HOME
The Info List - Citroën


--- Advertisement ---



Citroën
Citroën
(French pronunciation: ​[si.tʁɔ.ˈɛn]) is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën
Citroën
(1878–1935). In 1934, the firm established its reputation for innovative technology with the Traction Avant.[4] This car was the world's first mass-produced front wheel drive car, but also one of the first to feature a unitary type body, with no chassis holding the mechanical components.[5] In 1954 they had produced the world's first hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system[6] then, in 1955, the revolutionary DS, the first mass production car with modern disc brakes[7] and, in 1967, they introduced in several of their models swiveling headlights that allowed for greater visibility on winding roads; these automobiles have received various international and national level awards, including three European Car of the Year. With a successful history in motorsport, it is the only automobile manufacturer to have won three different official championships from the International Automobile
Automobile
Federation: the World Rally Raid Championship five times,[8] the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
eight times[8] and the World Touring Car Championship. Citroën
Citroën
has been selling vehicles in China
China
since 1984 largely via the Dongfeng Peugeot- Citroën
Citroën
joint venture, which today represents a major market for the brand. In 2014, when PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
ran into severe financial difficulties, the Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
Corporation took an ownership stake.

1940s Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant
in Vaxholm, Sweden 2012

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 Traction Avant
Traction Avant
and Michelin
Michelin
ownership

1.2.1 Traction Avant 1.2.2 Research breakthroughs 1.2.3 The Deux Chevaux 1.2.4 The Goddess 1.2.5 High pressure hydraulics 1.2.6 Aerodynamic
Aerodynamic
pioneer 1.2.7 Expansion and financial challenges

1.3 The PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
era

1.3.1 Problems with the Trade unions 1.3.2 Taming the innovative spirit 1.3.3 Geographical expansion

1.4 The recent decade 1.5 The DS brand

2 Awards 3 Citroën
Citroën
Racing

3.1 Early rally wins for Citroën
Citroën
vehicles 3.2 Racing the 2CV 3.3 Rebuilding the competition group 3.4 New competition division for touring cars

4 Concept cars 5 Logo 6 Factories 7 Current product lineup

7.1 Citroën 7.2 DS line 7.3 Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën (joint venture)

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

History[edit] Early years[edit]

André Citroën

André Citroën
André Citroën
built armaments for France
France
during World War I; after the war however, he realized that, unless he planned ahead he would have a modern factory without a product.[9] There was nothing automatic about his decision to become an automobile manufacturer once the war was over: the automotive business was one that Citroën
Citroën
knew well, thanks to a successful six-year stint working with Mors between 1908 and the outbreak of war.[9] The decision to switch to automobile manufacturing was evidently taken as early as 1916, which is the year when Citroën
Citroën
asked the engineer Louis Dufresne, previously with Panhard, to design a technically sophisticated 18HP automobile for which he could use his factory once peace returned.[9] Long before that happened however, he had modified his vision and decided, like Henry Ford, that the best post-war opportunities in auto making would involve a lighter car of good quality, but made in sufficient quantities to be priced enticingly.[9] In February 1917 Citroën contacted another engineer, Jules Salomon, who already had a considerable reputation within the French automotive sector as the creator, in 1909, of a little car called Le Zèbre.[9] André Citroën's mandate was characteristically demanding and characteristically simple: to produce an all-new design for a 10 HP car that would be better equipped, more robust and less costly to produce than any rival product at the time.[9] The result was the Type A, announced to the press in March 1919, just four months after the guns fell silent.[9] The first production Type A emerged from the factory at the end of May 1919 and in June it was exhibited at a show room at Number 42, on the Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
in Paris
Paris
which normally sold Alda cars.[9] Citroën
Citroën
persuaded the owner of the Alda business, Fernand Charron, to lend him the show-room, which is still in use today. This C42 showroom is where the company organises exhibitions and shows its vehicles and concept cars. A few years later, Charron would be persuaded to become a major investor in the Citroën
Citroën
business.[9] On the 7th of July 1919, the first customer took delivery of a new Citroën
Citroën
10HP Type A.[9]

1919 Citroën
Citroën
A 8CV Torpedo

1921 Citroën
Citroën
B Torpedo

1923 Type C 5CV

C 42 is the Citroën
Citroën
showroom on the Champs Elysées in Paris

That same year, André Citroën
André Citroën
briefly negotiated with General Motors a proposed sale of the Citroën
Citroën
company.[10] The deal nearly closed, but General Motors
General Motors
ultimately decided that its management and capital would be too overstretched by the takeover.[10] thus Citroën
Citroën
remained independent till 1935. Between 1921 and 1937, Citroën
Citroën
produced half-track vehicles for off-road and military uses, using the Kégresse track
Kégresse track
system. In the 1920s, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
purchased several Citroën-Kégresse vehicles for evaluation followed by a licence to produce them. This resulted in the Army Ordnance Department building a prototype in 1939. In December 1942, it went into production with the M2 Half Track Car
M2 Half Track Car
and M3 Half-track versions.[11] The U.S. eventually produced more than 41,000 vehicles in over 70 versions between 1940 and 1944. After their 1940 occupation of France, the Nazi's captured many of the Citroën half-track vehicles and armored them for their own use.[11]

The Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
served as a billboard for Citroën
Citroën
from 1925 to 1934.

Mr Citroën
Citroën
was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
as the world's largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records.[12] He also sponsored expeditions in Asia (Croisière Jaune), North America (Croisière Blanche) and Africa (Croisière Noire), demonstrating the potential for motor vehicles equipped with the Kégresse track
Kégresse track
system to cross inhospitable regions. These expeditions conveyed scientists and journalists.[13] Demonstrating extraordinary toughness, a 1923 Citroën
Citroën
that had already travelled 48,000 km (30,000 mi) was the first car to be driven around Australia. The car, a 1923 Citroën
Citroën
5CV Type C Torpedo, was driven by Neville Westwood from Perth, Western Australia, on a round trip from August to December 1925. This vehicle is now fully restored and in the collection of the National Museum of Australia.[14] In 1924, Citroën
Citroën
began a business relationship with the American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop stainless steel bodies for railroad cars, for the Pullman in particular. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers, Dodge
Dodge
being his first big auto client. At the Paris
Paris
Motor Show in October 1924, Citroën
Citroën
introduced the Citroën
Citroën
B10, the first all-steel body in Europe.[15] These automobiles were initially successful in the marketplace, but soon competitors ( who were still using a wooden structure for their vehicles ) introduced new body designs. Citroën
Citroën
who did not redesign the bodies of his cars, still sold in large quantities nonetheless, the cars' low price being the main selling point, which factor however caused Citroën
Citroën
to experience heavy losses.[citation needed] In 1927 the bank Lazard
Lazard
helped Citroën
Citroën
by bringing new much-needed funds, as well as by renegotiating its debt - for example, by buying out the SOVAC- It went even further by entering in its capital and being represented on the board; the three directors sent by Lazard were Raymond Philippe, Andre Meyer and Paul Frantzen. André Citroën perceived the need to differentiate his product, to avoid the low price competition surrounding his conventional rear drive models in the late 1920s/early 1930s. In 1933 he introduced the Rosalie, the first commercially available passenger car with a diesel engine, developed with Harry Ricardo.

