Important hybrids: _ Citrus × aurantiifolia_ – Key lime _ Citrus × aurantium_ – Bitter orange _ Citrus × latifolia_ – Persian lime _ Citrus × limon_ – Lemon _ Citrus × limonia_ – Rangpur _ Citrus × paradisi_ – Grapefruit _ Citrus × sinensis_ – Sweet orange _ Citrus × tangerina_ – Tangerine See also below for other species and hybrids.
_Eremocitrus_ _Microcitrus_ and see text
_CITRUS_ is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae . Plants in the genus produce CITRUS FRUITS, including important crops like oranges , lemons , grapefruit , pomelo and limes .
The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia , New Caledonia and New Guinea . Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India , Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China , and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Name * 1.2 Evolution
* 2 Taxonomy
* 3 Description
* 4 Cultivation
* 4.1 Production * 4.2 As ornamental plants
* 4.3 Pests and diseases
* 4.3.1 Deficiency diseases
* 5 Uses
* 5.1 Culinary * 5.2 Medical
* 6 Sweet and sour * 7 Fossil record
* 8.1 Hybrids and cultivars
* 9 See also * 10 Footnotes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
At various times, citrus plants were thought to be native to Asia (where they were first domesticated), Europe, and Florida. But the European oranges (such as the bitter orange ) were originally brought from India at around the time of Alexander the Great , and the "native" oranges of Florida actually originated with the Spanish Conquistadors . The lemon reached Europe during the time of classical Rome .
The generic name originated from Latin , where it referred to either the plant now known as Citron (_C. medica_) or a conifer tree (_Thuja _). It is somehow related to the ancient Greek word for cedar , κέδρος (_kédros_). This may be due to perceived similarities in the smell of citrus leaves and fruit with that of cedar. Collectively, _Citrus_ fruits and plants are also known by the Romance loanword AGRUMES (literally "sour fruits").
The large citrus fruit of today evolved originally from small, edible berries over millions of years. Citrus plants diverged from a common ancestor about 15 million years ago, which was about when it diverged from the closely related severinia , for example the Chinese box orange . About 7 million years ago, citrus plants diverged into two groups, the main citrus genus and the ancestors of the Trifoliate orange (poncirus), which is closely enough related that it can still be hybridized with all other citrus. These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts , and the evolution at that time is thought to have occurred somewhere in either southeastern Asia or Australia.
The three original species in the citrus genus that have been hybridized into most modern commercial citrus fruit are the mandarin orange , pummelo , and citron . Within the last few thousand years, all common citrus fruits (sweet oranges, lemons, grapefruit, limes, and so on) were created by crossing those original species. Something similar has occurred with the wide array of chili peppers originating in the hybridization of a few initial species.
Main article: Citrus taxonomy _ Citrus fruits clustered by genetic similarity of partial sequences. Ternary diagram . The same data, plus Citrus micrantha _, top right (papeda ). Three-dimensional projection of a Principal component analysis . - Hybrids are expected to plot between their parents. ML: ‘Mexican’ lime ; A: ‘ Alemow ’; V: ‘Volkamer’ lemon ; M: ‘Meyer’ lemon ; L: Regular and ‘Sweet’ lemons ; B: Bergamot orange ; H: Haploid clementine; C: Clementines ; S: Sour oranges ; O: Sweet oranges ; G: Grapefruits .
The taxonomy and systematics of the genus are complex and the precise number of natural species is unclear, as many of the named species are hybrids clonally propagated through seeds (by apomixis ), and there is genetic evidence that even some wild, true-breeding species are of hybrid origin
Most cultivated _Citrus_ seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species — the citron , pummelo , mandarine , and papeda (see image). Natural and cultivated citrus hybrids include commercially important fruit such as oranges , grapefruit , lemons , limes , and some tangerines .
Apart from these four core citrus species, there are Australian limes and the recently discovered Mangshanyegan . Kumquats and _Clymenia sp. _ are now generally considered to belong within the citrus genus. Trifoliate orange , which is often used as commercial rootstock , is an outgroup and may or may not be categorized as a citrus.
Phylogenetic analysis suggests the species of _ Oxanthera _ from New Caledonia should be transferred to the genus _Citrus_.
Slices of various citrus fruits
These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5–15 m (16–49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots and alternately arranged evergreen leaves with an entire margin. The flowers are solitary or in small corymbs , each flower 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) diameter, with five (rarely four) white petals and numerous stamens; they are often very strongly scented.
