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Cannabis
Cannabis
(/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa, Cannabis
Cannabis
indica, and Cannabis
Cannabis
ruderalis; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa.[2][3][4][1] The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[5] Cannabis
Cannabis
has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent. Many plants have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (cannabinoids), which is obtained by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant.[6] Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally.[7] In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users (3.8% of the population aged 15–64).[8] This percentage has not changed significantly between 1998 and 2014.[8]

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Reproduction 1.2 Biochemistry and drugs 1.3 Chromosomes and genome 1.4 Taxonomy 1.5 History of cannabis 1.6 Early classifications 1.7 20th century 1.8 Continuing research 1.9 Popular usage

2 Uses

2.1 Recreational use 2.2 Medical use 2.3 Industrial use (hemp) 2.4 Ancient and religious uses

3 Reproduction

3.1 Breeding systems 3.2 Sex determination

4 Etymology 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Description

Cannabis
Cannabis
growing as weeds at the foot of Dhaulagiri, Nepal.

A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Cannabis
Cannabis
is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets.[9] The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis
Cannabis
leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis
Cannabis
plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.[10] The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas.[citation needed] It is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivated for non-drug use. Reproduction Cannabis
Cannabis
normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants.[11] It is not unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers.[12] Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant. Male flowers are normally borne on loose panicles, and female flowers are borne on racemes.[13] "At a very early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant as dioecious",[14] and the (c. 3rd century BCE) Erya
Erya
dictionary defined xi 枲 "male Cannabis" and fu 莩 (or ju 苴) "female Cannabis".[15] All known strains of Cannabis
Cannabis
are wind-pollinated[16] and the fruit is an achene.[17] Most strains of Cannabis
Cannabis
are short day plants,[16] with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea (= C. ruderalis), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral. Biochemistry and drugs Cannabis
Cannabis
plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed. Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants.[18] As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil.[6] In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis
Cannabis
for sale or personal use.

Root system side view

Root system top view

Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)

Chromosomes and genome Cannabis, like many organisms, is diploid, having a chromosome complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been artificially produced.[19] The first genome sequence of Cannabis, which is estimated to be 820 Mb in size, was published in 2011 by a team of Canadian scientists.[20] Taxonomy

Underside of Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
leaf, showing diagnostic venation

The genus Cannabis
Cannabis
was formerly placed in the Nettle (Urticaceae) or Mulberry
Mulberry
(Moraceae) family, and later, along with the Humulus
Humulus
genus (hops), in a separate family, the Hemp
Hemp
family ( Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
sensu stricto).[21] Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
sensu stricto arose from within the former Celtidaceae family, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
sensu lato.[22][23] Various types of Cannabis
Cannabis
have been described, and variously classified as species, subspecies, or varieties:[24]

plants cultivated for fiber and seed production, described as low-intoxicant, non-drug, or fiber types. plants cultivated for drug production, described as high-intoxicant or drug types. escaped, hybridised, or wild forms of either of the above types.

Cannabis
Cannabis
plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant,[25] and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant.[26] The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but only THC is psychoactive.[27] Since the early 1970s, Cannabis
Cannabis
plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype", based on the overall amount of THC
THC
produced, and on the ratio of THC
THC
to CBD.[28] Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed throughout the life of a plant.[29] Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC
THC
and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC
THC
and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC
THC
to be utilized for drug production.[28][30]

Top of Cannabis
Cannabis
plant in vegetative growth stage

Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[31] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[32] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[32] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[19] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis
Cannabis
gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[33] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[34][35][36] History of cannabis Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
appears naturally in many tropical and humid parts of the world. Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa.[37] The oldest written record of cannabis usage is the Greek historian Herodotus's reference to the central Eurasian Scythians
Scythians
taking cannabis steam baths.[38] His (c. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed [presumably, flowers], and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy."[39] Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper.[40][41][42][43] Early classifications

Relative size of varieties of Cannabis

The Cannabis
Cannabis
genus was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species.[44] He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam.[45] Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant. Additional Cannabis
Cannabis
species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China
China
and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis
Cannabis
chinensis Delile, and Cannabis
Cannabis
gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.[46] However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis
Cannabis
continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica
Cannabis indica
was listed in various Pharmacopoeias, and was widely used to designate Cannabis
Cannabis
suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.[47] 20th century

