CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA (reign: 321–298 BCE) was the founder of the
Maurya Empire in ancient India. He was born in a humble family,
orphaned and abandoned, raised as a son by another pastoral family,
then according to Buddhist texts, was picked up, taught and counselled
Chanakya , the author of the
Arthashastra . Chandragupta
thereafter built one of the largest empires ever in the Indian
subcontinent . He then renounced it all, and became a monk in the
Chandragupta is claimed, by the historic Jain
texts, to have followed
Jainism in his life, by first renouncing all
his wealth and power, going away with Jaina monks into the Deccan
Karnataka ), and ultimately performing
Sallekhana – the
Jain religious ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting. His
grandson was emperor
Ashoka , famous for his historic pillars and for
his role in helping spread
Buddhism outside of ancient India.
Chandragupta's life and accomplishments are described in ancient
Hindu, Buddhist and Greek texts, but they vary significantly in
details from the Jaina accounts.
Megasthenes served as a Greek
ambassador in his court for four years. In Greek and
Chandragupta is known as SANDROKOTTOS and ANDROCOTTUS.
Chandragupta Maurya was a pivotal figure in the history of
Prior to his consolidation of power,
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great had invaded
the northwest Indian subcontinent, then abandoned further campaigning
in 324 BCE, leaving a legacy of Indian subcontinental regions ruled by
Indo-Greek and local rulers. The region was divided into
Mahajanapadas , while the
Nanda Empire dominated the Indo-Gangetic
Plain . Chandragupta, with the counsel of his Chief Minister Chanakya
Brahmin also known as Kautilya), created a new empire, applied
the principles of statecraft, built a large army and continued
expanding the boundaries of his empire. Greek rulers such as Seleucus
I Nicator avoided war with him, entered into marriage alliances
instead, and retreated into Persia. Chandragupta's empire extended
Bengal to most of the Indian subcontinent, except the
southernmost regions (now
Tamil Nadu ,
Kerala and nearby) and Kalinga
Odisha region). It was the largest ancient empire documented in
After unifying much of
Chanakya passed a
series of major economic and political reforms. He established a
strong central administration from
Pataliputra (now Patna), patterned
after Chanakya's text on governance and politics, the
India was characterised by an efficient and highly
organised structure. The empire built infrastructure such as
irrigation, temples, mines and roads, leading to a strong economy .
With internal and external trade thriving and agriculture flourishing,
the empire built a large and trained permanent army to help expand and
protect its boundaries. Greek records suggest that art and city
architecture thrived during his rule. Chandragupta's reign, as well
the dynasty that followed him, was an era when many religions thrived
in India, with
Ajivika gaining prominence along
* 1 Biographical sources
* 2 Early life
* 3 Building the Empire
* 3.1 Eastward expansion and the end of Nanda empire
* 3.2 Conquest of northwest regions
* 3.3 War and marriage alliance with Seleucus
* 3.4 Southern conquest
* 3.5 Army
* 4 Rule, succession and death
* 4.1 Infrastructure projects
* 4.2 Arts and architecture
* 4.3 Succession
* 4.4 Death
* 5 In popular culture
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Sources
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
The sources which describe the life of
Chandragupta Maurya vary in
details, and are found in Jain, Buddhist, Brahmanic (Hindu),
* Jain sources are
Bhadrabahu 's Kalpasutra and
* Brahmanical sources are the
* Buddhist sources are
Mahavamsa tika and
* Greek and
Latin sources include those by Nearchus, Onesicritus,
Aristobublus, Strabo, Megasthenes, Diodorus, Arrian, Pliny the Elder,
Plutarch and Justin.
(322 BCE–180 BCE)
Ancestry of Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta's ancestry , birth year and family as well as early life
are unclear. This contrasts with abundant historical records, both in
Indian and classical European sources, that describe his reign and
empire. The Greek and
Latin literature phonetically transcribes
Chandragupta, referring to him with the names "Sandrokottos" or
"Androcottus". According to Radhakumud Mookerji
* The Greek sources are the oldest recorded versions available, and
mention his rise in 322/321 BCE after
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great ended his
campaign in 324 BCE and began returning to Greece from northwest
India. These sources state
Chandragupta to be of non-princely and
non-warrior ancestry, to be of a humble commoner birth.