The fruit is a _hesperidium _, a specialised berry, globose to elongated, 4–30 cm (1.6–11.8 in) long and 4–20 cm (1.6–7.9 in) diameter, with a leathery rind or "peel" called a pericarp . The outermost layer of the pericarp is an "exocarp" called the flavedo , commonly referred to as the zest . The middle layer of the pericarp is the mesocarp, which in citrus fruits consists of the white, spongy "albedo", or "pith". The innermost layer of the pericarp is the endocarp. The segments are also called "liths ", and the space inside each lith is a locule filled with juice vesicles , or "pulp". From the endocarp, string-like "hairs" extend into the locules, which provide nourishment to the fruit as it develops.
Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which in turn are terpenes ) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, pressed for juice , or preserved in marmalades and pickles .
They are also good sources of vitamin C and flavonoids. The content of vitamin C in the fruit depends on the species, variety and mode of cultivation. Fruits produced in organic agriculture are richer in vitamin C than those produced in conventional agriculture ( ). The flavonoids include various flavanones and flavones .
Further information: Citrus production Lemons are a citrus fruit native to Asia, but now common worldwide. Persian limes in a grocery store
Citrus trees hybridise very readily – depending on the pollen source, plants grown from a Persian lime 's seeds can produce fruit similar to grapefruit. Thus all commercial citrus cultivation uses trees produced by grafting the desired fruiting cultivars onto rootstocks selected for disease resistance and hardiness.
The colour of citrus fruits only develops in climates with a (diurnal ) cool winter. In tropical regions with no winter at all, citrus fruits remain green until maturity, hence the tropical "green oranges". The Persian lime in particular is extremely sensitive to cool conditions, thus it is not usually exposed to cool enough conditions to develop a mature colour. If they are left in a cool place over winter, the fruits will change colour to yellow.
The terms "ripe" and "mature" are usually used synonymously, but they mean different things. A mature fruit is one that has completed its growth phase. Ripening is the changes that occur within the fruit after it is mature to the beginning of decay. These changes usually involve starches converting to sugars, a decrease in acids and a softening and change in the fruit's colour.
Citrus fruits are non-climacteric and respiration slowly declines and the production and release of ethylene is gradual. The fruits do not go through a ripening process in the sense that they become "tree ripe." Some fruits, for example cherries, physically mature and then continue to ripen on the tree. Other fruits, like pears, are picked when mature but before they ripen, then continue to ripen off the tree. Citrus fruits pass from immaturity to maturity to over-maturity while still on the tree. Once they are separated from the tree, they will not increase in sweetness or continue to ripen. The only way change may happen after being picked is that they will eventually start to decay.
With oranges, colour cannot be used as an indicator of ripeness because sometimes the rinds turn orange long before the oranges are ready to eat. Tasting them is the only way to know whether or not they are ready to eat. _ Mediterranean Mandarin ( Citrus ×deliciosa _ plantation, Son Carrió ( Mallorca )
Citrus trees are not generally frost hardy. Mandarin oranges (_C. reticulata_) tend to be the hardiest of the common _Citrus_ species and can withstand short periods down to as cold as −10 °C (14 °F), but realistically temperatures not falling below −2 °C (28 °F) are required for successful cultivation. Tangerines , tangors and yuzu can be grown outside even in regions with more marked sub-freezing temperatures in winter, although this may affect fruit quality. A few hardy hybrids can withstand temperatures well below freezing, but do not produce quality fruit. Lemons can be commercially grown in cooler-summer/moderate-winter, coastal Southern California, because sweetness is neither attained nor expected in retail lemon fruit. The related trifoliate orange (_ Citrus trifoliata_) can survive below −20 °C (−4 °F); its fruit are astringent and inedible unless cooked but a few better-tasting cultivars and hybrids have been developed (see citranges ). Leaf of Citrus tree
The trees thrive in a consistently sunny, humid environment with fertile soil and adequate rainfall or irrigation. Abandoned trees in valleys may suffer, yet survive, the dry summer of Central California's Inner Coast Ranges . At any age citrus grows well enough with infrequent irrigation in partial shade, but the fruit crop is smaller. Being of tropical and sub-tropical origin, oranges, like all citrus, are broadleaved and evergreen. They do not drop leaves except when stressed. The stems of many varieties have large sharp thorns . The trees flower in the spring, and fruit is set shortly afterward. Fruit begins to ripen in fall or early winter months, depending on cultivar, and develops increasing sweetness afterward. Some cultivars of tangerines ripen by winter. Some, such as the grapefruit, may take up to eighteen months to ripen.
