The city of CARTAGENA, known in the colonial era as CARTAGENA DE
INDIAS (Spanish : _Cartagena de Indias_ ( listen )), is a major port
founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of
The city was founded on June 1, 1533, and named after Cartagena,
* 1 History
* 1.1 Pre-Columbian era: 4000 BC – 1500 AD * 1.2 First sightings by Europeans: 1500–1533 * 1.3 Colonial era: 1533–1717
* 1.4 Viceregal era: 1717–1811
* 1.4.1 1741 attack * 1.4.2 Silver Age (1750–1808)
* 1.5 1811 to the 21st century
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Location
* 2.2 Neighborhoods
* 2.2.1 Northern area * 2.2.2 Downtown * 2.2.3 San Diego * 2.2.4 Getsemaní * 2.2.5 Bocagrande
* 2.3 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Industry
* 4.2 Miss
* 5 Infrastructure
* 5.1 Transportation
* 5.1.1 Roads * 5.1.2 Air * 5.1.3 Sea * 5.1.4 Canals
* 5.2 Waste disposal
* 6 Education
* 6.1 Colleges and universities * 6.2 Primary and secondary schools * 6.3 Libraries
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Theatres and concert halls * 7.2 Sport * 7.3 Museums and galleries * 7.4 World Heritage site * 7.5 Festivities
* 8 Media appearances
* 8.1 Film * 8.2 Television * 8.3 Literature * 8.4 Video games * 8.5 Music
* 9 Famous people
* 9.1 19th century * 9.2 20th century
* 10 Twin towns – Sister cities * 11 Notes
* 12 Further reading
* 12.1 Colonial history
* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links
According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the
prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to
these Taíno culture huts in
COORDINATES 10°25′25″N 75°31′31″W / 10.4236°N 75.5253°W / 10.4236; -75.5253
AREA 572 km2 (6.16×109 sq ft)
CRITERIA iv, vi
INSCRIPTION 1980 (8th Session )
Location of Cartagena,
PRE-COLUMBIAN ERA: 4000 BC – 1500 AD
The Puerto Hormiga Culture , found in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre . In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life.
Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC. The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and also to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish.
The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments
of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the
Cartagena Bay area. Until the
Spanish colonization , many cultures
derived from the Karib , Malibu and Arawak language families lived
along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era,
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family.
Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included:
* on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí (Calamari) * on the island of Tierrabomba : Carex * on Isla Barú , then a peninsula: Bahaire * on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique * in the suburban area of Turbaco : Yurbaco Tribe
Heredia found these settlements, "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes." :481
Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, and other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades.
FIRST SIGHTINGS BY EUROPEANS: 1500–1533
Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500-01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa 's voyage to Uraba. However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, and before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had already been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd.
After the failed effort to find
Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso
de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de
Urabá in 1517 by
Diego de Nicuesa , the southern Caribbean coast
became unattractive to colonizers. They preferred the better known
Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas (1460–1527) to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá , the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus , and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate.
COLONIAL ERA: 1533–1717
Pedro de Heredia
Under contract to Queen
Joanna of Castile ,
Pedro de Heredia
Cartagena was founded on June 1, 1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia , in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamarí village. The town was named after the port city of Cartagena , in Murcia in southwest Spain, where most of Heredia's sailors had resided. King Philip II gave Cartagena the title of "city" (_ciudad_) in 1574, adding "most noble and loyal" in 1575. :23
The city's increasing importance as a port for the export of Peruvian
Potosí to Spain, made it an obvious target for pirates
and corsairs , encouraged by France, England, and Holland. In 1544,
the city was pillaged by 5 ships and 1000 men under the command of the
Jean-François Roberval , who took advantage of the city
still without walls. Heredia was forced to retreat to
Turbaco until a
ransom was paid. A defensive tower, _San Felipe del Boqueron_, was
built in 1566 by Governor Anton Davalos. It was supposed to protect
the anchorage and the Bahia de las Animas, a water lane into
A few months after the disaster of the invasion of Cote, a fire destroyed the city and forced the creation of a firefighting squad, the first in the Americas.
In 1568, Sir John Hawkins of England tried to trick Governor Martín
de las Alas into violating Spanish law, which forbade trade with
foreigners, by opening a trade fair in the city to sell goods. This
would have allowed Hawkins to ravage the port afterwards; the governor
declined. Hawkins bombarded the city for 8 days, but failed to level
In 1610, the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in
Cartagena and The
Palace of Inquisition was completed in 1770.