Cannabis
Cannabis
ruderalis

In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis
Cannabis
in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis ruderalis
Janisch, as alternative names.[24] In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov
Nikolai Vavilov
assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis
Cannabis
in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe
Europe
to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav.[30][46] In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.[24][48] In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis
Cannabis
took on added significance in North America. Laws prohibiting Cannabis
Cannabis
in the United States and Canada
Canada
specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis
Cannabis
material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity.[34][35] The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.[49] In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small[50] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis
Cannabis
with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.[46] The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.[28][46][51] Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. Schultes
Richard E. Schultes
and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis
Cannabis
in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.[52][53][54][55] For Schultes, this was a reversal of his previous interpretation that Cannabis
Cannabis
is monotypic, with only a single species.[56] According to Schultes' and Anderson's descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C. ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia. This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis
Cannabis
aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" strains from wide-leafed "indica" strains.[57] Continuing research Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.[58][59][60][61][62] Dutch Cannabis
Cannabis
researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.[29] They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se. Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis
Cannabis
researcher Paul G. Mahlberg[63] at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis
Cannabis
accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis
Cannabis
germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC
THC
production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis.[30] The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis.[33] In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.[64] Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis
Cannabis
revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa.[65] Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection. In September 2005, New Scientist
New Scientist
reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.[66] The New Scientist story, which was picked up by many news agencies and web sites, indicated that the research was to be published in the journal Forensic Science International.[67] Popular usage The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis. Cannabis
Cannabis
aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe
Europe
and central Asia. Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis
Cannabis
often describe the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing them as "pure indica", "mostly indica", "indica/sativa", "mostly sativa", or "pure sativa". Uses Cannabis
Cannabis
is used for a wide variety of purposes. Recreational use Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
(drug)

Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs[68]

A dried bud, typical of what is sold for drug use

Cannabis
Cannabis
is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol, caffeine and tobacco. In the United States
United States
alone, it is believed that over 100 million Americans have tried cannabis, with 25 million Americans having used it within the past year.[when?][69] The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia.[70] Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC
THC
produced in the liver. Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe, bong or vaporizer.[70] However, if a large amount is taken orally the effects may last much longer. After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil[6] which, because of appearance, are more susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated. Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD), which has no psychotropic effects by itself[27] (although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine),[71] attenuates, or reduces[72] the higher anxiety levels caused by THC
THC
alone.[73] According to Delphic analysis by British researchers in 2007, cannabis has a lower risk factor for dependence compared to both nicotine and alcohol.[74] However, everyday use of cannabis may be correlated with psychological withdrawal symptoms, such as irritability or insomnia,[70] and susceptibility to a panic attack may increase as levels of THC
THC
metabolites rise.[75][76] However, cannabis withdrawal symptoms are typically mild and are never life-threatening.[77] Risk of adverse outcomes from cannabis use may be reduced by implementation of evidence-based education and intervention tools communicated to the public with practical regulation measures.[78] Medical use Main article: Medical cannabis Medical cannabis
Medical cannabis
(or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, to treat disease or improve symptoms. Cannabis
Cannabis
is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.[79][80] Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.[80] Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.[80] Long-term effects of cannabis
Long-term effects of cannabis
are not clear.[81] Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.[79] Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
are under preliminary research for their potential to affect stroke[82] or children's epilepsy.[83]

Industrial use (hemp)

Ancient Sanskrit on Hemp
Hemp
based Paper. Hemp
Hemp
Fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 BCE to the Late 1800's.

Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
(industrial uses)

Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
stem longitudinal section

The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the Cannabis plant stem (stalk). Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
cultivars are used for fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than six metres tall. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug. Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound (THC) concentrations in products labeled as hemp. Cannabis
Cannabis
for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre[84] ranging from paper, cordage, construction material and textiles in general, to clothing. Hemp
Hemp
is stronger and longer-lasting than cotton. It also is a useful source of foodstuffs (hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil) and biofuels. Hemp
Hemp
has been used by many civilizations, from China
China
to Europe
Europe
(and later North America) during the last 12,000 years.[84][85] In modern times novel applications and improvements have been explored with modest commercial success.[86][87] Ancient and religious uses Main articles: Cannabis and religion
Cannabis and religion
and History of medical cannabis

