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A Christmas
Christmas
card is a greeting card sent as part of the traditional celebration of Christmas
Christmas
in order to convey between people a range of sentiments related to the Christmas
Christmas
and holiday season. Christmas cards are usually exchanged during the weeks preceding Christmas
Christmas
Day by many people (including non-Christians) in Western society and in Asia. The traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year". There are innumerable variations on this greeting, many cards expressing more religious sentiment, or containing a poem, prayer, Christmas
Christmas
song lyrics or Biblical verse; others stay away from religion with an all-inclusive "Season's greetings". A Christmas
Christmas
card is generally commercially designed and purchased for the occasion. The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas
Christmas
narrative with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus, or have Christian symbols
Christian symbols
such as the Star of Bethlehem
Star of Bethlehem
or a white dove representing both the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
and Peace. Many Christmas
Christmas
cards show Christmas
Christmas
traditions, such as seasonal figures (e.g., Santa Claus, snowmen, and reindeer), objects associated with Christmas
Christmas
such as candles, holly, baubles, and Christmas
Christmas
trees, and Christmastime activities such as shopping, caroling, and partying, or other aspects of the season such as the snow and wildlife of the northern winter. Some secular cards depict nostalgic scenes of the past such as crinolined shoppers in 19th century streetscapes; others are humorous, particularly in depicting the antics of Santa and his elves.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Official Christmas
Christmas
cards 1.2 Commercial Christmas
Christmas
cards 1.3 Charity Christmas
Christmas
cards 1.4 Christmas
Christmas
stamps and stickers 1.5 Collectors items 1.6 Home-made cards

2 The Christmas
Christmas
card list

2.1 Christmas
Christmas
letters

3 Environmental impact and recycling 4 International Christmas
Christmas
greetings 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit]

The world's first commercially produced Christmas
Christmas
card, designed by John Callcott Horsley
John Callcott Horsley
for Henry Cole
Henry Cole
in 1843

Children looking at Christmas
Christmas
cards in New York 1910

Christmas
Christmas
card by Louis Prang, showing a group of anthropomorphized frogs parading with banner and band.

The first recorded Christmas
Christmas
cards were sent by Michael Maier
Michael Maier
to James I of England and his son Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
in 1611.[1] It was discovered in 1979 by Adam McLean in the Scottish Record Office.[2] They incorporated Rosicrucian
Rosicrucian
imagery, with the words of the greeting – "A greeting on the birthday of the Sacred King, to the most worshipful and energetic lord and most eminent James, King of Great Britain and Ireland, and Defender of the true faith, with a gesture of joyful celebration of the Birthday of the Lord, in most joyand fortune, we enter into the new auspicious year 1612" – being laid out to form a rose. The next cards were commissioned by Sir Henry Cole
Henry Cole
and illustrated by John Callcott Horsley
John Callcott Horsley
in London on 1st May 1843.[3][4][5] The central picture showed three generations of a family raising a toast to the card's recipient: on either side were scenes of charity, with food and clothing being given to the poor.[6] Allegedly the image of the family drinking wine together proved controversial, but the idea was shrewd: Cole had helped introduce the Penny Post
Penny Post
three years earlier. Two batches totaling 2,050 cards were printed and sold that year for a shilling each.[7] Early British cards rarely showed winter or religious themes, instead favoring flowers, fairies and other fanciful designs that reminded the recipient of the approach of spring. Humorous and sentimental images of children and animals were popular, as were increasingly elaborate shapes, decorations and materials. At Christmas
Christmas
1873, the lithograph firm Prang and Mayer began creating greeting cards for the popular market in Britain The firm began selling the Christmas
Christmas
card in America in 1874, thus becoming the first printer to offer cards in America. Its owner, Louis Prang, is sometimes called the "father of the American Christmas
Christmas
card."[8] By the 1880s, Prang was producing over five million cards a year by using the chromolithography process of printmaking.[3] However, the popularity of his cards led to cheap imitations that eventually drove him from the market. The advent of the postcard spelled the end for elaborate Victorian-style cards, but by the 1920s, cards with envelopes had returned. The extensive Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection from the Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 32,000 Victorian and Edwardian
Edwardian
greeting cards, printed by the major publishers of the day,[9] including Britain’s first commercially produced Christmas
Christmas
card.[10] The production of Christmas
Christmas
cards was, throughout the 20th century, a profitable business for many stationery manufacturers, with the design of cards continually evolving with changing tastes and printing techniques. The now widely recognized brand Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
was established in 1913 by Joyce Hall with the help of brother Rollie Hall to market their self-produced Christmas
Christmas
cards.[11] The Hall brothers capitalized on a growing desire for more personalized greeting cards, and reached critical success when the outbreak of World War I increased demand for cards to send to soldiers.[11] The World Wars brought cards with patriotic themes. Idiosyncratic "studio cards" with cartoon illustrations and sometimes risque humor caught on in the 1950s. Nostalgic, sentimental, and religious images have continued in popularity, and, in the 21st century, reproductions of Victorian and Edwardian
Edwardian
cards are easy to obtain. Modern Christmas
Christmas
cards can be bought individually but are also sold in packs of the same or varied designs. In recent decades changes in technology may be responsible for the decline of the Christmas
Christmas
card. The estimated number of cards received by American households dropped from 29 in 1987 to 20 in 2004.[12] Email and telephones allow for more frequent contact and are easier for generations raised without handwritten letters - especially given the availability of websites offering free email Christmas cards. Despite the decline, 1.9 billion cards were sent in the U.S. in 2005 alone.[13] Some card manufacturers now provide E-cards. In the UK, Christmas
Christmas
cards account for almost half of the volume of greeting card sales, with over 668.9 million Christmas
Christmas
cards sold in the 2008 festive period.[14] In mostly non-religious countries (e.g. Czech Republic), the cards are rather called New Year Cards, however they are sent before Christmas
Christmas
and the emphasis (design, texts) is mostly given to the New Year, omitting religious symbols. Official Christmas
Christmas
cards[edit]

