college votes.

Counties[edit]

An enlargeable map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado

Main article: List of counties in Colorado The State of Colorado
Colorado
is divided into 64 counties.[114] Counties are important units of government in Colorado
Colorado
since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions such as townships. Two of these counties, the City and County of Denver
Denver
and the City and County of Broomfield, have consolidated city and county governments. Nine Colorado
Colorado
counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado
Colorado
counties have a population of less than 2,500 each. The ten most populous Colorado
Colorado
counties are all located in the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor.

The 15 Colorado
Colorado
counties with a population of at least 50,000

Rank County 2013 Estimate 2010 Census Change

7000100000000000000♠1 El Paso County 655,044 622,263 7000526802975590710♠+5.27%

7000200000000000000♠2 DenCity and County of Denver 649,495 600,158 7000822066855727990♠+8.22%

7000300000000000000♠3 Arapahoe County 607,070 572,003 7000613056225229590♠+6.13%

7000400000000000000♠4 Jefferson County 551,798 534,543 7000322799101288390♠+3.23%

7000500000000000000♠5 Adams County 469,193 441,603 7000624769306367940♠+6.25%

7000600000000000000♠6 Larimer County 315,988 299,630 7000545939992657610♠+5.46%

7000700000000000000♠7 Boulder
Boulder
County 310,048 294,567 7000525551063085819♠+5.26%

7000800000000000000♠8 Douglas County 305,963 285,465 7000718056504300000♠+7.18%

7000900000000000000♠9 Weld County 269,785 252,825 7000670819736972210♠+6.71%

7001100000000000000♠10 Pueblo County 161,451 159,063 7000150129194092910♠+1.50%

7001110000000000000♠11 Mesa County 147,554 146,723 6999566373370228250♠+0.57%

7001120000000000000♠12 BroCity and County of Broomfield 59,471 55,889 7000640913238741080♠+6.41%

7001130000000000000♠13 Garfield County 57,302 56,389 7000161911011012790♠+1.62%

7001140000000000000♠14 La Plata County 53,284 51,334 7000379865196555890♠+3.80%

7001150000000000000♠15 Eagle County 52,460 52,197 6999503860375117340♠+0.50%

Metropolitan areas[edit]

Map of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in the state of Colorado.

Main articles: Colorado metropolitan areas
Colorado metropolitan areas
and Colorado
Colorado
census statistical areas The United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined one combined statistical area (CSA),[115] seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),[116] and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[117] in the state of Colorado.[118] The most populous of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in Colorado is the Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. This area had an estimated population of 2,599,504 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.20% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[119] The more extensive Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 3,157,520 on July 1, 2011, an increase of +2.16% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[119] The most populous extended metropolitan region in Rocky Mountain Region is the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor along the northeast face of the Southern Rocky Mountains. This region with Denver
Denver
at its center had an estimated population of 4,495,181 on July 1, 2012, an increase of +3.73% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[119]

Municipalities[edit] Main article: List of cities and towns in Colorado The state of Colorado
Colorado
currently has 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, and two consolidated city and county governments.[120][121] Colorado municipalities
Colorado municipalities
operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority. Colorado
Colorado
has one town with a territorial charter, 160 statutory towns, 12 statutory cities, 96 home rule municipalities (61 cities and 35 towns), and 2 consolidated city and county governments.

The skyline of downtown Denver
Denver
with Speer Boulevard in the foreground

The 26 Colorado municipalities
Colorado municipalities
with a population of at least 25,000

Rank Municipality 2014 Estimate 2010 Census Change

7000100000000000000♠1 City and County of Denver 663,862 600,158 7001106145381716149♠+10.61%

7000200000000000000♠2 City of Colorado
Colorado
Springs 445,830 416,427 7000706078136143910♠+7.06%

7000300000000000000♠3 City of Aurora 353,108 325,078 7000862254597358170♠+8.62%

7000400000000000000♠4 City of Fort Collins 156,480 143,986 7000867723250871610♠+8.68%

7000500000000000000♠5 City of Lakewood 149,643 142,980 7000466009232060430♠+4.66%

7000600000000000000♠6 City of Thornton 130,307 118,772 7000971188495605020♠+9.71%

7000700000000000000♠7 City of Arvada 113,574 106,433 7000670938524705680♠+6.71%

7000800000000000000♠8 City of Westminster 112,090 106,114 7000563167913753130♠+5.63%

