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Catholic
Catholic
theology is the understanding of Catholic
Catholic
doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on canonical scripture and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic
Catholic
Church.[1][2] This article serves as an introduction to various topics in Catholic theology, with links to where fuller coverage is found. Major teachings of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which were discussed in the early councils of the Church are summarized in various creeds, especially the Nicene (Nicene-Constantinopolitan) Creed
Creed
and the Apostles' Creed. Since the 16th century the church has produced catechisms which summarize its teachings, most recently in 1992.[3][4] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
understands the living tradition of the church to contain the essentials of its doctrine on faith and morals and to be protected from error, at times through infallibly defined teaching.[5] The Church believes in a Spirit-guided revelation in sacred scripture, developed in sacred tradition but entirely out of the original deposit of faith. This developed deposit of faith is protected by the "magisterium" or College of Bishops at ecumenical councils overseen by the pope,[6] beginning with the Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
(c. AD 50).[7] The most recent was the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
(1962 to 1965); twice in history the pope defined a dogma after consultation with all the bishops without calling a council.[8] Formal Catholic
Catholic
worship is ordered by means of the liturgy, which is regulated by church authority. The celebration of the Eucharist, one of seven sacraments, is the center of Catholic
Catholic
worship. The Church exercises control over additional forms of personal prayer and devotion including the Rosary, Stations of the Cross, and Eucharistic adoration, declaring that they should all somehow derive from the Eucharist
Eucharist
and lead back to it.[9] The Church community consists of the ordained clergy (consisting of the episcopate, the priesthood, and the diaconate), the laity, and those like monks and nuns living a consecrated life under their constitutions. According to the Catechism, Christ
Christ
instituted seven sacraments and entrusted them to the Church.[10] These are Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony. The Catholic
Catholic
bishops at the Second Vatican Council, after centuries of celebration of the Mass in Latin, found it salutary to decree:

Pastors of souls must therefore realize that, when the liturgy is celebrated, something more is required than the mere observation of the laws governing valid and licit celebration; it is their duty also to ensure that the faithful take part fully aware of what they are doing, actively engaged in the rite, and enriched by its effects.[11]

Contents

1 Profession of Faith

1.1 Human capacity for God 1.2 God comes to meet humanity 1.3 Creeds

2 Scriptures 3 Celebration of the Christian mystery

3.1 Sacraments 3.2 Liturgy

3.2.1 Eastern Catholic 3.2.2 Liturgical calendar

4 Trinity

4.1 God the Father 4.2 God the Son 4.3 God the Holy Spirit

5 Soteriology

5.1 Sin
Sin
and salvation

5.1.1 Fall of Man 5.1.2 Sin 5.1.3 Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
as savior

5.2 Penance and conversion

5.2.1 Grace and free will 5.2.2 Forgiveness
Forgiveness
of sins 5.2.3 Baptism
Baptism
and second conversion 5.2.4 Penance and Reconciliation

5.3 Afterlife

5.3.1 Eschaton 5.3.2 Prayer for the dead and indulgences

5.4 Salvation
Salvation
outside the church

6 Ecclesiology

6.1 Church as the Mystical Body of Christ 6.2 One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic

7 Devotion to the Virgin Mary and the saints 8 Ordained ministry: Bishops, priests, and deacons

8.1 Apostolic succession 8.2 Clerical celibacy

9 Contemporary issues

9.1 Catholic
Catholic
social teaching 9.2 Creation and evolution

10 Comparison of traditions

10.1 Latin
Latin
and Eastern Catholicism 10.2 Orthodox and Protestant

11 See also 12 References and notes

12.1 Works cited

Profession of Faith[edit] Human capacity for God[edit] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that "The desire for God is written in the human heart, because man is created by God and for God; and God never ceases to draw man to himself."[12] While man may turn away from God, God never stops calling man back to him.[13] Because man is created in the image and likeness of God, man can know with certainty of God's existence from his own human reason.[14] But while "Man's faculties make him capable of coming to a knowledge of the existence of a personal God," in order "for man to be able to enter into real intimacy with him, God willed both to reveal himself to man, and to give him the grace of being able to welcome this revelation in faith."[15] In summary, the Church teaches that "Man is by nature and vocation a religious being. Coming from God, going toward God, man lives a fully human life only if he freely lives by his bond with God."[16] God comes to meet humanity[edit] The Church teaches that God revealed himself gradually, beginning in the Old Testament, and completing this revelation by sending his son, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, to Earth as a man. This revelation started with Adam and Eve,[17] and was not broken off by their original sin;[18] rather, God promised to send a redeemer.[19] God further revealed himself through covenants between Noah
Noah
and Abraham.[20][21] God delivered the law to Moses on Mount Sinai,[22] and spoke through the Old Testament prophets.[23] The fullness of God's revelation was made manifest through the coming of the Son of God, Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[24] Creeds[edit] Main article: Creed

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this section: Apostles
Apostles
Creed Athanasian Creed Nicene Creed

Creeds (from Latin
Latin
credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulas and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. The Apostles
Apostles
Creed
Creed
(Symbolum Apostolorum) was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. It is the most popular creed used in worship by Western Christians. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity
Trinity
and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.[25] The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively,[26] and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the Council of Ephesus in 431.[27] It sets out the main principles of Catholic
Catholic
Christian belief.[28] This creed is recited at Sunday Masses and is the core statement of belief in many other Christian churches as well.[28][29] The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451,[30] though not accepted by the Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Churches,[31] taught Christ
Christ
"to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.[32] The Athanasian Creed, received in the western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian[citation needed], says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity
Trinity
in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."[33] Scriptures[edit] Main article: Catholic
Catholic
theology of Scripture Christianity
Christianity
regards the Bible, a collection of canonical books in two parts (the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament), as authoritative. It is believed by Christians to have been written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and therefore for many it is held to be the inerrant Word of God.[34][35][36] Protestant Christians believe that the Bible
Bible
contains all revealed truth necessary for salvation. This concept is known as Sola scriptura.[37] The books that are considered canon in the Bible
Bible
vary depending upon the denomination using or defining it. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions and councils that have convened on the subject. The Bible
Bible
always includes books of the Jewish scriptures, the Tanakh, and includes additional books and reorganizes them into two parts: the books of the Old Testament
Old Testament
primarily sourced from the Tanakh
Tanakh
(with some variations), and the 27 books of the New Testament
New Testament
containing books originally written primarily in Greek.[38] The Roman Catholic and Orthodox canons include other books from the Septuagint
Septuagint
Greek Jewish canon which Roman Catholics call Deuterocanonical.[39] Protestants consider these books apocryphal. Some versions of the Christian Bible
Bible
have a separate Apocrypha section for the books not considered canonical by the publisher.[40] Roman Catholic
Catholic
theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual.[41] The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation. The spiritual sense has three subdivisions: the allegorical, moral, and anagogical (meaning mystical or spiritual) senses.

The allegorical sense includes typology. An example would be the parting of the Red Sea being understood as a "type" (sign) of baptism.[42] The moral sense understands the scripture to contain some ethical teaching. The anagogical interpretation includes eschatology and applies to eternity and the consummation of the world.

