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The Chishtī Order (Persian: چشتی‎ chishtī) is a Sunni
Sunni
Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam. It began in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
about 930 CE. The Chishti Order
Chishti Order
is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance, and openness.[1] The Chishti Order
Chishti Order
is primarily followed in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Indian subcontinent. It was the first of the four main Sufi orders (Chishti, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya
Suhrawardiyya
and Naqshbandi) to be established in this region. Moinuddin Chishti
Moinuddin Chishti
introduced the Chishti Order
Chishti Order
in Lahore (Punjab) and Ajmer
Ajmer
(Rajasthan), sometime in the middle of the 12th century CE. He was eighth in the line of succession from the founder of the Chishti Order, Abu Ishaq Shami. There are now several branches of the order, which has been the most prominent South Asian Sufi brotherhood since the 12th century.[2] In the last century, the order has spread outside Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Indian subcontinent. Chishti teachers have established centers in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Eastern and Southern Africa.

Contents

1 Guiding principles 2 Practices 3 Literature 4 Spiritual lineage 5 History 6 Mughal rulers 7 Other notable Chishti shaykhs 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Guiding principles[edit] The Chishti are perhaps best known for the welcome extended to seekers who belong to other religions. Chishti shrines in South Asia are open to all faiths and attract great crowds to their festivals. The Chishti shaykhs have also stressed the importance of keeping a distance from worldly power.[3] A ruler could be a patron or a disciple, but he or she was always to be treated as just another devotee. A Chishti teacher should not attend the court or be involved in matters of state, as this will corrupt the soul with worldly matters. In his last discourse to his disciples, Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti said:

“ Never seek any help, charity, or favors from anybody except God. Never go to the courts of kings, but never refuse to bless and help the needy and the poor, the widow, and the orphan, if they come to your door.[4] ”

Chishti believe that this insistence on otherworldliness differentiates them from Sufi orders that maintained close ties to rulers and courts, and deferred to aristocratic patrons. Chishti practice is also notable for sama: evoking the divine presence Sufi's use to listening to Qawwali.[5] The Chishti, as well as some other Sufi orders, believe that Qawwali
Qawwali
can help devotees forget self in the love of Allah. However, the order also insists that followers observe the full range of Muslim obligations; it does not dismiss them as mere legalism, as some strands of Sufism
Sufism
have done.[6] The Qawwali usually heard at Chisti shrines and festivals is qawwali. Practices[edit] The Chishtis follow five basic devotional practices (dhikr).[7]

Reciting the names of Allāh loudly, sitting in the prescribed posture at prescribed times (dhikr-i dzahir) Reciting the names of Allāh silently (dhikr-i khafī) Regulating the breath (pās-i anfās) Absorption in mystic contemplation (murā-ḳāba) Forty days or more days of spiritual confinement in a lonely corner or cell for prayer and contemplation (čilla)

Literature[edit] Early Chishti shaykhs adopted concepts and doctrines outlined in two influential Sufi texts: the ʿAwārif al-Maʿārif of Shaykh
Shaykh
Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī and the Kashf
Kashf
al-Maḥdjūb of Hudjwīrī. These texts are still read and respected today. Chishtis also read collections of the sayings, speeches, poems, and letters of the shaykhs. These collections, called malfūẓāt, were prepared by the shaykh's disciples.[8] Spiritual lineage[edit] Sufi orders trace their origins ultimately to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who is believed to have instructed his successor in mystical teachings and practices in addition to the Qur'an
Qur'an
or hidden within the Qur'an. Opinions differ as to this successor. Some Sufi orders trace their lineage to Abu Bakr, the first Sunni
Sunni
caliph, others to 'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Muhammad's cousin, whom the Shi'a
Shi'a
regard as the first imam. The Chishti, though Sunni, trace their lineage through Ali. This is not unusual for Sufi orders, which tend to stress devotion rather than legalism and sectarianism. The traditional silsila (spiritual lineage) of the Chishti order is as follows:[9]