* The Buddhist sources, written centuries later, claim that both
Chandragupta and his grandson, the great patron of
Ashoka , were of noble lineage. Some texts link him to the same family
of Sakyas from which the
Buddha came, adding that his epithet Moriya
(Sanskrit: Maurya, Mayura) comes from Mora, which in Pali means
peacock. Most Buddhist texts state that
Chandragupta was a Kshatriya,
the Hindu warrior class in
Magadha and a student of Chanakya. The
Buddhist texts are inconsistent, with some including legends about a
city named "Moriya-nagara" where all buildings were made of bricks
colored like the peacock's resplendent neck.
* The Jain sources, also written centuries later, claim Chandragupta
to be the son of a village chief, a village known for raising
* The Hindu sources are similarly from later centuries. They state
Chandragupta was a student of
Chanakya (also called Kautilya) of
humble birth. The
Puranas composed after about the 3rd century CE
mention that Kautilya was a Brahmin, praise Kautilya, mention
Chandragupta but most are silent about his lineage or origins. A few
Hindu texts state that he was born to a
Shudra woman, alternatively in
a peacock rearing family – a profession that is neither priestly nor
warrior. An Ashokan pillar discovered and excavated in Nandangarh,
suggests that a peacock was the emblem of Maurya dynasty and likely
linked to the dynastic lineage.
According to Kaushik Roy, both
Chandragupta Maurya and the Nanda
dynasty he replaced were of
Shudra lineage. After his birth, he was
orphaned and abandoned, raised as a son by a cowherding pastoral
family, then, according to Buddhist texts, was picked up, taught and
counselled by Chanakya. The Buddhist literature, which places the
Mauryas in the same royal dynasty as the Buddha, states that
Chandragupta, though born near
Patna (Bihar) in Magadha, was taken by
Chanakya for his training and education to
Taxila , a town in what is
Pakistan . There he studied for eight years. The Greek
and Hindu texts state that Kautilya (Chanakya) was a native of the
northwest Indian subcontinent, and
Chandragupta was his resident
student for eight years.
BUILDING THE EMPIRE
Main articles: Conquest of the
Nanda Empire and
Chandragupta's guru was Chanakya, with whom he studied as a child and
with whose counsel he built the Empire. (An image is a 1915 artistic
portrait of Chanakya.)
According to the Buddhist text
Chandragupta and his
Chanakya began recruiting an army after he completed his studies
Taxila (now in Pakistan). This was a period of wars, given that
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great had invaded the northwest subcontinent from
Caucasus Indicus (also called
Paropamisadae in ancient texts, now
Hindu Kush mountain range). Alexander and the Greeks
abandoned further campaigns of expansion in 324 BCE, and began a
retreat to Greece, leaving a legacy of
Indian subcontinent regions
ruled by new Greek governors and local rulers. A supply of warriors
was already in place, and the future emperor and his teacher chose to
build alliances with local rulers and a small mercenary army of their
Chanakya also identified talent for future administration. By
323 BCE, within a year of Alexander's retreat, this newly formed group
had defeated some of the Greek-ruled cities in the northwest
subcontinent. Each victory led to an expanded army and territory.
Chanakya provided the strategy,
Chandragupta the execution, and
together they began expanding eastward towards
Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana
Nanda circa 323 BCE
EASTWARD EXPANSION AND THE END OF NANDA EMPIRE
Historically reliable details of Chandragupta's campaign into
Pataliputra are unavailable; the legends written centuries later are
inconsistent. According to Buddhist texts such as Milindapanha, which
Chandragupta descended from Sakyas (the family of the Buddha),
Magadha was ruled by the evil Nanda dynasty, which Chandragupta, with
Chanakya's counsel, easily conquered to restore dhamma. In contrast,
Hindu and Jain records suggest that campaign was bitterly fought,
because the Nanda dynasty had a well trained, powerful army.
Chanakya built alliances and a formidable army of
their own first.