Sentences were pronounced in the main city plaza, today's
The first slaves were brought by
Pedro de Heredia
Gov. Francisco de Murga made the Inner Bay an "impregnable lagoon", according to Segovia, which included the forts _El Boquerón_, _Castillo Grande_, _Manzanillo_, and _Manga_. Besides the walls built to defend the historic district of Calamari, Francisco de Murga enclosed Getsemani with protective walls starting in 1631. This included the battery of Media Luna of San Antonio, located between the bastions of Santa Teresa and Santa Barbara, which protected the only gate and causeway to the mainland. :98,130
The practice of _Situado _, is exemplified in the magnitude of the city's subsidy between 1751 and 1810, when the city received the sum of 20,912,677 Spanish reales . The policies of the Bourbon Dynasty in Spain, such as those of Philip V , stimulated the economic growth and consolidation of the Spanish America . Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta as governor was the mastermind of the reconstruction of the city after the destruction of 1697
The Raid on Cartagena , in April 1697 during the Nine Years\' War , by Sir Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis and Jean Baptiste Ducasse was a severe blow to Cartagena. The Baron's forces included 22 large ships, 500 canons, and 4000 troops, while Ducasse's forces consisted of 7 ships and 1,200 buccaneers . They quickly overwhelmed Sancho Jimeno de Orozco 's force of 30 men in the _San Luis de Bocachica_ fortification. Then, _San Felipe de Barajas_ also fell and the city came under bombardment. When the Half Moon Gate was breached and Getsemani occupied, Governor Diego de los Rios capitulated. The Baron left after a month of plunder and Ducasse followed a week later. :31–32
When King Philip II employed the Italian engineer Juan Bautista Antonelli to design a master plan of fortifications for Cartagena, construction would actually continue for the next two hundred years. On 17 March 1640, three Portuguese ships under the command of Rodrigo Lobo da Silva, ran aground in the Bocagrande Channel. This accelerated the formation of a sand bar , which soon connected the Bocagrande Peninsula to the island of Tierrabomba. The defense of the bay then shifted to two forts on either side of Bocachica, _San Jose_ and _San Luis de Bocachica _. _San Luis_ was replaced by _San Fernando_ after the 1741 English raid. The next narrow passage was formed by the Island of Manzanillo, where _San Juan del Manzanillo_ was constructed and _Santa Cruz O Castillo Grande_ opposite on Cruz Grande at Punta Judio, both connected by a floating chain. Finally, there was _San Felipe del Boqueron_, later _San Sebastian del Pastelillo. The city itself was circled with a ring of bastions connected by curtains . The island of Getsemani was also fortified. Protecting the city on the landward side, atop San Lazaro hill, was the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas named in honor of Spain's King Philip IV and Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, Marquis of Barajas ' father, the Count of Barajas. Completed in 1654, the fort was expanded in the 18th Century, and included underground corridors and galleries. :25–26 :76 :69–72_ The final serious attempt to take the city and invade New Granada was made by Edward Vernon , who failed in one of the biggest military expeditions ever sent there Blas de Lezo the one-eyed, one-legged, one-handed Spanish mariner was one of those who defended the city in 1741
VICEREGAL ERA: 1717–1811
Although the 18th century began poorly for the city economically, when the Bourbon dynasty discontinued the _Carrera de Indias_ convoys. However, with the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the colonial struggle with England, Cartagena took on the stronghold as the "gateway to the Indies of Peru". By 1777, the city included 13,700 inhabitants with a garrison of 1300. The population reached 17,600 in 1809. :31–33,36
The reconstruction after the
Raid on Cartagena (1697) was initially
slow, but with the end of the
War of the Spanish Succession around
1711 and the competent administration of Juan Díaz de Torrezar
Pimienta, the walls were rebuilt, the forts reorganized and restored,
and the public services and buildings reopened. By 1710, the city was
fully recovered. At the same time, the slow but steady reforms of the
restricted trade policies in the
Spanish Empire encouraged the
establishment of new trade houses and private projects. During the
Philip V of Spain
In 1731, Juan de Herrera y Sotomayor founded the Military Academy of Mathematics and Practice of Fortifications in Cartagena. He is also known for designing the Puerta del Reloj starting in 1704. :43,138–139
Cartagena de Indias
Starting in mid-April 1741, the city endured a siege by a large English armada under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon . The engagement, referred to as Battle of Cartagena de Indias , was part of the larger War of Jenkin\'s Ear . The English armada included 50 warships, 130 transport ships, and 25,600 men, including 2,000 North American colonial infantry. The Spanish defense was under the command of Sebastián de Eslava and Don Blas de Lezo . The British were able to take the Castillo de San Luis at Bocachica and land marines on the island of Tierrabomba and Manzanillo. The North Americans then took La Popa hill. :33–35
Following a failed attack on San Felipe Barajas on 20 April 1741,
which left 800 British dead and another 1,000 taken prisoner, Vernon
lifted the siege. By that time he had many sick men from tropical
diseases. An interesting footnote to the battle, was the inclusion of
Silver Age (1750–1808)
_ Mestiza of Cartagena de Indias_ by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1799. _ Criollo of Cartagena de Indias_ by Antonio Rodríguez Onofre, circa 1796.