Roman Catholic
Catholic
theology adds other rules of interpretation which include:

the injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal;[43] the historical character of the four Gospels, and that they faithfully hand on what Jesus
Jesus
taught about salvation;[44] that scripture must be read within the "living Tradition of the whole Church";[45] the task of authentic interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the pope.[46]

Celebration of the Christian mystery[edit] Sacraments[edit] Main article: Sacraments of the Catholic
Catholic
Church There are seven sacraments of the church, of which the most important is the Eucharist.[47] According to the Catechism, these sacraments were instituted by Christ
Christ
and entrusted to the church.[10] They are vehicles through which God's grace flows into the person who receives them with the proper disposition.[10][48] In order to obtain the proper disposition, people are encouraged, and in some cases required, to undergo sufficient preparation before being permitted to receive certain sacraments.[49] And in receiving the sacraments, the Catechism advises: "To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand, is to fall into superstition."[50] Participation in the sacraments, offered to them through the church, is a way Catholics obtain grace, forgiveness of sins and formally ask for the Holy Spirit.[10][51][52][53][54] These sacraments are: Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance and Reconciliation, the Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony. In the Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches, these are often called the holy mysteries rather than the sacraments.[55] Liturgy[edit] Main articles: Eucharist
Eucharist
( Catholic
Catholic
Church), Catholic
Catholic
liturgy, and Sacraments of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist
Eucharist
at the canonization of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
on 11 May 2007

Sunday is a holy day of obligation for Catholics that requires them to attend Mass. At Mass, Catholics believe that they respond to Jesus' command at the Last Supper
Last Supper
to "do this in remembrance of me."[56] In 1570 at the Council of Trent, Pope
Pope
Pius V codified a standard book for the celebration of Mass for the Roman Rite.[57][58] Everything in this decree pertained to the priest celebrant and his action at the altar.[58] The participation of the people was devotional rather than liturgical.[58] The Mass text was in Latin, as this was the universal language of the church.[57] This liturgy was called the Tridentine Mass and endured universally until the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
approved the Mass of Paul VI, also known as the New Order of the Mass (Latin: Novus Ordo Missae), which may be celebrated either in the vernacular or in Latin.[58] The Catholic
Catholic
Mass is separated into two parts. The first part is called Liturgy of the Word; readings from the Old and New Testaments are read prior to the gospel reading and the priest's homily. The second part is called Liturgy of the Eucharist, in which the actual sacrament of the Eucharist
Eucharist
is celebrated.[59] Catholics regard the Eucharist
Eucharist
as "the source and summit of the Christian life",[47] and believe that the bread and wine brought to the altar are changed, or transubstantiated, through the power of the Holy Spirit into the true body, blood, soul and divinity of Christ.[60] Since his sacrifice on the Cross and that of the Eucharist
Eucharist
"are one single sacrifice",[61] the Church does not purport to re-sacrifice Jesus
Jesus
in the Mass, but rather to re-present (i.e., make present)[62] his sacrifice "in an unbloody manner".[61] Eastern Catholic[edit] See also: Divine Liturgy In the Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches, the term Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
is used in place of Mass, and various Eastern rites are used in place of the Roman Rite. These rites have remained more constant than has the Roman Rite, going back to early church times. Eastern Catholic
Catholic
and Orthodox liturgies are generally quite similar. The liturgical action is seen as transcending time and uniting the participants with those already in the heavenly kingdom. Elements in the liturgy are meant to symbolize eternal realities; they go back to early Christian traditions which evolved from the Jewish-Christian traditions of the early church. The first part of the Liturgy, or "Liturgy of the Catechumens", has scripture readings and at times a homily. The second part derives from the Last Supper
Last Supper
as celebrated by the early Christians. The belief is that by partaking of the Communion bread and wine, the Body and Blood of Christ, they together become the body of Christ
Christ
on earth, the Church.[63] Liturgical calendar[edit] Main articles: Liturgical calendar
Liturgical calendar
and General Roman Calendar In the Latin
Latin
Church, the annual calendar begins with Advent, a time of hope-filled preparation for both the celebration of Jesus' birth and his Second Coming
Second Coming
at the end of time. Readings from "Ordinary Time" follow the Christmas Season, but are interrupted by the celebration of Easter
Easter
in Spring, preceded by 40 days of Lenten preparation and followed by 50 days of Easter
Easter
celebration. The Easter
Easter
(or Paschal) Triduum splits the Easter
Easter
vigil of the early church into three days of celebration, of Jesusthe Lord's Supper, of Good Friday
Good Friday
(Jesus' passion and death on the cross), and of Jesus' resurrection. The season of Eastertide
Eastertide
follows the Triduum and climaxes on Pentecost, recalling the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus' disciples in the upper room.[64] Trinity[edit] Main article: Trinity

"Hospitality of Abraham" by Andrei Rublev: The three angels represent the three persons of God

The Trinity
Trinity
refers to the belief in one God, in three distinct persons or hypostases. These are referred to as 'the Father' (the creator and source of all life), 'the Son' (the word or expression of the Father, who also became incarnate in Jesus
Jesus
Christ), and 'the Holy Spirit' (the bond of love between Father and Son, present in the hearts of humankind). Together, these three persons form a single Godhead.[65][66][67] The word trias, from which trinity is derived, is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. He wrote of "the Trinity
Trinity
of God (the Father), His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)".[68] The term may have been in use before this time. Afterwards it appears in Tertullian.[69][70] In the following century the word was in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen.[71] According to this doctrine, God is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole; rather, each person is considered to be fully God (see Perichoresis). The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten; the Son being eternal yet begotten of the Father; and the Holy Spirit 'proceeding' from Father and (in Western theology) from the Son.[72] Regardless of this apparent difference in their origins, the three 'persons' are each eternal and omnipotent. This is thought by Trinitarian Christians to be the revelation regarding God's nature which Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
came to deliver to the world, and is the foundation of their belief system. According to a prominent Catholic
Catholic
theologian of the 20th century: "In God’s self communication to his creation through grace and Incarnation, God really gives himself, and really appears as he is in himself.” This would lead to the conclusion that we come to a knowledge of the immanent Trinity
Trinity
through the study of God's work in the "Economy".of creation and salvation.[73] God the Father[edit] Main article: God the Father
God the Father
§ Christianity

Saint
Saint
Michael—one of three archangels—defeating Lucifer

The central statement of Catholic
Catholic
faith, the Nicene Creed, begins, "I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible." Thus, Catholics believe that God is not a part of nature, but that God created nature and all that exists. God is viewed as a loving and caring God who is active both in the world and in people's lives, and desires humankind to love one another.[74] God the Son[edit] Main articles: God the Son, Son of God
Son of God
§ Christianity, Divine filiation, Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity, and Jesus Catholics believe that Jesus
Jesus
is God incarnate, "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered our pain and temptations, but did not sin.[75] As true God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the New Testament, "God raised him from the dead,"[76] he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father"[77] and will return again[78] to fulfil the rest of Messianic prophecy, including the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
and final establishment of the Kingdom of God. According to the gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus
Jesus
was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical gospels, although infancy gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, are well documented in the gospels contained within the New Testament. The biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, healings, teaching, and "going about doing good".[79] God the Holy Spirit[edit] Main article: Holy Spirit (Christianity) Jesus
Jesus
told his apostles that after his death and resurrection he would send them the "Advocate" (Greek: Παράκλητος, translit. Paraclete; Latin: Paracletus), the "Holy Spirit", who "will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you".[80][81] In the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, Jesus
Jesus
tells his disciples "If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!"[82] The Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
states that the Holy Spirit is one with God the Father
God the Father
and God the Son
God the Son
(Jesus); thus, for Catholics, receiving the Holy Spirit is receiving God, the source of all that is good.[83] Catholics formally ask for and receive the Holy Spirit through the sacrament of Confirmation (Chrismation). Sometimes called the sacrament of Christian maturity, Confirmation is believed to bring an increase and deepening of the grace received at Baptism,[82] to which it was cojoined in the early church. Spiritual graces or gifts of the Holy Spirit can include wisdom to see and follow God's plan, right judgment, love for others, boldness in witnessing the faith, and rejoicing in the presence of God.[84] The corresponding fruits of the Holy Spirit are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.[84] To be validly confirmed, a person must be in a state of grace, which means that they cannot be conscious of having committed a mortal sin. They must also have prepared spiritually for the sacrament, chosen a sponsor or godparent for spiritual support, and selected a saint to be their special patron.[82]