'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib Al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 728, an early Persian Muslim theologian) 'Abdul Wāḥid Bin Zaid Abul Faḍl (d. 793, an early Sufi saint) Fuḍayl ibn 'Iyāḍ Bin Mas'ūd Bin Bishr al-Tamīmī Ibrāhīm bin Adham (a legendarly early Sufi ascetic) Ḥudhayfah al-Mar'ashī Amīnuddīn Abū Ḥubayrah al-Baṣrī Mumshād Dīnwarī Abu Ishaq Shamī (d. 940, founder of the Chishti order proper) Abu Ahmad Chishtī Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Chishtī Abu Yusuf Nasar-ud-Din Chishtī (d. 1067) Qutab-ud-Din Maudood Chishtī (Abu Yusuf's son, d. 1139) Haji Sharif Zindani (d. 1215) Usman Harooni
Usman Harooni
(d. 1220) Mu'īnuddīn Chishtī (1141-1230) Qutab-ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki (1173-1228) Farīduddīn Mas'ūd ("Baba Farid", 1173 or 1175 - 1266)

After Farīduddīn Mas'ūd, the Chishti order divided into two branches:

Chishtī Sabri, who follow Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari
Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari
(Sabiri/Sabriya branch) Chishtī Nizami who follow Nizāmuddīn Auliyā. (Nizami/Nizamiya branch) Chishtī nasiruddin chrag dehli After nasiruddin charag the Chishti order divided into two branches: *Chishti kamaloddin allama & chishtyi bandanawaz gesudaraz

History[edit]

Mughal princess Jahan Ara's tomb (left), Nizamuddin Auliya's tomb (right) and Jama'at Khana
Jama'at Khana
Masjid (background), at Nizamuddin Dargah complex, in Nizamuddin West, Delhi

The Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
divides Chishti history into four periods:

Era of the great shaykhs (circa 597/1200 to 757/1356) Era of the provincial khānaḳāhs (8th/14th & 9th/15th centuries) Rise of the Ṣābiriyya branch (9th/15th century onwards) Revival of the Niẓāmiyya branch (12th/18th century onwards[10])

The order was founded by Abu Ishaq Shami ("the Syrian") who taught Sufism
Sufism
in the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat
Herat
in present-day western Afghanistan.[11] Before returning to Syria, where he is now buried next to Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
at Jabal Qasioun[12] Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local emir, Abu Ahmad Abdal.[13] Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad’s descendants, the Chishtiya as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order.[14] The founder of the Chishti Order
Chishti Order
in South Asia was Moinuddin Chishti. He was born in the province of Silistan in eastern Persia around 536 AH (1141 CE), into a sayyid family claiming descent from Muhammad.[15] When he was only nine, he memorized the Qur'an, thus becoming a hafiz. His father died when he was a teenager; Moinuddin inherited the family grinding mill and orchard. He sold everything and gave the proceeds to the poor. He traveled to Balkh
Balkh
and Samarkand, where he studied the Qur'an, hadith, and fiqh.[16] He looked for something beyond scholarship and law and studied under the Chishti shaykh Usman Harooni. He moved to Lahore
Lahore
and then to Ajmer, where he died. His tomb, in Ajmer, is the Dargah
Dargah
Sharif, a popular shrine and pilgrimage site. Moinuddin was followed by Qutab-ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki and Farīduddīn Mas'ūd 'Baba Farid'. After Fariduddin, the Chishti Order
Chishti Order
of South Asia split into two branches. Each branch was named after one of Fariduddin's successors:

Nizamuddin Auliya
Nizamuddin Auliya
- This branch became the Chishti Nizami branch. Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari
Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari
- This branch became the Chishti-Sabiri branch.