Cannabis
Cannabis
Museum in Amsterdam

The Cannabis
Cannabis
plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures.[88] The Yanghai Tombs, a vast ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) situated in the Turfan
Turfan
district of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
of the People's Republic of China, have revealed the 2700-year-old grave of a shaman. He is thought to have belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu, Chap 96B.[89] Near the head and foot of the shaman was a large leather basket and wooden bowl filled with 789g of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent.[90] Settlements which date from c. 2200–1700 BCE in the Bactria
Bactria
and Margiana
Margiana
contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing everything needed for making drinks containing extracts from poppy (opium), hemp (cannabis), and ephedra (which contains ephedrine).[91] Although there is no evidence of ephedra being used by steppe tribes, they engaged in cultic use of hemp. Cultic use ranged from Romania
Romania
to the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
and had begun by 3rd millennium BC Smoking hemp has been found at Pazyryk.[92] Cannabis
Cannabis
is first referred to in Hindu
Hindu
Vedas
Vedas
between 2000 and 1400 BCE, in the Atharvaveda. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred to by some in India
India
as "food of the gods".[93] Cannabis
Cannabis
use eventually became a ritual part of the Hindu
Hindu
festival of Holi. One of the earliest to use this plant in medical purposes was Korakkar, one of the 18 Siddhas.[94][95] The plant is called Korakkar Mooli in the Tamil language, meaning Korakkar's herb.[96][97] In Buddhism, cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic culture, Cannabis
Cannabis
was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya.[98][99] An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain Cannabis.[100] Sufis have used Cannabis
Cannabis
in a spiritual context since the 13th century CE.[101] In modern times, the Rastafari movement
Rastafari movement
has embraced Cannabis
Cannabis
as a sacrament.[102] Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a religious movement founded in the United States
United States
in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia
Ethiopia
or the Coptic Church, consider Cannabis
Cannabis
to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
dating back to the time of Christ.[103] Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis
Cannabis
is the Tree of Life.[104][105] Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis
Cannabis
as a sacrament are the THC
THC
Ministry,[106] Cantheism,[107] the Cannabis
Cannabis
Assembly[108] and the Church of Cognizance. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis
Cannabis
use. Cannabis
Cannabis
is frequently used among Sufis[109] – the mystical interpretation of Islam
Islam
that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Turkey, and Pakistan. Cannabis
Cannabis
preparations are frequently used at Sufi
Sufi
festivals in those countries.[109] Pakistan's Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
in Sindh province is particularly renowned for the widespread use of cannabis at the shrine's celebrations, especially its annual Urs
Urs
festival and Thursday evening dhamaal sessions - or meditative dancing sessions.[110][111] Reproduction Breeding systems

Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
fruits (achenes) that contain the seeds

Cannabis
Cannabis
is predominantly dioecious,[16][112] although many monoecious varieties have been described.[113] Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread.[114][115][116] Many populations have been described as sexually labile.[60][117][118]

Cannabis
Cannabis
flower with visible trichomes

Male Cannabis
Cannabis
flower buds

As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis
Cannabis
exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.[119] Dioecious
Dioecious
varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female flowers are used. Dioecious
Dioecious
varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops.[114] However, sativa strains often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding. Sex determination Cannabis
Cannabis
has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants.[119] Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis. Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system
XY sex-determination system
is present.[117] At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925.[120] Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,[121] and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.[118] Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants.[112] Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.[122] Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using "an X/autosome dosage type".[112] The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis
Cannabis
was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious
Dioecious
"Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.[123] According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis
Cannabis
had been published as of 1996.[124] Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.[125] More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors[126][127] have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis
Cannabis
(MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP.[29][60][128] Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,

It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.[112]

Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.[129] Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis
Cannabis
is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.[118] Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects.[112] It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis
Cannabis
using chemical treatment.[130] A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.[131]

A male hemp plant

Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis

Etymology Main article: Etymology of cannabis The word cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis) (see Latin
Latin
cannabis),[132] which was originally Scythian or Thracian.[133] It is related to the Persian kanab, the English canvas and possibly even to the English hemp ( Old English
Old English
hænep).[133] In modern Hebrew, קַנַּבּוֹס‬ qannabōs (modern pronunciation: [kanaˈbos]) is used but there are those who have theorized that it was referred to in antiquity as קני בושם q'nei bosem, a component of the biblical anointing oil.[134][135] Old Akkadian qunnabtu, Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian qunnabu were used to refer to the plant meaning "a way to produce smoke."[136][137][138] See also

Cannabis
Cannabis
portal

Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivation Cannabis
Cannabis
drug testing Cannabis
Cannabis
Social Club Hash, Marihuana & Hemp
Hemp
Museum Hashish Indian Hemp
Hemp
Drugs Commission