Major producer regions See also: Citrus production
Major commercial citrus growing areas include southern China, the Mediterranean Basin (including southern Spain), South Africa , Australia , the southern United States, Mexico and parts of South America . In the United States, Florida , California , Arizona , and Texas are major producers, while smaller plantings are present in other Sun Belt states and in Hawaii .
AS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Citrus trees grown in tubs and wintered under cover were a feature of Renaissance gardens , once glass-making technology enabled sufficient expanses of clear glass to be produced. An orangery was a feature of royal and aristocratic residences through the 17th and 18th centuries. The _Orangerie_ at the Palace of the Louvre , 1617, inspired imitations that were not eclipsed until the development of the modern greenhouse in the 1840s. In the United States the earliest surviving orangery is at the Tayloe House, Mount Airy, Virginia . George Washington had an orangery at Mount Vernon .
Some modern hobbyists still grow dwarf citrus in containers or greenhouses in areas where it is too cold to grow it outdoors. Consistent climate, sufficient sunlight, and proper watering are crucial if the trees are to thrive and produce fruit. Compared to many of the usual "green shrubs", citrus trees better tolerate poor container care. For cooler winter areas, limes and lemons should not be grown, since they are more sensitive to winter cold than other citrus fruits. Hybrids with kumquats (× _ Citrofortunella _) have good cold resistance.
PESTS AND DISEASES
Citrus plants are very liable to infestation by aphids , whitefly and scale insects (e.g. California red scale ). Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted _ Citrus tristeza virus _ which when unchecked by proper methods of control is devastating to citrine plantations. The newest threat to citrus groves in the United States is the Asian citrus psyllid .
The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like plants – but the real danger lies in that it can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease.
In August 2005 citrus greening disease was discovered in the south Florida region around Homestead and Florida City. It has since spread to every commercial citrus grove in Florida. In 2004-2005 USDA Ag statistics reported the total Florida citrus production to be 169.1 million boxes of fruit. The estimate for all Florida citrus production in the 2015-2016 season is 86.4 million boxes—a 51% drop.
In June 2008, the psyllid was spotted dangerously close to California – right across the international border in Tijuana , Mexico. Only a few months later, it was detected in San Diego and Imperial counties, and has since spread to Riverside, San Bernardino, Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura counties sparking quarantines in those areas. The Asian citrus psyllid has also been intercepted coming into California in packages of fruit and plants, including citrus, ornamentals, herbs and bouquets of cut flowers, shipped from other states and countries.
The foliage is also used as a food plant by the larvae of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth ) species such as the Geometridae common emerald (_Hemithea aestivaria_) and double-striped pug (_Gymnoscelis rufifasciata_), the Arctiidae giant leopard moth (_Hypercompe scribonia_), _H. eridanus _, _H. icasia _ and _H. indecisa _, many species in the family Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies), and the black-lyre leafroller moth (_"Cnephasia" jactatana_), a tortrix moth .
Since 2000, the citrus leafminer (_Phyllocnistis citrella_) has been a pest in California, boring meandering patterns through leaves.
In eastern Australia, the bronze-orange bug (_Musgraveia sulciventris _) can be a major pest of citrus trees, particularly grapefruit. In heavy infestations it can cause flower and fruit drop and general tree stress.
Citrus plants can also develop a deficiency condition called chlorosis , characterized by yellowing leaves highlighted by contrasting leaf veins . The shriveling leaves eventually fall, and if the plant loses too many, it will slowly die. This condition is often caused by an excessively high pH (alkaline soil ), which prevents the plant from absorbing iron , magnesium , zinc , or other nutrients it needs to produce chlorophyll . This condition can be cured by adding an appropriate acidic fertilizer formulated for citrus, which can sometimes revive a plant to produce new leaves and even flower buds within a few weeks under optimum conditions. A soil which is too acidic can also cause problems; citrus prefers neutral soil (pH between 6 and 8). Citrus plants are also sensitive to excessive salt in the soil. Soil testing may be necessary to properly diagnose nutrient deficiency diseases.
