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CATANIA (Italian: ( listen )) is an Italian city on the east coast of Sicily
Sicily
facing the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania , one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, and the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy. The population of the city proper is 313,000 while the population of the conurbation is estimated to be 767,003. The metropolitan city has 1,115,310 inhabitants.

Catania
Catania
is well known for its historical earthquakes, having been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes in 1169 and 1693 , and for several volcanic eruptions from the neighbouring Mount Etna , the most violent of which was in 1669.

Catania
Catania
has had a long and eventful history, having been founded in the 8th century BC. In 1434, the first university in Sicily
Sicily
was founded in the city. In the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania
Catania
was one of Italy's most important cultural, artistic and political centres. The city has a rich culture and history, hosting many museums, restaurants, churches, parks and theatres. Catania
Catania
is well known for its street food.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Etymology

* 3 History

* 3.1 Foundation * 3.2 Greek Sicily
Sicily
* 3.3 Roman rule * 3.4 Middle Ages * 3.5 Early Modern times * 3.6 Unified Italy
Italy

* 4 Climate * 5 Metropolitan area * 6 Demographics

* 7 Main sights

* 7.1 Classical buildings * 7.2 Roman thermal structures * 7.3 Baroque and historical churches * 7.4 Other

* 8 Administrative divisions * 9 Economy * 10 Education * 11 Culture * 12 Cuisine * 13 Transport * 14 Influence on the planning of Adelaide, Australia
Australia
* 15 Notable residents * 16 Twin towns – sister cities * 17 References * 18 Sources * 19 Further reading * 20 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Catania
Catania
is located on the east coast of the island of Sicily
Sicily
, at the foot of Mount Etna .

As observed by Strabo
Strabo
, the location of Catania
Catania
at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, violent outbursts of the volcano throughout history have destroyed large parts of the city, whilst on the other hand the volcanic ashes yield fertile soil, especially suited for the growth of vines. (Strab. vi. p. 269)

Two subterranean rivers run under the city; the Amenano, which surfaces at one single point south of Piazza Duomo, and the Longane (or Lognina).

ETYMOLOGY

The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location. The Sicilian word, katane, means "grater, flaying knife, skinning place" or a "crude tool apt to pare". Other translations of the name are "harsh lands", "uneven ground", "sharp stones", or "rugged or rough soil". The latter etymologies are easily justifiable since, for many centuries following an eruption, the city has always been rebuilt within its black-lava landscape. Around 729 BC, the ancient village of Katane became the Chalcidian colony of Katánē where the native population was rapidly Hellenized . The Naxian founders, coming from the adjacent coast, later used the name for their new settlement along the River Amenano.

Around 263 BC, the city was variously known as Catĭna and Catăna (Greek : Κατάνη, Ancient Greek: ; Latin : Catana, pronounced , and Catina. ). The former has been primarily used for its supposed assonance with catina, the Latin feminization of the name catinus. Catinus has two meanings: "a gulf, a basin or a bay" and "a bowl, a vessel or a trough", thanks to the city’s distinctive topography.

Around 900, when Catania
Catania
was part of the emirate of Sicily
Sicily
, it was known in Arabic as Balad al-fīl (بلد الفيل) and Madinat al-fīl (مدينة الفيل). The former means "The Village (or the Country) of the Elephant", while the latter means "The City of the Elephant". The Elephant is the lava sculpture over the fountain in Piazza Duomo. Most likely a prehistoric sculpture that was reforged during the Byzantine Era, it appears to be a talisman that was reputedly powerful enough to protect the city from enemies and to keep away misfortune, plagues, or natural calamities. Another Arab toponym was Qaṭāniyyah (قطانية), allegedly from the Arabic word for the "leguminous plants ". Pulses like lentils , beans, peas, broad beans , and lupins were chiefly cultivated in the plains around the city well before the arrival of Aghlabids . Afterwards, many Arabic agronomists developed these crops and the citrus orchards in the area around the city. The toponym Wadi Musa (وادي موسى), or "Valley of Moses" (from the Arabic name of the Simeto River), was rarely used.

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Catania

FOUNDATION

Catania
Catania
was founded as a Greek colony named Κατάνη (Katánē—see also the list of traditional-Greek place names ), of Chalcidic origin, under the guidance of a leader named Euarchos (Euarchus).

The exact date of its foundation is not recorded, but it appears from Thucydides
Thucydides
that it came into existence slightly later than Leontini (modern Lentini ), which he claims was five years after Syracuse , or 730 BC.

GREEK SICILY

The only event of its early history that is known about is the legislation of Charondas , The exact date of which is uncertain.

His legislation was extended to the other Chalcidic cities, not only of Sicily, but of Magna Graecia also, as well as to his own country. It is evident that Catania
Catania
had close relations with these other cities during this time.

Catania
Catania
appears to have retained its independence up to the reign of the despot Hieron of Syracuse , whereupon in 476 BC he expelled all the original inhabitants of Catania
Catania
and replaced them with those he ruled over at Leontini - said to have numbered no less than 10,000, consisting partly of Syracusans and Peloponnesians .

At the same time he changed the city's name to Αἴτνη (Aítnē, Aetna or Ætna, after the nearby Mount Etna , and proclaimed himself the Oekist or founder of the new city. For this he was celebrated by Pindar , and after his death he received heroic honors from the citizens of his new colony.

A few years after the death of Hieron and the expulsion of Thrasybulus , the Syracusans combined with Ducetius , king of the Sicels , to expel the newly settled inhabitants of Catania, who went on to settle in the fortress of Inessa (to which they gave the name Aetna). The old Chalcidic citizens were reinstated to the city in 461 BC.

The period that followed appears to have been one of great prosperity for Catania, as well as for the Sicilian cities in general. However, no details from this period of its history are known, until the great Athenian expedition to Sicily
Sicily
(part of the larger Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
), when the Athenians invaded the city.

