HOME
The Info List - Cannabis


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

CANNABIS (/ˈkænəbɪs/ ) is a genus of flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae . The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized, Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis ruderalis
; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent .

Cannabis
Cannabis
has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils , for medicinal purposes , and as a recreational drug . Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention , some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent . Many plants have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (cannabinoids ), which is obtained by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil , are extracted from the plant.

Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally . In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users (3.8% of the population aged 15–64). This percentage has not changed significantly between 1998 and 2014.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description

* 1.1 Reproduction * 1.2 Biochemistry and drugs * 1.3 Chromosomes and genome * 1.4 Taxonomy * 1.5 History of cannabis * 1.6 Early classifications * 1.7 20th century * 1.8 Continuing research * 1.9 Popular usage

* 2 Uses

* 2.1 Recreational use * 2.2 Medical use * 2.3 Industrial use (hemp) * 2.4 Ancient and religious uses

* 3 Reproduction

* 3.1 Breeding systems * 3.2 Sex determination

* 4 Etymology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

DESCRIPTION

Cannabis
Cannabis
growing as weeds at the foot of Dhaulagiri
Dhaulagiri
, Nepal
Nepal
. A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad
Islamabad
, Pakistan
Pakistan
.

Cannabis
Cannabis
is an annual , dioecious , flowering herb . The leaves are palmately compound or digitate , with serrate leaflets . The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.

The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis
Cannabis
leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis
Cannabis
plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.

The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas. It is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivated for non-drug use.

REPRODUCTION

Cannabis
Cannabis
normally has imperfect flowers , with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. It is not unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers. Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant. Male flowers are normally borne on loose panicles , and female flowers are borne on racemes . "At a very early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant as dioecious", and the (c. 3rd century BCE) Erya
Erya
dictionary defined xi 枲 "male Cannabis" and fu 莩 (or ju 苴) "female Cannabis".

All known strains of Cannabis
Cannabis
are wind-pollinated and the fruit is an achene . Most strains of Cannabis
Cannabis
are short day plants , with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea (= C. ruderalis), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral .

BIOCHEMISTRY AND DRUGS

Cannabis
Cannabis
plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed.

Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
, terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds (marijuana ), resin (hashish ), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil . In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis
Cannabis
for sale or personal use.

*

Root system side view *

Root system top view *

Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)

CHROMOSOMES AND GENOME

Cannabis, like many organisms, is diploid , having a chromosome complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been artificially produced. The first genome sequence of Cannabis, which is estimated to be 820 Mb in size, was published in 2011 by a team of Canadian scientists.

TAXONOMY

Underside of Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
leaf, showing diagnostic venation

The genus Cannabis
Cannabis
was formerly placed in the Nettle ( Urticaceae ) or Mulberry
Mulberry
( Moraceae ) family, and later, along with the Humulus genus (hops ), in a separate family, the Hemp
Hemp
family ( Cannabaceae sensu stricto ). Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former Celtidaceae family, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae sensu lato .

Various types of Cannabis
Cannabis
have been described, and variously classified as species , subspecies , or varieties :

* plants cultivated for fiber and seed production, described as low-intoxicant, non-drug, or fiber types. * plants cultivated for drug production, described as high-intoxicant or drug types. * escaped, hybridised, or wild forms of either of the above types.

Cannabis
Cannabis
plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant. The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol (CBD ) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC
THC
), but only THC
THC
is psychoactive. Since the early 1970s, Cannabis
Cannabis
plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype", based on the overall amount of THC
THC
produced, and on the ratio of THC
THC
to CBD. Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed throughout the life of a plant. Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC
THC
and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC
THC
and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC
THC
to be utilized for drug production. Top of Cannabis plant in vegetative growth stage

Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species . One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups." Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species. Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile. However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis
Cannabis
gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation. It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.

HISTORY OF CANNABIS

Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
appears naturally in many tropical and humid parts of the world. Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa.

The oldest written record of cannabis usage is the Greek historian Herodotus 's reference to the central Eurasian Scythians taking cannabis steam baths. His (c. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed , and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy." Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper.

EARLY CLASSIFICATIONS

Relative size of varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis

The Cannabis
Cannabis
genus was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species. He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam. Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant . Additional Cannabis
Cannabis
species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China
China
and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis
Cannabis
chinensis Delile, and Cannabis
Cannabis
gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin. However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis
Cannabis
continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica
Cannabis indica
was listed in various Pharmacopoeias , and was widely used to designate Cannabis
Cannabis
suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.