Soteriology[edit] Main articles: Soteriology
Soteriology
and Salvation
Salvation
(Christianity) Sin
Sin
and salvation[edit] Soteriology
Soteriology
is the branch of doctrinal theology that deals with salvation through Christ.[85] Eternal life, divine life,cannot be merited but is a free gift of God. The crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
is explained as an atoning sacrifice, which, in the words of the Gospel of John, "takes away the sins of the world." One's reception of salvation is related to justification.[86] Fall of Man[edit] Main article: Fall of Man According to church teaching, in an event known as the "fall of the angels" a number of angels chose to rebel against God and his reign.[87][88][89] The leader of this rebellion has been given many names including "Lucifer" (meaning "light bearer" in Latin), "Satan", and the devil. The sin of pride, considered one of seven deadly sins, is attributed to Satan
Satan
for desiring to be God's equal.[90] According to Genesis, a fallen angel tempted the first humans, Adam and Eve, who then sinned, bringing suffering and death into the world. The Catechism
Catechism
states:

The account of the fall in Genesis 3 uses figurative language, but affirms a primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man. — CCC § 390[87]

Original sin
Original sin
does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam's descendants. It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice, but human nature has not been totally corrupted: it is wounded in the natural powers proper to it, subject to ignorance, suffering and the dominion of death, and inclined to sin—an inclination to evil that is called concupiscence. — CCC § 405[89]

Sin[edit] Main article: Sin Christians classify certain behaviors and acts to be "sinful". Which means that these certain acts are a violation of conscience or divine law. Roman Catholics make a distinction between two types of sin.[91] Mortal sin
Mortal sin
is a "grave violation of God's law" that "turns man away from God",[92] and if it is not redeemed by repentance it can cause exclusion from Christ's kingdom and the eternal death of hell.[93] In contrast, venial sin (meaning "forgivable" sin) "does not set us in direct opposition to the will and friendship of God"[94] and, although still "constituting a moral disorder",[95] does not deprive the sinner of friendship with God, and consequently the eternal happiness of heaven.[94] Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
as savior[edit] Main articles: Christian views of Jesus, Christ, and Redeemer (Christianity)

A depiction of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary, the Theotokos
Theotokos
of Vladimir (12th century)

In the Old Testament, God promised to send his people a savior.[96] The Church believes that this savior was Jesus
Jesus
whom John the Baptist called "the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world". The Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
refers to Jesus
Jesus
as "the only begotten son of God, … begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father. Through him all things were made." In a supernatural event called the Incarnation, Catholics believe that God came down from heaven for our salvation, became man through the power of the Holy Spirit and was born of a virgin Jewish girl named Mary. They believe that Jesus' mission on earth included giving people his word and example to follow, as recorded in the four Gospels.[97] The Church teaches that following the example of Jesus
Jesus
helps believers to grow more like him, and therefore to true love, freedom, and the fullness of life.[98][99] The focus of a Christian's life is a firm belief in Jesus
Jesus
as the Son of God and the "Messiah" or "Christ". The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word "Christ".[100] Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus
Jesus
was anointed by God as ruler and savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah
Messiah
differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[101] Roman Catholics believe in the resurrection of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus, the central figure of Christianity, was crucified, died, buried within a tomb, and resurrected three days later.[102] The New Testament
New Testament
mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus
Jesus
on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[103] before Jesus' Ascension. Jesus's death and resurrection are the essential doctrines of the Christian faith, and are commemorated by Christians during Good Friday
Good Friday
and Easter, as well as on each Sunday and in each celebration of the Eucharist, the Paschal feast. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.[104] As Paul the Apostle, an early Christian convert, wrote, "If Christ
Christ
was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless".[105][106] The death and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
are the most important events in Christian Theology, as they form the point in scripture where Jesus
Jesus
gives his ultimate demonstration that he has power over life and death and thus the ability to give people eternal life.[107] Generally, Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus.[108][109] Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus
Jesus
and the proclamation of the early church.[110] Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection,[111][112] but hold to a convincing interior experience of Jesus' Spirit in members of the early church. The Church teaches that as signified by the passion of Jesus
Jesus
and his crucifixion, all people have an opportunity for forgiveness and freedom from sin, and so can be reconciled to God.[96][113] Sinning according to the Greek word in scripture, amartia, "falling short of the mark", succumbing to our imperfection: we always remain on the road to perfection.in this life.[94] People can sin by failing to obey the Ten Commandments, failing to love God, and failing to love other people. Some sins are more serious than others, ranging from lesser, venial sins, to grave, mortal sins that sever a person's relationship with God.[94][114][115] Penance and conversion[edit] Grace and free will[edit] Further information: Infused righteousness The operation and effects of grace are understood differently by different traditions. Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
and Eastern Orthodoxy teach the necessity of the free will to cooperate with grace.[116] This does not mean we can come to God on our own and then cooperate with grace, as Semipelagianism, an early church heresy, postulates. Human nature is not evil, since God creates no evil thing, but we continue in or are inclined to sin (concupiscence). We need grace from God to be able to "repent and believe in the gospel." Reformed theology, by contrast, teaches that people are completely incapable of self-redemption to the point that human nature itself is evil, but the grace of God overcomes even the unwilling heart.[117] Arminianism
Arminianism
takes a synergistic approach while Lutheran
Lutheran
doctrine teaches justification by grace alone through faith alone, though "a common understanding of the doctrine of justification" has been reached with some Lutheran
Lutheran
theologians.[118] Forgiveness
Forgiveness
of sins[edit] Further information: Baptism
Baptism
§  Baptism
Baptism
and salvation in Catholic teaching, and Penance ( Catholic
Catholic
Church) According to Roman Catholicism, pardon of sins and purification can occur during life – for example, in the sacraments of Baptism[119] and Reconciliation.[120] However, if this purification is not achieved in life, venial sins can still be purified after death.[121] The sacrament of Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick is performed only by a priest, since it involves elements of forgiveness of sin. The priest anoints with oil the head and hands of the ill person while saying the prayers of the Church.[122] Baptism
Baptism
and second conversion[edit] Main article: Baptism People can be cleansed from all personal sins through Baptism.[123] This sacramental act of cleansing admits one as a full member of the Church and is only conferred once in a person's lifetime.[123] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considers baptism, even for infants, so important that "parents are obliged to see that their infants are baptised within the first few weeks" and, "if the infant is in danger of death, it is to be baptised without any delay."[124] It declares: "The practice of infant Baptism
Baptism
is an immemorial tradition of the Church. There is explicit testimony to this practice from the second century on, and it is quite possible that, from the beginning of the apostolic preaching, when whole 'households' received baptism, infants may also have been baptized."[125] At the Council of Trent, on 15 November 1551, the necessity of a second conversion after baptism was delineated:[126]

This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, clasping sinners to her bosom, is at once holy and always in need of purification, and follows constantly the path of penance and renewal. Jesus' call to conversion and penance, like that of the prophets before Him, does not aim first at outward works, "sackcloth and ashes," fasting and mortification, but at the conversion of the heart, interior conversion. (CCC 1428[127] and 1430[128])

David MacDonald, a Catholic
Catholic
apologist, has written in regards to paragraph 1428, that "this endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is the movement of a "contrite heart," drawn and moved by grace to respond to the merciful love of God who loved us first."[129] Penance and Reconciliation[edit] Main article: Penance ( Catholic
Catholic
Church) Since Baptism
Baptism
can only be received once, the sacrament of Penance or Reconciliation is the principal means by which Catholics may obtain forgiveness for subsequent sin and receive God's grace and assistance not to sin again. This is based on Jesus' words to his disciples in the Gospel
Gospel
of John 20:21–23.[130] A penitent confesses his sins to a priest who may then offer advice or impose a particular penance to be performed. The penitent then prays an act of contrition and the priest administers absolution, formally forgiving the person's sins.[131] A priest is forbidden under penalty of excommunication to reveal any matter heard under the seal of the confessional. Penance helps prepare Catholics before they can validly receive the Holy Spirit in the sacraments of Confirmation (Chrismation) and the Eucharist.[132][133][134] Afterlife[edit] Eschaton[edit]