7000900000000000000♠9 City of Pueblo 108,423 106,595 7000171490219991560♠+1.71%

7001100000000000000♠10 City of Centennial 107,201 100,377 7000679837014455500♠+6.80%

7001110000000000000♠11 City of Boulder 105,112 97,385 7000793448683062070♠+7.93%

7001120000000000000♠12 City of Greeley 98,596 92,889 7000614389217237780♠+6.14%

7001130000000000000♠13 City of Longmont 90,237 86,270 7000459835400486840♠+4.60%

7001140000000000000♠14 City of Loveland 72,651 66,859 7000866300722415830♠+8.66%

7001150000000000000♠15 City and County of Broomfield 62,138 55,889 7001111810910912700♠+11.18%

7001160000000000000♠16 City of Grand Junction 60,210 58,566 7000280708943755760♠+2.81%

7001170000000000000♠17 Town of Castle Rock 55,747 48,231 7001155833385167220♠+15.58%

7001180000000000000♠18 City of Commerce City 51,762 45,913 7001127393113061660♠+12.74%

7001190000000000000♠19 Town of Parker 49,857 45,297 7001100668918471420♠+10.07%

7001200000000000000♠20 City of Littleton 44,669 41,737 7000702494189807610♠+7.02%

7001210000000000000♠21 City of Northglenn 38,596 35,789 7000784319204224760♠+7.84%

7001220000000000000♠22 City of Brighton 36,765 33,352 7001102332693691530♠+10.23%

7001230000000000000♠23 City of Englewood 32,480 30,255 7000735415633779540♠+7.35%

7001240000000000000♠24 City of Wheat Ridge 31,034 30,166 7000287741165550620♠+2.88%

7001250000000000000♠25 City of Fountain 27,631 25,846 7000690629110887560♠+6.91%

7001260000000000000♠26 City of Lafayette 27,081 24,453 7001107471475892530♠+10.75%

Unincorporated communities[edit] Main article: List of census-designated places in Colorado In addition to its 271 municipalities, Colorado
Colorado
has 187 unincorporated Census Designated Places and many other small communities.

The 16 Census Designated Places in Colorado
Places in Colorado
with a population of at least 10,000

Rank Census Designated Place 2010 Census 2000 Census Change

7000100000000000000♠1 Highlands Ranch 7004967130000000000♠96,713 7004709310000000000♠70,931 7001363480001691780♠+36.35%

7000200000000000000♠2 Security-Widefield 7004328820000000000♠32,882 7004298450000000000♠29,845 7001101759088624560♠+10.18%

7000300000000000000♠3 Ken Caryl 7004324380000000000♠32,438 7004308870000000000♠30,887 7000502153009356690♠+5.02%

7000400000000000000♠4 Dakota Ridge 7004320050000000000♠32,005 0000000000000000000♠NA 0000000000000000000♠NA

7000500000000000000♠5 Pueblo West 7004296370000000000♠29,637 7004168990000000000♠16,899 7001753772412568790♠+75.38%

7000600000000000000♠6 Columbine 7004242800000000000♠24,280 7004240950000000000♠24,095 6999767794148163530♠+0.77%

7000700000000000000♠7 Clifton 7004198890000000000♠19,889 7004173450000000000♠17,345 7001146670510233500♠+14.67%

7000800000000000000♠8 Sherrelwood 7004182870000000000♠18,287 7004176570000000000♠17,657 7000356799003228180♠+3.57%

7000900000000000000♠9 Cimarron Hills 7004161610000000000♠16,161 7004151940000000000♠15,194 7000636435435040150♠+6.36%

7001100000000000000♠10 Welby 7004148460000000000♠14,846 7004129730000000000♠12,973 7001144376782548370♠+14.44%

7001110000000000000♠11 Fort Carson 7004138130000000000♠13,813 7004105660000000000♠10,566 7001307306454665910♠+30.73%

7001120000000000000♠12 Black Forest 7004131160000000000♠13,116 7004132470000000000♠13,247 3000011096852117460♠−0.99%

7001130000000000000♠13 Berkley 7004112070000000000♠11,207 7004107430000000000♠10,743 7000431909150144280♠+4.32%