Vishakhadatta as well as the Jain work
Parishishtaparvan , for example, state that
Chandragupta allied with a
Himalayan king called Parvatka. It is noted in the Chandraguptakatha
Chanakya were initially rebuffed by the Nanda
forces. Regardless, in the ensuing war,
Chandragupta faced off against
Bhadrasala, the commander of Dhana Nanda's armies. He was eventually
able to defeat Bhadrasala and Dhana Nanda in a series of battles,
culminating in the siege of the capital city
Pataliputra and the
conquest of the
Nanda Empire around 322 BCE. With the end of the
Nanda dynasty, and possessing the resources of the Gangetic plains,
Chandragupta put to work the statecraft strategies of Chanakya. In
his efforts to expand and consolidate an empire,
Chandragupta may have
allied with the King of
Rajputana and Gajapati , King of
Kalinga (modern day Orissa ).
Chandragupta had defeated the
remaining Macedonian satrapies in the northwest of the Indian
subcontinent by 317 BCE.
The conquest was fictionalised in
Mudrarakshasa , a political drama
in Sanskrit by
Vishakadatta composed 600 years later, probably
sometime between 300 CE and 700 CE. In another work, Questions of
Milinda , Bhaddasala is named as a Nanda general during the conquest.
Plutarch does not discuss this conquest, but does estimate that
Chandragupta's army would later number 600,000 by the time it had
subdued all of India, an estimate also given by Pliny . Pliny and
Plutarch also estimated the Nanda Army strength in the east as 200,000
infantry , 80,000 cavalry , 8,000 chariots , and 6,000 war elephants .
These estimates were based in part of the earlier work of the Seleucid
ambassador to the Maurya,
In the fictional work of doubtful historicity Mudrarakshasa,
Chandragupta was said to have first acquired
Punjab , and then
combined forces with a local king named Parvatka under the advice of
Chanakya, and advanced upon the Nanda Empire.
Chandragupta laid siege
Pataliputra , now
Patna ), the capital of Magadha,
with the help of mercenaries from areas already conquered and by
deploying guerrilla warfare methods. P. K. Bhattacharyya states that
the empire was built by a gradual conquest of provinces after the
initial consolidation of Magadha.
CONQUEST OF NORTHWEST REGIONS
After Alexander's death in 323 BCE,
Chandragupta and his Brahmin
counsellor and chief minister
Chanakya began their empire building in
Indian subcontinent (modern-day
Alexander had left satrapies (described as "prefects" in classical
Western sources) in place in 324 BCE. Chandragupta's mercernaries may
have assassinated two of his governors, Nicanor and Philip . The
satrapies he fought probably included Eudemus , who left the territory
in 317 BCE; and Peithon , governing cities near the
Indus River until
he too left for
Babylon in 316 BCE. The Roman historian Justin, about
500 years later, described how "wild lions and elephants"
instinctively revered him, and how he conquered the north-west:
While he (
Sandrocottus ) was lying asleep, after his fatigue, a lion
of great size having come up to him, licked off with his tongue the
sweat that was running from him, and after gently waking him, left
him. Being first prompted by this prodigy to conceive hopes of royal
dignity, he drew together a band of robbers, and solicited the Indians
to support his new sovereignty. Some time after, as he was going to
war with the generals of Alexander, a wild elephant of great bulk
presented itself before him of its own accord, and, as if tamed down
to gentleness, took him on its back, and became his guide in the war,
and conspicuous in fields of battle. Sandrocottus, having thus
acquired a throne, was in possession of India, when Seleucus was
laying the foundations of his future greatness; who, after making a
league with him, and settling his affairs in the east, proceeded to
join in the war against Antigonus. As soon as the forces, therefore,
of all the confederates were united, a battle was fought, in which
Antigonus was slain, and his son Demetrius put to flight. — Marcus
Junianus Justinus , 2nd-century CE, Epitome of the Philippic History
of Pompeius Trogus, Book XV, Translator: John Selby Watson, XV.4.19
WAR AND MARRIAGE ALLIANCE WITH SELEUCUS
Chandragupta extended the borders of his empire towards Seleucid
Persia after his conflict with Seleucus c. 305 BCE.