It was after Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya
Nizamuddin Auliya
that Chisti Sufism
Sufism
chain spread through far and wide of Indian Peninsula. Two prominent lines of transmission arose from Hazrat Nuizamuddin Auliya, one from his disciple Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
and the other from another disciple Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind, who migrated to West Bengal from Delhi
Delhi
on Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya's order. Hzarat Siraj Aanae Hind was followed by his notable disciple Alaul Haq Pandavi settled in Pandava, West Bengal itself. From this chain of transmission another prominent sub-branch of Chishti way emerged known as Ashrafia Silsila
Silsila
after the illustrious saint Ashraf Jahangir
Jahangir
Semnani, who was the disciple of Alau Haq Pandavi in the thirteen century A.D. ]]. Later, yet other traditions branched from the Chisti lineage; in many cases they merged with other popular Sufi orders in South Asia. As a result of this merging of the Chishti order with other branches, most Sufi masters now initiate their disciples in all the four major orders of South Asia: Chishti, Suhrawadi, Qadri, and Naqshbandi. They do however, teach devotional practices typical of the order with which they are primarily associated. The Chishti order has also absorbed influences and merged at times with various antinomian fakir Sufi groups, especially the Qalandar. Some Chishtis both past and present have lived as renunciants or as wandering dervish.[17] In more recent times, a more contemporary expression of traditional Chishti Sufi practices can be found in the establishment of the Ishq-Nuri Tariqa[18] in the 1960s, as a branch of the Chishti-Nizami silsila.[19] In addition, a number of pseudo-Sufi or mixed-Sufi type groups or movements in Islam, have also been influenced by the Chishti Order proper[20] - the best known and most widespread example is of the Jamaat Ahle Sunnat, a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim sect with a huge international following, which is in essence not a proper Sufi organization though adopting many Sufi customs and traditions.[21] Mughal rulers[edit] Several rulers of the Mughal dynasty of South Asia were Chisti devotees. The emperor Akbar
Akbar
was perhaps the most fervent of them. It is said to be by the blessing of Shaikh Salim Chishti
Salim Chishti
that Akbar's first surviving child, the future Jahangir, was born. The child was named Salim after the sheikh and was affectionately addressed by Akbar as Sheikhu Baba. Akbar
Akbar
also credited the Chisti sheikhs with his victory at the Siege of Chittorgarh. Akbar
Akbar
had vowed to visit the Chisti dargah, the tomb of Moinuddin Chishti, at Ajmer
Ajmer
if he were victorious. He fulfilled his vow by visiting the dargah with his musicians, who played in honor of the sheikh. Shah Jahan's daughter, Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
Sahib, was also a devout follower of the Chisti Order.

The passing of Shah Jahan; attending him, his daughter Princess Jahanara.

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar
Akbar
was a great patron of the Chishti Order.

Other notable Chishti shaykhs[edit]

Tajuddin Chishti
Tajuddin Chishti
(Chishtian Sharif, Pakistan) Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
(Delhi, India) Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(Delhi, India) Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind (Dist. Malda, West Bengal, India) Alaul Haq Pandavi (Dist. Malda, West Bengal, India) Ashraf Jahangir
Jahangir
Semnani[22] (Kichaucha, Uttar Pradesh, India) Burhanuddin Gharib
Burhanuddin Gharib
(Maharashtra, India) Bande Nawaz
Bande Nawaz
(Gulbarga, India) Salim Chishti
Salim Chishti
(Fatehpur Sikri, India) Noor Muhammad
Muhammad
Maharvi (Mahar Sharif, Pakistan) Muhammad
Muhammad
Suleman Taunsvi (Taunsa Sharif, Pakistan) Ata Hussain Fani Chishti (Bihar, India) Khwaja Ghulam Farid
Khwaja Ghulam Farid
(Mithankot, Pakistan) Muhammad
Muhammad
Shamsuddin Sialvi (Sial Sharif, Pakistan) Meher Ali
Ali
Shah (Golra Sharif, Pakistan)[23] Inayat Khan
Inayat Khan
(Vadodara, Gujarat) Fariduddin Tavaela Bukhsh (Bihar, India) Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (Muzaffarnagar, India/Makkah, Saudi Arabia)

See also[edit]

Waris Shah Sabri Brothers Nusrat Fateh Ali
Ali
Khan Hakim Ahmad Shuja Sufi Ruhaniat International Syed Waheed Ashraf

Notes[edit]