The Catanaeans at first refused to allow the Athenians into their city, but after the latter had forced an entrance, they found themselves compelled to honour the alliance of their invaders. Catania became the headquarters of the Athenian armament throughout the first year of the expedition, and the base of their subsequent operations against Syracuse.

No information exists on the fate of Catania
Catania
after the Athenian expedition. It is next mentioned in 403 BC when it fell into the power of Dionysius I of Syracuse , who plundered the city and sold its citizens as slaves, after which he established a body of Campanian mercenaries.

These, however, quit in 396 BC and retired to Aetna , on the approach of the great Carthaginian armament under Himilco and Mago . The great naval battle in which the latter defeated Leptines , who was quickly fought off from Catania, and the city is consequently believed to have fallen into the hands of the Carthaginians.

Calippus , the assassin of Dion of Syracuse, held possession of Catania
Catania
for a time (Plut. Dion. 58); and when Timoleon landed in Sicily
Sicily
Catania
Catania
was subject to a despot named Mamercus, who at first joined the Corinthian leader, but afterwards abandoned this allegiance for that of the Carthaginians. As a consequence he was attacked and expelled by Timoleon.

Catania
Catania
was now restored to liberty, and appears to have continued to retain its independence; during the wars of Agathocles with the Carthaginians, it sided at one time with the former, at others with the latter; and when Pyrrhus landed in Sicily, Catania
Catania
was the first to open its gates to him, and received him with the great splendour.

Catania
Catania
was the birthplace of the philosopher and legislator Charondas and was also the place of residence of the poet Stesichorus , who was buried in a magnificent sepulchre outside one of the gates, which derived from thence the name of Porta Stesichoreia. ( Suda , under Στησίχορος.)

Xenophanes , the philosopher of Elea , also spent the latter years of his life in the city so that it was evidently, at an early period, a place of cultivation and refinement.

The first introduction of dancing to accompany the flute was also ascribed to Andron , a citizen of Catania.

In ancient times Catania
Catania
was associated with the legend of Amphinomus and Anapias , who, on occasion of a great eruption of Etna, abandoned all their property and carried off their aged parents on their shoulders, the stream of lava itself was said to have parted, and flowed aside so as not to harm them. Statues were erected to their honor, and the place of their burial was known as the Campus Piorum; the Catanaeans even introduced the figures of the youths on their coins, and the legend became a favorite subject of allusion and declamation among the Latin poets , of whom the younger Lucilius and Claudian have dwelt upon it at considerable length.

The occurrence is referred by Hyginus to the first eruption of Etna that took place after the settlement of Catania.

ROMAN RULE

In the First Punic War , Catania
Catania
was one of the first among the cities of Sicily, which made their submission to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, after the first successes of their arms in 263 BC. The expression of Pliny (vii. 60) who represents it as having been taken by Valerius Messalla , is certainly a mistake.

It appears to have continued afterwards steadily to maintain its friendly relations with Rome, and though it did not enjoy the advantages of a confederate city (foederata civitas), like its neighbors Tauromenium (modern Taormina ) and Messana (modern Messina ), it rose to a position of great prosperity under the Roman rule.

Cicero
Cicero
repeatedly mentions it as, in his time, a wealthy and flourishing city; it retained its ancient municipal institutions, its chief magistrate bearing the title of Proagorus; and appears to have been one of the principal ports of Sicily
Sicily
for the export of corn.

It subsequently suffered severely from the ravages of Sextus Pompeius , and was in consequence one of the cities to which a colony was sent by Augustus
Augustus
; a measure that appears to have in a great degree restored its prosperity, so that in Strabo
Strabo
's time it was one of the few cities in the island that was in a flourishing condition.

It retained its colonial rank, as well as its prosperity, throughout the period of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
; so that in the 4th century Ausonius in his Ordo Nobilium Urbium , notices Catania
Catania
and Syracuse alone among the cities of Sicily.

One of the most serious eruptions of Mount Etna happened in 121 BC, when great part of Catania
Catania
was overwhelmed by streams of lava, and the hot ashes fell in such quantities in the city itself, as to break in the roofs of the houses.

Catania
Catania
was in consequence exempted, for 10 years, from its usual contributions to the Roman state The greater part of the broad tract of plain to the southwest of Catania
Catania
(now called the Piana di Catania, a district of great fertility), appears to have belonged, in ancient times , to Leontini or Centuripa (modern Centuripe ), but that portion of it between Catana itself and the mouth of the Symaethus, was annexed to the territory of the latter city, and must have furnished abundant supplies of grain.

The port of Catania
Catania
also, which was in great part filled up by the eruption of 1669, appears to have been in ancient times much frequented, and was the chief place of export for the corn of the rich neighboring plains. The little river Amenanus, or Amenas, which flowed through the city, was a very small stream and could never have been navigable.

MIDDLE AGES

Catania
Catania
was sacked by the Vandals
Vandals
of Gaiseric
Gaiseric
in 440–441. After a period under the Ostrogoths , it was reconquered in 535 by the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, under which (aside from a short period in 550–555) it remained until the 9th century. It was the seat of the Byzantine governor of the island.

Catania
Catania
was under the Islamic emirate of Sicily
Sicily
until 1072, when it fell to the Normans of Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
. Subsequently, the city was ruled by a bishop-count. In 1194–1197 the city was sacked by German soldiers during after the conquest of the island by emperor Henry VI . In 1232 it rebelled to the former's son, Frederick II , who later built a massive castle, Castello Ursino and also made Catania
Catania
a royal city, ending the dominance of the bishops. Catania
Catania
was one of the main centers of the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
revolt (1282) against the House of Anjou , and was the seat of the incoronation of the new Aragonese king of Sicily, Peter I . In the 14th century it gained importance as it was chosen by the Aragonese as a Parliament and Royal seat. Here, in 1347, it was signed the treaty of peace that ended the long War of the Vesper between Aragonese and Angevines. Catania
Catania
lost its capital role when, in the early 15th century, Sicily
Sicily
was turned into a member of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
, and kept its autonomy and original privileges specially during the period from 1282 to 1410.