Many citrus fruits, such as oranges , tangerines , grapefruits , and clementines , are generally eaten fresh. They are typically peeled and can be easily split into segments. Grapefruit is more commonly halved and eaten out of the skin with a spoon. There are special spoons (grapefruit spoons ) with serrated tips designed for this purpose. Orange and grapefruit juices are also very popular breakfast beverages. More acidic citrus, such as lemons and limes , are generally not eaten on their own. Meyer lemons can be eaten out of hand with the fragrant skin; they are both sweet and sour. Lemonade or limeade are popular beverages prepared by diluting the juices of these fruits and adding sugar. Lemons and limes are also used as garnishes or in cooked dishes. Their juice is used as an ingredient in a variety of dishes; it can commonly be found in salad dressings and squeezed over cooked meat or vegetables.
A variety of flavours can be derived from different parts and treatments of citrus fruits. The rind and oil of the fruit is generally very bitter, especially when cooked, and so is often combined with sugar. The fruit pulp can vary from sweet and tart to extremely sour. Marmalade , a condiment derived from cooked orange and lemon, can be especially bitter, but is usually sweetened to cut the bitterness and produce a jam-like result. Lemon or lime is commonly used as a garnish for water, soft drinks, or cocktails. Citrus juices, rinds, or slices are used in a variety of mixed drinks. The colourful outer skin of some citrus fruits, known as zest , is used as a flavouring in cooking; the white inner portion of the peel, the pith, is usually avoided due to its bitterness. The zest of a citrus fruit, typically lemon or an orange, can also be soaked in water in a coffee filter , and drunk.
Citrus fruit intake has been associated with a 10% reduction in odds of developing breast cancer.
Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C , which prevents scurvy . Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey .
Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of plants. Limes and lemons as well as oranges and grapefruits are among the highest in this level.
After consumption, the peel is sometimes used as a facial cleanser.
Before the development of fermentation -based processes, lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid .
Citrus fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer . Also, citrus fruit juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk of specific types of kidney stones . Grapefruit is another fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of kidney stone formation.
SWEET AND SOUR
The Moroccan professor Henri Chapot discovered that the acidity in the more common citrons or lemons is represented by red on the inner coat of seeds specifically on the chalazal spot, violet pigmentation on the outer side of the flower blossom, and also by the new buds that are reddish-purplish. The acidless varieties of citrus are completely lacking the red color in all the mentioned spots. This designation was cited by Herbert John Webber and Leon Dexter Batchelor , the editors of the fundamental treatise on citrus, namely The Citrus Industry , which was published by the University of California, Riverside in 1967.
A fossil leaf from the Pliocene of Valdarno ( Italy ) is described as †_CITRUS MELETENSIS_. In China fossil leaf specimens of †_CITRUS LINCZANGENSIS_ have been collected from coal-bearing strata of the Bangmai Formation in the Bangmai village, about 10 km northwest of Lincang City , Yunnan . The Bangmai Formation contains abundant fossil plants and is considered to be of late Miocene age, _Citrus linczangensis_ and _C. meletensis_ share some important characters, such as an intramarginal vein, an entire margin, and an articulated and distinctly winged petiole .
LIST OF CITRUS FRUITS
_This is a list by scientific names; there exists a list by COMMON NAMES _ Main article: List of citrus fruits _ Citrons (Citrus medica_) for sale in Germany _ Red Finger Lime (Citrus australasica_), a rare delicacy from Australia
The genus _Citrus_ has been suggested to originate in Southeast Asia . Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, namely:
* _ Citrus crenatifolia _ – species name is unresolved, from Sri Lanka * _ Citrus japonica _ – Kumquats , from East Asia ranging into Southeast Asia (sometimes separated in 4–5 _Fortunella_ species) * _ Citrus mangshanensis _ – species name is unresolved, from Hunan Province , China. * _ Citrus maxima_ – Pomelo (pummelo, shaddock), from the Malay Archipelago * _ Citrus medica _ – Citron , from India * _ Citrus platymamma _ – Byeonggyul , from Jeju Island , Korea * _ Citrus reticulata _ – Mandarin orange , from China * _ Citrus trifoliata _ – Trifoliate orange , from Korea and adjacent China (often separated as _Poncirus_)
* Australian limes
* _ Citrus australasica _ – Australian Finger Lime * _ Citrus australis _ – Australian Round lime * _ Citrus glauca _ – Australian Desert Lime * _ Citrus garrawayae _ – Mount White Lime * _ Citrus gracilis _ – Kakadu Lime or Humpty Doo Lime * _ Citrus inodora _ – Russel River Lime * _ Citrus warburgiana _ – New Guinea Wild Lime * _ Citrus wintersii _ – Brown River Finger Lime
* Papedas , including
* _ Citrus halimii _ – _limau kadangsa _, _limau kedut kera _, from Thailand and Malaya * _ Citrus indica _ – Indian wild orange , from the Indian subcontinent * _ Citrus macroptera _ from Indochina and Melanesia * _ Citrus micrantha _ from the southern Philippines * _ Citrus latipes _ – Khasi Papeda , from Assam , Meghalaya , Burma
HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS
See also: Citrus hybrid _ Sweetie or Oroblanco is a pomelo -grapefruit hybrid. The Etrog , or Citron, is central to the ritual of the Jewish Sukkot festival. Many varieties are used for this purpose (including the Yemenite variety pictured). Clementines (Citrus_ ×_clementina_) have thinner skins than oranges. _ Mikan (Citrus_ ×_unshiu_), also known as satsumas _ Sweet oranges (Citrus_ ×_sinensis_) are used in many foods. Their ancestors were probably pomelos and mandarin oranges . Cross section of Odichukuthi lime. Odichukuthi fruit A pompia fruit
Sorted by parentage. As each hybrid is the product of (at least) two parent species, they are listed multiple times.