In 1762, Antonio de Arebalo published his Defense Plan, the Report on the estate of defense on the avenues of Cartagena de Indias. This engineer continued the work to make Cartagena impregnable, including the construction from 1771 to 1778, of an 3400 yards long underwater jetty across the Bocagrande called the _Escollera_. Arebalo had earlier completed _San Fernando_, and the fort-battery of _San Jose_ in 1759, then added _El Angel San Rafael_ on El Horno hill as added protection across the Bocachica. :55,81–94
After Vernon, what is called the 'Silver Age' of the city (1750–1808) began. This time was one of permanent expansion of the existing buildings, massive immigration from all the other cities of the Viceroyalty , increase of the economic and political power of the city and a population growth spurt not equaled since that time. Political power that was already shifting from Bogotá to the coast completed its relocation, and the Viceroys decided to reside in Cartagena permanently. The inhabitants of the city were the richest of the colony, the aristocracy erected noble houses on their lands to form great estates, libraries and printing establishments were opened, and the first café in New Granada was even established. The good times of steady progress and advancement in the second half of the 18th century came to an abrupt end in 1808 with the general crisis of the Spanish Empire that came from the Mutiny of Aranjuez and all its consequences.
Among the censuses of the 18th century was the special Census of 1778, imposed by the governor of the time, D. Juan de Torrezar Diaz Pimienta – later Viceroy of New Granada – by order of the Marquis of Ensenada , Minister of Finance – so that he would be provided numbers for his Catastro tax project, which imposed a universal property tax he believed would contribute to the economy while at the same time increasing royal revenues dramatically. The Census of 1778, besides having significance for economic history, is interesting because each house had to be described in detail and its occupants enumerated, making the census an important tool The census revealed what Ensenada had hoped. However, his enemies in the court convinced King Charles III to oppose the tax plan.
1811 TO THE 21ST CENTURY
Postal showing the Dock of los Pegasos and the Torre del Reloj Público, in Cartagena de Indias, circa 1910.
For more than 275 years, Cartagena was under Spanish rule. With
Spain's reaction was to send a "pacifying expedition" under the command of Pablo Morillo , The Pacifier, and Pascual de Enrile, which included 59 ships, and 10,612 men. The city was placed under siege on 22 August 1815. The city was defended by 3000 men, 360 cannons, and 8 ships plus ancillary small watercraft, under the command of Manuel del Castillo y Rada and Juan N. Enslava. However, by that time, the city was under the rule of the Garcia de Toledo Party, having exiled German and Gabriel Pineres, and Simon Bolivar . By 5 December, about 300 people per day died from hunger or disease, forcing 2000 to flee on vessels provided by the French mercenary Louis Aury. By that time, 6000 had died. Morillo, in retaliation after entering the city, shot nine of the rebel leaders on 24 February 1816, at what is now known as the Camellon de los Martires. These included José María García de Toledo and Manuel del Castillo y Rada. :55–60
Finally, a patriot army led by General Mariano Montilla , supported by Admiral José Prudencio Padilla , laid siege to the city from August 1820 until October 1821. A key engagement was the destruction of almost all of the royalist ships anchored on Getsemani Island on 24 June 1821. After Governor Gabriel Torres surrendered, Simon Bolivar the Liberator, bestowed the title "Heroic City" onto Cartagena. The Liberator spent 18 days in the city from 20–28 July 1827, staying in the Government Palace in Proclamation Square and the guest of a banquet hosted by Jose Padilla at his residence on Calle Larga. :60,67
Sanctuary of Saint Peter Claver . Peter Claver was a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who dedicated his life to helping the African slaves, giving them a sense of their own personal dignity. He became the patron saint of slaves, seafarers, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to African Americans. The Torre del Reloj Público (Public Clock Tower) was the main entrance to the old city. Originally, the clock tower had only the central archway. The other two arches were added in the 18th century, and a new clock in the 19th century.