In 1434 King Alfonso V founded here the Siciliae Studium Generale , the oldest university in the island.

EARLY MODERN TIMES

Picture of Catania
Catania
in 1575 Mount Etna erupting in 1669

With the unification of Castile and Aragon (early 16th century), Sicily
Sicily
became part of the Spanish Empire. It rebelled against the foreign government in 1516 and 1647.

In 1669 the city's surroundings suffered great material damage from an eruption of Mount Etna . The city itself was largely saved by its walls that diverted most of the lava into the port. Afterwards in 1693 the city was then completely destroyed by a heavy earthquake and its aftershocks. The city was then rebuilt in the Baroque architecture that nowadays characterizes it.

UNIFIED ITALY

Catania
Catania
was one of the vanguards of the movement for the Sicilian autonomy in the early 19th century.

In 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi 's expedition of the Thousand conquered Sicily
Sicily
for Piedmont from the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
. Since the following year Catania
Catania
was part of the newly unified Italy
Italy
, whose history it shares since then.

During the Second World War
Second World War
Catania
Catania
was repeatedly bombed by the Allies , starting from 5 June 1940, and some 100,000 of its inhabitants were moved to the neighboring villages. It was evacuated by the Germans on 5 August 1943 and liberated by the British 8th Army . After the conflict, and the constitution of the Italian Republic (1946), the history of Catania
Catania
was, like the history of other cities of southern Italy, an attempt to catch up with the economic and social development of the richer northern regions in the country and to solve the problems that for historic reasons plague the Mezzogiorno , namely a heavy gap in industrial development and infrastructures, and the threat of the mafia . This notwithstanding, during the 1960s (and partly during the 1990s) Catania
Catania
enjoyed a development and an economic, social and cultural effervescence. In the first decade of the 21st century, Catania
Catania
economic and social development somewhat faltered and the city is again facing economic and social stagnation. This was aggravated by the economical crisis left by the Forza Italia administration of mayor Scapagnini in 2008.

CLIMATE

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa " (Mediterranean Climate). It has hot and long summers, the hottest in the whole Italy
Italy
(a feature characterising nearly every months). 40 °C (104 °F) are surpassed almost every year a couple of times, with record highs over 45 °C (113 °F).

Winters are mild (not rare peaks around 20 °C or 68 °F) and wet. Most of precipitations are concentrated from October to March, leaving late spring and summer virtually dry (some years rain lacks for 3–4 months). The city receives around 500 millimetres (20 inches) of rain per year, although amount can highly vary from year to year (wettest over 1,200 millimetres or 47 inches, driest under 250 millimetres or 9.8 inches,).

During winter nights occasionally lows can go under 0 °C (32 °F). Highs under 10 °C (50 °F) are rare as well. Snow, due to the presence of Etna that protects the city from the northern winds, is very rare. Occasional snow flurries have been seen over the years in the hilly districts, more substantial in the northern hinterland. More recently, brief snowfalls occurred on 9 February 2015 and 6 January 2017, but the last snowfall of particular relevance dates back to 17 December 1988.

CLIMATE DATA FOR CATANIA, SICILY (CATANIA-FONTANAROSSA)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 25.1 (77.2) 34.4 (93.9) 35.0 (95) 38.5 (101.3) 45.0 (113) 45.3 (113.5) 43.4 (110.1) 41.0 (105.8) 38.6 (101.5) 30.1 (86.2) 29.0 (84.2) 45.3 (113.5)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 16.0 (60.8) 16.4 (61.5) 18.4 (65.1) 20.7 (69.3) 25.0 (77) 29.2 (84.6) 32.1 (89.8) 32.6 (90.7) 29.1 (84.4) 25.2 (77.4) 21.0 (69.8) 17.0 (62.6) 23.56 (74.42)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 10.4 (50.7) 12.3 (54.1) 14.7 (58.5) 18.9 (66) 23.1 (73.6) 25.8 (78.4) 26.3 (79.3) 23.1 (73.6) 19.5 (67.1) 15.1 (59.2) 11.6 (52.9) 17.58 (63.65)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 4.9 (40.8) 6.5 (43.7) 8.8 (47.8) 12.6 (54.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 19.9 (67.8) 17.6 (63.7) 14.3 (57.7) 9.9 (49.8) 7.0 (44.6) 11.85 (53.33)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −5.0 (23) −4.0 (24.8) −3.0 (26.6) 0 (32) 4.6 (40.3) 9.6 (49.3) 12.1 (53.8) 14.0 (57.2) 9 (48) 1 (34) −0.6 (30.9) −2 (28) −5 (23)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 74.8 (2.945) 52.6 (2.071) 46.0 (1.811) 35.4 (1.394) 19.2 (0.756) 6.0 (0.236) 5.0 (0.197) 8.9 (0.35) 45.0 (1.772) 106.1 (4.177) 62.3 (2.453) 85.9 (3.382) 547.2 (21.543)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 7.6 6.7 6.4 4.6 2.5 1.0 0.5 1.5 3.4 6.6 5.4 8.2 54.4

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 155.0 155.0 182.9 210.0 272.8 303.0 344.1 319.3 247.0 192.2 180.0 151.9 2,713.2

Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory
(1961–1990)

Source #2: (1991-2010)