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator , a Macedonian general of Alexander, who, in 312
BCE, established the
Seleucid Kingdom with its capital at Babylon,
reconquered most of Alexander's former empire in Asia and put under
his own authority the eastern territories as far as
Bactria and the
Appian , History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), and in 305 BCE
he entered into conflict with
Chandragupta (in Greek Sandrocottus):
Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and
persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia,
Armenia , '
Hyrcania , and other adjacent peoples that had been
subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the
boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of
Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to
Seleucus. He crossed the Indus and waged war with
Sandrocottus , king
of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came
to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage
relationship. Some of these exploits were performed before the death
of Antigonus and some afterward. —
Appian , History of Rome, The
Syrian Wars 55
R. C. Majumdar and D. D. Kosambi, Seleucus appears to
have fared poorly, having ceded large territories west of the Indus to
Maurya Empire added
Gedrosia (modern Balochistan ),
According to Strabo,
Chandragupta engaged in a marital alliance with
Seleucus to formalise the peace treaty: "Chandra Gupta Maurya
entertains his bride from Babylon": a conjectural interpretation of
the "marriage agreement" between the Seleucids and Chandragupta
Maurya, related by
The Indians occupy in part some of the countries situated along the
Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the
Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But
Seleucus Nicator gave them to
Sandrocottus in consequence of a
marriage contract (
Epigamia , Greek: Ἐπιγαμία), and received
in return five hundred elephants. —
The details of the engagement treaty are not known, but since the
extensive sources available on Seleucus never mention an Indian
princess, it is thought that the marital alliance went the other way,
Chandragupta himself or his son
Bindusara marrying a Seleucid
princess, in accordance with contemporary Greek practices to form
dynastic alliances. An Indian
Puranic source, the
Pratisarga Parva of
Purana , described the marriage of
Chandragupta with a
Yavana ") princess, daughter of Seleucus, before accurately
detailing early Mauryan genealogy:
Chandragupta married with a daughter of Suluva , the
Yavana king of
Pausasa . Thus, he mixed the Buddhists and the Yavanas. He ruled for
60 years. From him, Vindusara was born and ruled for the same number
of years as his father. His son was
Ashoka ." —
Megasthenes lived in
Pataliputra , as ambassador from Seleucus to
In a return gesture,
Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants , which
played a key role in the victory of Seleucus at the
Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus .
In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,
Megasthenes , to Chandragupta, and later Antiochos sent
Bindusara , at the Maurya court at
Pataliputra (modern Patna
Bihar state ).
According to Greek sources, the two rulers maintained friendly
relations and presents continued to be exchanged between them.
Classical sources have recorded that following their treaty,
Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when
Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus:
"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous
efficacy in such matters as to make people more amorous. And
Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which
Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to
act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while
some, on the contrary, were to banish love"
Athenaeus of Naucratis
Athenaeus of Naucratis ,
The deipnosophists " Book I, chapter 32
The extent of Chandragupta's empire are unclear. If Jain texts
are correct, it may have included the Deccan regions.
After annexing Seleucus' provinces west of the Indus river,
Chandragupta had a vast empire extending across the northern parts of
Indian Sub-continent , from the Bay of
Bengal to the
Arabian Sea .
Chandragupta then began expanding his empire further south beyond the
barrier of the
Vindhya Range and into the
Deccan Plateau . By the
time his conquests were complete, Chandragupta's empire extended over
most of the Indian subcontinent.
A "Moriya" war in south is referred three times in the Tamil work
Ahananuru , and once in
Purananuru . These mention how Moriya army
chariots cut through rocks, but it is unclear if this refers to
Chandragupta Maurya or the Moriyas in the Deccan region of the 5th
Chandragupta's army was large, well trained and paid directly by the
state as suggested by his counsellor Chanakya. It was estimated at
hundreds of thousands of soliders in Greek accounts. For example, his
army is mentioned to have 400,000 soldiers, according to
Megasthenes was in the camp of Sandrocottus, which consisted of
400,000 men. —
Strabo , Geographica , 15.1.53
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder , who also drew from Megasthenes' work, gives even
larger numbers of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war
Mudrarakshasa mentions that Chandragupta's army consisted
of Sakas, Yavanas (Greeks), Kiratas, Kambojas, Parasikas and Bahlikas.