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sativa". Genome. 48 (5): 931–6. doi:10.1139/g05-056. PMID 16391699.  ^ Törjék, Ottó; Bucherna, Nándor; Kiss, Erzsébet; Homoki, Hajnalka; Finta-Korpelová, Zsuzsanna; Bócsa, Iván; Nagy, István; Heszky, László E. (2002). "Novel male-specific molecular markers (MADC5, MADC6) in hemp". Euphytica. 127 (2): 209–218. doi:10.1023/A:1020204729122.  ^ Tanurdzic, M.; Banks, JA (2004). "Sex-Determining Mechanisms in Land Plants". The Plant
Plant
Cell Online. 16 (Suppl): S61–71. doi:10.1105/tpc.016667. PMC 2643385 . PMID 15084718.  ^ Mohan Ram, HY; Sett, R (1982). "Induction of fertile male flowers in genetically female Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
plants by silver nitrate and silver thiosulphate anionic complex". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 62 (4): 369–75. doi:10.1007/BF00275107 (inactive 2017-01-31). PMID 24270659.  ^ Shao, Hong; Song, Shu-Juan; Clarke, Robert C. (2003). "Female-Associated DNA Polymorphisms of Hemp
Hemp
( Cannabis
Cannabis
sativaL.)". Journal of Industrial Hemp. 8: 5–9. doi:10.1300/J237v08n01_02.  ^ "cannabis" OED Online. July 2009. Oxford University Press. 2009. [1] ^ a b "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 17 February 2011.  ^ "Judaism and the Legalization of Marijuana?". Algemeiner.com.  ^ "Is there a place in religious life for marijuana? Ask Yoseph Needelman – Religion". Jewish Journal.  ^ Reinhard K. Sprenger (2004). Die Entscheidung liegt bei dir!: Wege aus der alltäglichen Unzufriedenheit. Campus Verlag. p. 305. ISBN 3-593-37442-0.  ^ Rubin, Vera D. (1975). Cannabis
Cannabis
and culture. The Hague: Mouton. p. 305. ISBN 90-279-7669-4.  ^ Black, Jeremy; George, Andrew; Nicholas, Postgate, eds. (1999). A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. SANTAG. 5 (2 ed.). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447042642. 

Further reading

Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant with a Divided History. Algora Pub. ISBN 0-87586-206-3.  Earleywine, Mitchell (2005). Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513893-7.  Emmett, David; Graeme Nice (2009). What you need to know about cannabis: understanding the facts. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1-84310-697-3.  Hulsewé, A. F. P. (1979). China
China
in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-05884-2. Geoffrey William, Guy; Brian Anthony Whittle; Philip Robson (2004). The medicinal uses of cannabis and cannabinoids. Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-517-2.  Holland, Julie M.D. (2010). The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis: Its Role in Medicine, Politics, science, and culture. Park Street Press. ISBN 978-1-59477-368-6.  Iversen, Leslie L (2008). The science of marijuana (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532824-0.  Jenkins, Richard (2006). Cannabis
Cannabis
and Young People: Reviewing the Evidence. Jessica Kingsley. ISBN 1-84310-398-2.  Lambert, Didier M (2008). Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
in Nature and Medicine. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-906390-56-X.  Mallory, J. P. and Victor H. Mair (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China
China
and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1. Roffman, Roger A; Robert S. Stephens (2006). Cannabis
Cannabis
Dependence: Its Nature, Consequences, and Treatment. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81447-2.  Russo, Ethan; Melanie Creagan Dreher; Mary Lynn Mathre (2004). Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-2101-3.  Solowij, Nadia (1998). Cannabis
Cannabis
and Cognitive Functioning. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59114-7. 

External links

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International Plant
Plant
Names Index (IPNI)

v t e

Cannabis
Cannabis
plant

Recreational and medical applications

rights

Industrial applications

General

Autoflowering cannabis Cannabis

indica ruderalis sativa Difference between C. indica and C. sativa

Consumption Cultivation Etymology (cannabis, marijuana) Glossary Cannabis
Cannabis
strains Synthetic cannabis

Usage

General

Medical cannabis

History

Timeline Religious and spiritual use

Chalice

Hemp

Hanfparade List of hemp diseases List of hemp products
List of hemp products
( Hempcrete
Hempcrete
 • Jewelry  • Milk  • Oil  • Paper) Hemp
Hemp
for Victory Hemp
Hemp
Industries Association The Emperor Wears No Clothes

Variants

Cannabis
Cannabis
edible

Bhang Cannabis
Cannabis
tea

Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking Vaporizing

Preparations

Kief Charas Essential oil Tincture

Extracts by potency

Hash oil Hashish

Phytocannabinoids

Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC)