Cartagena faces the Caribbean Sea to the west. To the south is the Cartagena Bay, which has two entrances: Bocachica (Small Mouth) in the south, and Bocagrande (Big Mouth) in the north. Cartagena is located at 10°25' North, 75°32' West (10.41667, −75.5333).
The metropolitan area of Cartagena is formed by:
In this area is the Rafael Núñez International Airport , located in the neighborhood of Crespo, ten minutes' drive from downtown or the old part of the city and fifteen minutes away from the modern area. Zona Norte, the area located immediately north of the airport contains the Hotel Las Americas, the urban development office of Barcelona de Indias, and several educational institutions.
The Downtown area of Cartagena has varied architecture, mainly a colonial style, but republican and Italian style buildings, such as the Cathedral's bell tower, can be seen.
The main entrance to downtown is the _Puerta del Reloj _ (Clock
Gate), which exits onto the _
Nearby is the
The Office of Historical Archives devoted to Cartagena's history is not far away. Next to the archives is the Government Palace, the office building of the Governor of the Department of Bolivar. Across from the palace is the Cathedral of Cartagena , which dates back to the 16th century.
Another religious building of significance is the Iglesia de Santo
Domingo in front of
In the city is the Augustinian Fathers Convent and the University of Cartagena . This university is a center of higher education opened to the public in the late 19th century. The _Claustro de Santa Teresa_ (Saint Theresa Cloister), which has been remodeled and has become a hotel operated by Charleston Hotels. It has its own square, protected by the San Francisco Bastion.
A 20-minute walk from downtown is the Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas , located in el Pie de la Popa (another neighborhood), the greatest fortress ever built by the Spaniards in their colonies. The tunnels were all constructed in such a way as to make it possible to hear footsteps of an approaching enemy. Some of the tunnels are open for viewing today.
San Diego was named after the local San Diego Convent, now known as the Beaux Arts University Building. In front of it is the Convent of the Nuns of the Order of Saint Clare , now the Hotel Santa Clara. In the surrounding area is Santo Toribio Church, the last church built in the Walled City. Next to it is Fernández de Madrid Square, honoring Cartagena's hero, José Fernández de Madrid, whose statue can be seen nearby.
Inside the Old City is found Las Bóvedas (The Vaults), a construction attached to the walls of the Santa Catalina Fortress. From the top of this construction the Caribbean Sea is visible.
A view of the both Colonial and traditional neighbourhood of Getsemaní, usually found old houses painted with graffiti.
Once a district characterized by crime, Getsemani, just south of the ancient walled fortress, has become "Cartagena's hippest neighborhood and one of Latin America's newest hotspots", with plazas that were once the scene of drug dealing being reclaimed and old buildings being turned into boutique hotels.
The Bocagrande (Big Mouth) is an area known for its skyscrapers . The area contains the bulk of the city's tourist facilities, such as hotels, shops, restaurants, nightclubs and art galleries. It is located between Cartagena Bay to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the west, and includes the two neighborhoods of El Laguito (The Little Lake) and Castillogrande (Big Castle). Bocagrande has long beaches and much commercial activity is found along Avenida San Martín (Saint Martin Avenue).
The beaches of Bocagrande, lying along the northern shore, are made of volcanic sand, which is slightly grayish in color. This makes the water appear muddy, though it is not. There are breakwaters about every 200 yards (180 m).
On the bay side of the peninsula of Bocagrande is a seawalk. In the center of the bay is a statue of the Virgin Mary. The Naval Base is also located in Bocagrande, looking at the Bay. Bocagrande's skyline at twilight from the old town, in the year 2008.
Cartagena features a tropical wet and dry climate . Humidity averages around 90%, with rainy seasons typically in May–June and October–November. The climate tends to be hot and windy.