1931 C4 based Citroën
Citroën
P19B Kégresse track

1933 Citroën Rosalie
Citroën Rosalie
Coupe 15CV

Citroën
Citroën
8CV

1933 C4 based Citroën
Citroën
P17 C Kégresse track

Traction Avant
Traction Avant
and Michelin
Michelin
ownership[edit] Traction Avant[edit] The Traction Avant
Traction Avant
is a car that pioneered the mass production of three revolutionary features that are still in use today: a unitary body with no separate frame, four wheel independent suspension and front-wheel drive. Whereas for many decades, the vast majority of motor cars were similar in conception to the Ford Model T
Ford Model T
– a body bolted onto a ladder frame which held all the mechanical elements of the car, a solid rear axle that rigidly connected the rear wheels and rear wheel drive. The Model T school of automobile engineering proved popular because it was considered cheap to build, although it did pose dynamic defects as automobiles were becoming more capable, and resulted in heavier cars, which is why today cars are more like the Traction Avant
Traction Avant
than the Model T under the skin. In 1934 Citroën commissioned the American Budd Company
Budd Company
to create a prototype, which evolved into the 7 fiscal horsepower (CV), 32 hp (24 kW) Traction Avant.

Pre-war Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant
Cabriolet

Citroën
Citroën
Traction Avant

Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant
Légère rear view

1956 Citroën
Citroën
Traction Avant

Achieving quick development of the Traction Avant, tearing down and rebuilding the factory (in five months) and the extensive marketing efforts, were investments that resulted too costly for Citroën
Citroën
to do all at once, causing the financial ruin of the company. In December 1934, despite the assistance of the Michelin
Michelin
company, Citroën
Citroën
filed for bankruptcy. Within the month, Michelin, already the car manufacturer's largest creditor, became its principal shareholder.[16] Fortunately for Michelin, the technologically advanced Traction Avant had met with market acceptance, and the basic philosophy of cutting edge technology used as a differentiator, continued until the late 1990s. Pierre Michelin
Michelin
became the chairman of Citroën
Citroën
early in 1935. Pierre-Jules Boulanger, his deputy, became the vice-president and chief of the engineering and design departments. In 1935, the founder André Citroën
André Citroën
died from stomach cancer.[17] Research breakthroughs[edit] Pierre-Jules Boulanger
Pierre-Jules Boulanger
had been a First World War
First World War
air reconnaissance photography specialist with the French Air Force; he was capable and efficient and finished the war with the rank of captain. He was also courageous, having been decorated with the Military Cross and the Legion of Honour. He started working for Michelin
Michelin
in 1918, reporting directly to Édouard Michelin, co-director and founder of the business. Boulanger joined the Michelin
Michelin
board in 1922 and became president of Citroën
Citroën
in January 1938 after the death in a road accident his friend Pierre Michelin[18] remaining in this position until his own death in 1950. In 1938, he also had become Michelin's joint managing director.[19] During the German occupation of France in World War II
German occupation of France in World War II
Boulanger refused to meet Dr. Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche
or communicate with the German authorities except through intermediaries. He organized a "go slow" on production of trucks for the Wehrmacht, many of which were sabotaged at the factory by putting the notch on the oil dipstick in the wrong place, which resulted in engine seizure. In 1944 when the Gestapo headquarters in Paris
Paris
was sacked by the French Resistance, his name was prominent on a Nazi
Nazi
blacklist of the most important enemies of the Reich, to be arrested in the event of an allied invasion of France.[20] Citroën
Citroën
researchers, including Paul Magès, continued their work in secret, against the express orders of the Germans, and developed the concepts that were later brought to market in three remarkable vehicles – a small car (2CV), a delivery van (Type H) and a large, swift family car (DS). These were widely regarded by contemporary journalists as avant garde, even radical, solutions to automotive design. Thus began a decades' long period of unusual brand loyalty, normally seen in the automobile industry only in niche brands, like Porsche
Porsche
and Ferrari. The Deux Chevaux[edit] Citroën
Citroën
unveiled the 2CV—signifying two fiscal horsepower, initially only 12 hp (8.9 kW)—at the Paris
Paris
Salon in 1948. The car became a bestseller, achieving the designer's aim of providing rural French people
French people
with a motorized alternative to the horse. It was unusually inexpensive to purchase and, with its tiny two cylinder engine, inexpensive to run as well. The 2CV pioneered a very soft, interconnected suspension, but did not have the more complex self-levelling feature. This car remained in production, with only minor changes, until 1990 and was a common sight on French roads until recently; 8.8 Million 2CV variants were produced in the period 1948–1990.[21]

1955 Citroën
Citroën
2CV

1989 Citroën
Citroën
2CV, with "Charleston" colours & shapes

Citroën
Citroën
H Van

Citroën
Citroën
Ami

The Goddess[edit] 1955 saw the introduction of the DS, the first full usage of Citroën's hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system, tested on the rear suspension of the Traction in 1954, which was also the first production car with modern disc brakes. A single high-pressure hydraulic system was used to activate the power steering, the suspension and brakes, the brakes were power assisted to multiply the force applied by the driver. On the Citromatic (semi-automatic transmission) version, the system also operated the clutch, through a system of pistons in the gearbox cover to shift the gears in the transmission. From 1968, the DS also introduced directional headlights, that moved with the steering, improving visibility at night. The streamlined car was remarkable for its era and had a remarkable sounding name – in French, DS is pronounced [de.ɛs], which sounds the same as déesse, which means Goddess.[22] It placed third in the 1999 Car of the Century
Car of the Century
competition.

1962 Citroën
Citroën
ID variant of DS

Citroën DS
Citroën DS
Pallas with directional headlights (1968–1975)

DS Sedan (1955–1975) and Cabriolet (1960–1971)