CLIMATE DATA FOR CATANIA, SICILY (CATANIA-SIGONELLA)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 15.3 (59.5) 15.7 (60.3) 18.1 (64.6) 20.7 (69.3) 25.5 (77.9) 30.4 (86.7) 33.5 (92.3) 33.9 (93) 29.8 (85.6) 25.2 (77.4) 20.7 (69.3) 16.4 (61.5) 23.77 (74.78)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 10.0 (50) 12.1 (53.8) 14.5 (58.1) 18.7 (65.7) 23.6 (74.5) 26.5 (79.7) 26.9 (80.4) 23.4 (74.1) 19.3 (66.7) 14.8 (58.6) 11.2 (52.2) 17.57 (63.62)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 4.9 (40.8) 6.6 (43.9) 8.8 (47.8) 12.5 (54.5) 16.8 (62.2) 19.5 (67.1) 20.4 (68.7) 18.0 (64.4) 14.3 (57.7) 10.0 (50) 6.9 (44.4) 11.99 (53.58)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 64.2 (2.528) 43.7 (1.72) 31.6 (1.244) 24.7 (0.972) 21.7 (0.854) 8.7 (0.343) 5.7 (0.224) 13.1 (0.516) 31.4 (1.236) 62.7 (2.469) 66.0 (2.598) 73.0 (2.874) 446.5 (17.579)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 6 6 5 5 3 1 1 2 4 5 6 7 51

Source: (1991-2012)

METROPOLITAN AREA

The Metropolitan Area of Catania: in red, the city and the hinterland comuni forming the urban belt; in yellow, the province.

The Metropolitan Area of Catania
Catania
is formed by the Comune
Comune
of Catania (315.601 inhabitants as of jan. 2015) and by 26 surrounding comuni forming an urban belt (453,938 inhabitants as of Dec. 2007). The total population of the Metropolitan Area of Catania
Catania
is therefore 752,895. The comuni forming the Metropolitan Area are:

* Aci Bonaccorsi * Aci Castello * Aci Catena * Aci Sant\'Antonio * Acireale * Adrano * Belpasso * Biancavilla * Bronte * Camporotondo Etneo * Catania * Gravina di Catania * Mascalucia * Misterbianco * Motta Sant\'Anastasia * Nicolosi * Paternò * Pedara * Ragalna * Randazzo * San Giovanni la Punta * San Gregorio di Catania * San Pietro Clarenza * Sant\'Agata li Battiati * Santa Maria di Licodia * Santa Venerina * Trecastagni * Tremestieri Etneo * Valverde * Viagrande * Zafferana Etnea
Zafferana Etnea

These comuni form a system with the centre of Catania
Catania
sharing its economical and social life and forming an organic urban texture.

The Metropolitan Area of Catania
Catania
should not be mistaken for the Province of Catania , a far broader administrative area that includes 58 comuni and 1,081,915 inhabitants, but does not form an urban system with the city.

DEMOGRAPHICS

An aerial view of the port of Catania
Catania

As of January 2015, there are 315.601 people residing in Catania, of whom 47.2% are male and 52.8% are female. Minors (people under age 18) totalled 20.50 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 18.87 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners).

The average age of Catania
Catania
residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Catania
Catania
declined by 3.35 percent, while Italy
Italy
as a whole grew by 3.85 percent. The reason for this population decline in the Comune
Comune
di Catania
Catania
is mainly due to a large segment of the population leaving the city centre to go to live in the up-town residential areas of the comuni of the Metropolitan Area. As a result of this, while the population in the comune di Catania
Catania
declines, the population of the hinterland comuni increases making the overall population of the Metropolitan area of Catania
Catania
increase.

The current birth rate of Catania
Catania
is 10.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 2006 , 98.03% of the population was Italian . The largest immigrant groups come from Sub-Saharan Africa : 0.69%, South Asia
South Asia
: 0.46%, and from other European countries (particularly from Ukraine
Ukraine
and Poland
Poland
): 0.33%.

MAIN SIGHTS

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The symbol of the city is u Liotru, or the Fontana dell'Elefante, assembled in 1736 by Giovanni Battista Vaccarini . It portrays an ancient lavic stone elephant and is topped by an Egyptian obelisk from Syene . Legend has it that Vaccarini's original elephant was neuter, which the men of Catania
Catania
took as an insult to their virility. To appease them, Vaccarini appropriately appended elephantine testicles to the original statue.

The Sicilian name u Liotru is a phonetic change of Heliodorus, a nobleman who, after trying without success to become bishop of the city, became a sorcerer and was therefore condemned to the stake. Legend has it that Heliodorus himself was the sculptor of the lava elephant and that he used to magically ride it in his fantastic travels from Catania
Catania
to Constantinople. Another legend has it that Heliodorus was able to transform himself into an elephant.

The presence of an elephant in the millenary history of Catania
Catania
is surely connected to both zooarcheology and popular creeds. In fact, the prehistoric fauna of Sicily
Sicily
from the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
, included dwarf elephants . Paleontologist Othenio Abel suggested that the presence of dwarf elephants in Sicily
Sicily
may be the origin of the legend of the Cyclops
Cyclops
. Ancient Greeks , after finding the skulls of dwarf elephants , about twice the size of a human skull , with a large central nasal cavity (mistaken for a large single eye-socket) supposed that they were skulls of giants with a single eye.

The Catanian Museum of Mineralogy
Mineralogy
, Paleonthology and Vulcanology holds the integral unburied skeleton of an Elephas falconeri in an excellent state of conservation. The first inhabitants of Etna molded such lavic artifact to idolize the mythical proboscidian.

CLASSICAL BUILDINGS

The city has been buried by lava a total of seventeen times in recorded history , and in layers under the present day city are the Roman city that preceded it, and the Greek city before that. Many of the ancient monuments of the Roman city have been destroyed by the numerous seisms. Currently, different ancient remains can be seen and visited in the city-centre, as part of an archaeological park (Parco Archeologico Greco-Romano di Catania). The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
backs the Cavea of the Greek-Roman Theatre. The Odeon. Roman Amphitheatre.