* Amanatsu , natsumikan – _Citrus_ ×_natsudaidai_ (_C. maxima_ × unknown) * Cam sành – (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Dangyuja – (_ Citrus grandis Osbeck_) * Grapefruit – _Citrus_ ×_paradisi_ (_C. maxima_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Imperial lemon – (_C._ ×_limon_ × _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Kinnow – (_C._ ×_nobilis_ × _C._ ×_deliciosa_) * Kiyomi – (_C._ ×_sinensis_ × _C._ ×_unshiu_) * Lemon – _ Citrus ×limon_ (probably _C. maxima_ × _C. medica_) * Minneola tangelo – (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Orangelo , Chironja – (_C._ ×_paradisi_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Oroblanco , Sweetie – (_C. maxima_ × _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Sweet orange – _Citrus_ ×_sinensis_ (probably _C. maxima_ × _C. reticulata_) * Tangelo – _Citrus_ ×_tangelo_ (_C. reticulata_ × _C. maxima_ or _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Tangor – _Citrus_ ×_nobilis_ (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Ugli – (_C. reticulata_ × _C. maxima_ or _C._ ×_paradisi_)
* Buddha\'s hand – _ Citrus medica_ var. _sarcodactylus_, a fingered citron. * Citron varieties with sour pulp – Diamante citron , Florentine citron , Greek citron and Balady citron * Citron varieties with sweet pulp – Corsican citron and Moroccan citron . * Etrog , a group of citron cultivars that are traditionally used for a Jewish ritual. _Etrog_ is Hebrew for citron in general. * Fernandina – _Citrus_ ×_limonimedica_ (probably (_C. medica_ × _C. maxima_) × _C. medica_) * Ponderosa lemon – (probably (_C. medica_ × _C. maxima_) × _C. medica_) * Lemon – _ Citrus ×limon_ (probably _C. medica_ × _C. maxima_) * Key lime , Mexican lime, Omani lime - _Citrus_ ×_aurantiifolia_ (_C. medica_ × _C. micrantha_) * Lumia - a pear shaped lemon hybrid, (probably _C. medica_ x _C. limon)_ * Rhobs el Arsa - bread of the garden, a Moroccan citron x lemon hybrid. * Yemenite citron – a pulpless true citron.