Main article: Christian eschatology The Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
ends with, "We look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come." Accordingly, the Church teaches that each person will appear before the judgment seat of Christ immediately after death and receive a particular judgment based on the deeds of their earthly life.[135] Chapter 25:35–46 of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew underpins the Catholic
Catholic
belief that a day will also come when Jesus
Jesus
will sit in a universal judgment of all humankind.[136][137] The final judgment will bring an end to human history. It will also mark the beginning of a new heaven and earth in which righteousness dwells and God will reign forever.[138] There are three states of afterlife in Catholic
Catholic
belief. Heaven
Heaven
is a time of glorious union with God and a life of unspeakable joy that lasts forever.[135] Purgatory
Purgatory
is a temporary state of purification for those who, although saved, are not free enough from sin to enter directly into heaven. It is a state requiring purgation of sin through God's mercy aided by the prayers of others.[135] Finally, those who freely chose a life of sin and selfishness, were not sorry for their sins, and had no intention of changing their ways go to hell, an everlasting separation from God. The Church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without freely deciding to reject God's love.[135] God predestines no one to hell and no one can determine whether anyone else has been condemned.[135] Catholicism
Catholicism
teaches that God's mercy is such that a person can repent even at the point of death and be saved, like the good thief who was crucified next to Jesus.[135][139] At the second coming of Christ
Christ
at the end of time, all who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgement, whereupon Jesus
Jesus
will fully establish the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies.[140][141] Prayer for the dead and indulgences[edit] Main articles: Prayer for the dead, Indulgences, and Protestant Reformation

The pope depicted as the Antichrist, signing and selling indulgences, from Martin Luther's 1521 Passional Christi und Antichristi, by Lucas Cranach the Elder[142]

The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that the fate of those in purgatory can be affected by the actions of the living.[143] In the same context there is mention of the practice of indulgences. An indulgence is a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven.[144] Indulgences
Indulgences
may be obtained for oneself, or on behalf of Christians who have died.[145] Prayers for the dead and indulgences have been envisioned as decreasing the "duration" of time the dead would spend in purgatory. Traditionally, most indulgences were measured in term of days, "quarantines" (i.e. 40-day periods as for Lent), or years, meaning that they were equivalent to that length of canonical penance on the part of a living Christian.[146] When the imposition of such canonical penances of a determinate duration fell into desuetude these expressions were sometimes popularly misinterpreted as reduction of that much time of a person's stay in purgatory.[146] (The concept of time, like that of space, is of doubtful applicability to purgatory.) In Pope
Pope
Paul VI's revision of the rules concerning indulgences, these expressions were dropped, and replaced by the expression "partial indulgence", indicating that the person who gained such an indulgence for a pious action is granted, "in addition to the remission of temporal punishment acquired by the action itself, an equal remission of punishment through the intervention of the Church."[147] Historically, the practice of granting indulgences and the widespread[148] associated abuses, which led to their being seen as increasingly bound up with money, with criticisms being directed against the "sale" of indulgences, were a source of controversy that was the immediate occasion of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in Germany and Switzerland.[149] Salvation
Salvation
outside the church[edit] Main article: Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church founded by Jesus. Concerning non-Catholics, the Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has this to say:

"Outside the Church there is no salvation."

Reformulated positively, this statement means that all salvation comes from Christ
Christ
the Head through the Church which is his Body:

Basing itself on Scripture and Tradition, the Council teaches that the Church, a pilgrim now on earth, is necessary for salvation: the one Christ
Christ
is the mediator and the way of salvation; he is present to us in his body which is the Church. He himself explicitly asserted the necessity of faith and Baptism, and thereby affirmed at the same time the necessity of the Church which men enter through Baptism
Baptism
as through a door. Hence they could not be saved who, knowing that the Catholic Church was founded as necessary by God through Christ, would refuse either to enter it or to remain in it.

This affirmation is not aimed at those who, through no fault of their own, do not know Christ
Christ
and his Church:

Those who, through no fault of their own, do not know the Gospel
Gospel
of Christ
Christ
or his Church, but who nevertheless seek God with a sincere heart, and, moved by grace, try in their actions to do his will as they know it through the dictates of their conscience – those too may achieve eternal salvation.

Although in ways known to himself God can lead those who, through no fault of their own, are ignorant of the Gospel, to that faith without which it is impossible to please him, the Church still has the obligation and also the sacred right to evangelize all men.[150]

Ecclesiology[edit]

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Main article: Ecclesiology
Ecclesiology
( Catholic
Catholic
Church) See also: Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of canon law Church as the Mystical Body of Christ[edit] See also: Mystici corporis Christi Catholics believe that the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the continuing presence of Jesus
Jesus
on earth.[151] Jesus
Jesus
told his disciples "Abide in me, and I in you. … I am the vine, you are the branches".[152] Thus, for Catholics, the term "Church" refers not merely to a building or exclusively to the ecclesiastical hierarchy, but first and foremost to the people of God who abide in Jesus
Jesus
and form the different parts of his spiritual body,[153][154] which together composes the worldwide Christian community. Catholic
Catholic
belief holds that the Church exists simultaneously on earth (Church militant), in Purgatory
Purgatory
(Church suffering), and in Heaven (Church triumphant); thus Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the other saints are alive and part of the living Church.[155] This unity of the Church in heaven and on earth is called the "communion of saints".[156][157][157] One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic[edit] Main articles: Subsistit in, Lumen gentium, and Dominus Iesus Section 8 of the Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium, states that "this Church constituted and organized in the world as a society, subsists in the Catholic
Catholic
Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him, although many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside of its visible structure. These elements, as gifts belonging to the Church of Christ, are forces impelling toward catholic unity."

Devotion to the Virgin Mary and the saints[edit] Main article: Marian doctrines of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

The Holy Family

Catholic
Catholic
belief holds that the church exists both on earth and in heaven simultaneously, and thus the Virgin Mary and the saints are alive and part of the living church. Prayers and devotions to Mary and the saints are common practices in Catholic
Catholic
life. These devotions are not worship, since only God is worshiped. The church teaches that the saints "do not cease to intercede with the Father for us. ... So by their fraternal concern is our weakness greatly helped."[157] Catholics venerate Mary with many titles such as "Blessed Virgin", "Mother of God". " Help of Christians", "Mother of the Faithful". She is given special honor and devotion above all other saints but this honor and devotion differs essentially from the adoration given to God.[158] Catholics do not worship Mary but honor her as mother of Christ, mother of the church and as a spiritual mother to each believer in Christ.[159] She is called the greatest of the saints, the first disciple, and Queen of Heaven.[159] Catholic
Catholic
belief encourages following her example of holiness.[159] Prayers and devotions asking for her intercession, such as the rosary, the Hail Mary, and the Memorare
Memorare
are common Catholic
Catholic
practice.[159] The Church devotes several liturgical feasts to Mary, mainly the Immaculate Conception, Mary, Mother of God, the Visitation, the Assumption, the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary; and in the Americas the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Pilgrimages to Marian shrines like Lourdes, France, and Fátima, Portugal, are also a common form of devotion and prayer. Ordained ministry: Bishops, priests, and deacons[edit] Main articles: Catholic Church
Catholic Church
hierarchy, College of Bishops, Priesthood ( Catholic
Catholic
Church), and Deacon