1974 Citroën
Citroën
DS

High pressure hydraulics[edit] This high-pressure hydraulic system would form the basis of over 9 million Citroën
Citroën
cars, including the DS, SM, GS, CX, BX, XM, Xantia, C5, and C6. Self-levelling suspension
Self-levelling suspension
is the principal user benefit: the car maintains a constant ride height above the road, regardless of passenger and cargo load and despite the very soft suspension. Hydropneumatic
Hydropneumatic
suspension is uniquely able to absorb road irregularities without disturbing the occupants[23] and is often compared to riding on a magic carpet for this reason.[24] These vehicles shared the distinguishing feature of rising to operating ride height when the engine was turned on, like a "mechanical camel" (per Car & Driver magazine). A lever ( later replaced by an electronic switch ) beside the driver's seat allowed the driver to adjust the height of the car; this height adjustability allows for the clearing of obstacles, fording shallow (slow-moving) streams and changing tires. Since Citroën
Citroën
was undercapitalised, its vehicles had the tendency to be underdeveloped at launch, with limited distribution and service networks outside France, consequently the early DS models experienced teething issues with the novel suspension but, eventually,[23] the hydropneumatics were sorted out and became reliable.[25] Licensing such a technological leap forward was pursued to a limited extent: in 1965 the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow
Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow
did include this suspension, while the 1963 Mercedes-Benz 600
Mercedes-Benz 600
and Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3
Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3
tried to replicate its advantages with a costly, complex and expensive to maintain, air suspension, that avoided the Citroën
Citroën
patented technology.[26] By 1975, the Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9
Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9
could finally be produced with this proven system and Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
continues to offer variations on this technology today. During Citroën's 1968–1975 venture with Maserati, the Citroën
Citroën
high-pressure hydraulic system was used on several Maserati
Maserati
models : for power clutch operation (Bora); power pedal adjustment (Bora); pop-up headlights (Bora, Merak); brakes (Bora, Merak, Khamsin); steering (Khamsin) and the entire Quattroporte II prototype, which was a four-door Citroën
Citroën
SM under the skin.[27] Aerodynamic
Aerodynamic
pioneer[edit] Citroën
Citroën
was one of the early pioneers of the now widespread trend of aerodynamic automobile design, which helps to reduce fuel consumption and to improve high-speed performance, by reducing wind resistance. The cruising speed being the same as the top speed because of these efforts, the DS could happily run at 160 km/h (100 mph) without any discomfort for the occupants.[28] The firm began using a wind tunnel in the 1950s, enabling them to create highly streamlined cars, such as the DS, that were years ahead of their time, and so good were the aerodynamics of the CX model, that it took its name -

c

x

displaystyle mathbf c _ mathrm x ,

- from the mathematical term used to measure the drag coefficient. Expansion and financial challenges[edit] In the 1960s, Citroën
Citroën
undertook a series of financial and development tactics, aiming to build on its strength of the 1950s with the successful 2CV, Type H, and DS models. Citroën
Citroën
went bankrupt in 1974, so the effectiveness of these maneuvers is rather doubtful. These maneuvers were to address two key gaps facing the company:

The first one was the lack of a midsize car, between its own range of very small, cheap passenger vehicles ( 2CV/Ami ) and the large, expensive models ( DS/ID ).[27] In today's terms, this would be similar to a brand consisting only of the Tata Nano
Tata Nano
and Mercedes-Benz E-Class. Because of its potential volume, the midsize segment was the most profitable part of the car market and, in 1965, the Citroënesque Renault 16
Renault 16
stepped in to fill it. The second major issue was the lack of a powerful engine suitable for export markets. The post-WW2 Tax horsepower
Tax horsepower
system in France
France
was steeply progressive and vehicles over 2.0 (later 2.8) liters of engine displacement, faced a heavy annual tax, with the result that cars made in France
France
were considered underpowered outside.[29] For both the 1955 DS and 1974 CX models, development of the original engine around which the design was planned proved too expensive for the available finances, so the actual engine used in both cases was a modest and outdated four-cylinder design.[30]

These steps include:

1963 - opened negotiations with Peugeot
Peugeot
to cooperate in the purchase of raw materials and equipment, but talks broke off in 1965. 1964 - partnered with NSU Motorenwerke
NSU Motorenwerke
to develop the Wankel engine via the Comobil (later Comotor) subsidiary. For Citroën, this represented the chance for a technological run around the French Tax horsepower system by producing a more powerful but still small power plant. The first production car developed 106 hp with a 1-liter engine,[31] while the standard GS delivered 55 hp with a 1-liter engine.[32] 1965 - took over the French maker Panhard
Panhard
in the hope of using its expertise in mid sized cars; cooperation between the two companies had begun twelve years earlier and they had agreed to a partial merger of their sales networks in 1953; Panhard
Panhard
ceased manufacturing in 1967.[27] 1965 - purchased the truck manufacturer Berliet.[27] 1968 - purchased the Italian sports car maker Maserati
Maserati
again with an eye to producing a more powerful car, keeping a small engine in line with the French tax horsepower system.[29] The first production vehicle developed 170 hp with a 2.7 litre engine.,[33] this was the 1970 SM, which featured a V6 Maserati
Maserati
power plant, hydropneumatic suspension and a fully powered, self-centering steering system called DIRAVI; the SM was engineered as if it were replacing the DS family car, a level of investment that the small luxury Grand Touring car sector alone would never be able to support, even in the best of circumstances. 1968 - restructured worldwide operations under a new holding company, Citroën
Citroën
SA. Michelin, Citroën's longtime controlling shareholder, sold a 49% stake to Fiat
Fiat
in what was referred to as the PARDEVI agreement (Participation et Développement Industriels).[27]

The teams of Charles Marchetti and Citroën
Citroën
began working together on the development of the RE-2 (fr) helicopter. From a model range perspective, the 1970s started well, supported by the successful launch of the long-awaited midsize Citroën
Citroën
GS, finally filling the huge gap between the 2CV and the DS – with a 1-liter, hydropneumatically suspended car. The GS went on to sell 2.5 million units; 601,918 cars were produced just in 1972 - up from the 526,443 of 1971 - enough to lift the company past Peugeot
Peugeot
into second place among French auto makers when ranked by volume of units.[34] The older models continued to sell well - the peak production period of the DS was 1970, and 2CV was in 1974. As the 1970s progressed, circumstances became more unfavorable. In 1973, Fiat
Fiat
sold back to Michelin
Michelin
its 49% stake in the PARDEVI holding company that owned Citroën, the Citroën
Citroën
and Fiat
Fiat
joint announcement indicated that the benefits foreseen for their union in 1968 had failed to materialise.[35] This was not in line with the tire company's long term strategy of ending involvements in the car manufacturing business and created a very unstable ownership situation.[36] The company suffered another financial blow with the 1973 energy crisis
1973 energy crisis
- the gamble on Comotor
Comotor
and Maserati
Maserati
showed that there was a serious flaw with both: engines with high fuel consumption. In 1974, the carmaker withdrew from North America due to U.S. design regulations that outlawed core features of Citroën
Citroën
cars (see Citroën SM). Huge losses at Citroën
Citroën
were caused by the failure of the Comotor rotary engine venture added to the strategic management error of going the 7008473364000000000♠15 years from 1955 to 1970 without a model in the profitable middle range of the European market, plus the massive development costs a string of new models: the GS, GS Birotor, CX, SM, Maserati
Maserati
Bora, Maserati
Maserati
Merak, Maserati
Maserati
Quattroporte II, and Maserati
Maserati
Khamsin. Each of these models is a technological marvel in its own right. Thus, forty years after the bankruptcy related to the Traction Avant, Citroën
Citroën
went bankrupt again, losing its existence as an independent entity; selling Berliet
Berliet
and Maserati
Maserati
and closing Comotor.[27]