20TH CENTURY

Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis ruderalis

In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis
Cannabis
in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis ruderalis
Janisch, as alternative names. In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov
Nikolai Vavilov
assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis
Cannabis
in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe
Europe
to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav. In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties. This excessive splitting of C. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many adherents.

In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis
Cannabis
took on added significance in North America. Laws prohibiting Cannabis
Cannabis
in the United States and Canada
Canada
specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis
Cannabis
material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity. The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.

In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis
Cannabis
with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small "> Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs A dried bud, typical of what is sold for drug use

Cannabis
Cannabis
is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol , caffeine and tobacco . In the United States
United States
alone, it is believed that over 100 million Americans have tried cannabis, with 25 million Americans having used it within the past year.

The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol . Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia . Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC , a psychoactive metabolite of THC
THC
produced in the liver .

Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe , bong or vaporizer . However, if a large amount is taken orally the effects may last much longer. After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug.

Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil which, because of appearance, are more susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated.

Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD), which has no psychotropic effects by itself (although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine ), attenuates, or reduces the higher anxiety levels caused by THC
THC
alone.

According to Delphic analysis by British researchers in 2007, cannabis has a lower risk factor for dependence compared to both nicotine and alcohol. However, everyday use of Cannabis
Cannabis
can in some cases be correlated with psychological withdrawal symptoms such as irritability and insomnia, and evidence could suggest that if a user experiences stress, the likeliness of getting a panic attack increases because of an increase of THC
THC
metabolites. However, cannabis withdrawal symptoms are typically mild and are never life-threatening.

MEDICAL USE

Main article: Medical cannabis

Medical cannabis (or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids , to treat disease or improve symptoms. Cannabis
Cannabis
is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy , to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms .

Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.

Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
are under preliminary research for their potential to affect stroke or children's epilepsy .

INDUSTRIAL USE (HEMP)

Ancient Sanskrit on Hemp
Hemp
based Paper. Hemp
Hemp
Fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 BCE to the Late 1800's. Main article: Cannabis (industrial uses) Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
stem longitudinal section

The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant stem (stalk). Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
cultivars are used for fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than six metres tall. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug. Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound ( THC
THC
) concentrations in products labeled as hemp.

Cannabis
Cannabis
for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre ranging from paper , cordage , construction material and textiles in general, to clothing . Hemp
Hemp
is stronger and longer-lasting than cotton . It also is a useful source of foodstuffs (hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil) and biofuels . Hemp
Hemp
has been used by many civilizations, from China
China
to Europe
Europe
(and later North America ) during the last 12,000 years. In modern times novel applications and improvements have been explored with modest commercial success.

ANCIENT AND RELIGIOUS USES

Main articles: Religious and spiritual use of cannabis and History of medical cannabis Cannabis
Cannabis
Museum in Amsterdam
Amsterdam

The Cannabis
Cannabis
plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The Yanghai Tombs, a vast ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) situated in the Turfan district of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, have revealed the 2700-year-old grave of a shaman . He is thought to have belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu , Chap 96B. Near the head and foot of the shaman was a large leather basket and wooden bowl filled with 789g of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive component of cannabis. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent.

Settlements which date from c. 2200–1700 BCE in the Bactria and Margiana contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing everything needed for making drinks containing extracts from poppy (opium), hemp (cannabis), and ephedra (which contains ephedrine ).

“ While we have no evidence of the use of ephedra among the steppe tribes, we have already seen that they did share in the cultic use of hemp, a practice that ranged from Romania
Romania
east to the Yenisei River from at least the 3rd millennium BC onwards where its use was later encountered in the apparatus for smoking hemp found at Pazyryk . ”

Cannabis
Cannabis
is first referred to in Hindu
Hindu
Vedas between 2000 and 1400 BCE, in the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred to by some in India
India
as "food of the gods". Cannabis
Cannabis
use eventually became a ritual part of the Hindu festival of Holi . One of the earliest to use this plant in medical purposes was Korakkar , one of the 18 Siddhas . The plant is called Korakkar Mooli in the Tamil language , meaning Korakkar's herb.

In Buddhism
Buddhism
, cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic culture , Cannabis
Cannabis
was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya
Freya
. An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain Cannabis. Sufis have used Cannabis
Cannabis
in a spiritual context since the 13th century CE.