Roman Catholic
Catholic
deacon wearing a dalmatic

Men become bishops, priests or deacons through the sacrament of Holy Orders. Candidates to the priesthood must have a college degree in addition to another four years of theological training, including pastoral theology. The Catholic
Catholic
Church, following the Apostolic tradition, ordains only males.[160] The Church teaches that, apart from ministry reserved for priests, women should participate in all aspects in the church's life and leadership[161][162] The bishops are believed to possess the fullness of Christian priesthood; priests and deacons participate in the ministry of the bishop. As a body, the College of Bishops are considered to be the successors of the Apostles.[163][164] The pope, cardinals, patriarchs, primates, archbishops and metropolitans are all bishops and members of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
episcopate or College of Bishops. Only bishops are allowed to perform the sacrament of holy orders.[159] Many bishops head a diocese, which is divided into parishes. A parish is usually staffed by at least one priest. Beyond their pastoral activity, a priest may perform other functions, including study, research, teaching or office work. They may also be rectors or chaplains. Other titles or functions held by priests include those of Archimandrite, Canon Secular or Regular, Chancellor, Chorbishop, Confessor, Dean of a Cathedral Chapter, Hieromonk, Prebendary, Precentor, etc. Permanent deacons, those who do not seek priestly ordination, preach and teach. They may also baptize, lead the faithful in prayer, witness marriages, and conduct wake and funeral services.[165] Candidates for the diaconate go through a diaconate formation program and must meet minimum standards set by the bishops' conference in their home country. Upon completion of their formation program and acceptance by their local bishop, candidates receive the sacrament of Holy Orders. In August 2016 Pope
Pope
Francis established the Study Commission on the Women's Diaconate, to determine whether ordaining women as deacons should be revived. This would include the deacon's role of preaching at the Eucharist. While deacons may be married, only celibate men are ordained as priests in the Latin
Latin
Church.[166][167] Protestant clergy who have converted to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
are sometimes excepted from this rule.[168] The Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
ordain both celibate and married men.[168] All rites of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
maintain the ancient tradition that, after ordination, marriage is not allowed.[169] A married priest whose wife dies may not remarry.[169] Men with "transitory" homosexual leanings may be ordained deacons following three years of prayer and chastity, but men with "deeply rooted homosexual tendencies" who are sexually active cannot be ordained.[170] Apostolic succession[edit] Main article: Apostolic succession Apostolic succession
Apostolic succession
is the belief that the pope and Catholic
Catholic
bishops are the spiritual successors of the original twelve apostles, through the historically unbroken chain of consecration (see: Holy orders). The pope is the spiritual head and leader of the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church who makes use of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
to assist him in governing. He is elected by the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
who may choose from any male member of the church but who must be ordained a bishop before taking office. Since the 15th century, a current cardinal has always been elected.[171] The New Testament
New Testament
contains warnings against teachings considered to be only masquerading as Christianity,[172] and shows how reference was made to the leaders of the church to decide what was true doctrine.[173] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
believes that it is the continuation of those who remained faithful to the apostolic leadership and rejected false teachings.[174] Catholic
Catholic
belief is that the Church will never defect from the truth, and bases this on Jesus' telling Peter "the gates of hell will not prevail against" the church.[175] In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, Jesus
Jesus
states, "I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now. But when he comes, the Spirit of truth, he will guide you to all truth".[176] Clerical celibacy[edit] Main article: Clerical celibacy ( Catholic
Catholic
Church) Regarding clerical celibacy, the Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church states:

All the ordained ministers of the Latin
Latin
Church, with the exception of permanent deacons, are normally chosen from among men of faith who live a celibate life and who intend to remain celibate "for the sake of the kingdom of heaven." (Matthew 19:12) Called to consecrate themselves with undivided heart to the Lord and to "the affairs of the Lord," (1 Corinthians 7:32) they give themselves entirely to God and to men. Celibacy
Celibacy
is a sign of this new life to the service of which the Church's minister is consecrated; accepted with a joyous heart celibacy radiantly proclaims the Reign of God. In the Eastern Churches, a different discipline has been in force for many centuries. While bishops are chosen solely from among celibates, married men can be ordained as deacons and priests. This practice has long been considered legitimate; these priests exercise a fruitful ministry within their communities. Moreover, priestly celibacy is held in great honor in the Eastern Churches and many priests have freely chosen it for the sake of the Kingdom of God. In the East as in the West a man who has already received the sacrament of Holy Orders
Holy Orders
can no longer marry.[177]

The Catholic
Catholic
Church's discipline of mandatory celibacy for priests within the Latin Church
Latin Church
(while allowing very limited individual exceptions) has been criticized for not following either the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
practice, which rejects mandatory celibacy, or the Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches's and Eastern Orthodox Churches's practice, which requires celibacy for bishops and priestmonks and excludes marriage by priests after ordination, but does allow married men to be ordained to the priesthood. In July 2006, Bishop
Bishop
Emmanuel Milingo created the organization Married Priests Now![178] Responding to Milingo's November 2006 consecration of bishops, the Vatican stated "The value of the choice of priestly celibacy... has been reaffirmed."[179] Conversely, some young men in the United States are increasingly entering formation for the priesthood precisely because of the long-held, traditional teaching on priestly celibacy.[180] Contemporary issues[edit] Catholic
Catholic
social teaching[edit] Main article: Catholic
Catholic
social teaching Catholic social teaching
Catholic social teaching
is based on the teaching of Jesus
Jesus
and commits Catholics to the welfare of all others. Although the Catholic
Catholic
Church operates numerous social ministries throughout the world, individual Catholics are also required to practice spiritual and corporal works of mercy. Corporal works of mercy include feeding the hungry, welcoming strangers, immigrants or refugees, clothing the naked, taking care of the sick and visiting those in prison. Spiritual works require the Catholic
Catholic
to share their knowledge with others, comfort those who suffer, have patience, forgive those who hurt them, give advice and correction to those who need it, and pray for the living and the dead.[136]

The Last Judgment—Fresco in the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
by Michelangelo

Creation and evolution[edit] Main article: Evolution and the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church Today, the official Church's position remains a focus of controversy and is fairly non-specific, stating only that faith and scientific findings regarding human evolution are not in conflict, specifically:[181] the Church allows for the possibility that the human body developed from previous biological forms but it was by God's special providence that the immortal spirit was given to humankind.[182] This view falls into the spectrum of viewpoints that are grouped under the concept of theistic evolution (which is itself opposed by several other significant points-of-view; see Creation–evolution controversy for further discussion). Comparison of traditions[edit] Latin
Latin
and Eastern Catholicism[edit] Main articles: Latin Church
Latin Church
and Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
have as their theological, spiritual, and liturgical patrimony the traditions of Eastern Christianity. Thus, there are differences in emphasis, tone, and articulation of various aspects of Catholic
Catholic
theology between the Eastern and Latin
Latin
churches, as in Mariology. Likewise, medieval Western scholasticism, that of Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
in particular, has had little reception in the East. While Eastern Catholics respect papal authority, and largely hold the same theological beliefs as Latin
Latin
Catholics, Eastern theology differs on specific Marian beliefs. The traditional Eastern expression of the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, for instance, is the Dormition of the Theotokos, which emphasizes her falling asleep to be later assumed into heaven.[183] The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
is a teaching of Eastern origin, but is expressed in the terminology of the Western Church.[184] Eastern Catholics, though they do not observe the Western Feast of the Immaculate Conception, have no difficulty affirming it or even dedicating their churches to the Virgin Mary under this title.[185] Orthodox and Protestant[edit] Further information: Eastern Orthodox – Roman Catholic
Catholic
theological differences The beliefs of other Christian denominations differ from those of Catholics to varying degrees. Eastern Orthodox belief differs mainly with regard to papal infallibility, the filioque clause, and the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, but is otherwise quite similar.[186][187] Protestant churches vary in their beliefs, but they generally differ from Catholics regarding the authority of the pope and church tradition, as well as the role of Mary and the saints, the role of the priesthood, and issues pertaining to grace, good works, and salvation.[188] The five solas were one attempt to express these differences. See also[edit]

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal

Catholic Eastern Orthodox – Roman Catholic
Catholic
theological differences Eastern Orthodox – Roman Catholic
Catholic
ecclesiastical differences Catholicism Criticism of the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church Ecclesiology
Ecclesiology
( Catholic
Catholic
Church) General Roman Calendar Indult Catholic List of canonizations Lists of Roman Catholics Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of canon law Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
in Roman Catholicism Traditionalist Catholic

References and notes[edit] NOTA BENE:

CCC stands for Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. The number following CCC is the paragraph number, of which there are 2865. Paragraphs are cited thus: "CCC §###". CIC 1983 stands for the 1983 Code of Canon Law
Code of Canon Law
(from its Latin
Latin
name, Codex Iuris Canonici); canons are cited thus: "CIC 1983, c. ###".

