Chrodegang (Latin: Chrodogangus; German: Chrodegang,
Hruotgang;[note 1] died 6 March 766 AD) was the Frankish Bishop of
Metz from 742 or 748 until his death. He served as chancellor for his
kinsman, Charles Martel.
Chrodegang is claimed to be a progenitor of
the Frankish dynasty of the Robertians.
2.1 Rule of Chrodegang
3 See also
7 External links
He was born in the early eighth century at
Hesbaye (Belgium, around
the old Roman civitas of Tongeren) of a noble Frankish family,
possibly the son of Sigramnus, Count of Hesbaye, and Landrada,
daughter of Lambert II, Count of Hesbaye. Landrada was the sister of
Rotrude of Hesbaye, Charles Martel's first wife.
He was educated first at the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Trond,
one of the oldest and most powerful abbeys in the Low Countries, and
then at the cathedral school of Metz. At the court of Charles Martel,
became his referendary, then chancellor, and in 737 prime minister.
Sometime after 742, he was appointed to succeed Sigibald as Bishop of
Metz, while still retaining his civil office.
In 753 he met and escorted
Pope Stephen II
Pope Stephen II when the pontiff visited
France to seek help against Lombard incursions. As apostolic
delegate to the Frankish kingdom, he was directly involved in the
coronation of Pepin in 754 and the subsequent defeat of the Longbard
king Aistulf. He accompanied the pope to Ponthieu.
After the death of Saint Boniface, Pope Stephen conferred the pallium
Chrodegang (754–755), thus making him an archbishop, but
not elevating the See of Metz. In 762, during a dangerous illness, he
introduced among his priests a confraternity of prayer known as the
League of Attigny. Saint
Chrodegang was well versed in
Latin and the
native early Old High German. He died at
Metz on 6 March 766 and was
buried in Gorze Abbey, the site of his principal shrine.
According to M.A. Claussen, "Chrodegang's work lay at the foundation
of the Carolingian spiritual revival of later eighth and ninth
centuries." In 748 he founded
Gorze Abbey (near Metz). He also
established St. Peter's Abbey on the Moselle, and did much for the
abbeys of Gengenbach and Lorsch. For the latter he is said to have
obtained the relics of Saint Nazarius, and for Gorze those of Saint
Gorgonius. In his diocese he introduced the
Roman Liturgy and chant,
and community life for the canons of his cathedral.
Rule of Chrodegang
Around 755, he wrote a special rule for them, the Regula Canonicorum,
later known as 'Rule of Chrodegang'. The rule, containing
thirty-four chapters, which he gave his clergy was based on the Rule
of St. Benedict and also on the Rule of St. Augustine. The purpose of
the rule was principally pastoral; to encourage the mutual support of
a community as found in a monastic setting, while recognizing the very
different responsibilities of canons serving the spiritual needs of
Chrodegang necessarily adapted the Benedictine rule,
particularly in regards to the hospitality characteristic of
monasteries, and the care of the sick as there were neither guest
houses nor hospices at cathedrals. 
The rule was widely circulated and gave an important impulse to the
spread of community life among the secular clergy. In 816, it was
incorporated in part into the Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis
established by the Council of Aachen. By the eleventh and twelfth
centuries, the Rule of
Chrodegang was gradually supplanted by more
popular rules based on Augustine.
It seems probable that the Rule of
Chrodegang was brought by Irish
monks to their native land from the monasteries of north-eastern Gaul,
and that Irish anchorites originally unfettered by the rules of the
cloister bound themselves by it. The Rule of Céli Dé, which is
preserved in the Leabhar Breac, and has been attributed to Máel
Ruain, was possibly written in the 9th century by one of his
community. The Rule "...is more a canonical than a monastic rule,
and analogous to
Chrodegang of Metz's Regula Canonicorum."
In the course of the 9th century mention is made of nine places in
Ireland (including Armagh, Clonmacnoise, Clones, Devenish and Sligo)
where communities of these
Culdees were established as a kind of annex
to the regular monastic institutions. They seem especially to have had
the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the musical
part of worship.
Benedict of Aniane
Máel Ruain -his rules for the Culdees
Wulfred -on reforming the canons at Canterbury Cathedral
^ Spellings of his name in (Latin) primary sources are extremely
varied: Chrodegangus, Grodegandus, Grodegangus, Grodogangus,
Chrodogandus, Krodegandus, Chrodegrangus, Chrotgangus, Ruotgangus,
Droctegangus, Chrodegand, and Sirigangus. In English it is also found
as Godegrand, Gundigran, Ratgang, Rodigang, and Sirigang.
^ Arduino, Fabio. "San Crodegando di Metz", Santi e Beati, March 8,
^ "The Pre-Schism Orthodox Saints who evangelized Western Europe &
the Scandinavian Lands". Orthodox Outlet for Dogmatic Enquiries.
^ a b c Mershman, Francis. "St. Chrodegang." The Catholic Encyclopedia
Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 27 October 2017
^ Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Saints. vol. III, 1866
^ Monks of Ramsgate. “Chrodegang”. Book of Saints, 1921.
CatholicSaints.Info. 6 October 2012
^ Claussen, M.A., The Reform of the Frankish Church:
Metz and the Regula Canonicorum in the Eighth Century, Cambridge
University Press, 2004, ISBN 9780521839310, p. 4
^ “Saint Chrodegang”. New Catholic Dictionary.
CatholicSaints.Info. 15 September 2012
^ Drout, Michael D. C. “Re-Dating the Old English Translation of the
Enlarged Rule of Chrodegang: The Evidence of the Prose Style.” The
Journal of English and Germanic Philology, vol. 103, no. 3, 2004, pp.
^ Claussen, M.A., Review of Bertram, Jerome. The
Chrodegang Rules: The
Rules for the Common Life of the Secular Clergy from the Eighth and
Ninth Centuries. Critical Texts with Translations and Commentary.
Church, Faith and Culture in the Medieval West. Aldershot and
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. Pp. 304. $99.95.
ISBN 0-7546-5251-3 in The Medieval Review, June 8, 2016
^ Szarmach, Paul E., "Chrodegang", Routledge Revivals: Medieval
England (1998), (Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T.
Rosenthal, eds.), Taylor & Francis, 2017, ISBN 9781351666374
^ Langefeld, Brigitte. "The Rule of
Chrodegang and Archbishop
Wulfred's reforms at Canterbury", Anglo-Saxon England, vol.25,
(Michael Lapidge, Malcolm Godden, Simon Keynes, eds.), Cambridge
University Press, 1997, ISBN 9780521571470
^ Claussen, p. 18.
^ Byrnes, "Máel-Ruain." In Medieval Ireland. Encyclopedia (2005). pp.
^ Gammack, James. "Maelruain", A Dictionary of Christian Biography,
(William Smith and Henry Wace, eds.), London, John Murray, 1882
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Chrodegang".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
D'Achéry, Spicilegium, I, 656
Claussen, M. A. The Reform of the Frankish Church:
Chrodegang of Metz
and the Regula Canonicorum in the Eighth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-83931-9.
Medieval Lands Project, Family of Enguerrand, Comte de Paris
Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Chrodegang
ISNI: 0000 0001 1023 217X