In modern times, the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis
Cannabis
as a sacrament. Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church , a religious movement founded in the United States
United States
in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia
Ethiopia
or the Coptic Church , consider Cannabis
Cannabis
to be the Eucharist , claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
dating back to the time of Christ
Christ
. Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis
Cannabis
is the Tree of Life . Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis
Cannabis
as a sacrament are the THC
THC
Ministry , Cantheism , the Cannabis
Cannabis
Assembly and the Church of Cognizance . Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis
Cannabis
use.

Cannabis
Cannabis
is frequently used among Sufis – the mystical interpretation of Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim practices in Bangladesh , India
India
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Turkey
Turkey
, and Pakistan
Pakistan
. Cannabis
Cannabis
preparations are frequently used at Sufi festivals in those countries. Pakistan's Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar in Sindh province is particularly renowned for the widespread use of cannabis at the shrine's celebrations, especially its annual Urs festival and Thursday evening dhamaal sessions - or meditative dancing sessions.

Clay pipes at William Shakespeare\'s Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
garden may contain cannabis, indicating that Shakespeare may have been a cannabis smoker.

REPRODUCTION

BREEDING SYSTEMS

Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
fruits (achenes) that contain the seeds

Cannabis
Cannabis
is predominantly dioecious , although many monoecious varieties have been described. Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread. Many populations have been described as sexually labile. Cannabis
Cannabis
flower with visible trichomes Male Cannabis
Cannabis
flower buds

As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis
Cannabis
exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious
Dioecious
varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female flowers are used. Dioecious
Dioecious
varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. However, sativa strains often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding.

SEX DETERMINATION

Cannabis
Cannabis
has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.

Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp , it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation, and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.

Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants. Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.

Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using "an X/autosome dosage type".

The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype . Cannabis
Cannabis
was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics ). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis
Cannabis
had been published as of 1996. Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.

More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis
Cannabis
(MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP . Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,

“ It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination. ”

Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species. Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis
Cannabis
is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors. Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects. It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis
Cannabis
using chemical treatment. A PCR -based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.

*

A male hemp plant *

Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Cannabis (etymology)

The word cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis) (see Latin cannabis), which was originally Scythian or Thracian . It is related to the Persian kanab, the English canvas and possibly even to the English hemp ( Old English hænep). In modern Hebrew , קַנַּבּוֹס‎ qannabōs (modern pronunciation: ) is used but there are those who have theorized that it was referred to in antiquity as קני בושם q'nei bosem, a component of the biblical anointing oil. Old Akkadian qunnabtu, Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian qunnabu were used to refer to the plant meaning "a way to produce smoke."