^ Ernst, Carl W. and Lawrence, Bruce B. (2002) Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order
Chishti Order
in South Asia and Beyond Palgrave Macmillan, New Yorks 1234567 4039-6026-7 ^ Rozehnal, Robert. Islamic Sufism
Sufism
Unbound: Politics and Piety in Twenty-First Century Pakistan. Palgrave MacMillan, 2007. Print. ^ Sufi martyrs of love By Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, p. 4. ^ Chishti, Hakim Moinuddin (1991). The Book of Sufi Healing. Rochester: Inner Traditions International. ISBN 0-89281-324-5.  ^ Sufi martyrs of love By Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, p. 5. ^ Sufi martyrs of love By Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, p. 5. ^ Nizami, K.A. "Čishtiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2011. Brill Online. Augustana. 6 April 2011 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM -0141>. ^ Böwering, Gerhard. "Cestiya." Encyclopaedia Iranica. Online Edition. Vol. 5. 1992. Web. <http://www.iranica.com/articles/cestiya>. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariya Kandhalvi. Mashaikh-e-Chisht. Trans. Majlisul Ulama of South Africa., available at Scribd ^ Nizami, K.A. "Čishtiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2011. Brill Online. Augustana. 6 April 2011 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM -0141>. ^ ORIGIN OF CHISHTIES. Retrieved August 15, 2008. ^ The Sufis of Britain: an exploration of Muslim identity By Ron Geaves. Cardiff Academic Press, 2000, p. 87. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian philosophy, Volume 2 By Vraj Kumar Pandey. Anmol Publications, 2007, p. 78. ^ The Sufis of Britain: an exploration of Muslim identity By Ron Geaves. Cardiff Academic Press, 2000, p. 87. ^ Nizami, K.A. "Čishtī, Ḵhwādja Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2011. Brill Online. Augustana. 6 April 2011 <http://www.brillonline.nl /subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-1623>. ^ Haeri, Muneera. The Chishtis: A Living Light. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000. Print. ^ Frembgen, Jurgin Wasim. Journey to God: Sufis and Dervishes in Islam. Oxford University Press, USA, 2008, pp. 94-95. ISBN 978-0-19-547642-2. ^ Popular in South Asia, in particular parts of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. See Dr Annemarie Schimmel, in article 'The Chishti Sufis of South Asia--Tradition and Evolution in the 20th Century' in Anderoon: Sufi Journal, Vol 82, np, nd ^ Schimmel, as cited above ^ Dr M Z Akhund 'Sufis in the Subcontinent and their impact on Islamic society' Lahore, Navratna Pubs, Urdu
Urdu
Bazar, 1957. pp 12, 109-115 ^ Akhund, 114-115 ^ *Hayate Makhdoom Syed Ashraf Jahangir
Jahangir
Semnani(1975) Second Edition (2017) ISBN 978-93-85295-54-6, Maktaba Jamia Ltd, Shamshad Market, Aligarh 202002, India ^ special Sufi literature feature, article by Shaykh
Shaykh
Omer Tarin
Omer Tarin
No73, May–June 2017

References[edit]

Haeri, Muneera (2000) The Chishtis: a living light Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, ISBN 0-19-579327-7 Ernst, Carl W. and Lawrence, Bruce B. (2002) Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order
Chishti Order
in South Asia and Beyond Palgrave Macmillan, New York, ISBN 1-4039-6026-7. Excerpts Farīdī, Iḥtishāmuddīn (1992) Tārīk̲h̲-i iblāg̲h̲-i Cisht Āl Inḍiyā Baz-i Ḥanafī, Delhi, OCLC 29752219 in Urdu
Urdu
with biographies Āryā, Ghulām ‘Alī (2004) Ṭarīqah-i Chishtīyah dar Hind va Pākistān: ta’līf-i Ghulām‘alī Āryā Zavvār, Tehran, ISBN 964-401-200-3 in Persian Chopra, R.M., "SUFISM", 2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi. ISBN 978-93-85083-52-5.

External links[edit]

Ajmer
Ajmer
sharif site Ru

.