7001140000000000000♠14 Cherry Creek 7004111200000000000♠11,120 0000000000000000000♠NA 0000000000000000000♠NA

7001150000000000000♠15 PinThe Pinery 7004105170000000000♠10,517 7003725300000000000♠7,253 7001450020681097480♠+45.00%

7001160000000000000♠16 Edwards 7004102660000000000♠10,266 7003825700000000000♠8,257 7001243308707763110♠+24.33%

See also: Places in Colorado Special
Special
districts[edit] The state of Colorado
Colorado
has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority. These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services. Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees. This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado. There are some street intersections in Colorado
Colorado
with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different. Some of the more notable Colorado
Colorado
districts are:

The Regional Transportation District
Regional Transportation District
(RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District
Scientific and Cultural Facilities District
(SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties

It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10). According to the Colorado
Colorado
statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history. As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage.

Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver
Denver
Art Museum, the Denver
Denver
Botanic Gardens, the Denver
Denver
Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver
Denver
Zoo, and the Denver
Denver
Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%. Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%. Tier III has over 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.

An 11-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado
Colorado
Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver
Denver
City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.

The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver
Denver
Broncos' stadium Sports Authority Field at Mile High Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder
Boulder
counties The Metropolitan Major League Baseball
Baseball
Stadium District, approved by voters to pay for and help build the Colorado
Colorado
Rockies' stadium Coors Field Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County

Federal politics[edit]

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 43.3% 1,202,484 48.1% 1,338,870

2012 46.12% 1,185,050 51.49% 1,322,998

2008 44.71% 1,073,584 53.66% 1,288,568

2004 51.69% 1,101,255 47.02% 1,001,732

2000 50.75% 883,745 42.39% 738,227

1996 45.80% 691,848 44.43% 671,152

1992 35.87% 562,850 40.13% 629,681

1988 53.06% 728,177 45.28% 621,453

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Colorado
Colorado
is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado
Colorado
was considered a reliably Republican state during the post-World War II era, only voting for the Democratic candidate in 1948, 1964, and 1992. However, it became a competitive swing state by the turn of the century, and voted consecutively for Democrat Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012, as well as Democrat Hillary Clinton in 2016. Colorado
Colorado
politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs
and liberal cities such as Boulder
Boulder
and Denver. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins
Fort Collins
and Boulder, southern Colorado
Colorado
(including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction. The state of Colorado
Colorado
is represented by its two United States Senators:

United States
United States
Senate Class 2 – Cory Gardner
Cory Gardner
(Republican) 2015– United States
United States
Senate Class 3 – Michael Bennet
Michael Bennet
(Democratic) 2009–

Colorado
Colorado
is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives:

Colorado's 1st congressional district
Colorado's 1st congressional district
Diana DeGette
Diana DeGette
(Democratic) 1997– Colorado's 2nd congressional district
Colorado's 2nd congressional district
Jared Polis
Jared Polis
(Democratic) 2009– Colorado's 3rd congressional district
Colorado's 3rd congressional district
Scott Tipton
Scott Tipton
(Republican) 2011– Colorado's 4th congressional district
Colorado's 4th congressional district
Ken Buck
Ken Buck
(Republican) 2015– Colorado's 5th congressional district
Colorado's 5th congressional district
Doug Lamborn
Doug Lamborn
(Republican) 2007– Colorado's 6th congressional district
Colorado's 6th congressional district
Mike Coffman
Mike Coffman
(Republican) 2009– Colorado's 7th congressional district
Colorado's 7th congressional district
Ed Perlmutter
Ed Perlmutter
(Democratic) 2007–

See also: United States
United States
presidential election, 2004, in Colorado; Colorado's congressional elections, 2006; Colorado
Colorado
gubernatorial election, 2006; and Political party strength in Colorado

Significant bills passed in Colorado[edit] On the November 8, 1932 ballot, Colorado
Colorado
approved the repeal of alcohol prohibition more than a year before the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution was ratified. In 2012, voters amended the state constitution protecting "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.[93] Education[edit] Main article: List of colleges and universities in Colorado

Colorado
Colorado
College

Colorado
Colorado
School of Mines

Colorado
Colorado
State University

The United States
United States
Air Force Academy

The University of Colorado
Colorado
Boulder

The University of Denver

Colleges and universities in Colorado:

Adams State University Aims Community College Arapahoe Community College Art Institute of Colorado Belleview Christian
Christian
College & Bible Seminary Colorado
Colorado
Christian
Christian
University Colorado
Colorado
College Colorado
Colorado
Mesa University Colorado
Colorado
Mountain College Colorado
Colorado
Northwestern Community College Colorado
Colorado
School of Mines Colorado State University
Colorado State University
System

Colorado
Colorado
State University Colorado
Colorado
State University-Pueblo CSU–Global Campus

Colorado
Colorado
Technical University Community College of Aurora Community College of Denver Denver
Denver
Seminary DeVry University Emily Griffith Opportunity School Ecotech Institute Fort Lewis College Front Range
Front Range
Community College Iliff School of Theology Johnson & Wales University Lamar Community College Metropolitan State University of Denver Morgan Community College Naropa University Nazarene Bible College Northeastern Junior College Otero Junior College Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
Community College Pueblo Community College Red Rocks Community College Regis University Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine Trinidad State Junior College United States
United States
Air Force Academy University of Colorado
Colorado
System

University of Colorado
Colorado
Boulder University of Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
Springs University of Colorado
Colorado
Denver

Anschutz Medical Campus Auraria Campus

University of Denver University of Northern Colorado Western State Colorado
Colorado
University[122]

See also: List of colleges and universities in Colorado, Table of Colorado
Colorado
school districts, and Table of Colorado
Colorado
charter schools

Military installations[edit]

Fort Carson

Peterson Air Force Base

Colorado
Colorado
is currently the home of seven major military bases and installations.

Air Reserve Personnel Center Buckley Air Force Base Fort Carson
Fort Carson
(U.S. Army)

Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site

Peterson Air Force Base

Cheyenne
Cheyenne
Mountain Division

Pueblo Chemical Depot
Pueblo Chemical Depot
(U.S. Army) Schriever Air Force Base United States
United States
Air Force Academy

Former Military installations and outposts include:

Camp Collins (1862–1870) Camp Hale
Camp Hale
(1942–1945) Fitzsimons Army Hospital (1918–1999) Fort Garland
Fort Garland
(1858–1883) Fort Logan
Fort Logan
(1887–1946) Lowry Air Force Base
Lowry Air Force Base
(1938–1994)

Protected areas[edit]

Lowry Pueblo
Lowry Pueblo
in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument

Great Sand Dunes National Park
Great Sand Dunes National Park
and Preserve

Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park

Main articles: List of federal lands in Colorado
List of federal lands in Colorado
and Colorado
Colorado
State Parks Colorado
Colorado
is home to 4 national parks, 8 national monuments, 2 national recreation areas, 2 national historic sites, 3 national historic trails, a national scenic trail, 11 national forests, 2 national grasslands, 42 national wilderness areas, 2 national conservation areas, 8 national wildlife refuges, 44 state parks, 307 state wildlife areas, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas. Units of the National Park System in Colorado:

Arapaho
Arapaho
National Recreation Area[123] Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park Browns Canyon National Monument[124] Canyons of the Ancients National Monument[125] Chimney Rock National Monument[123] Colorado
Colorado
National Monument Continental Divide
Continental Divide
National Scenic Trail[126] Curecanti National Recreation Area Dinosaur National Monument Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Great Sand Dunes National Park
Great Sand Dunes National Park
and Preserve Hovenweep National Monument Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park
and UNESCO World Heritage Site Old Spanish National Historic Trail Pony Express National Historic Trail Rocky Mountain National Park Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Santa Fe National Historic Trail Yucca House National Monument

See also: Colorado trails
Colorado trails
and Colorado
Colorado
scenic and historic byways

See also[edit]

North America portal United States
United States
portal Colorado
Colorado
portal

Outline of Colorado
Outline of Colorado
– organized list of topics about Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Bibliography of Colorado

References[edit]