* Bergamot orange – _Citrus_ ×_bergamia_ (_C. limetta_ × _C._ ×_aurantium_) * Bitter orange , Seville Orange – _Citrus_ ×_aurantium_ (_C. maxima_ × _C. reticulata_) * Blood orange – _Citrus_ ×_sinensis_ cultivars * Calamondin , Calamansi – (_ Citrus reticulata_ × _Citrus japonica_) * Cam sành – (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Chinotto – _Citrus_ ×_aurantium_ var. _myrtifolia_ or _Citrus_ ×_myrtifolia_ * ChungGyun – _ Citrus reticulata_ cultivar * Clementine – _Citrus_ ×_clementina_ * Cleopatra Mandarin – _Citrus_ ×_reshni_ * Siranui – _ Citrus reticulata_ cv. 'Dekopon' (ChungGyun × Ponkan) * Daidai – _Citrus_ ×_aurantium_ var. _daidai_ or _Citrus_ ×_daidai_ * Grapefruit – _Citrus_ ×_paradisi_ (_C. maxima_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Hermandina – _ Citrus reticulata_ cv. 'Hermandina' * Imperial lemon – ((_C. maxima_ × _C. medica_) × _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Kinnow , Wilking – (_C._ ×_nobilis_ × _C._ ×_deliciosa_) * Kiyomi – (_C. sinensis_ × _C._ ×_unshiu_) * Laraha – ''_C._ ×_aurantium_ ssp. _currassuviencis_ * Mediterranean mandarin , Willow Leaf – _Citrus_ ×_deliciosa_ * Meyer lemon , Valley Lemon – _Citrus_ ×_meyeri_ ((_C. maxima_ × _C. medica_) × _C._ ×_paradisi_ or _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Michal mandarin – _ Citrus reticulata_ cv. 'Michal' * Mikan , Satsuma – _Citrus_ ×_unshiu_ * Naartjie – (_C. reticulata_ × _C. nobilis_) * Nova mandarin , Clemenvilla * Orangelo , Chironja – (_C._ ×_paradisi_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Oroblanco , Sweetie – (_C. maxima_ × _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Ponkan – _ Citrus reticulata_ cv. 'Ponkan' * Rangpur , Lemanderin, Mandarin Lime – _Citrus_ ×_limonia_ ((_C. reticulata_ × _C. maxima_) × _C. medica_) * Sweet orange – _Citrus_ ×_sinensis_ (probably _C. maxima_ × _C. reticulata_) * Tangelo – _Citrus_ ×_tangelo_ (_C. reticulata_ × _C. maxima_ or _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Tangerine – _Citrus_ ×_tangerina_ * Tangor – _Citrus_ ×_nobilis_ (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_sinensis_) * Ugli – (_C. reticulata_ × _C. maxima_ or _C._ ×_paradisi_) * Yuzu – _Citrus_ ×_junos_ (_C. reticulata_ × _C._ ×_ichangensis_)
* Alemow , Colo – _Citrus_ ×_macrophylla_ * Djeruk limau – _Citrus_ ×_amblycarpa_ * Gajanimma , Carabao Lime – _Citrus_ ×_pennivesiculata_ * Hyuganatsu , Hyuganatsu pumelo – _ Citrus tamurana_ * Ichang lemon , Ichang Papeda – _Citrus_ ×_ichangensis_ * Imperial lemon – (_C._ ×_limon × C._ ×_paradisi_) * Iyokan , _anadomikan_ – _Citrus_ ×_iyo_ * Kabosu – _Citrus_ ×_sphaerocarpa_ * Kaffir lime , _makrut_ – _Citrus_ ×_hystrix_ * Limetta , Sweet Lemon, Sweet Lime, mosambi – _Citrus_ ×_limetta_ * Palestine sweet lime – _Citrus_ ×_limettioides_ Tanaka * Odichukuthi – _ Citrus Odichukuthi_ from Malayalam * Ougonkan – _ Citrus flaviculpus_ hort ex.Tanaka * Persian lime , Tahiti Lime – _Citrus_ ×_latifolia_ * Pompia – _ Citrus monstruosa_, a _nomen nudum _ * Rough lemon – _Citrus_ ×_jambhiri_ Lush. * Sakurajima komikan orange * Shekwasha , Hirami Lemon, Taiwan Tangerine – _Citrus_ ×_depressa_ * Shonan gold – (Ougonkan) _ Citrus flaviculpus_ hort ex. Tanaka × (Imamura unshiu), _ Citrus unshiu_ Marc * Sudachi – _Citrus_ ×_sudachi_ * Sunki , Suenkat – _Citrus_ ×_sunki_ * Tachibana orange – _Citrus_ ×_tachibana_ (Mak.) Tanaka * Volkamer lemon – _Citrus_ ×_volkameriana_
For hybrids with kumquats , see ×_Citrofortunella_ . For hybrids with the Trifoliate Orange , see citrange .
* Food portal
* Book: Citrus
* ^ Liu, Y.; Heying, E.; Tanumihardjo, S. (2012). "History, Global Distribution, and Nutritional Importance of Citrus Fruits". _Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety_. 11: 6. doi :10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00201.x . * ^ Gmitter, Frederick; Hu, Xulan (1990). "The possible role of Yunnan, China, in the origin of contemporary _Citrus_ species (Rutaceae)". _Economic Botany_. 44 (2): 267–277. doi :10.1007/bf02860491 . * ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Market Information in the Commodities Area: Citrus fruits * ^ Scora, Rainer W. (1975). "On the history and origin of citrus". _Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club_. 102 (6): 369–375. JSTOR 2484763 . doi :10.2307/2484763 .