Effects

Cannabis
Cannabis
in pregnancy Effects of cannabis

Long-term

Endocannabinoid system Dependence

Culture

420 Cannabis
Cannabis
Culture Competitions Films High Times Music Religion Head shop

Pro-Cannabis organizations

ACT AMMA Aotearoa (ALCP) ASA Buyers Club CCRMG CLEAR CRC DPA FCA GMM LEAP MAPS MPP NCIA NORML SAFER Social Club SSDP SCC

Use demographics

Adult lifetime use by country Annual use by country

Politics

General

Bootleggers and Baptists Drug testing Global Marijuana March Legality

Legality by country Legal and medical status Legal history in the United States

Marijuana Anonymous (MA) Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

Major legal reforms

UK: Return to class B Uruguay: Law
Law
No. 19172 US:

Decriminalization of non-medical use Rescheduling per the Controlled Substances Act

Politicians and parties

Cannabis
Cannabis
political parties List of British politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use List of US politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use

Legal cases

ADPF 187 Gonzales v. Raich Ker v. California Kyllo v. United States
United States
(thermal imaging) Leary v. United States

Category Portal

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Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptor modulators

Receptor (ligands)

CB1

Agonists (abridged; see here for more): 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 11-Hydroxy-THC α-Amyrin β-Amyrin AB-CHMINACA AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 Anandamide Arvanil AZ-11713908 Cannabinol CB-13 CP 47,497 CP 55,940 Dimethylheptylpyran DEA ECG EGCG Epicatechin Gallocatechol
Gallocatechol
(gallocatechin) Honokiol HU-210 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-073 Kavain L-759,633 Levonantradol Menabitan Nabilone Nabitan NADA O-1812 Oleamide Pravadoline Serinolamide A THC
THC
(dronabinol) UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 Yangonin

Antagonists: AM-251 AM-6545 Cannabidiol Cannabigerol Drinabant Falcarinol
Falcarinol
(carotatoxin) Hemopressin Ibipinabant LY-320,135 MK-9470 NESS-0327 O-2050 Otenabant PF-514273 PipISB Rimonabant Rosonabant Surinabant Taranabant THCV TM-38837 VCHSR Virodhamine

Antibodies: Brizantin (Бризантин) Dietressa (Диетресса)

Unknown/unsorted: MAFP

CB2

Agonists: 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane 4-O-Methylhonokiol α-Amyrin β-Amyrin A-796,260 A-834,735 A-836,339 AM-1172 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-2232 Anandamide AZ-11713908 Cannabinol Caryophyllene CB-13 CBS-0550 CP-55,940 GW-405,833
GW-405,833
(L-768,242) GW-842,166X HU-308 JTE 7-31 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-73 JWH-133 L-759,633 L-759,656 Magnolol MDA-19 Nabitan NADA PF-03550096 S-444,823 SER-601 Serinolamide A UR-144 Tedalinab THC
THC
(dronabinol) THCV Tetrahydromagnolol Virodhamine

Antagonists: 4-O-Methylhonokiol AM-630 BML-190 Cannabidiol Honokiol JTE-907 SR-144,528 WIN 54,461 WIN 56,098

NAGly (GPR18)

Agonists: Abnormal cannabidiol ACPA AM251 Anandamide Cannabidiol NADGly THC
THC
(dronabinol) O-1602

Antagonists: CID-85469571 O-1918

GPR55

Agonists: 2-AGE (noladin ether) 2-ALPI Abnormal cannabidiol AM-251 CID1011163 CID1252842 CID1792579 CP 55,940 GSK-494581A Lysophosphatidylinositol ML-184 ML-185 ML-186 O-1602 Oleoylethanolamide Palmitoylethanolamide THC
THC
(dronabinol)

Antagonists: Cannabidiol CID-16020046 ML-191 ML-192 ML-193 O-1918 PSB-SB-487 PSB-SB-1202 PSB-SB-1203 Tetrahydromagnolol

GPR119

Agonists: 2-Oleoylglycerol Anandamide APD668 AR-231,453 AS-1269574 MBX-2982 N-Oleoyldopamine Oleoylethanolamide Olvanil PSN-375,963 PSN-632,408

Transporter (modulators)

eCBTs

Inhibitors: 5'-DMH-CBD AM-404 AM-1172 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil Cannabidiol Guineensine LY-2183240 O-2093 OMDM-2 Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) SB-FI-26 UCM-707 URB-597 VDM-11 WOBE490 WOBE491 WOBE492

Enzyme (modulators)