^ "Lawmakers name 'Rocky Mountain High' second state song 9news.com". Archive.9news.com. March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Mount Elbert". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ The summit of Mount Elbert
Mount Elbert
is the highest point of the Rocky Mountains of North America. ^ " Colorado
Colorado
– Definition". Merriam-webster.com. August 13, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
– dictionary.reference.com". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved August 17, 2013.  ^ a b c "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016" (CSV). 2016 Population Estimates. United States
United States
Census Bureau, Population Division. March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2016.  ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradoan or Coloradan". Denver Post. Retrieved July 30, 2010.  ^ a b Forty-third United States
United States
Congress (March 3, 1875). "An Act to Enable the People of Colorado
Colorado
to Form a Constitution and State Government, and for the Admission of the Said State into the Union on an Equal Footing with the Original States" (PDF).  ^ U.S. Geological Survey. "Elevations and Distances". Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2006.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
County Highpoints". Retrieved February 27, 2012.  ^ a b Doesken, Nolan J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Bliss, Odilia A.P. (January 2003). " Climate
Climate
of Colorado". Colorado
Colorado
Climate
Climate
Center – Department of Atmospheric Science – Colorado
Colorado
State University. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2009.  ^ U.S. Forest Service. "Rocky Mountain Region 14ers". Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ "Pikes Peak, Colorado". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved October 10, 2009.  ^ Hansen, Wallace R.; Chronic, John; Matelock, John (1979) [first published 1978]. Climatography of the Front Range
Front Range
Urban Corridor and vicinity, Colorado
Colorado
(PDF). Geological Survey Professional Paper 1019 (Report). Washington, DC: USG Printing Office. Retrieved March 21, 2016.  ^ " Climate
Climate
Of Colorado". Wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ a b "Denver, Colorado
Colorado
Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved July 10, 2013.  ^ "Relocating to Greenhorn Valley". Retrieved February 9, 2017.  ^ "Historic Denver
Denver
Hailstorm Was Called Worst In American History". July 11, 2014.  ^ "Hailstorm that hammered west metro Denver
Denver
May 8 is costliest ever for Colorado". May 23, 2017.  ^ Slater, Jane (May 28, 2008). "Thursday's Tornado State's 4th Costliest Disaster". KMGH.  ^ Prendergast, Alan (April 29, 2015). "The 1965 Flood: How Denver's Greatest Disaster Changed the City".  ^ "Denver's Consecutive 90 Degree Streaks". National Weather Service. Retrieved October 10, 2009.  ^ "A History of Drought" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2010.  ^ "Record Highest Temperatures by State" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2001. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ "Record Lowest Temperatures by State" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2001. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  ^ "NOAA's National Weather Service
National Weather Service
– National Climate". W2.weather.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ [1] Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Largest Colorado
Colorado
quake since 1973 shakes homes". USA Today. August 23, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2011.  ^ "Genocide Wiped Out Native American Population ", Discovery News, September 20, 2010. ^ "An Act to provide a temporary Government for the Territory of Colorado" (PDF). Thirty-sixth United States
United States
Congress. February 28, 1861. Retrieved June 12, 2007.  ^ Early explorers identified the Gunnison River
Gunnison River
in Colorado
Colorado
as the headwaters of the Colorado
Colorado
River. The Grand River in Colorado
Colorado
was later tentatively identified as the primary headwaters of the river. Finally in 1916, E.C. LaRue, the Chief Hydrologist of the United States Geological Survey, identified the Green River in southwestern Wyoming
Wyoming
as the proper headwaters of the actual, overall Colorado River. ^ Report of the exploring expedition from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the great Colorado
Colorado
of the West, in 1859: under the command of Capt. J. N. Macomb, Corps of topographical engineers, Volume 1 @ archive.org ^ President of the United States
United States
of America (August 1, 1876). "Proclamation of the Admission of Colorado
Colorado
to the Union" (php). The American Presidency Project. Retrieved April 14, 2008.  ^ Shu Liu and Linda M. Meyer, Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado, 2007 ^ Kingman, Dick (1986). A History – Colorado
Colorado
Flower Growers and its People. http://ghex.colostate.edu/pdf_files/AHistoryColoradoFlowerGrowersAndItsPeople.pdf: Colorado
Colorado
Greenhouse Growers Association, Inc.  ^ Rebchook, John (October 15, 2015). "Neighbors want historic designation for NW Denver
Denver
home".  ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2016.  ^ "Population growth – Colorado
Colorado
counties". Epodunk.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2012.  ^ "Population of Colorado
Colorado
– Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts". CensusViewer.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ 2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data – 2010 Census". Census.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 : 2010 Demographic Profile Data". Factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2012.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "talking about Colorado
Colorado
in "nada"". Elcastellano.org. June 30, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2010.  ^ "National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 57, Number 12, (March 18, 2009)" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2010.  ^ "Department of Public Health and Environment ". Cdphe.state.co.us. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "People of Colorado
Colorado
statistics". StateMaster.com. June 15, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Losing ground" (PDF). Adworks.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013 Volume 64, Number 1" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. January 15, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014 Volume 64, Number 12" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. December 23, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015 Volume 66, Number 1" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. January 5, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.  ^ "Languages - Colorado". www.city-data.com.  ^ .Adkins, Amy. " Mississippi
Mississippi
and Alabama
Alabama
Most Protestant
Protestant
States in U.S". Gallup.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics Pew Research Center". Religions.pewforum.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 7, 2013.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "Percentage of Obese Adult Population" (GIF). Calorielab.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Fattest States 2010: CalorieLab's Annual Obesity Map – State Obesity Rankings CalorieLab – Health News & Information Blog". CalorieLab. June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura (May 8, 2017). "Inequalities in Life Expectancy Among US Counties, 1980 to 2014". Journal of the American Medical Association: Internal Medicine. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0918. Retrieved May 9, 2017.  ^ Cangialosi, Jason. "Scenic Memorabilia: Colorado's Film Locations". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved March 4, 2013.  ^ Knowlton, Andrew. "America's Foodiest Town 2010: Boulder, Colorado: In the Magazine". bonappetit.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ [2] Archived March 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Arnold, Katie (June 8, 2008). "As Skiers Depart Aspen, Chowhounds Take Their Place". Aspen
Aspen
(Colo): Travel.nytimes.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
Travel Guide". Travelandleisure.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ Jackenthal, Stefani (October 5, 2008). "Biking Colorado's Wine Country". Colorado: Travel.nytimes.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "The Jefferson Cup Invitational Wine Competition". Thejeffersoncup.com. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "Wine Industry Feature Articles – Is Colorado
Colorado
the New Washington?". Winesandvines.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau : U.S. Department of the Treasury : Tables" (PDF). Ttb.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
Wine Industry Development Board". Coloradowine.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "Grand Valley, Colorado
Colorado
- Top 10 Wine Getaways 2018 - Wine Enthusiast Magazine".  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
beer.org". coloradobeer.org. Retrieved January 24, 2013.  ^ "The Denver
Denver
Beer Triangle". Denver.org. Retrieved June 18, 2013.  ^ Land Water People Time (Cultural Guide) (February 11, 2014). "A new Rocky Mountain high: Colorado
Colorado
open for cannabis tourism – The Santa Fe New Mexican: Travel". The Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Marijuana Sales Reports - Department of Revenue". www.colorado.gov.  ^ "Marijuana Tax Data - Department of Revenue". www.colorado.gov.  ^ "Industrial Hemp
Hemp
Department of Agriculture – Plants". Colorado.gov. March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ Amendment 64: (6).j ^ " Colorado Senate
Colorado Senate
Bill 14-184". Retrieved October 13, 2014.  ^ "Active State Medical Marijuana Programs – NORML". norml.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.  ^ "Full Text of Colorado
Colorado
Amendment 20 – Medical Use of Marijuana 2000". Nationalfamilies.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ Young, Saundra (August 7, 2013), Marijuana stops child's severe seizures, CNN, retrieved January 1, 2014  ^ Colorado
Colorado
laws pertaining to Medical Marijuana, Colorado
Colorado
Department of Public Health and Environment, 2014, retrieved January 1, 2014  Several links are found, including .PDF documents to download. ^ Campbell, Greg (November 27, 2013), Colorado
Colorado
may fund research into medical marijuana, another first, The Daily Caller, retrieved January 1, 2014  ^ Markus, Ben (November 26, 2013), Colorado
Colorado
to spend millions researching medical marijuana benefits, Colorado
Colorado
Public Radio, retrieved January 1, 2014  ^ "ACLU Joins Campaign To Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol – ACLU – Colorado". Aclu-co.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ a b Healy, Jack. " Colorado
Colorado
Stores Throw Open Their Doors to Pot Buyers". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2014.  ^ Several Air Force teams participate in other conferences, or as independents, in sports that the MW does not sponsor:

Boxing, a men-only sport which is not sanctioned by the NCAA, competes as an independent. Fencing, a coeducational sport with men's and women's squads, also competes as an independent. Men's and women's gymnastics both compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. Men's ice hockey competes in Atlantic Hockey. Men's lacrosse competes in the Southern Conference. Rifle, which at Air Force is a coeducational sport, competes in the Patriot Rifle Conference. Men's soccer and women's swimming & diving compete in the Western Athletic Conference. Wrestling, a men-only sport, competes in the Big 12 Conference.

^ Several Colorado
Colorado
teams participate in other conferences in sports that the Pac-12 does not sponsor:

Men's and women's indoor track & field compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. Skiing, a coeducational sport with men's and women's squads, competes in the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association.

^ Several Denver
Denver
teams participate in other conferences in sports that The Summit League
Summit League
does not sponsor:

Women's gymnastics competes in the Big 12 Conference. Men's ice hockey competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. Men's and women's lacrosse compete in the Big East Conference. Skiing, a coeducational sport with men's and women's squads, competes in the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association.

^ Several Northern Colorado
Northern Colorado
teams participate in other conferences in sports that the Big Sky does not sponsor:

Baseball
Baseball
(a men-only sport) and women's swimming & diving compete in the Western Athletic Conference. Wrestling, a men-only sport, competes in the Big 12 Conference.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 26, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011.  ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov.  ^ "References" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2010.  ^ Frank, Tony (January 1997). " Colorado
Colorado
Land Ownership by County (acres)". Colorado
Colorado
Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (Excel) on January 16, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2007.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
rides on Fat Tire to beer heights". Rockymountainnews.com. November 24, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ Colorado
Colorado
individual income tax return (2005) Revenue.state.co.us Archived December 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved September 26, 2006. ^ U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (2005) online copy. Retrieved September 26, 2006. ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics Home Page". Bls.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Philanthropy in Colorado" (PDF). Colorado
Colorado
Association of Funders. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013.  ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: Colorado". June 12, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012.  ^ "Railroads and States". Aar.org. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.  ^ Nicholson, Kieran (August 1, 2014). "Immigrants here illegally begin receiving Colorado
Colorado
driver licenses". Denver
Denver
Post. Retrieved August 1, 2014.  ^ "524 Non-Citizens Received Regular Colorado
Colorado
Driver's Licenses, DMV Says". KCNC. Denver. September 12, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2015.  ^ "Total Registered Voters By Party Affiliation and Status As of Fri Apr 01 2016 03:07:45 GMT-0600 (MDT)" (PDF).  ^ "State of Residence in 2000 by State of Birth". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 10, 2009.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
Counties". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2007.  ^ The United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget defines a combined statistical area (CSA) as an aggregate of adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas that are linked by commuting ties. ^ The United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. ^ The United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget defines a Micropolitan Statistical Area
Micropolitan Statistical Area
(μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02: Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses" (PDF). United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget. December 1, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  ^ a b c "American Factfinder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved April 19, 2012.  ^ "Active Colorado
Colorado
Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.  ^ " Colorado
Colorado
Local Government by Type". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. February 27, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2011.  ^ By legislative act enacted August 1, 2012, approved by Governor John Hickenlooper. ^ a b Managed by the United States
United States
Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service. ^ Jointly managed by the United States
United States
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
and the United States
United States
Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service. ^ Managed by the United States
United States
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. ^ Jointly managed by the United States
United States
Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service, and the United States
United States
Department of the Interior, National Park Service
National Park Service
and Bureau of Land Management.

Further reading[edit]

Explore Colorado, A Naturalist's Handbook, The Denver
Denver
Museum of Natural History and Westcliff Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-56579-124-X for an excellent guide to the ecological regions of Colorado. The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition, E. Steve Cassells, Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-193-9. Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7. Gunther, John (1947). "–But Scenery Is Not Enough". Inside U.S.A. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. pp. 213–226.  The Tie That Binds, Kent Haruf, 1984, hardcover, ISBN 0-03-071979-8, a fictional account of farming in Colorado. Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado's Historic Trains and Railway Sites, Claude Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN 0-89658-591-3 Study Finds Legal Marijuana Motivates Many Tourists to Visit Colorado, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/business/ci_29225304/marijuana-has-huge-influence-colorado-tourism-state-survey

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Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 39°00′N 105°30′W / 39°N 105.5°W / 39; -105.5

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145998913 LCCN: n80125532 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 855X GND: 4010406-0 BNF: cb12065838s (d

.