CLIMATE DATA FOR CARTAGENA (RAFAEL NúñEZ INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ) 1981–2010
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 40.0 (104) 38.0 (100.4) 38.0 (100.4) 38.0 (100.4) 40.0 (104) 39.8 (103.6) 39.0 (102.2) 38.0 (100.4) 39.6 (103.3) 39.0 (102.2) 40.0 (104) 38.0 (100.4) 40.0 (104)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.6 (87.1) 30.7 (87.3) 30.8 (87.4) 31.2 (88.2) 31.5 (88.7) 31.8 (89.2) 31.8 (89.2) 31.8 (89.2) 31.5 (88.7) 31.2 (88.2) 31.2 (88.2) 30.9 (87.6) 31.2 (88.2)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 27.1 (80.8) 27.8 (82) 28.3 (82.9) 28.5 (83.3) 28.3 (82.9) 28.4 (83.1) 28.3 (82.9) 28.0 (82.4) 27.9 (82.2) 27.2 (81) 27.8 (82)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 24.8 (76.6) 25.6 (78.1) 25.9 (78.6) 25.9 (78.6) 25.6 (78.1) 25.7 (78.3) 25.6 (78.1) 25.4 (77.7) 25.4 (77.7) 24.6 (76.3) 25.2 (77.4)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) 19.0 (66.2) 19.0 (66.2) 19.0 (66.2) 19.5 (67.1) 19.0 (66.2) 19.0 (66.2) 20.0 (68) 18.0 (64.4) 18.5 (65.3) 19.0 (66.2) 19.0 (66.2) 18.5 (65.3) 18.0 (64.4)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 1.9 (0.075) 0.5 (0.02) 1.9 (0.075) 22.0 (0.866) 120.3 (4.736) 101.5 (3.996) 119.4 (4.701) 128.9 (5.075) 144.5 (5.689) 238.8 (9.402) 156.9 (6.177) 50.4 (1.984) 1,087 (42.795)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 0 0 1 4 10 13 11 13 15 16 12 3 98
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 81 79 80 81 82 82 81 82 82 83 83 82 81
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 272.8 240.1 238.7 210.0 192.2 189.0 207.7 198.4 171.0 170.5 186.0 241.8 2,518.2
MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS 8.8 8.5 7.7 7.0 6.2 6.3 6.7 6.4 5.7 5.5 6.2 7.8 6.9
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales
The Marquis of Ensenada was Minister for America and responsible for many policies, one of which resulted in the first modern census in the city in 1778.
YEAR POP. ±%
1533 200 —
1564 2,400 +1100.0%
1593 3,543 +47.6%
1612 5,302 +49.6%
1634 8,390 +58.2%
1643 12,302 +46.6%
1698 14,223 +15.6%
1701 10,230 −28.1%
1732 12,932 +26.4%
1762 14,203 +9.8%
1778 16,940 +19.3%
1792 19,380 +14.4%
YEAR POP. ±%
1803 23,402 +20.8%
1811 29,320 +25.3%
1821 5,392 −81.6%
1832 8,001 +48.4%
1842 4,221 −47.2%
1853 6,403 +51.7%
1867 8,320 +29.9%
1870 7,680 −7.7%
1882 13,994 +82.2%
1890 17,392 +24.3%
1900 21,220 +22.0%
1912 29,922 +41.0%
YEAR POP. ±%
1918 34,203 +14.3%
1926 64,322 +88.1%
1939 87,504 +36.0%
1952 123,439 +41.1%
1967 299,493 +142.6%
1976 312,520 +4.3%
1985 554,093 +77.3%
1993 725,072 +30.9%
1999 837,552 +15.5%
2005 893,033 +6.6%
2011 EST. 955,709 +7.0%
2013 EST. 978,600 +2.4%
Panorama of Cartagena from the San Felipe de Barajas Fort, in the year 2008.
The main economic activities in Cartagena are industry, tourism, and commerce. The port of Cartagena is one of the largest of South America.
Other prominent companies include
Cementos Argos , Miss
In 1934, Miss
Free zones are areas within the local territory which enjoy special customs and tax rules. They are intended to promote the industrialization of goods and provision of services aimed primarily at foreign markets and also the domestic market.