Citroën
Citroën
SM

Maserati
Maserati
Khamsin

Citroën GS
Citroën GS
Birotor and Citroën
Citroën
C6

Citroën
Citroën
CX, the 1975 Car of the year in Europe

The PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
era[edit] The French Government fearing large job losses due to the poor cash flow situation and the unstable ownership structure, arranged talks between Citroën
Citroën
and Michelin
Michelin
deciding to merge Automobiles Citroën and Automobiles Peugeot
Peugeot
into a single company therefore, one year after the break with Fiat, on 24 June 1974, Citroën
Citroën
announced the new partnership, this time with Peugeot.[35] to whom Michelin
Michelin
agreed to transfer control of the business.[27] In December 1974 Peugeot
Peugeot
S.A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën
Citroën
and on 9 April 1976[37] they increased their stake of the then bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group (where PSA is short for Peugeot
Peugeot
Société Anonyme), becoming PSA Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën.[38] In May 1975 Maserati
Maserati
was sold to De Tomaso
De Tomaso
and the new Italian owner was thereby able to exploit the sales potential of the models and technology developed by Citroën, as well as to utilize the image of the Maserati
Maserati
brand in a downward brand extension to sell 40,000 of the newly designed Bi-Turbo models. The truck manufacturing company Berliet
Berliet
was sold to Renault.[27] This new PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979. Citroën
Citroën
had two successful new designs in the market, the GS and CX. In the wake of the oil crisis, the brand also had resurgent sales for the 2CV and the Dyane, and soon the Peugeot
Peugeot
104 based Citroën
Citroën
Visa and Citroën
Citroën
LNA. Peugeot
Peugeot
was typically prudent with its own finances. Then, PSA purchased the ageing assets and substantial liabilities of Chrysler Europe
Chrysler Europe
for $1, leading to losses from 1980 to 1985. PSA resurrected the Talbot
Talbot
name for the Chrysler cars, but it shriveled and then died in 1987. Problems with the Trade unions[edit] In the early 1980s, Citroën
Citroën
was targeted by union action.[39] On the 25th of May 1982, events led to a mass demonstration in the streets of Paris,[39] when approximately 27,000 workers affirmed their wish to work at a company, which was being picketed by striking workers who had been blocking access to the factories for four weeks.[39] The demonstration was successful and six days later work at the plants resumed. Jacques Lombard, one of the company’s senior managers, had gone public with his concerns, criticising the strikes.[39] Taming the innovative spirit[edit] PSA gradually diluted Citroën's ambitious, highly individualistic and distinctive, approach to engineering and styling. All through the 1980s, Citroën
Citroën
models became increasingly Peugeot-like. The 1982 BX used the hydropneumatic suspension system and had a typical Citroënesque appearance, while being powered by Peugeot
Peugeot
derived engines and using the floorpan later seen on the Peugeot
Peugeot
405. PSA followed the worldwide motor industry trend of platform sharing. By the late 1980s, many of the distinctive features of the brand had been removed or altered - the conventional Peugeot's switchgear replacing Citroën's quirky but ergonomic Lunule designs,[40] complete with self-cancelling indicators that Citroën
Citroën
had refused to adopt on ergonomic grounds. The cars were more banal and conventional,[36] but also able to break into new markets, like fleet vehicles in the UK.[41] Geographical expansion[edit] Meantime Citroën
Citroën
expanded into many new geographic markets: in the late 1970s, the firm developed a small car for production in Romania known as the Oltcit, which it sold in Western Europe
Western Europe
as the Citroën Axel. That joint venture has now ended, but a new one between PSA and Toyota
Toyota
is now producing cars like the Citroën C1
Citroën C1
in the Czech Republic. In China, today a major overseas market, it began selling cars in 1984[42] and building them in 1994.[43] The current range of family cars over there, includes the C3 and Xsara and locally designed cars like the Fukang and Elysée models. The brand has recently increased its Chinese sales by 30% - in an overall market growth of 11% -[44] and ranks highest in the 2014 customer satisfaction survey by JD Power in China.[45] It is a global brand, except in North America, where the company has not returned since the SM was effectively banned in 1974 for not meeting U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) bumper height regulations. In 2016, Peugeot- Citroën
Citroën
South Africa
South Africa
(PCSA) announced that Citroën would be pulling out of South Africa
South Africa
given the poor sales in that country; Citroën
Citroën
had returned there in 2001.[46][47]

1984 Citroën
Citroën
Visa

1982 Citroën
Citroën
BX

Citroën
Citroën
Berlingo

Citroën
Citroën
Xantia

The recent decade[edit] From 2003–2010, Citroën
Citroën
produced the C3 Pluriel, an unusual convertible with allusions to the 1948–1990 2CV model, both in body style (such as the bonnet) and in its all-round practicality. In 2001 it celebrated its history of innovation when it opened a museum of its many significant vehicles: the Conservatoire with 300 cars.[48] With the severe decline in European auto sales after 2009, worldwide sales of vehicles declined from 1,460,373 in 2010 to 1,435,688 in 2011, with 961,156 of these sold in Europe.[49] In 2011 the Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
was close to forming a partnership with BMW
BMW
for the development of electric and hybrid vehicles between BMW
BMW
and all of the PSA brands, but the talks fell through, shortly after Groupe PSA, Citroën's parent company, had announced a partnership with GM, which later failed happen. Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën continues growing, and has developed eight car designs exclusively for the China
China
market.[43] Currently in China, Citroën
Citroën
(and Peugeot) face the same challenge as Volkswagen: there are too many sedans and hatchbacks, without enough models in the strong selling SUV
SUV
and minivan/MPV categories.[43] The brand ranked highest in the 2014 customer satisfaction survey by JD Power in China, above luxury brands like Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
and BMW, and above mass market brands, like Volkswagen, ranking only thirteenth and seventeenth respectively.[45] On the first ten months of 2014 in China, the sales of Donfeng Citroën
Citroën
cars increased by 30% in an overall market growth of 11%.[44] Despite the near death financial experience of PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
in 2014, and financial rescue by Dongfeng Motors,[50] the Citroën
Citroën
and DS brands are developing new technologies and are both planning to grow 15% by 2020, according to Citroën
Citroën
CEO Linda Jackson and DS CEO Yves Bonnefont.[51] Since 2013, the model Carolina "Pampita" Ardohaín
Carolina "Pampita" Ardohaín
represents Citroën
Citroën
and its lifestyle in some fashion films.[52][53]

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
Pluriel

Citroën C6
Citroën C6
production top of range sedan

Citroën
Citroën
C4L built in Argentina, Russia, and China
China
(Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën)