^ "CCC, 74–95". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1953–1955". Vatican.va.  ^ Marthaler, Berard L., ed. (1994). "Preface". Introducing the Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church: Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3495-3.  ^ John Paul II (1997). "Laetamur magnopere". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2008-03-09.  ^ "CCC, 891". Vatican.va.  ^ McManners, John, ed. (2001). "Chapter 1". Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-19-285439-1. The 'synod' or, in Latin, 'council' (the modern distinction making a synod something less than a council was unknown in antiquity) became an indispensable way of keeping a common mind, and helped to keep maverick individuals from centrifugal tendencies. During the third century synodal government became so developed that synods used to meet not merely at times of crisis but on a regular basis every year, normally between Easter
Easter
and Pentecost.  ^ McManners, John, ed. (2001). "Chapter 1". Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-285439-1. In Acts 15 scripture recorded the apostles meeting in synod to reach a common policy about the Gentile mission.  ^ "When Does the Pope
Pope
Speak Infallibly?". Canon Law Made Easy. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2017-12-28.  ^ "Sacrosanctum concilium". www.vatican.va. 13. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ a b c d "CCC, 1131". Vatican.va.  ^ Sacrosanctum Concilium, 11. Retrieved December 28, 2017. ^ "CCC, 27". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 30". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 36". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 35". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 44". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 54". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 55". Vatican.va.  ^ Genesis 3:15 ^ "CCC, 56". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 59". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 62". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 64". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 65". Vatican.va.  ^ Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss, editors. Creeds and Confessions of Faith
Faith
in the Christian Tradition]. Yale University Press 2003 ISBN 0-300-09389-6. ^ Catholics United for the Faith, "We Believe in One God"; Encyclopedia of Religion, "Arianism" Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Council of Ephesus" (1913). ^ a b Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes (1910), pp. 24, 56 ^ Richardson, The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology
Christian Theology
(1983), p. 132 ^ Christian History Institute, First Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon Archived January 6, 2008, at Archive.is ^ British Orthodox Church, The Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Rejection of Chalcedon Archived June 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pope
Pope
Leo I, Letter to Flavian ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Athanasian Creed" (1913). ^ "CCC, 105–108". Vatican.va.  ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God Archived December 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, online text ^ Keith Mathison, The Shape of Sola Scriptura
The Shape of Sola Scriptura
(Canon Press, 2001) ^ PC(USA) – Presbyterian 101 – What is The Bible? ^ "CCC, 120". Vatican.va.  ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 39 Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5. ^ "CCC, 115–118". Vatican.va.  ^ 1 Corinthians 10:2 ^ Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
"Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses"; cf. "CCC, 116". Vatican.va.  Archived September 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
Dei Verbum (V.19) Archived May 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "CCC, 113". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 85". Vatican.va.  ^ a b "CCC, 1324". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1128". Vatican.va.  ^ Mongoven, Anne Marie (2000). The Prophetic Spirit of Catechesis: How We Share the Fire in Our Hearts. New York: Paulist Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-8091-3922-7. [better source needed] ^ "CCC, 2111". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1119". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1122". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1127". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1129". Vatican.va.  ^ "Divine Mysteries". Epiphany Byzantine Catholic
Catholic
Church. Retrieved 30 May 2016. [better source needed] ^ "CCC, 1341". Vatican.va.  ^ a b Waterworth, J (translation) (1564). "The Twenty-Second Session The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent". Hanover Historical Texts Project; The Council of Trent. London. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ a b c d McBride, Alfred (2006). " Eucharist
Eucharist
A Short History". Catholic
Catholic
Update (October). Archived from the original on 2008-02-18. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  ^ "CCC, 1346". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1375–1376". Vatican.va.  ^ a b "CCC, 1367". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1366". Vatican.va.  ^ "The Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
- Questions & Answers". oca.org. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ "CCC, 1095".  ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, pp. 87–90 ^ T. Desmond Alexander, New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, pp. 514–15 ^ Alister E. McGrath, Historical Theology p. 61 ^ Theophilus of Antioch
Theophilus of Antioch
Apologia ad Autolycum II 15 ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 50 Oxford University Press (1990) ISBN 0-19-822928-3. ^ Tertullian
Tertullian
De Pudicitia chapter 21 ^ McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 53. Oxford University Press (1990) ISBN 0-19-822928-3. ^ Vladimir Lossky; Loraine Boettner ^ " Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner
(Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology)". people.bu.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ "John 13:34".  ^ "Heb 4:15".  ^ Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21 ^ " Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
– Wikisource, the free online library". En.wikisource.org. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ Acts 1:9-11 ^ "Acts 10:38".  ^ John 14:15 ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 37 ^ a b c Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), pp. 230–31 ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 88 ^ a b Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), p. 277 ^ title url "Soteriology". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-31.  ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 405 Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5. ^ a b "CCC, 390". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 392". Vatican.va.  ^ a b "CCC, 405". Vatican.va.  ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), p. 57 ^ "CCC, 1854". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1855". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1861". Vatican.va.  ^ a b c d "CCC, 1863". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1875". Vatican.va.  ^ a b Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), pp. 71–72 ^ McGrath, Christianity: An Introduction (2006), pp. 4–6 ^ John 10:1–30 ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), p. 265 ^ McGrath, Alister E. Christianity:An Introduction. pp. 4–6. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. ^ Metzger, Bruce M. and Michael Coogan, editors. Oxford Companion to the Bible. pp. 513, 649. Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0-19-504645-5. ^ John 19:30–31, Mark 16:1, Mark 16:6 ^ 1 Cor. 15:6 ^ Lorenzen, Thorwald. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
Today. Smyth & Helwys (2003), p. 13. ISBN 1-57312-399-4 . ^ 1 Cor. 15:14) ^ Ball, Bryan and William Johnsson, editors. The Essential Jesus. Pacific Press (2002). ISBN 0-8163-1929-4. ^ John 3:16, 5:24, 6:39–40, 6:47, 10:10, 11:25–26, and 17:3. ^ This is drawn from a number of sources, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation
Reformation
including the Thirty Nine Articles
Thirty Nine Articles
of the Church of England, works contained in the Book
Book
of Concord, and others.[citation needed][clarification needed] ^ Two denominations in which a resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
is not a doctrine are the Quakers and the Unitarians.[citation needed] ^ Fuller, Reginald H. The Foundations of New Testament
New Testament
Christology. p. 11 Scribners (1965). ISBN 0-684-15532-X . ^ A Jesus
Jesus
Seminar conclusion: "in the view of the Seminar, he did not rise bodily from the dead; the resurrection is based instead on visionary experiences of Peter, Paul, and Mary." ^ Funk, Robert. The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus
Jesus
Really Do?. Polebridge Press (1998). ISBN 0-06-062978-9. ^ "CCC, 608". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1857". Vatican.va.  ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 77 ^ ""Grace and Justification"". Vatican.va.  ^ Westminster Confession, Chapter X Archived 2008-04-10 at the Wayback Machine.; Charles Spurgeon, A Defense of Calvinism
Calvinism
Archived 2008-04-10 at the Wayback Machine.. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-10.  ^ "Catholics and Lutherans Release 'Declaration on the Way' to Full Unity". www.usccb.org. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ "CCC, 1263". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1468". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1030". Vatican.va.  ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 373 ^ a b Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 308 ^ CIC 1983, c. 867. ^ "CCC, 1252". Vatican.va.  ^ Hindman, Ross Thomas (21 September 2008). The Great Divide. Retrieved 19 October 2009. Session 14 (November 15, 1551): The necessity of a "second conversion" after baptism is confirmed. According to the Catechism: "This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, clasping sinners to her bosom, is at once holy and always in need of purification, and follows constantly the path of penance and renewal" ("CCC, 1428". Vatican.va.  )  ^ "CCC, 1428". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1430". Vatican.va.  ^ David MacDonald (2003). "Are Catholics Born Again?". Retrieved 19 October 2009. I think that greater common ground can be found if we compare the Evangelical "Born Again" experience to the Catholic "Second Conversion" experience which is when a Catholic
Catholic
surrenders to Jesus
Jesus
with an attitude of "Jesus, take my will and my life, I give everything to you." This is a spontaneous thing that happens during the journey of faithful Catholics who "get it." Yup, the Catholic Church teaches a personal relationship with Christ: The Catechism says: 1428 Christ's call to conversion continues to resound in the lives of Christians. This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, "clasping sinners to her bosom, [is] at once holy and always in need of purification, [and] follows constantly the path of penance and renewal." This endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is the movement of a "contrite heart," drawn and moved by grace to respond to the merciful love of God who loved us first. 1430 Jesus' call to conversion and penance, like that of the prophets before Him, does not aim first at outward works, "sackcloth and ashes," fasting and mortification, but at the conversion of the heart, interior conversion. The Pope
Pope
and the Catechism
Catechism
are two of the highest authorities in the Church. They are telling us to get personal with Jesus.  ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 336 ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 344 ^ "CCC, 1310". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1385". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1389". Vatican.va.  ^ a b c d e f Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), pp. 379–86 ^ a b Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 98, quote: "Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, a stranger and you welcomed me, naked and you clothed me, ill and you cared for me, in prison and you visited me … amen I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me." ^ Matthew 25:35–36 ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), p. 397 ^ Luke 23:39–43 ^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologicum, Supplementum Tertiae Partis questions 69 through 99 ^ Calvin, John. "Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book
Book
Three, Ch. 25". www.reformed.org. Retrieved 2008-01-01.  ^ A Brief History of Political Cartoons ^ "CCC, 1032". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1471". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1479". Vatican.va.  ^ a b Indulgences
Indulgences
in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Catholic-Pages.com ^ Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Apostolic Constitution on Indulgences, norm 5 ^ Section "Abuses" in Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia: Purgatory ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia: Reformation ^ "CCC, 846–848". Vatican.va.  ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic
Catholic
Catechism
Catechism
(1997), p. 131 ^ John 15:4–5 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 12 ^ "CCC, 777–778". Vatican.va.  ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), pp. 113–14 ^ Kreeft, Catholic
Catholic
Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 114 ^ a b c "CCC, 956". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 971". Vatican.va.  ^ a b c d e "CCC, paragraph unspecified". Vatican.va.  ^ "CCC, 1577". Vatican.va.  ^ News), Elise Harris (CNA/EWTN. " Pope
Pope
Francis addresses women's role in the Church - Living Faith
Faith
- Home & Family - News - Catholic Online". Catholic
Catholic
Online. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ Benedict XVI, Pope
Pope
(2007) [2007]. Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth. Doubleday. pp. 180–81. ISBN 978-0-385-52341-7. Retrieved 2014-04-14. The difference between the discipleship of the Twelve and the discipleship of the women is obvious; the tasks assigned to each group are quite different. Yet Luke makes clear—and the other Gospels also show this in all sorts of ways—that "many" women belonged to the more intimate community of believers and that their faith—filled following of Jesus
Jesus
was an essential element of that community, as would be vividly illustrated at the foot of the Cross and the Resurrection.  ^ CIC 1983, c. 42. ^ CIC 1983, c. 375. ^ Committee on the Diaconate. "Frequently Asked Questions About Deacons". United States Conference of Catholic
Catholic
Bishops.  ^ CIC 1983, c. 1031. ^ CIC 1983, c. 1037. ^ a b "Married, reordained clergy find exception in Catholic
Catholic
church". Washington Theological Union. 2003. Archived from the original on 2003-10-13. Retrieved 2008-02-28.  ^ a b  Coulton, George Gordon (1911). "Celibacy". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 601–604.  ^ Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI (4 November 2005). "Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2014-04-14.  ^ Thavis, John (2005). "Election of new pope follows detailed procedure". Catholic
Catholic
News Service. Retrieved 2008-02-11.  ^ 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; 2 Peter 2:1-17; 2 John 7-11; Jude 4-13 ^ Acts 15:1-2 ^ "CCC, 84–90". Vatican.va.  ^ Matthew 16:18–19 ^ John 16:12–13 ^ "CCC, 1579–1580". Vatican.va.  ^ " Archbishop
Archbishop
launches married priests movement". World Peace Herald. July 14, 2006. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2006-11-16.  ^ "Vatican stands by celibacy ruling". BBC News. November 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-16.  ^ "Traditional Catholicism
Catholicism
Is Winning". Wall Street Journal. April 12, 2012.  ^ "Adam, Eve, and Evolution". Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-03.  ^ "Adam, Eve, and Evolution". 2008-03-29. Archived from the original on 2008-03-29. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ http://www.east2west.org/doctrine.htm#dormition Comparison of the Assumption and the Dormition of Mary ^ http://www.east2west.org/doctrine.htm#IC Explanation of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
from an Eastern Catholic
Catholic
perspective ^ http://www.assumptioncatholicchurch.net/ Many Eastern Catholic churches bear the titles of Latin Church
Latin Church
doctrines such as the Assumption of Mary. ^ Langan, The Catholic
Catholic
Tradition (1998), p. 118 ^ Parry, The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity
Christianity
(1999), p. 292 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity
Christianity
(2002), pp. 254–60

