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COLOR ( American English ) or COLOUR (Commonwealth English ) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color _categories_, with names such as red , blue , yellow , green , orange , or purple . This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of light . Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc.

By defining a color space , colors can be identified numerically by coordinates. The RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm (_red_); medium-wavelength, peaking near 534–545 nm (_green_); and short-wavelength light, near 420–440 nm (_blue_). There may also be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model , wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness ).

The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species also varies considerably from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different _color_ perceptions that cannot readily be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet (an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm (30 PHz ) to 400 nm (750 THz ), shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays ) but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies possess six types of photoreceptors and may have pentachromatic vision. The most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods (such as the mantis shrimp ) with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units.

The science of color is sometimes called CHROMATICS, COLORIMETRY , or simply COLOR SCIENCE. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art , and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what is commonly referred to simply as _light _).

CONTENTS

* 1 Physics of color

* 1.1 Spectral colors * 1.2 Color of objects

* 2 Perception

* 2.1 Development of theories of color vision * 2.2 Color in the eye * 2.3 Color in the brain

* 2.4 Nonstandard color perception

* 2.4.1 Color deficiency * 2.4.2 Tetrachromacy * 2.4.3 Synesthesia

* 2.5 Afterimages * 2.6 Color constancy * 2.7 Color naming * 2.8 Associations

* 3 Spectral colors and color reproduction

* 3.1 Additive coloring * 3.2 Subtractive coloring * 3.3 Structural color

* 4 Additional terms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links and sources

PHYSICS OF COLOR

Continuous optical spectrum rendered into the sRGB color space.

THE COLORS OF THE VISIBLE LIGHT SPECTRUM COLOR Wavelength interval Frequency interval

RED ~ 700–635 nm ~ 430–480 THz

ORANGE ~ 635–590 nm ~ 480–510 THz

YELLOW ~ 590–560 nm ~ 510–540 THz

GREEN ~ 560–520 nm ~ 540–580 THz

CYAN ~ 520–490 nm ~ 580–610 THz

BLUE ~ 490–450 nm ~ 610–670 THz

VIOLET ~ 450–400 nm ~ 670–750 THz

COLOR, WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF LIGHT COLOR {displaystyle lambda ,!}

(nm) {displaystyle nu ,!}

(THz) b {displaystyle nu _{b},!}

(μm−1) E {displaystyle E,!}

(eV) E {displaystyle E,!}

(kJ mol−1)

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