President
President
Johnson's 1967 White House
White House
Christmas
Christmas
card

"Official" Christmas
Christmas
cards began with Queen Victoria in the 1840s. The British royal family's cards are generally portraits reflecting significant personal events of the year. Despite the governing practice of the separation of church and state within American politics, there is a long-standing custom for the President
President
and First Lady
First Lady
to send White House
White House
Christmas
Christmas
Cards each holiday season.[15] The practice originated with President
President
Calvin Coolidge, who was the first president to issue a written statement of peaceful tidings during the holidays in 1927.[15][16] President Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
was the first to give Christmas
Christmas
notes to the White House staff, and President
President
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
was the first president to utilize the card format (rather than the previously used notes or a written statement) that most closely resembles the Christmas
Christmas
cards of today.[15] In 1953, U.S. President
President
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
issued the first official White House
White House
card. The cards usually depict White House
White House
scenes as rendered by prominent American artists. The number of recipients has snowballed over the decades, from just 2,000 in 1961 to 1.4 million in 2005.[17] Commercial Christmas
Christmas
cards[edit]

Tucker Corporation Christmas
Christmas
Card, 1947

Many businesses, from small local businesses to multi-national enterprises send Christmas
Christmas
cards to the people on their customer lists, as a way to develop general goodwill, retain brand awareness and reinforce social networks. These cards are almost always discrete and secular in design, and do not attempt to sell a product, limiting themselves to mentioning the name of the business. The practice harkens back to trade cards of the 18th century, an ancestor of the modern Christmas
Christmas
card. Charity Christmas
Christmas
cards[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
card promoting Royal typewriters

Many organizations produce special Christmas
Christmas
cards as a fundraising tool. The most famous of these enterprises is probably the UNICEF Christmas
Christmas
card program,[18] launched in 1949, which selects artwork from internationally known artists for card reproduction. The UK-based Charities Advisory Trust gives out an annual "Scrooge Award" to the cards that return the smallest percentage to the charities they claim to support[19] although it is not universally well received by the Christmas
Christmas
card producers.[20] Christmas
Christmas
stamps and stickers[edit]