Works cited[edit]

Code of Canon Law
Code of Canon Law
(CIC). Vatican Publishing House. 1983. 

v t e

History of Catholic
Catholic
theology

General history

History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic
Catholic
Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope
Antipope
Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint
Saint
Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal Pope
Pope
portal

v t e

Catholic
Catholic
Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop
Bishop
emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic
Catholic
Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic
Catholic
Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic
Catholic
Home Missions Catholic
Catholic
Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

v t e

Christian theology

Systematic

Scripture

Inspiration Preservation Canonics Biblical studies Exegesis Law and Gospel Hermeneutics

God

Attributes Patriology Christology Pneumatology Theocentricism Theology proper Immutability Impassibility

Trinity

Father Son (Hypostatic union Incarnation Jesus Logos Christocentric) Holy Spirit

Cosmology

Creation Angels Angelic hierarchy Humanity Fallen angels Satan Theodicy

Soteriology

Absolution Adoption Assurance Atonement Baptism Calling Conversion Election Eternal life Faith Forgiveness Glorification Grace Irresistible grace Imputation Justification Lapsarianism Means of grace Monergism Mortification Ordo salutis Perseverance Predestination Recapitulation Reconciliation Redemption Regeneration Repentance Resurrection Salvation Sanctification Synergism Theosis Union with Christ