Citroën
Citroën
C4

The DS brand[edit] Main article: DS Automobiles In early 2009, Citroen announced the development of the premium brand DS, for Different Spirit or Distinctive Series - although the reference to the historical Citroën DS
Citroën DS
is evident - to run in parallel to its mainstream cars. The slogan of the DS car marque is "Spirit of avant-garde".[54] This new series of cars started early in 2010, with the DS3, a small car based on the floorpan of the new C3. The DS3 is based on the concept of the produced C3 Pluriel model and the DS Inside
DS Inside
concept car. The DS3 is customisable with various roof colours contrasting with the body panels; it was named 2010 Car of the Year by Top Gear Magazine, awarded first supermini four times in a row by the JD Power Satisfaction Survey UK[55][56][57] and second most efficient supermini ( Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
1.6 e-HDi 115 Airdream : True MPG 63.0mpg) by What car ? behind the C3.[58] In 2013 the DS3 was again the most sold premium subcompact car, with 40% of these market shares in Europe, validating the business model of this product development.[citation needed] The DS series is deeply connected to Citroën, as the DS4[59] launched in 2010, is based on the 2008 Citroën Hypnos
Citroën Hypnos
concept car and the DS5,[60] following in 2011, is based on the 2005 C-SportLounge concept car. Their rear badge is a new DS logo rather than the familiar Citroën
Citroën
double chevron and all will have markedly different styling from their equivalent sister cars.[61][62] Citroën
Citroën
has produced several dramatic looking concept sports cars of late, with the fully working Citroën
Citroën
Survolt[63] being badged as a DS. Indeed, the 2014 DS Divine concept car develops the Citroën Survolt
Citroën Survolt
prototype as the future sport coupé of the DS range. In China, Citroën
Citroën
has standalone DS salerooms, as well as entire plants built specifically for the production of these vehicles.[43] Since 2014 Citroën
Citroën
sells the Chinese built DS 5LS
DS 5LS
and DS 6WR
DS 6WR
in China.[64][65]

Citroën
Citroën
DS3, the most sold premium car of its category

Citroën DS4
Citroën DS4
Sport Chic, C segment

DS 5, D segment

DS 6, SUV
SUV
segment – developed for China

Awards[edit] Citroën
Citroën
was recognized in the 1999 Car of the Century
Car of the Century
competition as producing the third most influential car of the 20th century, the Citroën
Citroën
DS, which trailed only the Ford Model T
Ford Model T
and BMC Mini. Citroën
Citroën
has produced three winners of the 50-year-old European Car of the Year award, and many rated second or third place.

1971 – Citroën
Citroën
GS 1975 – Citroën
Citroën
CX 1990 – Citroën
Citroën
XM

Citroën
Citroën
has produced one winner of the United States
United States
Motor Trend Car of the Year award – the original Car of the Year designation, which began in 1949. This was especially significant because this award used to be only given to cars designed and built in the United States.[66]

1972 – Citroën
Citroën
SM

Citroën XM
Citroën XM
1990 COTY in Europe

Citroën C5
Citroën C5
2009 COTY in Ireland and Spain

Citroën C4
Citroën C4
Picasso, 2014 COTY in Ireland

Citroën C4
Citroën C4
Cactus, Car of the year in Spain, Denmark, and second at the Car of the year in Europe 2015

Citroën
Citroën
has produced eight Auto Europa winners in 28 years, since 1987. Auto Europa is the prize awarded by the jury of the Italian Union of Automotive
Automotive
Journalists
Journalists
(UIGA), which annually celebrates the best car produced at least at 10,000 units in the 27 countries of the European Union: Citroën
Citroën
XM(1990), Citroën ZX
Citroën ZX
(1992), Citroën
Citroën
Xantia (1994), Citroën Xsara
Citroën Xsara
Picasso (2001), Citroën C5
Citroën C5
(2002), Citroën
Citroën
C3 (2003), Citroën C4
Citroën C4
(2005) and Citroën DS4
Citroën DS4
(2012). Citroën
Citroën
Racing[edit] See also: Citroën World Rally Team
Citroën World Rally Team
and Citroën
Citroën
World Touring Car Team Citroën
Citroën
Racing, previously known as Citroën
Citroën
Sport and before that as Citroën
Citroën
Competitions, is the team responsible for Citroën's sporting activities. It is a successful winning competitor in the World Rally Championship and in the World Touring Car Championship. They also currently have supply engines to DS Virgin Racing
DS Virgin Racing
in Formula E.[citation needed] Early rally wins for Citroën
Citroën
vehicles[edit]

1956 Citroën DS
Citroën DS
at Rally Finland/1000 Lakes Rally

1971 Citroën SM
Citroën SM
that won Rallye du Maroc

Citroën
Citroën
vehicles were entered in endurance rally driving events beginning in 1956, with the introduction of the DS.[67] The brand was successful and won many key events over a decades long period, with what was essentially the same production car design.

Year Rally Winning Car

1959 Monte Carlo Rally Citroën
Citroën
DS

1961 Tour de Corse Citroën
Citroën
DS

1962 Rally Finland Citroën
Citroën
DS

1963 Tour de Corse Citroën
Citroën
DS

1966 Monte Carlo Rally Citroën
Citroën
DS

1969 Rally de Portugal Citroën
Citroën
DS

1969 Rallye du Maroc Citroën
Citroën
DS

1970 Rallye du Maroc Citroën
Citroën
DS

1971 Rallye du Maroc Citroën
Citroën
SM

1974 1974 London-Sahara-Munich World Cup Rally Citroën DS
Citroën DS
(privately entered)

Racing the 2CV[edit] Citroën
Citroën
discovered that while racing the uniquely slow 2CV against other cars made little sense, they could be interesting to watch racing against each other. Citroën
Citroën
Competitions sponsored three long distance competitions – Paris-Kaboul- Paris
Paris
in 1970, Paris-Persepolis- Paris
Paris
in 1972, and Raid Afrique in 1973.[68][69] Enthusiasts carried on the tradition with 2CV Cross – a group of 2CV's racing around a dirt track – a sport that continues today.[70][71] Rebuilding the competition group[edit] The Citroën
Citroën
Competitions division was impacted negatively by the firm's 1974 bankruptcy.[67][67] Competitive rallying was also changing – away from standard production cars to specially developed low volume models. In response to the entry of the competitive short wheel base Group B
Group B
4 wheel drive Audi Quattro
Audi Quattro
into rallying, Citroën
Citroën
developed the heavily modified Group B
Group B
Citroën BX
Citroën BX
4TC in 1986. The team returned successfully with the Citroën ZX
Citroën ZX
Rally Raid
Rally Raid
to win the Rally Raid
Rally Raid
Manufacturer's Championship five times (1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997) with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen. Citroën Racing won the Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally
four times, in 1991, continuing the serial of four victories of Peugeot
Peugeot
sport, and then again in 1994, 1995, and 1996. From 2001, the Citroën
Citroën
Racing team returned successfully to the World Rally Championship, winning eight times the Manufacturer's Title, continuing the serial of three WRC Championships victories of Peugeot sport, in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The Citroën
Citroën
WRC Team pilot Sébastien Loeb
Sébastien Loeb
also won nine Drivers' Championships. In 2004, 2005, and 2006, the French pilot won the Drivers' Championship, driving the Citroën Xsara
Citroën Xsara
WRC, in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 with the Citroën C4
Citroën C4
WRC, and in 2011 and 2012 with the new Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
WRC. The Citroën World Rally Team
Citroën World Rally Team
has a record of 97 victories in the World Rally Championship. In 2014, Citroën
Citroën
was the automaker that won the most world championship titles: 14 World Champion titles in 15 appearances. Citroën
Citroën
won the World Rally Raid
Rally Raid
Championship 5 times, the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
8 times, and the World Touring Car Championship in its first participation.