Ancient edifices include:

* Greek-Roman Theatre of Catania
Catania
(2nd century) * Odeon (3rd century). It could house up to 1500 spectators * Amphitheatre * Greek Acropolis of Montevergine * Roman Aqueduct * Roman Forum * Roman broken arcades * Christian basilicas , hypogea , burial monuments and Catacombs
Catacombs
* Roman Colonnade

ROMAN THERMAL STRUCTURES

* Achillean Baths * Terme dell’Indirizzo * Terme di Santa Maria Odigitria * Terme della Rotonda * Baths of the Four Quoins * Terme di Palazzo Asmundo * Terme del Palazzo dell’Università * Terme di Casa Gagliano * Terme della Chiesa di Sant'Antonio Abate

Roman Thermal Baths of Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo.

BAROQUE AND HISTORICAL CHURCHES

San Placido
San Placido
Badìa di Sant'Agata San Francesco d' Assisi
Assisi
all'Immacolata Sant'Agata alla Fornace or San Biagio Santa Maria dell'Aiuto San Benedetto da Norcia San Francesco Borgia Castello Ursino

The Baroque city centre of Catania
Catania
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

* The Cathedral (1070–1093, rebuilt after the 1693 earthquake) * Saint Agatha Abbey (1620) * Saint Placidus (1769) * Church of San Giuseppe al Duomo * Church of Santissimo Sacramento al Duomo * Church of San Martino dei Bianchi * Church of Sant'Agata la Vetere (254) * Saint Agatha by the Furnace or Saint Blaise (1098, rebuilt in 1700) * Church of the Saint Jail or Saint Agatha at the Jail (Santo Carcere or Sant'Agata al Carcere) (1760). This temple includes the ancient jail where Saint Agatha was allegedly imprisoned during her martyrdom. * Saint Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
at the Immaculate (1329). It still houses the mortal remains of Queen Eleanor of Sicily
Sicily
, who decided and promoted the construction of the principal Franciscan
Franciscan
building of Catania
Catania
on the same place of the once Roman Temple of Minerva
Minerva
* Saint Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia
(1704–1713) * Badìa Grande e Badìa Piccola del Chiostro delle Monache Benedettine * Benedictine Nuns' Arch (Arco delle Monache Benedettine) * Basilica
Basilica
della Collegiata , a notable example of Sicilian Baroque , whose façade was designed by Stefano Ittar * Saint Mary of Ogninella * Saint Michael the Lesser * Saint Michael Archangel or Minorites ' Church * Saint Julian * Saint Julian's Monastery * Santa Teresa di Avila * Saint Francis Borgia or Jesuits ' Church * Convent of the Jesuits * Saint Mary of Jesus
Jesus
(1465, restored in 1706) * Saint Dominic
Saint Dominic
or Saint Mary the Great (1224) * Dominicans Friary (1224) * Saint Mary of Purity or Saint Mary of Visitation (1775) * Madonna of Graces ' Chapel * Saint Ursula
Saint Ursula
* Saint Agatha on the Lavic Runnels * Saint Euplius Old Church Ruins * Church of San Gaetano alle Grotte (260) * Basilica
Basilica
of the Most Holy Annunciated Mary of Carmel (1729) * Saint Agatha by the Borough (1669, destroyed in 1693 and rebuilt in 1709). The "Borough" (il Borgo) is an inner district of Catania. * Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
by the Borough * Church of the Santissimo Sacramento al Borgo * Church of Santa Maria della Provvidenza al Borgo * Chapel
Chapel
of the Blind's Housing (Ospizio dei Ciechi) * Saint Camillus of the Crucifers * Benedictine Monastery of San Nicolò l\'Arena (1558) * Basilica
Basilica
of San Nicola l'Arena (1687) * Church of Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo (1730) * Saint Clare (1563) * Convent of the Poor Clares (1563) * Saint Sebastian
Saint Sebastian
Martyr (1313) * Saint Anne
Saint Anne
* Sanctuary of Santa Maria dell'Aiuto * Madonna of Loreto * Church of San Giuseppe al Transito * Church of Immacolata Concezione dei Minoritelli * Church of Sant'Agata al Conservatorio delle Verginelle * Church of Santa Maria dell'Itria or Odigitria). * Saint Philip Neri * Saint Martha
Martha
* Church of the Holy Child * Our Lady of Providence * Church of San Berillo in Santa Maria degli Ammalati * Our Lady of the Poor * Church of San Vincenzo de' Paoli * Saint John the Baptist
John the Baptist
, in the suburb of San Giovanni di Galermo * Saint Anthony Abbot * Little Saviour's Byzantine Chapel
Chapel
* Saint Augustine * Church of the Most Holy Trinity
Trinity
* Church of the Little Virgins * Our Lady of the Rotunda * Church of the Santissimo Sacramento Ritrovato (1796). * Sanctuary of Our Lady of Ognina (1308). Ognina is the maritime quarter and the main fishing pole of Catania. Many bareboats and umpteen smacks gather and crowd here all year round. In its close vicinities there is a cylindric tower, known as Saint Mary's Tower (Torre Santa Maria), which was restructured in the 16th century to prevent the frequent plunders of the Saracen pirates. The church is the result of the gradual modification of the Greek Temple Athena Longatis or Parthenos Longatis that existed on the steep reef. This cult was imported from a Boeotian region of Greece
Greece
called Longas from where the first Hellenic settlers of this borough probably came. After the earthquake of 1693 it was sobriously rebuilt on the same place but with a different orientation. * Our Lady of Montserrat (1755) * Church of Santa Maria della Salute * Saint Mary of La Salette * Church of Santa Maria della Mercede * Church of Santa Caterina al Rinazzo * Our Lady of Concordia * Church of Santa Maria della Guardia * Our Lady of Consolation * Church of Santissimo Crocifisso Maiorana * Crucifix of Miracles * Crucifix of Good Death * Our Lady of La Mecca * Saint Cajetan at the Marina
Marina
* Most Holy Redeemer * Saint Francis of Paola * Church of the Divina Maternità * Chapel
Chapel
of Mary Auxiliatrix * Chapel
Chapel
of the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus * Church of the Sacro Cuore al Fortino (1898) * Saints George and Denis
Denis
* Church of the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of the Capuchins * Saint Christopher
Saint Christopher
* Saints Cosmas and Damian * Church of Santa Maria del Soccorso or Santa Maria della Palma * Saint Vitus
Vitus
* Church of the Santi Angeli Custodi * Church of the Santissimo Salvatore