Hamartiology

Adam Anthropology The Fall Incurvatus in se Original sin Sin Theodicy Total depravity

Ecclesiology

Sacrament

Eucharist

Missiology Polity (Congregational Episcopal Presbyterian) Synod Conciliarity

Eschatology

Summary of differences Historicism Idealism Dispensationalism Futurism Preterism Millenarianism (Pre- / Post- / A-millennialism) Adventism Antichrist Apocalypse Apocalypticism Covenant / New Covenant
New Covenant
theology End times Heaven Hell Last Judgment Millennialism New Jerusalem Rapture Second Coming Soul sleep Tribulation War in Heaven

Historical

History of Christian theology Calvinist–Arminian debate Apostolic Age Canon Patristics Caesaropapism Semipelagianism Iconoclasm Scholasticism Thomism Conciliarism Renaissance Reformation Counter-Reformation Pietism Great Awakenings

Practical

Apologetics Biblical law Education Ethics Homiletics Liturgics Missiology Moral Pastoral Polemics Political Public

By tradition

Eastern Orthodox

Apophatic theology Cataphatic theology Economy Essence–energies Gnomic will Metousiosis Phronema Phyletism Proskynesis Sobornost Symphonia Tabor Light Theoria Theosis Theotokos

Oriental Orthodox

Miaphysitism Monophysitism Monoenergism Monothelitism Aphthartodocetism

Roman Catholic

Absolution Apostolic succession Assumption of Mary Traditionalism Ecumenical Councils Filioque Immaculate Conception Indulgences Infant baptism Josephology Liturgy Mariology Mass Modernism Natural law Papal infallibility Priesthood Purgatory Quartodecimanism Real presence Sacerdotalism Sacrament Sainthood Thomism Transubstantiation Ultramontanism Veneration

Protestant

General

Adiaphora Assurance Believer's baptism Protestant ecclesiology (Branch theory) Priesthood of all believers

Anglican

Anglo-Catholicism Evangelical Catholic High church Latitudinarian Low church

Arminian / Wesleyan

Christian perfection Conditional preservation of the saints Imparted righteousness Lordship salvation Prevenient grace

Lutheran

Two kingdoms Loci Theologici Theology of the Cross Confessional Lutheranism Haugean Lutheran
Lutheran
orthodoxy Lutheran
Lutheran
scholasticism Neo-Lutheranism

Reformed (Calvinist)

Christian reconstructionism Covenant theology Free Grace Monergism Predestination Five solae (Sola fide Sola gratia Sola scriptura Soli Deo gloria Solus Christus) Supersessionism Total depravity TULIP

Pentecostalist

Baptism
Baptism
with the Holy Spirit Faith
Faith
healing Fivefold ministry Glossolalia

Other

Adventism Anabaptism Dispensationalism Evangelicalism Fundamentalism Messianic Judaism Pietism Prosperity theology Restorationism

Outline of Christian theology Christianity
Christianity
portal

v t e

Structure of the Mass of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Forms

Pre-Tridentine Mass Tridentine Mass

Extraordinary form

Mass of Paul VI

Types

Low Mass Missa Cantata Solemn Mass Pontifical High Mass Papal Mass Ritual Masses

Blue Mass Chapter and Conventual Mass Coronation Mass Nuptial Mass Red Mass Requiem
Requiem
Mass

sine populo Votive Mass

Order of Mass

Pre-Mass

Vesting prayers in the sacristy Asperges
Asperges
me

Vidi aquam in Eastertide

Liturgy of the Word

Sign of the Cross Psalm 43 Entrance Antiphon Penitential Rite

Confiteor
Confiteor
/ Kyrie

Gloria Dominus vobiscum Collect

Oremus

First Reading Responsorial Psalm or Gradual Epistle Alleluia

Gospel
Gospel
verse / sequence

Gospel Homily Credo

Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed
Creed
or Apostles' Creed

General Intercessions

Liturgy of the Eucharist

Offertory

Orate fratres / prayer over the gifts

Preface

Sursum corda / Sanctus
Sanctus
/ Hosanna

Eucharistic Prayer/Canon of the Mass

oblation / epiclesis / Words of Institution
Words of Institution
/ elevation / anamnesis texts and rubrics Roman Canon

history

Eucharistic Prayer II

Memorial Acclamation Lord's Prayer

embolism / doxology

Pax Sign of peace Agnus Dei Fraction Holy Communion

Communion antiphon

Ablutions Postcommunion Dismissal

Ite, missa est
Ite, missa est
/ Benedicamus Domino

Last Gospel

Post-Mass

Leonine Prayers Recessional hymn

Participants

Acolyte Altar server

female

Bishop Boat boy Cantor Choir Crucifer Deacon Extraordinary minister of Holy Communion Laity

Eucharistic Congress

Lector Priest Subdeacon Usher

Parts of the Sanctuary / Altar

Altar crucifix Altar rails Ambo Communion bench Credence table Kneeler Lavabo Misericord Piscina Tabernacle

Altar cloths

Altar linens Antependium Burse Chalice veil Corporal Lavabo
Lavabo
towel Pall Purificator

Candles and lamps

Altar candle Altar candlestick Paschal candle Sanctuary lamp Triple candlestick Votive candle

Liturgical objects

Altar bell Aspergillum Censer Chalice Ciborium Collection basket Cruet Flabellum Funghellino Holy water Incense

use

Manuterge Paten Processional cross Pyx Sacramental bread

wafer

Sacramental wine
Sacramental wine
(or must) Thurible Water

Liturgical books of the Roman Rite

Ceremonial of Bishops Evangeliary

Gospel
Gospel
Book

Graduale Lectionary Roman Missal

Vestments

Alb Amice Chasuble Dalmatic Episcopal sandals Liturgical colours Headcover Humeral veil Pallium Pontifical Stole Surplice Tunicle Vimpa

Liturgical year (Roman Calendar)

Advent Christmastide Ordinary Time Septuagesima Lent Passiontide Holy Week

Paschal Triduum

Eastertide Ascensiontide

Eucharistic discipline

Abstemius Anima Christi Concelebration Church etiquette Closed communion Communion and the developmentally disabled Communion under both kinds Denial of Communion

Canon 915

Eucharistic fast First Communion Frequent Communion Genuflection Host desecration Infant communion Intinction Reserved sacrament Thanksgiving after Communion Viaticum

Eucharistic theology

Body and Blood of Christ Corpus Christi (feast) Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Jesus
Jesus
and substitutionary atonement Epiousios Grace ex opere operato In persona Christi Historical roots of Catholic
Catholic
Eucharistic theology Koinonia Last Supper Mirae caritatis Mysterium fidei (encyclical) Origin of the Eucharist Real presence Transubstantiation Year of the Eucharist Stercoranism

Regulations and concepts

Ad orientem
Ad orientem
and versus populum Calendar of saints Canon law Code of Rubrics Commemoration Ecclesiastical Latin General Instruction of the Roman Missal Holy day of obligation Intercession of saints Ordinary and propers Pro multis Sunday

Lord's Day

Vernacular

Related

Agape feast Catholic
Catholic
liturgy Christian prayer

effects of prayer

Congregation for Divine Worship Council of Trent Ecclesia de Eucharistia Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
and benediction

Dominicae Cenae
Dominicae Cenae
/ Holy Hour

Eucharistic miracle Fermentum Fourth Council of the Lateran Gelineau psalmody Gregorian chant History of the Roman Canon Lex orandi, lex credendi Liturgical Movement Liturgical reforms of Pope
Pope
Pius XII Mediator Dei Missale Romanum (apostolic constitution) Pope
Pope
Paul VI Catholic
Catholic
theology Sacraments of the Catholic
Catholic
Church Second Vatican Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium

Summorum Pontificum Tra le sollecitudini

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal

Authority control

GN

.