Sébastien Loeb
Sébastien Loeb
with his Citroën C4
Citroën C4
at the 2008 Monte Carlo Rally

Khalid Al-Qassimi
Khalid Al-Qassimi
with his Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
WRC at the 2016 Rally de Portugal

Citroën C-Elysée
Citroën C-Elysée
WTCC on display

New competition division for touring cars[edit] In 2013, Citroën
Citroën
Racing created a new sub-division, the Citroën World Touring Car Team, in order to attempt the 2014 World Touring Car Championship. The name Citroën C-Elysée
Citroën C-Elysée
WTCC has been chosen for the race car running in this world competition. It was developed in a few months, thanks to the experience of the Citroën
Citroën
World Rally Team. Citroën
Citroën
revealed a thirty-minute film on its Internet channel, to show the different steps to the C-Elysée project development : Projet M43 WTCC, Citroën
Citroën
WTCC 2014.[72] The Citroën World Touring Car Team
Citroën World Touring Car Team
won fourteen victories out of the fifteen first races of the 2014 WTCC season, in spite of the handicap of the 60 kg Compensation Weight put to the leading cars. The Citroën/Total WTCC Team won the Manufacturer's WTCC Championship,[73] 5 races before the end of the season, after the 2014 Shanghai race, where Citroën
Citroën
won first, second, third and fourth place, and recorded the fastest lap time. The Citroën World Touring Car Team
Citroën World Touring Car Team
pilots also got the three first ranks of the Drivers' World Touring Car Championship. Concept cars[edit]

Citroën Hypnos
Citroën Hypnos
(2008)

Main article: Citroën
Citroën
concept cars Citroën
Citroën
has produced numerous concept cars over the decades, previewing future design trends or technologies. Notable concepts include the Citroën Karin
Citroën Karin
(1980), Citroën Activa
Citroën Activa
(1988), Citroën C-Métisse (2006), GT by Citroën
GT by Citroën
(2008) and Citroën Survolt
Citroën Survolt
(2010). Logo[edit]

The origin of the logo may be traced back to a trip made by the 22-year-old André Citroën
André Citroën
to Łódź
Łódź
city, Poland, where he discovered an innovative design for a chevron-shaped gear used in milling. He bought the patent for its application in steel. Mechanically a gear with helical teeth produces an axial force. By adding a second helical gear in opposition, this force is cancelled. The two chevrons of the logo represent the intermeshing contact of the two.[74] The presentation of the logo has evolved over time. Before the war, it was rendered in yellow on a blue background. After the war, the chevrons became more subtle herringbones,[75] usually on a white background. With the company searching for a new image during the 1980s, the logo became white on red to give an impression of dynamism, emphasized by publicity slogan. In February 2009 Citroën
Citroën
launched a new brand identity to celebrate its 90th anniversary, replacing the 1977 design. The new logo was designed by Landor Associates[76] — a 3D metallic variation of the double chevron logo accompanied by a new font for the Citroën
Citroën
name and the new slogan "Créative Technologie". A TV campaign reminiscing over 7009284018400000000♠90 years of Citroën
Citroën
was commissioned to announce the new identity to the public.[77] The new look is currently being rolled out to dealers globally and is expected to take three to five years. Factories[edit]

Argentina (Buenos Aires): Berlingo First Argentina (Villa Bosch): C4, C4 L Brazil (Porto Real): C3, C3 Picasso France
France
(Mulhouse): DS4, DS7 Crossback France
France
(Poissy): DS3 France
France
(Sochaux): DS5 France
France
(Rennes): C5 Portugal
Portugal
(Mangualde): Berlingo First Slovakia (Trnava): C3 Spain (Madrid): C4 Cactus Spain (Valladolid): C3 Aircross Spain (Vigo): Berlingo First, Berlingo, C4 Picasso / C4 Grand Picasso, C-Elysee Turkey (Bursa): Nemo

Some joint venture models are manufactured in third party or joint venture factories, including the following:

China
China
(Shenzhen), Chang'an PSA joint venture: DS 5LS
DS 5LS
and DS 6WR China
China
(Wuhan), Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën Automobile
Automobile
joint venture: C-Elysee, C3 L, Xsara Picasso, C4 L, C5 Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Kolín), Toyota/PSA joint venture: C1 France
France
(Valenciennes) PSA/ Fiat
Fiat
joint venture Sevel
Sevel
Nord: Citroën Jumpy/Dispatch Italy
Italy
(Val di Sangro), PSA/ Fiat
Fiat
joint venture Sevel
Sevel
Sud: Jumper/Relay Japan (Mizushima). Mitsubishi Motors
Mitsubishi Motors
plant: C-Zero Russia (Kaluga), PSA/Mitsubishi joint venture : C4, C-Crosser Iran (Kashan): SAIPA
SAIPA
Citroen JV :C3,C3xr,C4 Turkey, Karsan
Karsan
plant: Berlingo

Current product lineup[edit] Citroën[edit]

Citroën C-Zero
Citroën C-Zero
(a rebadged Mitsubishi i-MiEV).

C1 II

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
Exclusive

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
III

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
Picasso

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
Aircross

Citroën C3
Citroën C3
Aircross II

Citroën
Citroën
C-Elysee

Citroën
Citroën
C4

Citroën C4
Citroën C4
Cactus

Citroën Grand C4 Picasso
Citroën Grand C4 Picasso
II

Citroën C4
Citroën C4
Aircross

Citroën
Citroën
C5

Citroën
Citroën
Nemo

Citroën
Citroën
Berlingo

Citroën
Citroën
Jumpy

Citroën
Citroën
Jumper

DS line[edit]

DS 3, B segment

DS 4, C segment

DS 5, CD segment

DS 5LS, D segment

DS 6

Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën (joint venture)[edit]

Citroën C-Elysée
Citroën C-Elysée
II

Citroën
Citroën
C-Quatre (previously Citroën
Citroën
C-Triomphe)

Citroën
Citroën
C3-XR

Citroën C4
Citroën C4
sedan, called C4L or C4 Lounge

Citroën C5
Citroën C5
II

Citroën C5
Citroën C5
Aircross

Citroën C6
Citroën C6
China
China
Model

See also[edit]

Paris
Paris
portal Companies portal

List of Citroën
Citroën
vehicles List of French companies Lane departure warning system