Santa Coming Down the Chimney

Many countries produce official Christmas
Christmas
stamps, which may be brightly colored and depict some aspect of Christmas
Christmas
tradition or a Nativity scene. Small decorative stickers are also made to seal the back of envelopes, typically showing a trinket or some symbol of Christmas. In 2004, the German post office gave away 20 million free scented stickers, to make Christmas
Christmas
cards smell of a fir Christmas
Christmas
tree, cinnamon, gingerbread, a honey-wax candle, a baked apple and an orange. Collectors items[edit] From the beginning, Christmas
Christmas
cards have been avidly collected. Queen Mary amassed a large collection that is now housed in the British Museum.[21] The University College London's Slade School of Fine Art houses a collection of handmade Christmas
Christmas
Cards from alumni such as Paula Rego
Paula Rego
and Richard Hamilton and are displayed at events over the Christmas
Christmas
season, when members of the public can make their own Christmas
Christmas
cards in the Strang Print Room.[22] Specimens from the "golden age" of printing (1840s–1890s) are especially prized and bring in large sums at auctions. In December 2005, one of Horsley's original cards sold for nearly £9,000. Collectors may focus on particular images like Santa Claus, poets, or printing techniques. The Christmas
Christmas
card that holds the world record as the most expensive ever sold was a card produced in 1843 by J. C. Horsley and commissioned by civil servant Sir Henry Cole. The card, one of the world's first, was sold in 2001 by UK auctioneers Henry Aldridge to an anonymous bidder for a record breaking £22,250.[23]

Santa Claus
Santa Claus
and his reindeer

Silk cord and tassels, c. 1860

Victorian, c. 1870

Christmas
Christmas
Card, 1880

Victorian, 1885

Postcard, c. 1901

Christmas
Christmas
card, 1904

Christmas
Christmas
postcard 1907

Christmas
Christmas
card, 1912

American card, c. 1920

Frances Brundage
Frances Brundage
Christmas
Christmas
card, 1910

Home-made cards[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
card made on a PC incorporating digital photography.

Since the 19th century, many families and individuals have chosen to make their own Christmas
Christmas
cards, either in response to monetary necessity, as an artistic endeavour, or in order to avoid the commercialism associated with Christmas
Christmas
cards. With a higher preference of handmade gifts during the 19th century over purchased or commercial items, homemade cards carried high sentimental value as gifts alone. Many families make the creation of Christmas
Christmas
cards a family endeavour and part of the seasonal festivity, along with stirring the Christmas
Christmas
cake and decorating the tree. Over the years such cards have been produced in every type of paint and crayon, in collage and in simple printing techniques such as potato-cuts. A revival of interest in paper crafts, particularly scrapbooking, has raised the status of the homemade card and made available an array of tools for stamping, punching and cutting. Advances in digital photography and printing have provided the technology for many people to design and print their own cards, using their original graphic designs or photos, or those available with many computer programs or online as clip art, as well as a great range of typefaces. Such homemade cards include personal touches such as family photos and holidays snapshots. Crowdsourcing, another trend enabled by the Internet, has allowed thousands of independent and hobbyist graphic designers to produce and distribute holiday cards around the world. The Christmas
Christmas
card list[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
Market in Nürnberg, lithography from the 19th century.

Danish Christmas
Christmas
card, 1919

Many people send cards to both close friends and distant acquaintances, potentially making the sending of cards a multi-hour chore in addressing dozens or even hundreds of envelopes. The greeting in the card can be personalized but brief, or may include a summary of the year's news. The extreme of this is the Christmas
Christmas
letter (below). Because cards are usually exchanged year after year, the phrase "to be off someone's Christmas
Christmas
card list" is used to indicate a falling out between friends or public figures. Christmas
Christmas
letters[edit] Main article: Round-robin letter Some people take the annual mass mailing of cards as an opportunity to update those they know with the year's events, and include the so-called " Christmas
Christmas
letter" reporting on the family's doings, sometimes running to multiple printed pages. In the UK these are known as round-robin letters.[24] While a practical notion, Christmas letters meet with a mixed reception; recipients may take it as boring minutiae, bragging, or a combination of the two, whereas other people appreciate Christmas
Christmas
letters as more personal than mass-produced cards with a generic missive and an opportunity to "catch up" with the lives of family and friends who are rarely seen or communicated with. Since the letter will be received by both close and distant relatives, there is also the potential for the family members to object to how they are presented to others; an entire episode of Everybody Loves Raymond
Everybody Loves Raymond
was built around conflict over the content of just such a letter. Environmental impact and recycling[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
card with holly