RULE, SUCCESSION AND DEATH
Chandragupta Maurya applied the statecraft and economic policies
described in Chanakya's
Arthashastra . There are varying accounts
in the historic, legendary and hagiographic literature of various
Indian religions about Chandragupta, but these claims, state Allchin
and Erdosy, are suspect. They add that the evidence is, however, not
limited to texts, but include those discovered at archeological sites,
epigraphy in the centuries that followed and the numismatic data, and
"one cannot but be struck by the many close correspondences between
Arthashastra and the two other major sources the
(Buddhist) Asokan inscriptions and (Greek)
The Maurya rule was a structured administration, where Chandragupta
had a council of ministers (amatya), the empire was organized into
territories (janapada), centers of regional power were protected with
forts (durga), state operations funded with treasury (kosa).
Silver punch mark coin of the
Maurya empire , with symbols of
wheel and elephant (3rd century BCE)
Ancient epigraphical evidence suggests that
under counsel from Chanakya, started and completed many irrigation
reservoirs and networks across the
Indian subcontinent in order to
ensure food supplies for civilian population and the army, a practice
continued by his dynastic successors. Regional prosperity in
agriculture was one of the required duties of his state officials.
Rudradaman inscriptions found in Gujarat mention that it repaired and
enlarged, 400 years later, the irrigation infrastructure built by
Chandragupta and enhanced by Asoka.
Chandragupta's state also started mines, centers to produce goods,
and networks for trading these goods. His rule developed land routes
for goods transportation within the Indian subcontinent, disfavoring
Chandragupta expanded "roads suitable for carts",
preferring these over those narrow tracts that allowed only pack
Didarganj Yakshi , discovered in 1917 buried in the
banks of Ganges. Dating varies from 3rd century BCE, to the 2nd
According to Kaushik Roy, the Maurya dynasty rulers, beginning with
Chandragupta, were "great road builders". This was a tradition the
Megasthenes credited to
Chandragupta with the
completion of a thousand-mile-long highway connecting Chandragupta's
Pataliputra in Bihar to
Taxila in the northwest where he
studied. The other major strategic road infrastructure credited to
this tradition spread from
Pataliputra in various directions: one
connecting it to Nepal, Kapilavastu, Kalsi (now Dehradun), Sasaram
(now Mirzapur), Kalinga (now Odisha), Andhra and Karnataka. This
infrastructure not only boosted trade and commerce, states Roy, but
also helped move his armies rapidly and more efficiently than ever
Chandragupta and his counsel
Chanakya seeded weapon manufacturing
centers, and kept it a monopoly of the state. However, the state
encouraged competing private parties to operate mines and supply these
centers. They considered economic prosperity as essential to the
pursuit of dharma (morality), adopting a policy of avoiding war with
diplomacy, yet continuously preparing the army for war to defend its
interests, and other ideas in the
ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE
The evidence of arts and architecture during Chandragupta's time is
limited, predominantly texts such as those by
Kautilya's Arthashastra. The edict inscriptions and carvings on
monumental pillars are attributed to his grandson Ashoka. The texts
imply cities, public works and prosperous architecture, but the
historicity of these is in question.
Archeological discoveries in the modern age, such as Didarganj Yakshi
discovered in 1917 buried beneath the banks of the River Ganges
suggest exceptional artisanal accomplishment. It has been dated to
the 3rd century BCE by many scholars, but later dates such as 2nd
century BCE or the
Kushan era (1st-4th century CE) have also been
proposed. The competing theories are that the arts linked to
Chandragupta Maurya's dynasty was learnt from the Greeks and West Asia
in the years
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great waged war, while the other credits
more ancient indigenous Indian tradition. According to Frederick
Asher, "we cannot pretend to have definitive answers; and perhaps, as
with most art, we must recognize that there is no single answer or
After Chandragupta's renunciation, his son
Bindusara succeeded as the
Maurya Emperor. He maintained friendly relations with Greek governors
in Asia and Egypt. Bindusara's son
Ashoka became one of the most
influential rulers in India's history due to his extension of the
Empire to the entire
Indian subcontinent as well as his role in the
worldwide propagation of
Shravanabelagola relief created nearly 1,000 years after the
death of Chadragupta. It depicts the Jain legend about his arrival
According to Jain accounts written more than 1,000 years later, such
as those in Brihakathā kośa (931 CE) of Harishena, Bhadrabāhu
charita (1450 CE) of Ratnanandi, Munivaṃsa bhyudaya (1680 CE) and
Chandragupta renounced his throne and followed Jain
Bhadrabahu to south India. He is said to have lived as an
Shravanabelagola for several years before fasting to death,
as per the Jain practice of sallekhana .