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "2015 Registration Document". Groupe PSA. pp. 7, 8. Retrieved 12 November 2016.  ^ "Saint-Ouen retrouve son fleuve, la Seine Archived 30 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.." l'Humanité. 28 October 2006. Retrieved on 3 February 2010. "La mort lente des petites entreprises, la délocalisation des plus importantes ont transformé Saint-Ouen. Il ne reste en centre-ville que l’usine Citroën." ^ "The Company". citroen.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2007-09-19.  ^ Classic Car: The Definitive Visual History. DK. 2 May 2011. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756671679.  ^ Reynolds, John. "André Citroën: Engineer, Explorer, Entrepreneur". (J H Haynes & Co Ltd) Revised edition (25 August 2006) inside cover ^ "Driven: Citroën Berlingo
Citroën Berlingo
Multispace". Daily Telegraph. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ " Citroën
Citroën
DS". vintagecars.about.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.  ^ a b " Citroën
Citroën
Racing Rally : Record of achievements". Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1920 (salon [Oct] 1919). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 31: 65. 2004.  ^ a b Sloan, Alfred P. (1964), McDonald, John, ed., My Years with General Motors, Garden City, NY, USA: Doubleday, LCCN 64011306, OCLC 802024. Republished in 1990 with a new introduction by Peter Drucker (ISBN 978-0385042352). , p. 317. ^ a b Chris Bishop (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of WWII: The Comprehensive Guide to over 1,500 Weapons Systems, Including Tanks, Small Arms, Warplanes, Artillery, Ships, and Submarines. Metrobooks. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-1586637620. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "European Motor News".  ^ Maynard Owen Williams (October 1931). National Geographic (magazine) Volume LX Number 4 The Citroën-Haardt Trans-Asiatic Expedition Reaches Kashmir. National Geographic Society.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "1923 5CV Citroën, National Museum of Australia". Nma.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2011-08-01.  ^ " Citroën
Citroën
Cars History".  ^ http://www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au/heritage_citroen.htm ^ Giucci, Guillermo (2012-08-01). The Cultural Life of the Automobile: Roads to Modernity. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292737846.  ^ "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1938 (salon [Oct] 1937). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 6: 26. 1998.  ^ Fitzgerald, Robert (2016-01-07). The Rise of the Global Company: Multinationals and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521849746.  ^ John Reynolds. Citroën
Citroën
2CV. ISBN 978-1-84425-207-7.  ^ John Reynolds. Citroën
Citroën
2CV. ISBN 978-1-84425-207-7 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-18.  ^ a b http://www.autotraderclassics.com/car-article/Topless+Goddess+_+Citroen+DS+Décapotable-44136.xhtml ^ "Citroen XM - Classic Car Review Honest John". Classics.honestjohn.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ CAR Magazine
CAR Magazine
August 1979 Long-Term Test CX Familiale ^ http://600airsuspension.com/resources/article-on-mercedes-air-suspension-by-martin-werminghausen.pdf ^ a b c d e f g h "Citroen's Partnerships". Citroen Car Club. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.  ^ " Citroën DS
Citroën DS
a subjective view". Citroenet.org.uk. 2000-06-10. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ a b ' Citroën
Citroën
SM,' Osprey Autohistory, Jeff Daniels, 1981, ISBN 0-85045-381-X ^ " Citroën DS
Citroën DS
prototypes The birth of a Goddess
Goddess
1". Citroenet.org.uk. 2000-06-10. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ "Citroen GS Birotor 107 hp - Specs & Performance". Zeperfs.com. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ Glon, Ronan (2013-10-22). "A quick look at the Citroën
Citroën
GS Camargue". Ran When Parked. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ "Citroen SM V6 2.7 c 170 hp - Specs & Performance". Zeperfs.com. 6 April 2015. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1972 (salon [Oct] 1971). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 76s: 19. 2005.  ^ a b "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1975 (salon Paris Oct 1974). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 72: 19. 2005.  ^ a b Julian Marsh. "A Brief History of Citroën
Citroën
Page 3". Citroenet.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=MZxAAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GKUMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6208,1716150&dq=citroen&hl=en ^ Peugeot
Peugeot
Motion and Emotion, Corporate interactive history, Undated Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved: 9 April 2012. ^ a b c d "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1982 (salon [Oct] 1981) «J’accuse la CGT de vouloir nous asphyxier pour mieux nous nationaliser: c’est une technique aussi sure que le supplice du garrot; ni les tribunaux, ni les ministres n’y peuvent rien changer». Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 80s: 9. 2006.  ^ "Citroën—Lunule Switchgear".  ^ "Citroen Xantia (1993 - 2000)". Honest John. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2017.  ^ "Tamerlane's Thoughts: Citroen CX Taxi Cabs". Karakullake.blogspot.com. 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ a b c d Tycho De Feijter (12 July 2016). "Hands Off! These 8 Citroens Are Only For China". Forbes. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ a b "DPCA sold 518,000 vehicles in China, an increase of 30% in a market up 11%". Automotive
Automotive
News. 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-11-10.  ^ a b "Dongfeng Citroën
Citroën
tie for top score in China
China
satisfaction survey". JD Power. 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-11-10.  ^ "French car maker to shut up shop in South Africa". businesstech.co.za. BusinessTech. 8 December 2016.  ^ "Brakes put on Citroën
Citroën
sales in SA". iol.co.za. Independent Online. 7 December 2016.  ^ "Citroen's Museum - Le Conservatoire". Citroen Car Club. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.  ^ "Annual Report Presentation 2011". PSA Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën. Retrieved 27 June 2012.  ^ Russell Hotten (2014-02-19). " Peugeot
Peugeot
signs rescue deal with China's Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
- BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ Steve Cropley (24 November 2015). "Revolutionary Citroen suspension system to launch in 2017". Autocar UK. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ "Carolina "Pampita" Ardohain and the Citroën C4
Citroën C4
Lounge, Fashion Film".  ^ ""Sunset" : Carolina "Pampita" Ardohain and the Citroën
Citroën
C4 Aircross, Fashion Film".  ^ "2015 Geneva Motor Show: DS enters a new era of the spirit of avant-garde". Automotive
Automotive
News. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-12.  ^ " Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
first supermini in the 2012 JD Power Satisfaction Survey". JD Power. 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2014-10-28.  ^ " Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
first supermini in the 2013 JD Power Satisfaction Survey". New Zealand Herald. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2014-10-28.  ^ " Citroën DS3
Citroën DS3
first supermini in the 2014 JD Power Satisfaction Survey". JD Power. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-10-28.  ^ " Citroën C3
Citroën C3
and DS3, most efficient small cars". What car ?. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-10-28.  ^ "First Citroen DS4 launched". Auto-Power-Girl.com. Retrieved 2014-12-07.  ^ "First Citroen DS5 launched". Auto-Power-Girl.com. Retrieved 2014-10-08.  ^ " Citroën DS
Citroën DS
returns Auto Express News News". Auto Express. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ "Site officiel de la CITROËN DS3". Ds3.citroen.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ "First Citroen Survolt Concept". Auto-Power-Girl.com. Retrieved 2014-10-08.  ^ Smy, Damion (15 April 2014). "Citroen DS 6WR
DS 6WR
(2014) first official pictures". Car. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ Name * (2014-04-07). "Citroen goes sporty with the DS 5LS
DS 5LS
R for the 2014 Beijing Auto Show CarNewsChina.com - China
China
Auto News". CarNewsChina.com. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ Chris Nagy (2012-11-14). "Powered Up: Tesla Model S Named 'Car of the Year' By Motor Trend". Automoblog.net. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ a b c " Citroën DS
Citroën DS
in sport". Citroenet.org.uk. 2000-06-10. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ in French ^ http://raid2cv-cinoche.blogspot.com in French ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-12-02.  ^ "in French". 2cvcross.fr. Retrieved 2016-07-16.  ^ " Citroën
Citroën
Racing – Projet M43 WTCC : Citroën
Citroën
WTCC 2014". 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-11-08.  ^ "Video : One year to win – Citroën
Citroën
WTCC 2014". 2014-10-12. Retrieved 2014-11-08.  ^ " Citroën
Citroën
Logo: Design and History". FamousLogos.net. Retrieved 2011-08-19.  ^ "Logo: Citroën".  ^ / Communicate magazine Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. / Communicate magazine, June 2009 ^ "90 Years Citroën
Citroën
TV Ad (Youtube Video)". 