* ^ University of South Florida: Fruit Contrary to general belief, the orange tree is not indigenous to Florida but was introduced into the state from Valencia by the Spanish colonists. * ^ History of the Citrus and Citrus Tree Growing in America Many of these wild orange groves were seen by the early American explorer, William Bartram, according to his book, Travels, in 1773, while traveling down the Saint John’s River in Florida. Bartram mistakenly thought these orange trees were native to Florida; however, they were established centuries earlier by the Spanish explorers. * ^ Spiegel-Roy, Pinchas; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt (1996). _Biology of Citrus_. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-33321-4 . * ^ A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus * ^ Where Did Citrus Fruits Originate From? * ^ The origin and evolution of select citrus species. * ^ Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (December 2014). "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2". _BMC Genetics_. 15 (1). ISSN 1471-2156 . doi :10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1 . Retrieved 2017-07-08. * ^ "International Citrus Genomics Consortium". _ucr.edu_. * ^ " Citron Cultivation, Production and Uses in the Mediterranean Region". _springer.com_. * ^ Andrés García Lor (2013). _Organización de la diversidad genética de los cítricos_ (PDF) (Thesis). p. 79. * ^ Bayer, R. J., et al. (2009). A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. _American Journal of Botany_ 96(3), 668-85. * ^ " Citrus fruit diagram". _ucla.edu_. * ^ "Lith". _TheFreeDictionary.com_. * ^ Duarte, A; Caixeirinho, D; Miguel, G; Nunes, C; Mendes, M; Marreiros, A (2010). " Vitamin C Content of Citrus from Conventional versus Organic Farming Systems". _Acta Horticulturae_. 868: 389-394. doi :10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.868.52 . * ^ " Flavonoid Composition of Fruit Tissues of Citrus Species". * ^ "Citrus". Retrieved 2015-04-13. * ^ Helgi Öpik; Stephen A. Rolfe; Arthur John Willis; Herbert Edward Street (2005). _The physiology of flowering plants_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-521-66251-2 . Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ Pinchas Spiegel-Roy; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt (1996). _Biology of citrus_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-521-33321-4 . Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "About the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing". _californiacitrusthreat.org_. * ^ " Citrus Leafminer – UC Pest Management". * ^ Online at SumoGardener "How to Avoid Yellow Leaves on Citrus Trees". * ^ Mauk, Peggy A.; Tom Shea. "Questions and Answers to Citrus Management (3rd ed.)" (PDF). University of California Cooperative Extension. Retrieved 2014-05-24. * ^ "American Indian Health – Health". Aihd.ku.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-17. * ^ Song, Jung-Kook; Bae, Jong-Myon (2013-03-01). " Citrus fruit intake and breast cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review" . _Journal of Breast Cancer_. 16 (1): 72–76. ISSN 1738-6756 . PMC 3625773 _. PMID 23593085 . doi :10.4048/jbc.2013.16.1.72 . * ^ Morgan, Laura (15 March 2011). "What Fruits & Vegetables Contain Pectin?". Demand Media. Retrieved 2011-07-22. * ^ González CA, Sala N, Rokkas T (2013). "Gastric cancer: epidemiologic aspects". Helicobacter_. 18 (Supplement 1): 34–38. PMID 24011243 . doi :10.1111/hel.12082 . * ^ " Grapefruit and Medication". _Total Health_. 27 (2): 39–39. 2005. * ^ Carr, Jackie (22 April 2010). "Five Ways to Prevent Kidney Stones". UC San Diego. Retrieved 2010-12-03. * ^ _Un curieux cedrat Marocain_ (1950) Rev. Intl. Bot. Appl. Agr. Trop. 30:506–514. * ^ Available online at The Citrus Industry, see title "Sugar or Acidless Oranges" * ^ Citrus meletensis (Rutaceae), a new species from the Pliocene of Valdarno (Italy) Fischer, T.C. & Butzmann, Plant Systematics and Evolution - March 1998, Volume 210, Issue 1, pp 51–55. doi:10.1007/BF00984727 * ^ Citrus linczangensis sp. n., a Leaf Fossil of Rutaceae from the Late Miocene of Yunnan, China by Sanping Xie, Steven R Manchester, Kenan Liu and Bainian Sun - International Journal of Plant Sciences 174(8):1201-1207 October 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ GRIN . " Species list in GRIN for genus _Citrus_". _Taxonomy for Plants_. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland : USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved 6 January 2011. * ^ P. J. Wester (1915), " Citrus Fruits In The Philippines", _Philippine Agricultural Review_, 8
* Andrews, A.C. (1961). "Acclimatization of citrus fruits in the Mediterranean region". _Agricultural History_. 35 (1): 35–46. * Araújo, De; Freitas, E.; de Queiroz, L. Paganucci; Machado, M.A. (2003). "What is _Citrus_? Taxonomic implications from a study of cp-DNA evolution in the tribe Citreae ( Rutaceae subfamily Aurantioideae)". _Organisms Diversity & Evolution_. 3 (1): 55–62. doi :10.1078/1439-6092-00058 . * Nicolosi, E.; Deng, Z.N.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.; Continella, G.; Tribulato, E. (2000). "_Citrus_ phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers". _Theoretical and Applied Genetics_. 100 (8): 1155–1166. doi :10.1007/s001220051419 .