OTHER

* Castello Ursino , built by emperor Frederick II in the 13th century. * Palazzo degli Elefanti , designed by Giovan Battista Vaccarini. It houses the Town Hall. * Palazzo Biscari * Palazzo Tezzano * Uzeda Gate * The Medieval Gothic-Catalan Arch of Saint John of Friars (San Giovanni de' Fleres) * Ferdinandean Gate or Garibaldi
Garibaldi
Gate (Porta Ferdinandea or Porta Garibaldi), a triumphal arch erected in 1768 to celebrate the marriage of Ferdinand I of Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria * Porta del Fortino ("Redoubt Gate") * The House of the Mutilated of War (Casa del Mutilato) built in Fascist-style architecture * Catania
Catania
War Cemetery, a Commonwealth Graveyard located in the southern country hamlet of Bicocca * Giardino Bellini * Catania
Catania
Botanical Garden * Pacini Garden * Gioeni Park

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Municipalities of Catania
Catania

The city of Catania
Catania
is divided in ten administrative areas called Municipalità (Municipalities). The current administrative set-up was established in 1995, modifying previous set-ups dating back to 1971 and 1978.

The ten municipalities of Catania
Catania
are:

* I. Centro * II. Ognina-Picanello * III. Borgo-Sanzio * IV. Barriera-Canalicchio * V. San Giovanni Galermo * VI. Trappeto-Cibali * VII. Monte Po-Nesima * VIII. San Leone-Rapisardi * IX. San Giorgio-Librino * X. San Giuseppe La Rena-Zia Lisa-

ECONOMY

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Catania
Catania
is the first economic and industrial hub of Sicily. The city is famous for its mainly petrochemical industry, and the extraction of sulphur . In the year 2000, according to Census, Catania
Catania
was the 14th richest city in Italy, with a GDP of US$6.6 billion (€6.304 billion), which was 0.54% of the Italian GDP, a GDP per capita of US$21,000 (€20,100) and an average GDP per employee of US$69,000 (€66,100).

In the late-19th century and early-20th century, Catania
Catania
began to be heavily industrialised, with its several factories and chimneys, often to the extant that it was referred to as Southern Italy's "Manchester." The economy of Catania
Catania
suffered heavily from the bad effects of World War I
World War I
, and was marked by an economic crisis and recession that culminated in the 1920s. Since then, the city lost its industrial and entrepreneurial importance. In the 1930s, Catania remained a small fishing town with derelict and disused industries. However, after the destruction of World War II
World War II
, Catania's economy began to re-grow in the late-1950s and early-1960s. As a matter of fact, the city's economic growth was so rapid and dynamic that it was often nicknamed the " Milan
Milan
of the South", or in Italian "Milano del Sud". This rapid economic growth prompted a great number of Sicilians living in the more rural areas, or smaller towns such as Enna, Ragusa and Caltanissetta, to move to the city to seek new jobs.

Today, Catania, despite several problems, has one of the most dynamic economies in the whole of Southern Italy. It still has a strong industrial and agricultural sector, and a fast-growing tourist industry, with many international visitors coming to visit the city's main sights and the nearby Etna volcano. It contains the headquarters or important offices of companies such as STMicroelectronics , and also several chemical and pharmaceutical businesses. There have been several new business developments to further boost Catania's economy, including the construction of Etnapolis, a huge and avant-garde commercial centre designed by Massimiliano Fuksas , the same architect who designed the FieraMilano industrial fair in Milan, or the Etna Valley, where several high-tech offices are located.

Tourism
Tourism
is a fast-growing industry in Catania. Lately the administration and private companies have made several investments in the hospitality industry in order to make tourism a competitive sector in Catania
Catania
and its province. Nearby, just 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the city, there is Etnaland, a big theme park , which is the largest of its kind in Southern Italy
Italy
and which attracts thousands of tourists, not only from Sicily, but also from the rest of Italy
Italy
.

EDUCATION

Historical building of the University, in the city centre. Nowadays the different faculties are hosted in different buildings around town.

The University of Catania dates back to 1434 and it is the oldest university in Sicily. Its academic nicknames are: Siculorum Gymnasium and Siciliae Studium Generale. Nowadays it hosts 12 faculties and over 62,000 students, and it offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Catania
Catania
hosts the Scuola Superiore , an academic institution linked to the University of Catania, aimed at the excellence in education. The Scuola Superiore di Catania
Catania
offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs too.

Apart from the University and the Scuola Superiore Catania
Catania
is base of the prestigious Istituto Musicale Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
an advanced institute of musical studies (Conservatory) and the Accademia di Belle Arti an advanced institute of artistic studies. Both institutions offer programs of university level for musical and artistic education.