* _Central Park Zone SAS:_ Located in the municipality of Turbaco in conurbation area with the District of Cartagena de Indias, which has 64.8 hectares in the first phase and a second extension underway to complete the 128 acres (52 ha) included in the project. It has excellent design features and will have the most modern software inventory of Colombia. It has a permamente Zone (Phase 1 - Phase 2) and a Logistics and Commercial Zone for SMEs. They are currently on sale and rent their warehouses, lots, yards and offices for companies in different cluster. * _Zona Franca Industrial Goods and Services ZOFRANCA Cartagena SA:_ located 14 kilometres (8.7 miles) from the city center, at the end of the industrial sector and has Mamonal private dock. * _Tourist Zone:_ located on the island of Baru, within the swamp Portonaito, is the only tourist zone offers lots of water in waterways, marine tourism and urban development, villas and all conveniences of a Caribbean urbanization.
Bocagrande in 2008
Tourism is a mainstay of the economy. The following are tourist sites within the city:
* Colonial architecture with Andalusian style roots.
* Steps of La Popa mount
Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas
* The Walled city of Cartagena
* Cartagena Gold Museum
* Palace of the Inquisition
* Clock Tower
* Fortresses in Cartagena de Indias: Of the twenty fortresses
comprising the walls in the district of Getsemaní, today 16 are still
standing, preserved in good condition. In 1586, was commissioned to
the most famous military engineer of the Crown of
Fortress of San Fernando de Bocachica *
Castle of San Felipe de Barajas located on the Hill of San Lázaro and was built by the Spanish during the colonial era. Construction began in 1536 under the name of Castillo de San Lázaro, later expanded in 1657. *
Walls and cannons of the old city
The Barú Island, joined to the city by the Puente de Barú bridge, has several beaches like the famous Playa Blanca, in the image. Islas Corales del Rosario , it is a small archipelago of some 28 islands facing the coast of Cartagena de Indias. In it is located one of the national parks of Colombia, created to protect one of the most important coral reefs of the Caribbean coast of Colombia.
Sunset over Cartagena Harbor as seen from La Popa
As the commercial and touristic hub of the country, the city has many transportation facilities, particularly in the seaport, air, and fluvial areas.
In 2003, the city started building Transcaribe , a mass transit system. In 2015 the system began operating in the city
The city is linked to the northern part of the Caribbean Region
through roads 90 and 90A, more commonly called Central Caribbean Road.
This Road passes through
The following roads are in the southeast portion of the city:
Road 25: Going through Turbaco and Arjona , and through the Montes de María when a fork divides it continuing to Sincelejo as National 25 and finally ending in Medellín , and to the east to Valledupar as number 80.
Road 25 A: Going also to Sincelejo , but avoiding the mountains, connects with Road 25 in the forementioned city.
Rafael Núñez International Airport , is the busiest airport in
Colombia's Caribbean region and the fourth in passenger traffic in the
country. The code of the airport is CTG, having flights to almost all
Castillo Grande lighthouse
The open ports of the city are:
* Port Society of Cartagena . Specializing in container management, this port is first of its class in the country, the third busiest port on the Caribbean Sea, and ranked 99th among ports of the world. * Muelles El Bosque (El Bosque Docks) Specialized in grain storage, expanding to the container market. * Container Terminal of Cartagena Container management.
Private ports of the city:
* The port of the Cartagena
Since the 17th century the bay has been connected to the Magdalena River by the Dique Canal , built by Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza. After Colombian independence, the canal was abandoned. Increasing centralization left the city without resources to maintain it. The last important maintenance work was done in the 1950s during Laureano Gómez 's administration. Some improvements were made by local authorities in the 1980s. This was discontinued because of legal objections from the central government that decreed that the "maintenance" of the canal did not fall under the jurisdiction of the local government. From then on, maintenance of the canal has been delayed, though it is still functional.
Cartagenian political leaders have argued that this state of affairs might change with a return to pre-independence funding and tax system. Under such systems the canal would be maintained properly and even expanded, benefiting the national economy.
Cartagena is one of the few cities in the world with a submarine emissary inaugurated in 2013. The emissary is the third largest in the world.
The old city and the Convento de San Agustín to background, convent built in 16th-century, and since 1828 this building is occupied by the University of Cartagena which was founded in 1827. Currently, of the original structure of this convent remains only the cloister, the arches and supporting walls. The tower is of Italian style and as the large interior garden and courtyard
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
International schools include:
* Corporacion Educativa Colegio Britanico de Cartagena (British) * Colegio Jorge Washington (American)
José Fernández de Madrid was one of the first playwrights of the New Granada and his personal library was one of the richest of his time born in Cartagena, the University of Cartagena named its library system in his memory.