FAAH

Inhibitors: 4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AACOCF3 AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A Genistein IDFP JNJ-1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL-195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MAFP Palmitoylisopropylamide Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-3845 PF-04457845 PF-750 SA-47 SA-57 TAK 21d TC-F 2 UCM710 URB-597

Activators: PDP-EA

MAGL

Inhibitors: ABX-1431 IDFP JJKK 048 JW 642 JZL-184 JZL-195 JZP-361 KML 29 MAFP MJN110 NAM Pristimerin URB-602

ABHD6

Inhibitors: JZP-169 JZP-430 KT182 KT185 KT195 KT203 LEI-106 ML294 ML295 ML296 UCM710 WWL-70

ABHD12

Inhibitors: Betulinic acid Maslinic acid MAFP Oleanolic acid Orlistat
Orlistat
(tetrahydrolipstatin) Ursolic acid

Others

Precursors: Phosphatidylethanolamine NAPE Diacylglycerol

Others: 2-PG (directly potentiates activity of 2-AG at CB1 receptor) ARN-272 (FAAH-like anandamide transporter inhibitor)

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
(cannabinoids by structure)

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

Links to related articles

v t e

Analgesics (N02A, N02B)

Opioids

Opiates/opium

Codeine# (+paracetamol, +aspirin) Morphine# (+naltrexone) Opium Laudanum Paregoric

Semisynthetic

Acetyldihydrocodeine Benzylmorphine Buprenorphine
Buprenorphine
(+naloxone) Desomorphine Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydrocodeine
Dihydrocodeine
(+paracetamol) Dihydromorphine Ethylmorphine Hydrocodone
Hydrocodone
(+paracetamol, +ibuprofen, +aspirin) Hydromorphinol Hydromorphone Nicocodeine Nicodicodeine Nicomorphine Oxycodone
Oxycodone
(+paracetamol, +aspirin, +ibuprofen, +naloxone, +naltrexone) Oxymorphone Thebacon

Synthetic

Alfentanil Alphaprodine Anileridine Butorphanol Carfentanil Dextromoramide Dextropropoxyphene Dezocine Fentanyl# (+fluanisone) Ketobemidone Levorphanol Lofentanil Meptazinol Methadone# Nalbuphine NFEPP Pentazocine Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Phenadoxone Phenazocine Piminodine Piritramide Propiram Remifentanil Sufentanil Tapentadol Tilidine Tramadol

Paracetamol-type

Acetanilide‡ Bucetin‡ Butacetin‡ Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen)# Parapropamol‡ Phenacetin‡ Propacetamol‡

NSAIDs

Propionates

Fenoprofen Flurbiprofen Ibuprofen# Ketoprofen Naproxen Oxaprozin

Oxicams

Meloxicam Piroxicam

Acetates

Diclofenac Indometacin Ketorolac Nabumetone Sulindac Tolmetin

COX-2 inhibitors

Celecoxib Etoricoxib Lumiracoxib Parecoxib Rofecoxib
Rofecoxib
Valdecoxib
Valdecoxib

Fenamates

Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid

Salicylates

Aspirin
Aspirin
(acetylsalicylic acid)# (+paracetamol/caffeine) Benorylate Diflunisal Ethenzamide Magnesium salicylate Salicin Salicylamide Salsalate Wintergreen
Wintergreen
(methyl salicylate)

Pyrazolones

Aminophenazone‡ Ampyrone Metamizole
Metamizole
(dipyrone) Nifenazone Phenazone Propyphenazone
Propyphenazone
(+paracetamol/caffeine)

Others

Glafenine

Cannabinoids

Cannabidiol Cannabis Nabilone Nabiximols Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(dronabinol)

Ion channel modulators

Calcium
Calcium
blockers

Gabapentin Gabapentin
Gabapentin
enacarbil Pregabalin Ziconotide

Sodium blockers

Carbamazepine Lacosamide Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine) Mexiletine Nefopam Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#)

Nav1.7/1.8-selective: DSP-2230§ Funapide§ PF-05089771§ Raxatrigine§

Potassium openers

Flupirtine

Myorelaxants

Carisoprodol Chlorzoxazone Cyclobenzaprine Mephenoxalone Methocarbamol Orphenadrine

Others

Analgesic
Analgesic
adjuvant Analgecine Camphor Capsaicin Clonidine Ketamine Menthol Methoxyflurane Nefopam Proglumide Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#)

#WHO-EM ‡Withdrawn from market Clinical trials:

†Phase III §Never to phase III

v t e

Ancient anaesthesia

Plants / animals

Aconitum
Aconitum
(aconite) Atropa belladonna
Atropa belladonna
(belladonna) Cannabis

medical use

Castoreum Coca Conium
Conium
(hemlock) Datura innoxia
Datura innoxia
(thorn-apple) Datura metel
Datura metel
(devil's trumpet) Hyoscyamus niger
Hyoscyamus niger
(henbane) Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(mandrake) Opium Saussurea
Saussurea
(saw-wort) Willow

People

Abulcasis Avenzoar Avicenna Celsus Dioscorides Galen Hippocrates Rhazes Sabuncuoğlu Sushrutha Theophrastus Zhang

Compounds

Aconitine Atropine Cocaine Coniine Hyoscine Δ9-THC Hyoscyamine Morphine Salicylate

v t e

Euphoriants

μ- Opioid
Opioid
receptor agonists (opioids) (e.g., morphine, heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, opium, kratom) α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) AMPA receptor
AMPA receptor
antagonists (e.g., perampanel) CB1 receptor
CB1 receptor
agonists (cannabinoids) (e.g., THC, cannabis) Dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine releasing agents (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, mephedrone) Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine, methylphenidate) GABAA receptor
GABAA receptor
positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink), inhalants, nonbenzodiazepines, quinazolinones) GHB (sodium oxybate) and analogues Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) (e.g., dexamethasone, prednisone) nACh receptor agonists (e.g., nicotine, tobacco, arecoline, areca nut) Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)) NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous oxide, phencyclidine, inhalants) Orexin receptor antagonists (e.g., suvorexant)

See also: Recreational drug use

v t e

Hypnotics/sedatives (N05C)

GABAA

Alcohols

2M2B Chloralodol Ethanol (alcohol) Ethchlorvynol Methylpentynol Trichloroethanol

Barbiturates

Allobarbital Amobarbital Aprobarbital Barbital Butabarbital Butobarbital Cyclobarbital Ethallobarbital Heptabarb Hexobarbital Mephobarbital Methohexital Narcobarbital Pentobarbital Phenallymal Phenobarbital Propylbarbital Proxibarbal Reposal Secobarbital Talbutal Thiamylal Thiopental Thiotetrabarbital Vinbarbital Vinylbital

Benzodiazepines

Brotizolam Cinolazepam Climazolam Doxefazepam Estazolam Flunitrazepam Flurazepam Flutoprazepam Lorazepam Loprazolam Lormetazepam Midazolam Nimetazepam Nitrazepam Phenazepam Quazepam Temazepam Triazolam

Carbamates

Carisoprodol Emylcamate Ethinamate Hexapropymate Meprobamate Methocarbamol Phenprobamate Procymate Tybamate

Imidazoles

Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate

Monoureides

Acecarbromal Apronal
Apronal
(apronalide) Bromisoval Capuride Carbromal Ectylurea

Neuroactive steroids

Acebrochol Allopregnanolone Alphadolone Alphaxolone Eltanolone Hydroxydione Minaxolone Progesterone

Nonbenzodiazepines

Eszopiclone Indiplon Lirequinil Necopidem Pazinaclone Saripidem Suproclone Suriclone Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Phenols

Propofol

Piperidinediones

Glutethimide Methyprylon Pyrithyldione Piperidione

Quinazolinones

Afloqualone Cloroqualone Diproqualone Etaqualone Mebroqualone Mecloqualone Methaqualone Methylmethaqualone Nitromethaqualone

Others

Acetophenone Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate Bromide compounds

Lithium bromide Potassium bromide Sodium bromide

Centalun Chloral betaine Chloral hydrate Chloralose Clomethiazole Dichloralphenazone Gaboxadol Kavalactones Loreclezole Paraldehyde Petrichloral Sulfonylalkanes

Sulfonmethane
Sulfonmethane
(sulfonal) Tetronal Trional

Triclofos Sesquiterpene

Isovaleramide Isovaleric acid Valerenic acid

GABAB

1,4-Butanediol 4-Fluorophenibut Aceburic acid Baclofen GABOB GHB (sodium oxybate) GBL GVL Phenibut Tolibut

H1

Antihistamines

Captodiame Cyproheptadine Diphenhydramine Doxylamine Hydroxyzine Methapyrilene Perlapine Pheniramine Promethazine Propiomazine

Antidepressants

Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors

Etoperidone Nefazodone Trazodone

Tricyclic antidepressants

Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine, etc.

Tetracyclic antidepressants

Mianserin Mirtazapine, etc.

Antipsychotics

Typical antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine Thioridazine, etc.

Atypical antipsychotics

Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone, etc.