Jacques Hnizdovsky
Jacques Hnizdovsky
Christmas
Christmas
card

During the first 70 years of the 19th century it was common for Christmas
Christmas
and other greeting cards to be recycled by women's service organizations who collected them and removed the pictures, to be pasted into scrap books for the entertainment of children in hospitals, orphanages, kindergartens and missions. With children's picture books becoming cheaper and more readily available, this form of scrap-booking has almost disappeared. Recent concern over the environmental impact of printing, mailing and delivering cards has fueled an increase in e-cards.[25][26] The U.K. conservation charity Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
runs an annual campaign to collect and recycle Christmas
Christmas
cards to raise awareness of recycling and collect donations from corporate sponsors and supporters. All recycled cards help raise money to plant more trees. In the 12 years that the Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
Christmas
Christmas
Card Recycling
Recycling
Scheme has been running, more than 600 million cards have been recycled. This has enabled the Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
to plant more than 141,000 trees, save over 12,000 tonnes of paper from landfill and stop over 16,000 tonnes of CO2 from going into the atmosphere – the equivalent to taking more than 5,000 cars off the road for a year.[27] The scheme has had celebrity supporters including Jo Brand, Dermot O' Leary and Sean Bean and is the longest running scheme of its type in the country.[28] International Christmas
Christmas
greetings[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
card made on a PC

The traditional English greeting of "Merry Christmas
Christmas
and a Happy New Year" as it appears in other languages:[29]

Albanian: Gëzuar Krishtlindjet dhe Vitin e Ri Basque: Gabon Zoriontsuak eta urte berri on Breton: Nedeleg laouen na bloavezh mat Bulgarian: Весела Коледа и Честита Нова Година Catalan: Bon Nadal i Feliç Any Nou Chinese Simplified (China, except Hong Kong): 圣诞快乐,新年进步 Chinese Traditional
Chinese Traditional
(Hong Kong & Taiwan): 聖誔快樂,新年進步 Cornish: Nadelik Lowen, Bledhen Nowyth Da. Croatian - Hrvatski: Čestit Božić i sretna Nova godina Czech: Veselé vánoce a šťastný nový rok.[30] But mostly used is secular 'P.F.' standing for French 'Pour féliciter' (literally 'For happiness in the year...'). Danish: Glædelig jul og godt nytår! or simply God jul Dutch: Prettige kerstdagen en een gelukkig nieuwjaar Estonian: Häid jõule ja head uut aastat Esperanto: Gajan kristnaskon kaj feliĉan novan jaron Filipino: Maligayang Pasko at Manigong Bagong Taon Finnish: Hyvää joulua ja onnellista uutta vuotta French: Joyeux Noël et Bonne Année Galician: Bo Nadal e Feliz Aninovo Georgian: გილოცავთ შობა-ახალ წელს German: Fröhliche Weihnachten
Weihnachten
und ein glückliches/gutes Neues Jahr Greek: Καλά Χριστούγεννα και ευτυχισμένος ο Καινούριος Χρόνος Hungarian: Kellemes karácsonyi ünnepeket és boldog új évet or simply B. ú. é. k. Icelandic: Gleðileg jól og farsælt nýtt ár Indonesian: Selamat Hari Natal dan Tahun Baru Irish: Nollaig Shona Duit Italian: Buon Natale e Felice Anno Nuovo Kashubian: Wiesołëch Gòdów i szczestlewégò Nowégò Rokù Korean : 메리 크리스마스 Japanese: メリー・クリスマス Latvian: Priecīgus Ziemassvētkus un laimīgu Jauno gadu Lithuanian: Linksmų šventų Kalėdų ir laimingų Naujųjų metų Macedonian: Среќна Нова Година и честит Божиќ Malay: Selamat Hari Krismas dan Tahun Baru Maltese: Il-Milied Hieni u s-Sena t-Tajba Mongolian: Зул сар болон Шинэ жилийн баярын мэнд хүргье Norwegian: God jul og godt nyttår Persian: کریسمس و سال نو مبارک Polish: Wesołych Świąt i Szczęśliwego Nowego Roku Portuguese: Feliz Natal e um Feliz Ano Novo Romanian: Crăciun Fericit și La mulți ani Russian: С Новым годом и Рождеством Христовым! Sinhala: Suba naththalak wewa, suba aluth aurudhak wewa Slovak: Veselé Vianoce a Štastný Nový rok Slovenian: Vesel Božič in Srečno Novo Leto Spanish: Feliz Navidad y próspero Año Nuevo Swedish: God Jul och Gott Nytt År Vietnamese: Chúc mừng Giáng Sinh và chúc mừng năm mơi (acute accent over ơ in "mơi") Ukrainian: Веселих свят! (Happy Holidays!) / З Новим роком і Різдвом Христовим! Urdu:آپکو بڑا دن اور نیا سال مبارک ہو Welsh: Nadolig Llawen a Blwyddyn Newydd Dda