CULTURE

Festival of Saint Agatha in 1915 Saint Agatha Festival in February, 1994

The opera composer Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
was born in Catania, and a museum exists at his birthplace. The Teatro Massimo "Vincenzo Bellini" , which opened in 1890, is named after the composer. The opera house presents a variety of operas through a season, which run from December to May, many of which are the work of Bellini. Teatro Massimo Bellini

Giovanni Verga
Giovanni Verga
was born in Catania
Catania
in 1840. He became the greatest writer of Verismo , an Italian literary movement akin to Naturalism . His novels portray life among the lower levels of Sicilan society, such as fishermen and stonemasons, and were written in a mixture of both literary language and local dialect. Francesco Longo Mancini was a painter known for paintings of nudes who was born in Catania
Catania
in 1880.

The city is base of the newspaper La Sicilia and of the TV-channel Antenna Sicilia also known as Sicilia Channel . Several others local television channels and free-press magazines have their headquarters in Catania.

The city is home to the Catania Jazz Festival , which typically runs for several winter months with concerts in different locations. In the late 1980s and during the 1990s Catania
Catania
had a sparkling and unique popular music scene. Indie pop and indie rock bands, local radio station and dynamic independent music record labels sprung. As a result, in those years the city experienced a vital and effervescent cultural period. Artists like Carmen Consoli and Mario Venuti and internationally known indie rock bands like Uzeda came out of this cultural milieu.

The 2012 film, Acqua Fuori Dal Ring is set in Catania
Catania
and was filmed on location in the Librino neighborhood and Black Lava
Lava
Fields of Mount Etna .

The city is the home of Amatori Catania rugby union team, Calcio Catania
Catania
football team and Orizzonte Catania , the latter being a women's water polo club, winning eight European Champions Cup titles from 1994 to 2008. Noted Italian basketball coach Ettore Messina
Messina
is a native of Catania. The city also hosted the first ever qualification tournament for the Rugby World Cup Sevens in 1992, and the associated Etna Cup, which was won by the host Sicily
Sicily
team. In addition, the Catania Elephants are currently members of the Italian Football League .

The city's patron saint is Saint Agatha , who is celebrated with a religious pageantry, the Festival of Saint Agatha , on February 5 every year.

Catania
Catania
also hosted the 2011 FIE Fencing World Championships.

CUISINE

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Catania
Catania
has a unique cuisine, with strong Sicilian traits. Dishes such as Pasta alla Norma are from the city. Pasta alla Norma is a pasta dish made out of macaroni-like penne, tomato sauce, largely sliced aubergines, and often topped with salty ricotta , or ricotta salata in Italian. Granita , a popular flavoured sherbet, is believed to hail from the city too. Blood oranges, such as the famous tarocco , are common to the city and others. Another famous plate is horse's meat, usually cooked on coals and sold on the streets and at restaurants. In Castello Ursino's surroundings are located the most famous horse's meat restaurants with lots of different price ranges. However, the most famous and traditional food are the Arancini . It is a rice croquette stuffed with any kind of ingredients such as meat sauce, mushrooms, pistachio, smoked salmon....It has an orange colour because of the saffron used. The arancini are on sale in any Tavola Calda shop and they can be eaten at any time of the day.

TRANSPORT

Catania Metro

Catania
Catania
has a commercial seaport ( Catania
Catania
seaport ), an international airport ( Catania Fontanarossa ), a central railway station (Catania Centrale ) and it is a main node of the Sicilian motorway system.

The motorways serving Catania
Catania
are the A18 Messina
Messina
- Catania
Catania
and the A19 Palermo
Palermo
-Catania; extensions of the A18 going from Catania
Catania
to Syracuse and to Gela
Gela
are currently under construction.

The Circumetnea is a narrow-gauge railway that runs for 110 km (68 mi) from Catania
Catania
round the base of Mount Etna . It attains the height of 976 m (3,202.10 ft) above sea level before descending to rejoin the coast at Giarre - Riposto to the North.

In the late 1990s the first line of an underground railway ( Metropolitana di Catania ) was built. The underground service started in 1999 and it is currently active on a route of 8.8 km (5.5 mi), from the station Nesima (West of town), passing through the stations of San Nullo, Cibali (still under constrction), Milo, Borgo, Giuffrida, Italia, Galatea, Giovanni XXIII, to Stesicoro. These two stations, bringing Catania
Catania
Underground in the city centre, have opened on 20 December 2016 First line is planned to extend from the satellite city of Paternò to Fontanarossa Airport .

INFLUENCE ON THE PLANNING OF ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA

The site of what was to become the major Australian city of Adelaide was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia. In 1823, Light had fondly written of Catania: "The two principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in the direction of north and south and east and west. They are wide and spacious and about a mile long". This became the basis for his plan of Adelaide.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

* Oriana Bandiera (born 1971), Italian economist and academic, born here * Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
(1801–1835), opera composer * Giuseppa Bolognara Calcagno (1826–1884), freedom fighter of the Risorgimento * Miriam Leone (1985–), Miss Italia 2008 * Ettore Majorana
Ettore Majorana
(1905–?), theoretical physicist * Giovanni Verga
Giovanni Verga
(1840–1922), author

Grace Martini (1992-), Philanthropist

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Catania
Catania
is sister cities with:

* Phoenix , United States
United States
* Grenoble
Grenoble
, France
France
, since 1961 * Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
* Oświęcim
Oświęcim
, Poland
Poland
, since 2010