* Calabrese, Francesco (2002): Origin and history. _In:_ Dugo, Giovanni & Di Giacomo, Angelo (eds.) (2002): _Citrus_. Taylor ">Ellis, R.H.; Hong, T.D. ">Frison, E.A. ">International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) (1999): Descriptors for Citrus (_Citrus spp._). PDF fulltext * Janick, Jules (2005): Purdue University Tropical Horticulture Lecture 32: Citrus * Luro, F.; Laigret, F.; Bové, J.M. ">Molina, A.B.; Roa, V.N.; Bay-Petersen, J.; Carpio, A.T. ">Sackman. Douglas Cazaux (2005): _Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden_. * University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences (UC-DAS) (1967–1989): _The Citrus Industry_. HTML fulltext of Vol. 1, 2, padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutCITRUSat Wikipedia's sister projects
* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Data from Wikidata * Taxonomy from Wikispecies
* Effects of pollination on Citrus plants Pollination of Citrus by Honey Bees * Citrus Research and Education Center of IFAS (largest citrus research center in world) * Citrus Variety Collection by the University of California * Citrus (Mark Rieger, Professor of Horticulture, University of Georgia) * Fundecitrus – Fund for Citrus Plant Protection is an organization of citrus Brazilian producers and processors. * Citrus_ – taxonomy fruit anatomy at GeoChemBio * Porcher Michel H.; et al. (1995). "Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) – A Work in Progress". School of Agriculture and Food Systems, Faculty of Land & Food Resources, The University of Melbourne. Australia.
* v * t * e
True and hybrid cultivars
* Alemow * Amanatsu * Bergamot orange * Bizzaria * Bitter orange * Blood lime * Blood orange * Buddha\'s hand * Cam sành * Cara cara navel * Cherry orange * Citrange * Citrumelo * Clementine * Daidai * Dekopon * Fairchild tangerine * Florentine citron * Hassaku orange * Hebesu * Hyuganatsu * Imperial lemon * Iyokan * Jabara * Jaffa orange * Kabbad * Kabosu * Kaffir lime * Kakadu lime * Kalpi * Key lime * Khasi papeda * Kinnow * Kishumikan * Kiyomi * Komikan * Laraha * Lumia * Mandelo * Mandora * Melanesian papeda * Melogold * Meyer lemon * Murcott * Myrtle-leaved orange tree * Ōgonkan * Orangelo/ Chironja * Oroblanco * Palestinian sweet lime * Persian lime * Perrine lemon * Pixie mandarin * Ponderosa lemon * Ponkan * Rangpur * Reikou * Rhobs el Arsa * Rough lemon * Sanboken * Satsuma mandarin * Setoka * Shangjuan * Shonan Gold * Sudachi * Sweet lemon * Sweet limetta * Tangelo * Tangerine * Tangor * Ugli fruit * Valencia orange * Variegated pink lemon * Winged lime * Xã Đoài orange * Yuukou mandarin
NON-HYBRID MANDARIN ORANGES
* Nanfengmiju * Cleopatra mandarin * Shīkwāsā
* Ichang papeda * Citrus halimii or Mountain "citron"
Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus , and Clymenia subgenera)
* _Brassii_ * _Grandifolia_ * _Trifolia_