Christmas
Christmas
postcards

American card, c. 1940

War-related, c. 1943

Rust Craft, c. 1950

Snow in the Netherlands

Christmas
Christmas
card

Christmas
Christmas
card Frances Brundage

Merry Christmas
Christmas
card

Christmas
Christmas
tree market

Christmas
Christmas
card with embroidery

Christmas
Christmas
Card

Santa Claus
Santa Claus
clothes

References[edit]

^ Goodall, Paul (2011). "A Rosicrucian
Rosicrucian
Christmas
Christmas
Card" (PDF). Rosicrucian
Rosicrucian
Digest (1): 41–45. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ McLean, Adam (1979). "A Rosicrucian
Rosicrucian
Manuscript of Michael Maier". The Hermetic Journal (5).  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b " Christmas
Christmas
Card". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Christmas
Christmas
card sold for record price BBC News. Retrieved 12 June 2011. ^ György Buday, George Buday (1992). The history of the Christmas card. p.8. Omnigraphics, 1992 ^ The Times (London, England), 26 November 2001, p.8 12 cards from the original print run are said to survive: one, sent by Henry Cole
Henry Cole
and his wife to his grandmother, was sold in 2001 for £20,000. ^ Earnshaw, Iris (November 2003). "The History of Christmas
Christmas
Cards". Inverloch Historical Society Inc. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 148 ISBN 0-471-29198-6. ^ "MMU Special
Special
Collections - Victorian Ephemera". Manchester Metropolitan University. Retrieved 8 November 2013.  ^ Susie Stubbs (10 May 2013). "Small Museums #1: Manchester Metropolitan University's Special
Special
Collections". Creative Tourist. Retrieved 8 November 2013.  ^ a b Olson, James S; Abraham O Mendoza (1946). American Economic History: A Dictionary and Chronology. Greenwood: ABC-CLIO. p. 287. Retrieved 22 June 2015.  ^ "?". Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 28 August 2005.  ^ "?". U.S. Census Bureau.  ^ Facts And Figures - GCA: The Greeting Card Association Retrieved 17 June 2011. ^ a b c Greenberg, David. "Signed, Sealed, Secular". LA Times. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Storm, Christian. "Happy Holidays from the White House". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Melissa McNamara (7 December 2005). "Bush 'Holiday' Cards Cause Stir". CBS News. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ UNICEF
UNICEF
Christmas
Christmas
Card Program, UNICEF
UNICEF
Philippines ^ "?". Charitiesadvisorytrust.org.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ The Charities Advisory Trust – Killing a UK market in decline ^ "Victorian Christmas
Christmas
Cards". WCN Magazine. World Collectors Net. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2016.  ^ "UCL Slade Art Collection Events". UCL.co.uk. Retrieved 28 December 2009.  ^ Warner, Gerald. "A perfect excuse not to send Christmas
Christmas
cards". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 December 2015.  ^ "Round Robins". Debrett's. Debrett's.  ^ Jura Koncius (29 November 2007). "The Greening of Christmas". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ Hilary Osborne (13 December 2006). "Avoiding the wrap tap". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ " Christmas
Christmas
Card Recycling
Recycling
Scheme". Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
Website. Woodland Trust.  ^ " Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
M&S Partnership". Woodland Trust
Woodland Trust
Website. Retrieved 9 November 2015.  ^ "Merry Christmas" in many languages ^ "Vánoce, Velikonoce". Retrieved 22 September 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Blair, Arthur. Christmas
Christmas
Cards for the Collector. London: Batsford, 1986 ISBN 0-7134-5224-2 Brown, Ellen. Christmas, Inc.: A Brief History of the Holiday Card. JSTOR Daily, December 21, 2015. Buday, György. The History of the Christmas
Christmas
Card. London: Rockliff, 1954 Ettlinger, L. D. & Holloway, R. G. (1947) Compliments of the Season. (The King Penguin Books; K38.) Westdrayton: Penguin Books 39 p & plates Higgs, Michelle. Christmas
Christmas
Cards: From the 1840s to the 1940s. Princes Risborough: Shire, 1999 ISBN 0-74780-426-5

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christmas
Christmas
cards.