Bibliography[edit]

Broustail, Joël; Greggio, Rodolphe (2000). Citroën: Essai sur 80 ans d'antistratégie [Citroën: Essay on 80 years of doing its own thing] (in French). Paris: Vuibert. ISBN 2711778185.  Gallard, Philippe (2004). A l'assaut du monde: L'aventure Peugeot- Citroën
Citroën
[Storming the World: The Peugeot- Citroën
Citroën
Adventure] (in French). Paris: Bourin. ISBN 2849410136. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citroën.

Official website Citroën
Citroën
Origins (historical models) Official support website Citroën
Citroën
UK Citroën
Citroën
Australia

v t e

Citroën

Current models

Cars

C-Zero C1 C3 C4 C5 C5 Tourer C-Elysée C-Triomphe DS 3 DS 4 DS 4S DS 5 DS 5LS

Minivans

C3 Picasso C4 Picasso Grand C4 Picasso

SUVs/Crossovers

C3 Aircross C3-XR C4 Aircross C4 Cactus E-Méhari DS 6 DS 7 Crossback

Vans

Berlingo Berlingo Multispace Jumper Jumpy Jumpy Multispace Nemo Nemo Multispace

Historic models

Cars

Type A Type B2 Type B10 Type B12 Type C 7U 2CV Ami 6 Ami 8 Ami Super Axel AX Bijou BX CX C-Crosser C2 C4 Coupé C6 C8 Dyane DS ID Evasion FAF Fukang GS GSA LN LNA M35 Méhari Rosalie Saxo SM Synergie Traction Avant Visa XM Xantia Xsara Xsara Picasso ZX

Commercial

Acadiane Belphégor C15 C25 C35 H Van TUB TUC U23

Concepts/Prototypes

2CV Pop Activa C-Airdream C-Airplay C-Buggy C-Cactus C-Métisse C-SportLounge C3 Lumiere C6 Lignage C44 DS Divine DS Inside G Van GS Camargue GT by Citroën Hypnos Karin Lacoste Metropolis Numero 9 Osée Prototype C Prototype Y Revolte Survolt Technospace Tubik Tulip Zabrus

Racing cars

C-Elysée WTCC C4 WRC DS3 WRC Xsara WRC C3 WRC

Citroen.com A division of Groupe PSA Category Vehicles

v t e

Citroën
Citroën
vehicles timeline

Citroën
Citroën
timeline 1950-1979

Type 1950s 1960s 1970s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Economy car 2CV

Off-roader

Méhari

City car

LN / LNA

Supermini

Dyane

Ami Visa

Small family car

GS

Large family car 11 CV ID / DSpécial / DSuper

Executive car 15 CV DS CX

Grand tourer

SM

Citroën
Citroën
timeline 1980 to date

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5

Economy car 2CV

Off-roader Méhari

City car

C1 C1 II

Supermini LN / LNA AX

Dyane Axel

Saxo C2 DS3

Visa

C3 I C3 II

Small family car

C4 Cactus

GSA

ZX Xsara C4 I C4 II

DS4

Large family car

BX Xantia C5 I C5 II

DS5

Executive car CX XM

C6

Mini
Mini
MPV

Nemo Multispace

Compact MPV

Xsara Picasso C3 Picasso

C4 Picasso I C4 Picasso II

Large MPV

Evasion C8

Crossover

C-Crosser C4 Aircross

Convertible

C3 Pluriel

LAV Acadiane C15

Nemo

Berlingo Berlingo II

Van H Van C25

Jumpy I Jumpy II

C35

Jumper I Jumper II

v t e

Groupe PSA

Current Automobile
Automobile
Marques

Peugeot Citroën DS Automobiles Opel Vauxhall Ambassador

Motorcycle Marques

Peugeot
Peugeot
Motocycles

Current Owners

Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
Group (13%) The French Government (13%) The Peugeot
Peugeot
Family (14%)

Former Owners

General Motors
General Motors
(7%) (2012-2013)

Current Partners

BMW
BMW
(Prince engine) FCA/Fiat/Ram (commercial vehicles, Sevel) Dongfeng Motor
Dongfeng Motor
Group (13% owner of PSA) Mitsubishi Motors
Mitsubishi Motors
(Badge-engineering)

Former Partners

Chrysler Europe General Motors

Other Holdings

Process Conception Ingénerie Sevel
Sevel
(100%) Faurecia
Faurecia
(57.43%)

Current Joint Ventures

Toyota
Toyota
Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën
Citroën
Automobile
Automobile
Czech (50%) Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën (50%) Changan PSA
Changan PSA
(50%) Iran Khodro-Peugeot; IKAP
IKAP
(50%)

Former Joint Ventures

BMW
BMW
Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën
Citroën
Electrification General Motors-PSA Alliance Guangzhou Peugeot
Peugeot
Automobile
Automobile
Company

Automobile
Automobile
engines

Ford DLD engine Prince engine PRV engine PSA ES engine PSA EW/DW engine PSA TU engine PSA X engine PSA XU engine PSA XUD engine

Manufacturing plants

Buenos Aires Kenitra Madrid Mangualde Mulhouse Poissy Porto Real Rennes Sochaux Trnava Vigo

Former or Defunct Marques or Subsidiaries

Barreiros Chrysler Europe Citer SA Commer Gefco Hillman Humber Karrier Motaquip Simca Singer Sunbeam Talbot

Related articles

Automoto Christian Streiff List of PSA engines

v t e

Automotive
Automotive
industry in France

Automotive
Automotive
industry Economy of France Transport in France

Active manufacturers

Aixam Alpine Auverland Bolloré Bugatti De La Chapelle Exagon Iveco Bus

Heuliez Bus

Ligier Microcar Motobécane Nexter PGO PSA Group

Citroën DS Peugeot

PVI Renault Renault
Renault
Trucks

ACMAT Panhard Renault
Renault
Trucks Defense

Scorpa SECMA Y.O Concept

Defunct manufacturers

Aerocarene Delahaye Heuliez Lumeneo Mia electric Simca Talbot

Components

Electricfil Faurecia Michelin Plastic Omnium Renault
Renault
Sport Sodemo Valeo

Insurance and finance

RCI Banque

Related topics

Autoroutes Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles Paris
Paris
Motor Show 24 Hours of Le Mans

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149868950 ISNI: 0000 0001 2369 5

.