Along with texts, several Jain monumental inscriptions dating from
the 7th-15th century refer to
conjunction. This evidence is very late and anachronistic, and
questionable in its historicity, but suggests the importance of
Chandragupta Maurya in Jain culture. The hill on which Chandragupta
is stated in Jain tradition to have performed asceticism is now known
Chandragiri hill , and there is a temple named
The Hindu texts acknowledge the close relationship between the Jain
Pataliputra and the royal court, and that the champion of
Chanakya himself employed Jains as his emissaries. This
indirectly confirms the possible influence of Jain thought on
According to Kaushik Roy,
Chandragupta renounced his wealth and
power, crowned his son as his successor about 298 BCE, and died about
IN POPULAR CULTURE
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* D L Roy Wrote a drama named
Chandragupta based on the life of
Chandragupta. The story of the play is loosely borrowed from the
Puranas and the Greek history.
* Chanakya's role in the formation of the
Maurya Empire is the
essence of a historical/spiritual novel The Courtesan and the Sadhu by
Dr. Mysore N. Prakash.
* The story of
Chandragupta was made into a film in
Telugu Language in 1977 titled
Chandragupta . Akkineni
Nageswara Rao played the role of
Chanakya , while N. T. Rama Rao
* The television series
Chanakya is an account of the life and times
of Chanakya, based on the play "Mudra Rakshasa" (The Signet Ring of
* In 2011, a television series called Chandragupt Maurya was
Imagine TV .
Indian Postal Service
Indian Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp
Chandragupta Maurya in 2001.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA .
* History portal
Ancient Macedonian army
List of Indian monarchs
Rags to riches
* ^ According to Kaushik Roy,
Chandragupta Maurya was a Shudra
* ^ Old Jaina texts report that
Chandragupta was a follower of that
religion and ended his life in
Karnataka by fasting unto death. If
this report is true,
Chandragupta may have started the conquest of the
* ^ Aria (modern
Herat ) "has been wrongly included in the list of
ceded satrapies by some scholars on the basis of wrong assessments of
the passage of
Strabo and a statement by Pliny." Seleucus "must
have held Aria", and furthermore, his "son Antiochos was active there
fifteen years later." (Grainger, John D. 1990, 2014. Seleukos Nikator:
Constructing a Hellenistic Kingdom. Routledge. p. 109).
* ^ A B C D E F
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* ^ A B
Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 331.
* ^ A B Mookerji 1988 , p. 40.
* ^ A B Asha Raj Kumari (1996). Ancestry and achievements of
Chandragupta Maurya, in Prajñā-bhāratī. K.P. Jayaswal Research
Institute. pp. 112–113.
OCLC 655222361 .
Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 330.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 40-41.
* ^ A B Roy 2012 , p. 62.
* ^ A B C Mookerji 1988 , pp. 15-18.
* ^ A B C D E F Roy 2012 , pp. 61-62.
* ^ A B C D Kulke James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism.
Infobase Publishing. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 .
* ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1962). Aśoka (3rd Revised., repr ed.).
Motilal Banarsidass (reprint 1995). pp. 60–64. ISBN
* ^ Jerry Bentley (1993), Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural
Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, Oxford University Press,
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 2-14, 229-235.
* ^ A B Thapar 2004 , p. 177.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 2.
* ^ Sastri 1988 , p. 26.