BBC Devon News Story of the first commercial Christmas
Christmas
card, including picture. Retrieved 2 January 2006. BBC December 3, 2005: First Christmas
Christmas
card sold for £8,469. Retrieved 2 January 2006.

v t e

Christmas

Christmas
Christmas
Eve Children's Day Boxing Day Nochebuena Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Day St. Stephen's Day Sol Invictus Yule

In Christianity

Biblical Magi

Adoration of the Magi

Adoration of the Shepherds Advent Angel Gabriel Annunciation Annunciation
Annunciation
to the shepherds Baptism of the Lord Bethlehem Christingle Christmastide Epiphany Herod the Great Jesus Joseph Mary Massacre of the Innocents

flight into Egypt

Nativity Fast Nativity of Jesus

in art in later culture

Nativity scene Saint Nicholas Star of Bethlehem Twelfth Night

In folklore

Badalisc La Befana Belsnickel Caganer Christkind Ded Moroz Elves Father Christmas Grýla Jack Frost Joulupukki Knecht Ruprecht Korvatunturi Krampus Mikulás Miner's figure Mrs. Claus Nisse/Tomte North Pole Old Man Winter Olentzero Père Fouettard Père Noël Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Saint Lucy Santa's reindeer Santa's workshop Sinterklaas Tió de Nadal Vertep Yule
Yule
Cat Yule
Yule
Lads Zwarte Piet

Gift-bringers

Saint Nicholas Santa Claus List of Christmas
Christmas
gift-bringers by country

Traditions

Advent
Advent
calendar Advent
Advent
candle Advent
Advent
wreath Boar's Head Feast Candle arches Cards Carols by Candlelight Cavalcade of Magi Crackers Decorations Events and celebrations Feast of the Seven Fishes Flying Santa Google Santa Tracker Hampers Las Posadas Letters Lights Lord of Misrule Markets Meals and feasts Moravian star Nine Lessons and Carols NORAD Tracks Santa Nutcrackers

dolls

Ornaments Parades

list

Piñatas Pyramids Räuchermann Seals Secret Santa Spanbaum Stamps Stockings Tree Twelve Days Wassailing Windows Yule
Yule
Goat Yule
Yule
log

By country

Australia and New Zealand Denmark Germany Hawaii Hungary Iceland Indonesia Ireland Mexico Norway Philippines Poland Romania Russia Scotland Serbia Sweden Ukraine

Music

Carols

list

Hit singles UK Hit singles US Music books

Carols for Choirs The Oxford Book of Carols The New Oxford Book of Carols Piae Cantiones

Other media

Films Poetry

"Old Santeclaus with Much Delight" "A Visit from St. Nicholas"

Television

specials Yule
Yule
Log

In modern society

Advent
Advent
Conspiracy Black Friday (partying) Black Friday (shopping) Bronner's Christmas
Christmas
Wonderland Christmas
Christmas
club Christmas
Christmas
creep Christmas
Christmas
Day (Trading) Act 2004 Christmas
Christmas
Lectures Christmas
Christmas
Mountains Christmas
Christmas
truce Controversies Cyber Monday Economics Giving Tuesday El Gordo Holiday season In July In August Leon Day NBA games NFL games Puritan New England American Civil War Post-War United States Running of the Santas SantaCon Santa's Candy Castle Small Business Saturday Super Saturday Virginia O'Hanlon White Christmas Winter festivals WWE Tribute to the Troops Xmas

Food and drink

Dinner

Joulupöytä Julebord Kūčios Réveillon Twelve-dish supper Smörgåsbord Wigilia

Sweets

bûche de Noël Cake Candy cane Cookies Fruitcake Gingerbread Kourabiedes Melomakarono Mince pie Pavlova Pecan pie Pumpkin pie Pudding Rosca de reyes Szaloncukor Turrón

Soup

Menudo

Sauce

Cranberry sauce

Beverages

Apple cider Champurrado Eggnog Mulled wine

Smoking Bishop

Ponche crema

Dumpling

Hallaca Tamale

Meat

Ham Roast goose Romeritos Turkey Stuffing

.