α2-Adrenergic

Clonidine Detomidine Dexmedetomidine Lofexidine Medetomidine Romifidine Tizanidine Xylazine

5-HT2A

Antidepressants

Trazodone Tricyclic antidepressants

Amitriptyline Doxepin Trimipramine, etc.

Tetracyclic antidepressants

Mianserin Mirtazapine, etc.

Antipsychotics

Typical antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine Thioridazine, etc.

Atypical antipsychotics

Olanzapine Quetiapine Risperidone, etc.

Others

Niaprazine

Melatonin

Agomelatine Melatonin Ramelteon Tasimelteon

Orexin

Almorexant Filorexant Suvorexant

α2δ VDCC

Gabapentin Gabapentin
Gabapentin
enacarbil Mirogabalin Phenibut Pregabalin

Others

Cannabidiol

Cannabis

Chlorophenylalkyldiols

Fenpentadiol Metaglycodol Phenaglycodol

Diethylpropanediol Evoxine Fenadiazole Guaifenesin-related muscle relaxants

Chlorphenesin Mephenesin Mephenoxalone Metaxalone Methocarbamol

Opioids (e.g., morphine) Passion flower Scopolamine Trazodone UMB68 Valnoctamide

v t e

Lists of countries by laws and law enforcement rankings

Age of

Consent Legal candidacy for political office Criminal responsibility Legal drinking Legal driving Majority Legal marriage Retirement age

Mandatory retirement

School-leaving age Legal smoking Voting

Suffrage Youth suffrage

Working age

Drugs

Alcohol

Alcohol
Alcohol
consumption Alcohol
Alcohol
law

Bath salts

Legal status of Mephedrone Legal status of MPDV Legal status of Methylone

Cannabis

Legality annual use lifetime use

Cocaine
Cocaine
use

Legality

Methamphetamine

Legality

LSD

Legality

Opiate
Opiate
use Salvia divinorum

Legality

Death

Legality of euthanasia Homicide

by decade

Law
Law
enforcement killings Legality of suicide

Legality of assisted suicide

Guns

Deaths Ownership

Punishment

Corporal punishment

At home At school In court

Death penalty Incarceration

Obscenity

Incest

Laws

Pornography

Child pornography

Simulated child pornography Drawn pornography depicting minors

Internet pornography

Prostitution Sexual assault

Child sexual abuse Rape

Sodomy law Sex trafficking Zoophilia

Censorship

Censorship by country Book censorship

by country

Film censorship

by country

Internet censorship

by country

Cartographic censorship Political censorship Video gaming censorship

by country

Human rights

Children's rights

Children in the military

Intersex rights LGBT Rights Slavery

Human trafficking

Freedom of movement

by country

In the air

Abode

Property and Environmental

Air Estate Land Minerals Mining Mortgage Water

Riparian water

Business

Corporate

Corporate liability

Competition

Mergers and acquisitions Monopoly

Legality of bitcoin by country or territory

International ownership

International waters

Sea law Maritime law

Antarctic Treaty System

Other

Abortion law

Minors and abortion

Animal rights Immigration law Human cloning National legal systems Police brutality

Prisoner abuse

Religious law

Separation of church and state Sharia

Size of police forces World Justice Project

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Medicinal herbs and fungi

Herbs

Alfalfa Aloe vera Anise Asthma-plant Astragalus Cannabis

medical use

Caraway Cardamom Chamomile Chaparral Fenugreek Feverfew Flaxseed Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng Goldenseal Lemon balm Liquorice Marigold Marsh-mallow Neem Opium
Opium
poppy Oregano Peppermint Purple coneflower Rosemary Sage Star anise Summer savory Tea tree oil Thyme Turmeric Umckaloabo Valerian Verbena White willow Yarrow Za'atar

Fungi

Almond mushroom Chaga mushroom Echigoshirayukidake Lingzhi mushroom Maitake Meshima Morel mushroom Shiitake

Regional practices

Chinese herbology Indian herbology Islamic herbology Japanese herbology Korean herbology

Related subjects

Alternative medicine Doctrine of signatures Herb
Herb
garden Herbal Herbal
Herbal
tea Herbalism Homeopathy Medicinal plants

List of plants used in herbalism

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q79817 APDB: 189080 EoL: 72695 EPPO: 1CNIG FloraBase: 22595 FNA: 105522 FoC: 105522 GBIF: 2984538 GRIN: 2034 IPNI: 40737-1 ITIS: 19108 NCBI: 3482 PLANTS: CANNA Tropicos: 40

.