* ^ Modelski, George (1964). "Kautilya: Foreign Policy and
International System in the Ancient Hindu World". American Political
Science Review. Cambridge University Press. 58 (03): 549–560. doi
:10.2307/1953131 . ; Quote: "Kautilya is believed to have been
Brahmin who served as Chief Minister to Chandragupta
(321–296 B.C.), the founder of the Mauryan Empire."
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 2-3, 35-38.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 1-4.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 1.
* ^ Vaughn, Bruce (2004). "Indian Geopolitics, the United States
and Evolving Correlates of Power in Asia". Geopolitics. 9 (2):
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* ^ Goetz, H. (1955). "Early Indian Sculptures from Nepal". Artibus
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* ^ A B Mookerji 1988 , pp. 13-18.
* ^ F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , pp. 187-195.
* ^ A B C D Roy 2012 , pp. 62-63.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 219-223.
* ^ Gananath Obeyesekere (1980). Wendy Doniger, ed. Karma and
Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. University of California
Press. pp. 137–139 with footnote 3. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0 .
* ^ Henry Albinski (1958), The Place of the Emperor Asoka in
Ancient Indian Political Thought, Midwest Journal of Political
Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, pages 62-75
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 3-14.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 5-16.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 1-6.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 3.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 5-6.
* ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 32.
* ^ A B Mookerji 1988 , pp. 13-14.
* ^ A B C Mookerji 1988 , pp. 7-13.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 15.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 18-23, 53-54, 140-141.
* ^ Modelski, George (1964). "Kautilya: Foreign Policy and
International System in the Ancient Hindu World.". American Political
Science Review. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 58 (03): 549–560.
doi :10.2307/1953131 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 22-27.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 2, 25-29.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 31-33.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 33-35.
* ^ Romila Thapar (2013). The Past Before Us. Harvard University
Press. pp. 362–364. ISBN 978-0-674-72651-2 .
* ^ A B R.K. Sen (1895). "Origin of the Maurya of
Magadha and of
Chanakya". Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India. The Society.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 28-33.
* ^ John Marshall Taxila, p. 18, and al.
* ^ Sastri 1988 , p. 25.
* ^ A B C D Mookerji 1988 , p. 6.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 47-53, 79-85.
* ^ Roy 2015 , pp. 46-50.
* ^ A B Bhattacharyya 1977 , p. 8.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 165-166.
* ^ Roy 2012 , pp. 27, 61-62.
* ^ R.G. Grant: Commanders, Penguin (2010). pg. 49
* ^ Modelski, George (1964). "Kautilya: Foreign Policy and
International System in the Ancient Hindu World". American Political
Science Review. Cambridge University Press. 58 (03): 549–560. ISSN
0003-0554 . doi :10.2307/1953131 . ; Quote: "Kautilya is believed to
have been Chanakya, a
Brahmin who served as Chief Minister to
Chandragupta (321–296 B.C.), the founder of the Mauryan Empire."
* ^ Thomas R. Trautmann (2012). Arthashastra: The Science of
Wealth. Penguin. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-670-08527-9 . , Quote: "We
can confirm from other texts that Kautilya (or Kautalya - the name
varies) is a
Brahmin gotra name. (...) This Kautilya, author of
Arthashastra , is identified with Chanakya, minister to the first
Mauryan king, Chandragupta, and depicted in stories as the brains
behind Chandragupta's takeover of the empire of the Nandas in about
321 BCE. The adventures of
Chandragupta are told in a
cycle of tales preserved in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain books."
* ^ Boesche 2003 , p. 9-37.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 36.
* ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 34.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 36-37, 105.
* ^ Walter Eugene, Clark (1919). "The Importance of Hellenism from
the Point of View of Indic-Philology". Classical Philology. 14 (4):
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* ^ Raychaudhuri & Mukherjee 1996 , p. 594.
* ^ A B Mookerji 1988 , p. 37.