The city has many public and private libraries:
* The Universidad de Cartagena José Fernández Madrid Library: Started in 1821 when the university opened as the "University of Magdalena and Ithsmus". Serves mainly the students and faculty of this university but anyone can use its services.
Divided in buildings across the city being assigned to the Faculties it serves accordingly each area. The main building is in C. de la Universidad 64 and the second biggest section is located in Av. Jose Vicente Mogollón 2839.
Bartolomé Calvo Library: Founded in 1843 and established in
its current place in 1900, it is one of the main libraries on the
Caribbean Coast and the largest in the city. Its address is Calle de
la Inquisición, 23.
* The History Academy of
Cartagena de Indias
Theatre Heredia was opened in 1911 Inside of the Theatre Heredia
THEATRES AND CONCERT HALLS
The first carnivals and western theaters that served in New Granada operated on, what is today, Calle del Coliseo. This was an activity patronized by the Viceroy Manuel de Guirior and Antonio Caballero y Góngora , who, like their predecessors, spent most of the time of their mandates ruling in Cartagena.
* Heredia Theatre: Opened in 1911, inspired by the
Teatro Tacón of
The main football club in the city is Real Cartagena .
MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES
_ Museo Naval del Caribe, this naval museum housed in a colonial building of almost 3,500 square meters, located in the walled city of Cartagena de Indias, is divided into two large rooms: "Colonial area" and "Republican area". Museo del Oro museum, it contains an important collection of over 600 pieces, of gold and pottery, of the old Zenú indigenous culture
* City Museum Palace of the Inquisition, opened in the 1970s. * Sanctuary and Museum of St. Maria Bernarda Butler . (foundress of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Perpetual Help).
WORLD HERITAGE SITE
The port, the fortresses and the group of monuments of Cartagena were
selected in 1984 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (
* JANUARY: The "Cartagena International Music Festival", (Cartagena Festival Internacional de Música) Classical music event that has become one of the most important festivals in the country. It is done in the Walled City for 10 days, which are held classes, conferences and counted with the presence of national and international artists,
* "Fiesta Taurina del Caribe" (Caribbean Bullfight festival) (ultimately canceled, for maintenance of the scenario), * " Hay Festival ", * "SummerLand Festival": Electronic music festival most important of the country.
* FEBRUARY : "Fiestas de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria" (Feasts of Our Lady of Candelaria ),
* "Festival del Frito".
* MARCH: "International Film Festival of Cartagena" (Festival Internacional de Cine de Cartagena),
* " Miss
* APRIL: "Festival del Dulce" (Festival of the Sweets).
* JUNE–JULY: "Festival de Verano" (Summer Festival),
* "Sail Cartagena".
* NOVEMBER: "Fiestas del 11 de noviembre" (Feasts of November 11) or (of the Independence).
* DECEMBER: "Jazz Festival under the Moon" (Festival de Jazz bajo la Luna),
* "Cartagena Rock".
Burn! _ (1969), with
* In the _ Family Guy _ episode "Barely Legal ", the mayor, thinking the film is real, sends all the city's police officers to Cartagena * Cartagena figured prominently in the "Smuggler's Blues" (1985) episode of _ Miami Vice _, featuring guest star Glenn Frey and his song "Smuggler's Blues" * Cartagena is featured as the backdrop for the _NCIS _ episodes "Agent Afloat " and "The Missionary Position "
* A fictionalized version of the 1697 raid on Cartagena is chronicled in the novel _Captain Blood _ (1922) * Gabriel García Márquez 's novel _ Love in the Time of Cholera _ (1985) is set in an unnamed city modeled largely on Cartagena. García Márquez has also said that Cartagena influenced the setting of _The Autumn of the Patriarch ". _ * Gabriel García Márquez 's novel _ Of Love and Other Demons _ (1994) takes place in Cartagena in the 1600s * The first chapter of Brian Jacques ' novel _The Angel\'s Command _ (2003) takes place in Cartagena in 1628 * The poem "Románc" (1983) by Sándor Kányádi talks about the beauty of Cartagena * The second story in Nam Le 's award-winning book of short fiction, _The Boat_ (2008) is called "Cartagena" and set in Colombia. Cartagena in the story is more an idea than a place * A portion of the 2014 novel _ The Bone Clocks _ by David Mitchell (author) is set in the city * A 2015 novel by Claudia Amengual is named _Cartagena _
* The city is the scene of two levels in the video game, _Uncharted 3: Drake\'s Deception _
José María García de Toledo , politician, early "juntismo"
movement member, later independentist. President of the Supreme Junta
of Cartagena (1810-1811)
Bartolomé Calvo , politician, journalist. Governor of Panama
President of the Granadine Confederation in 1861.