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E " Catania
Catania
history – Catania
Catania
culture – Catania
Catania
– attractions in Catania
Catania
– art Catania
Catania
– history guide Catania
Catania
Italy
Italy
Katane". Travelplan.it. Retrieved 2010-06-01. * ^ Giuffrida Tino, Catania
Catania
dalle origini alla dominazione normanna, Catania, Bonaccorso. Excerpt here (in Italian) * ^ "The meaning of the name Catania". Sicilia.indettaglio.it. 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2011-04-05. * ^ Roman writers fluctuate between the two forms Catana and Catina, of which the latter is, perhaps, the most common, and is supported by inscriptions (Orell. 3708, 3778); but the analogy of the Greek Κατάνη, and the modern Catania, would point to the former as the more correct. * ^ Holm Adolf (1925), Catania
Catania
Antica, G. Libertini * ^ Amari Michele, Edrisi, Il Libro di Re Ruggero, Vol. I p.71 * ^ A B Various authors (1987), Enciclopedia di Catania, Tringale * ^ Correnti Santi (1981), La Città Semprerifiorente, Catania, Greco * ^ Correnti Santi Strabo
Strabo
vi. p. 268; Scymnus 286; Scylax § 13; Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. * ^ Aristotle
Aristotle
, Pol. ii. 9. * ^ Diodorus xi. 49, in 66; Strabo
Strabo
l.c.; Pind. Pyth. i., and Schol. ad loc. * ^ Diod. xi. 76; Strabo
Strabo
l. c.) * ^ Thuc. vi. 50–52, 63, 71, 89; Diod. xiii. 4, 6, 7; Plut. Nic. 15, 16. * ^ Diod. xiv. 15, 58, 60. * ^ Diod. xvi. 69; Plut. Timol. 13, 30–34. * ^ Diod. xix. 110, xxii. 8, Exc. Hoesch. p. 496. * ^ Diog. Laert. ix. 2. § 1. * ^ Athen. i. p. 22, c. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
vi. p. 269; Pausanias x. 28. § 4; Conon, Narr. 43; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. v. 17; Gaius Julius Solinus 5. § 15; Gaius Julius Hyginus 254; Valerius Maximus
Valerius Maximus
v. 4. Ext. § 4; Lucil. Aetn. 602-40; Claudian. Idyll. 7; Silius Italicus xiv. 196; Auson. Ordo Nob. Urb. 11. * ^ Eutrop. ii. 19. * ^ Cicero
Cicero
In Verrem iii. 4. 3, 83, iv. 23, 45; Livy
Livy
xxvii. 8. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
vi. pp. 268, 270, 272; Dion Cassius iv. 7. * ^ Pliny iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 9; Itin. Ant. pp. 87,90, 93, 94. * ^ Oros. v. 13. * ^ Translation of an eye-witness account of the 1647 rebellion * ^ Documentary about the conditions of the city after the financial turmoil (in Italian) * ^ Climate Summary from Weatherbase.com (Catania, Italy) * ^ "Climatological Information for Catania, Italy" - Hong Kong Observatory * ^ A B C D E F G Official ISTAT figures * ^ "The Metropolitan Area of Catania
Catania
defined by ANCI Sicilia (National Association of Comuni Italiani)". Anci.sicilia.it. Retrieved 2011-04-05. * ^ Amari Michele (1933), Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia, Catania, Nallino, Vol. I, pp. 344–345 * ^ "Santissimo Sacramento Ritrovato – Home". Sacramentoritrovato.com. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-07-25. * ^ Santa Maria di Lognina (in Italian) * ^ Saint Mary's Tower of Ognina (in Italian) * ^ " Athena
Athena
Longatis". Mythindex.com. Retrieved 2011-04-05. * ^ "Home Page Parrocchia N.S. di Monserrato". Parrocchie.it. Retrieved 2009-07-25. * ^ La Mecca is not the Saudi holy city , but a vernacular Catanian word that identifies a "silk mill" that existed, in effect, in its vicinity. * ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission – Catania
Catania
War Cemetery * ^ Veterans Affairs Canada
Canada
– Anciens Combattants Canada
Canada
Catania
Catania
War Cemetery * ^ Administrative division of Catania, from Comune
Comune
di Catania Official Website"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-05-30. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "La ricchezza del territorio italiano". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Archived from the original on 2004-03-18. Retrieved 2010-06-01. * ^ "home". Centroetnapolis.it. Retrieved 2010-06-01. * ^ "Oggi la chiamano Etna Valley: i progetti, le aziende, il lavoro nel territorio di Catania". Etnavalley.com. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-01. * ^ History of the University of Catania by Unict main site (in Italian) and (in English) (translation) * ^ History of the University of Catania, by Professor Giuseppe Giarrizzo, from Unict.it (in Italian) and (in English) (translation) * ^ Scuola Superiore di Catania
Catania
– Official site Archived September 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Musical Institute Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
– Official site". Istitutobellini.it. Retrieved 2011-04-05. * ^ "Academy of Fine Arts of Catania". Italian official site. Retrieved 2011-04-05. * ^ A B Drabble, Margaret (1985). "The Oxford Companion to English Literature: Verga, Giovanni" (5th ed.). London: Guild Publishing: 1026. * ^ Drabble, Margaret (1985). "The Oxford Companion to English Literature: Verismo" (5th ed.). London: Guild Publishing: 1026. * ^ Catania
Catania
Jazz Festival, Traghettiper-sicilia.it, retrieved 5 February 2017 * ^ Underground railway of Catania
Catania
from Subways.net and from CityRailways.net in (in Italian) and (in English)(translation) * ^ Johnson and Langmead, The Adelaide
Adelaide
city plan: fiction and fact, Wakefield Press, 1986. * ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-06. * ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

SOURCES

* Amico, Vito Maria (1740). Catana Illustrata. * Correnti, Santi (1981). La Città Semprerifiorente. Catania: Greco. * Correnti, Santi (2001). Cataniamia. Catania: Greco. * Correnti, Santi; Santino Spartà (2007). Le strade di Catania, Rome. Newton & Compton. * Various. Enciclopedia di Catania. Tringale. * Ilaria Di Pietra, Catania. Viaggi e viaggiatori nella città del vulcano, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania
Catania
2007 * Antonino Recupero, Catania. Città del mediterraneo, (Fotografia di Alfio Garozzo. Prefazione di Andrea Camilleri), Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania
Catania
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