* ^ History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
* ^ "
* ^ Barua, Pradeep. The State at War in South Asia. Vol. 2. U of
Nebraska Press, 2005. pp13-15 via
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* ^ A B C
Thomas McEvilley , "The Shape of Ancient Thought",
Allworth Press, New York, 2002, ISBN 1581152035 , p.367
* ^ A B Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar,
Northern Book Centre, 1992, p.83
* ^ The country is transliterated as "Pausasa" in the online
Pratisarga Parva p.18 and in Encyclopaedia of Indian
Traditions and Cultural Heritage, Anmol Publications, 2009, p.18; and
"Paursa" in the original Sanskrit of the first two verses given in
Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern
Book Centre, 1992, p.83:
* ^ Translation given in: Encyclopaedia of Indian Traditions and
Cultural Heritage, Anmol Publications, 2009, p.18. Also online
Pratisarga Parva p.18.
* ^ Original Sanskrit of the first two verses given in Foreign
Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book
Centre, 1992, p.83: "
Chandragupta Sutah Paursadhipateh Sutam.
Suluvasya Tathodwahya Yavani Baudhtatapar".
* ^ India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 106-107
* ^ Majumdar 2003 , p. 105.
* ^ Tarn, W. W. (1940). "Two Notes on
Seleucid History: 1.
Seleucus' 500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita". The Journal of Hellenic Studies.
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* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 38.
* ^ Ath. Deip. I.32
* ^ Sastri 1988 , p. 18.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 41-42.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 75, 164-172.
* ^ MegasthenesIndika VI, 22.4
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 27.
* ^ MV Krishna Rao (1958, Reprinted 1979), Studies in Kautilya, 2nd
OCLC 551238868 , ISBN 978-8121502429 , pages 13-14, 231-233
* ^ Olivelle 2013 , pp. 31-38.
* ^ A B F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , pp. 187-194.
* ^ F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , pp. 189-192.
* ^ F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , pp. 192-194.
* ^ F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , p. 189.
* ^ F. R. Allchin & George Erdosy 1995 , pp. 194-195.
* ^ A B C Tapati Guha-Thakurta (2006). Partha Chatterjee and Anjan
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* ^ "A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone
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Pearson Education India,
* ^ ""Ayodhya, Archaeology After Demolition: A Critique of the
"new" and "fresh" Discoveries", by Dhaneshwar Mandal, Orient
Blackswan, 2003, p.46
* ^ "A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture" by Deborah S.
Hutton, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p.435
* ^ Roy 2012 , pp. 63-64.
* ^ Roy 2012 , pp. 64-68.
* ^ Olivelle 2013 , pp. 49-51, 99-108, 277-294, 349-356, 373-382.
* ^ Thomas Harrison (2009). The Great Empires of the Ancient World.
Getty Publications. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0-89236-987-4 .
* ^ Frederick Asher (2015). Rebecca M. Brown and Deborah S. Hutton,
ed. A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. pp.
421–423. ISBN 978-1-119-01953-4 .
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 39-40.
* ^ Samuel 2010 , pp. 60.
* ^ Thapar 2004 , p. 178.
* ^ A B Mookerji 1988 , pp. 39-41.
* ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , pp. 64-65.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 41.
* ^ The Courtesan and the Sadhu, A Novel about Maya, Dharma, and
God, October 2008,
Dharma Vision LLC., ISBN 978-0-9818237-0-6 ,
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* Bhattacharyya, Pranab Kumar (1977), Historical Geography of
Madhyapradesh from Early Records,
* Boesche, Roger (January 2003), "Kautilya\'s Arthaśāstra on War
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* Boesche, Roger (2002). The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya
and His Arthashastra. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0401-2 .
* Kangle, R. P. (1969). Kautilya Arthashastra, 3 vols. Motilal
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* Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space,
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* Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India
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* Rangarajan, L.N. (1992). Kautilya: The Arthashastra. Penguin
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* Raychaudhuri, H. C. ; Mukherjee, B. N. (1996), Political History
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* Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval
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Library resources about
* Online books
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
* Habib, Irfan. and Jha, Vivekanand. Mauryan India: A People's
History of India, New Delhi, Tulika Books, 2016
* Bongard-Levin, G. M. Mauryan
India (Stosius Inc/Advent Books
Division May 1986) ISBN 0-86590-826-5
* Mudrarakshas, Bharatendu Harischandra (1925, in Hindi)
* Indica by