* Rafael Núñez , politician, journalist, diplomat, writer, lawyer
and judge. Dominant political figure in
Julio Teherán , professional baseball player
Joe Arroyo , Salsa music composer and singer.
Enrique Grau , painter, born in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
* ^ Peter Claver was a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On March 19, 1616 he was ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the dignity of the slaves. After four years of sickness, Peter died in 1654. Two services were held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African friends. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He is now Known as the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia.
* Álvarez Alonso, Fermina. _La Inquisición en Cartagena de Indias
durante el siglo XVII_. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española,
* Bossa Herrazo, Donaldo. _Nomenclatur cartagenero_. 1981.
* Böttcher, Nikolaus. “Negreros portugueses y la Inquisición de
Cartagena de Indias, siglo XVII.” Memoria 9 (2003): 38-55.
* Dorta, Enrique Marco. _Cartagena de Indias: Puerto y plaza
* Escobar Quevedo, Ricardo. “Los Criptojudíos de Cartagena de
Indias: Un eslabón en la diáspora conversa (1635-1649).” Anuario
Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura 29 (2002): 45-71.
* Fals-Borda, Orlando. _Historia doble de la costa_. 4 vols.
* Goodsell, James Nelson. "Cartagena de Indias: Entrepôt for a New
World, 1533-1597." PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1966.
* Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena and Its
Hinterland in the Eighteenth
Century" in _Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in
the Atlantic World, 1650-1850_. Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss,
eds. 1991, pp. 168–195.
* Grahn, Lance R. "Cartagena" in _Encyclopedia of Latin American
History and Culture_, vol. 1, pp. 581–2. New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons 1996.
* Greenow, Linda. _Family, Household, and Home: A Microgeographic
Analysis of Cartagena (New Granada) in 1777_. 1976.
* Greenow, Linda. "Urban form in Spanish American colonial cities:
Cartagena de Indias, New Granada, in 1777." Department of Geography
Suny-New Paltz, NY. Middle States Geographer (2007).
* Lemaitre, Eduardo. _Historia general de Cartagena_. 4 vols.
Bogota: Banco de la República, 1983.
* McKnight, Kathryn Joy. "Confronted Rituals: Spanish Colonial and
Angolan" Maroon" Executions in
Cartagena de Indias
* Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cartagena in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Estimaciones de Población 1985 - 2005 y
Proyecciones de Población 2005 - 2020 Total Municipal por Área
(estimate)". DANE . Retrieved 10 November 2016.
* ^ "Manuel Vicente "Manolo" Duque, se posesionó como alcalde de
Cartagena" . _El Universal _ (in Spanish). 1 January 2016. Retrieved 9
* ^ Lance R. Grahn, "Cartagena" in _Encyclopedia of Latin American
History and Culture_, vol. 1, p 581. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
* ^ Grahn, "Cartagena" p. 582.
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* ^ "
* ^ "Rodrigo de Bastidas". Bruceruiz.net. 2002-07-03. Retrieved
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* ^ Corrales, Manuel Ezequiel; Documentos para la historia de la
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* ^ "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango". Lablaa.org. 2005-06-01.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Segovia, Rodolfo (2009).
_The Fortifications of Cartagena de Indias_. Bogota: el Ancora
Editores. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9789583601347 .
* ^ De Castellanos, Juan; _Historia de Cartagena_, Bogotá:
Biblioteca de Cultura Popular de Colombia, 1942.
* ^ "Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y tierra-firme
del mar océano. Primera parte – Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de
Cervantes". Cervantesvirtual.com. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
* ^ "Sir John Hawkins". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Retrieved
* ^ Hamilton, Alan (2006-06-22). "Slavers descendant begs
forgiveness". _The Times_. London. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
* ^ Meisel Roca, Adolfo (April 2002). "Crecimiento a Traves de los
Cartagena de Indias
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CARTAGENA DE INDIAS _.
_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for CARTAGENA _.
_ Wikisource has original text related to this article: CARTAGENA DE INDIAS
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica_ article _CARTAGENA (COLOMBIA) _.
* Reference volumes and maps regarding the history of Cartagena. Library of the Royal Geographical Society of South Australia * (in