SEE ALSO

* Cannabis cultivation * Cannabis drug testing * Cannabis Social Club * Hash, Marihuana -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B Geoffrey William Guy; Brian Anthony Whittle; Philip Robson (2004). The Medicinal Uses of Cannabis
Cannabis
and Cannabinoids. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 74–. ISBN 978-0-85369-517-2 . * ^ "Classification Report". United States
United States
Department of Agriculture . Retrieved 13 February 2017. * ^ "Indica, Sativa, Ruderalis – Did We Get It All Wrong?". The Leaf
Leaf
Online. Retrieved 13 February 2017. * ^ " Species of Cannabis". GRIN Taxonomy. Retrieved 13 February 2017. * ^ A. ElSohly, Mahmoud (2007). Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Humana Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-58829-456-0 . Retrieved 2 May 2011. * ^ A B C Erowid. 2006. Cannabis
Cannabis
Basics. Retrieved on 25 February 2007 * ^ Narcotic Drugs
Drugs
2014 (pdf). INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD. 2015. p. 21. ISBN 9789210481571 . * ^ A B "Statistical tables". World Drug Report 2016 (pdf). Vienna, Austria. May 2016. p. xiv, 43. ISBN 978-92-1-057862-2 . Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ " Leaf
Leaf
Terminology (Part 1)". Waynesword.palomar.edu. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. E Grant, Sarah R. (1997). "Genetics of sex determination in flowering plants". Trends in Plant
Plant
Science. 2 (4): 130–6. doi :10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01012-1 . * ^ Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Cattivelli, Luigi; Ranalli, P.; Mandolino, Giuseppe (2004). "The sexual differentiation of Cannabis sativa L.: A morphological and molecular study". Euphytica. 140: 95–106. doi :10.1007/s10681-004-4758-7 . * ^ Bouquet, R. J. 1950. Cannabis. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime . Retrieved on 23 February 2007 * ^ Li Hui-Lin (1973). "The Origin and Use of Cannabis
Cannabis
in Eastern Asia: Linguistic-Cultural Implications", Economic Botany 28.3: 293–301, p. 294. * ^ 13/99 and 13/133. In addition, 13/98 defined fen 蕡 "Cannabis inflorescence" and 13/159 bo 薜 "wild Cannabis". * ^ A B C Clarke, Robert C. 1991. Marijuana Botany, 2nd ed. Ron Publishing, California. ISBN 0-914171-78-X * ^ Small, Ernest (1975). "Morphological variation of achenes of Cannabis". Canadian Journal of Botany. 53 (10): 978–87. doi :10.1139/b75-117 . * ^ Mahlberg Paul G.; Soo Kim Eun (2001). "THC (tetrahyrdocannabinol) accumulation in glands of Cannabis (Cannabaceae)". The Hemp
Hemp
Report. 3 (17). * ^ A B Small, Ernest (1972). "Interfertility and chromosomal uniformity in Cannabis". Canadian Journal of Botany. 50 (9): 1947–9. doi :10.1139/b72-248 . * ^ Van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R; Page, Jonathan E (2011). "The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa" . Genome Biology. 12 (10): R102. PMC 3359589  . PMID 22014239 . doi :10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-r102 . * ^ Schultes, R. E., A. Hofmann, and C. Rätsch. 2001. The nectar of delight. In: Plants of the Gods 2nd ed., Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont, pp. 92–101. ISBN 0-89281-979-0 * ^ Song, B.-H.; Wang, X.-Q.; Li, F.-Z.; Hong, D.-Y. (2001). "Further evidence for paraphyly of the Celtidaceae from the chloroplast gene mat K". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 228: 107–15. doi :10.1007/s006060170041 . * ^ Sytsma, K. J.; Morawetz, J.; Pires, J. C.; Nepokroeff, M.; Conti, E.; Zjhra, M.; Hall, J. C.; Chase, M. W. (2002). "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 89 (9): 1531–46. PMID 21665755 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531 . * ^ A B C Small, E (1975). "American law and the species problem in Cannabis: Science and semantics". Bulletin on narcotics. 27 (3): 1–20. PMID 1041693 . * ^ "What chemicals are in marijuana and its byproducts?". ProCon.org. 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2013. * ^ El-Alfy, Abir T.; Ivey, Kelly; Robinson, Keisha; Ahmed, Safwat; Radwan, Mohamed; Slade, Desmond; Khan, Ikhlas; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Ross, Samir (2010). "Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L" . Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 95 (4): 573–82. PMC 2866040  . PMID 20332000 . doi :10.1016/j.pbb.2010.03.004 . * ^ A B Ahrens J, Demir R, Leuwer M, et al. (2009). "The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function". Pharmacology
Pharmacology
. 83 (4): 217–222. PMID 19204413 . doi :10.1159/000201556 . Retrieved 4 August 2009. * ^ A B C Small, E; Beckstead, HD (1973). "Common cannabinoid phenotypes in 350 stocks of Cannabis". Lloydia. 36 (2): 144–65. PMID 4744553 . * ^ A B C De Meijer, EP; Bagatta, M; Carboni, A; Crucitti, P; Moliterni, VM; Ranalli, P; Mandolino, G (2003). "The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L" . Genetics. 163 (1): 335–46. PMC 1462421  . PMID 12586720 . * ^ A B C Hillig, K. W.; Mahlberg, P. G. (2004). "A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis
Cannabis
(Cannabaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91 (6): 966–75. PMID 21653452 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.6.966 . * ^ Small, E. 1979. Fundamental aspects of the species problem in biology. In: The Species Problem in Cannabis, vol. 1: Science. Corpus Information Services, Toronto, Canada, pp. 5–63. ISBN 0-919217-11-7 * ^ A B Rieger, R., A. Michaelis, and M. M. Green. 1991. Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed. Springer-Verlag, pp. 458–459. ISBN 0-387-52054-6 * ^ A B Hillig, Karl W. (2005). "Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis
Cannabis
(Cannabaceae)". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 52 (2): 161–80. doi :10.1007/s10722-003-4452-y . * ^ A B Small, E (1975). "On toadstool soup and legal species of marihuana". Plant
Plant
Science Bulletin. 21 (3): 34–9. * ^ A B Emboden, William A. (1981). "The Genus Cannabis
Cannabis
and the Correct Use of Taxonomic Categories". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 13 (1): 15–21. PMID 7024491 . doi :10.1080/02791072.1981.10471446 . * ^ Schultes, R. E., and A. Hofmann. 1980. Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 82–116. ISBN 0-398-03863-5 * ^ Ernest Abel, Marijuana, The First 12,000 years (Plenum Press, New York 1980) * ^ Butrica James L (2002). "The Medical Use of Cannabis
Cannabis
Among the Greeks and Romans". Journal of Cannabis
Cannabis
Therapeutics. 2 (2): 51–70. doi :10.1300/j175v02n02_04 . * ^ Herodotus (translated by George Rawlinson) (1994–2009). "The History of Herodotus". The Internet Classics Archive. Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics. Retrieved 13 August 2014. * ^ "Cannabis: History". deamuseum.org. * ^ Chris Conrad, HEMP, Lifeline to the Future (ISBN 0-9639754-1-2 ) * ^ Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN 1-878125-00-1 ) * ^ Peter Stratford, Psychedelics Encyclopaedia (ISBN 0-914171-51-8 ) * ^ Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1027. Salvius, Stockholm. * ^ de Lamarck, J.B. 1785. Encyclopédie Méthodique de Botanique, vol. 1, pt. 2. Paris, France, pp. 694–695 * ^ A B C D Small, Ernest; Cronquist, Arthur (1976). "A Practical and Natural Taxonomy for Cannabis". Taxon. 25 (4): 405–35. JSTOR 1220524 . doi :10.2307/1220524 . * ^ Winek, Charles L. (1977). "Some Historical Aspects of Marijuana". Clinical Toxicology. 10 (2): 243–53. PMID 322936 . doi :10.3109/15563657708987969 . * ^ Serebriakova T. Ya. and I. A. Sizov. 1940. Cannabinaceae Lindl. In: Vavilov N. I. (ed.), Kulturnaya Flora SSSR, vol. 5, Moscow-Leningrad, USSR, pp. 1–53. * ^ Watts, G. (2006). " Cannabis
Cannabis
confusions" . BMJ. 332 (7534): 175–6. PMC 1336775  . PMID 16424501 . doi :10.1136/bmj.332.7534.175 . * ^ Ernest Small (biography) Archived 11 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine .. National Research Council Canada. Retrieved on 23 February 2007 * ^ Small, Ernest; Jui, Perry Y.; Lefkovitch, L. P. (1976). "A Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of Cannabis
Cannabis
with Special Reference to Species Delimitation". Systematic Botany. 1 (1): 67–84. JSTOR 2418840 . doi :10.2307/2418840 . * ^ Schultes R. E.; Klein W. M.; Plowman T.; Lockwood T. E. (1974). "Cannabis: an example of taxonomic neglect". Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets. 23: 337–367. * ^ Anderson, L. C. 1974. A study of systematic wood anatomy in Cannabis. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 24: 29–36. Retrieved on 23 February 2007 * ^ Anderson, L. C. 1980. Leaf
Leaf
variation among Cannabis
Cannabis
species from a controlled garden. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 28: 61–69. Retrieved on 23 February 2007 * ^ Emboden, William A. (1974). " Cannabis
Cannabis
— a polytypic genus". Economic Botany. 28 (3): 304–310. doi :10.1007/BF02861427 . * ^ Schultes, R. E. 1970. Random thoughts and queries on the botany of Cannabis. In: Joyce, C. R. B. and Curry, S. H. (eds), The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis. J. Carboni, A.; Forapani, S.; Faeti, V.; Ranalli, P. (1999). "Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp ( Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L.)". TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 98: 86–92. doi :10.1007/s001220051043 . * ^ Forapani, Silvia; Carboni, Andrea; Paoletti, Claudia; Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe (2001). "Comparison of Hemp
Hemp
Varieties Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers". Crop Science. 41 (6): 1682. doi :10.2135/cropsci2001.1682 . * ^ A B C Mandolino, Giuseppe; Ranalli, Paolo (2002). "The Applications of Molecular Markers in Genetics and Breeding of Hemp". Journal of Industrial Hemp. 7: 7–23. doi :10.1300/J237v07n01_03 . * ^ Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James (2003). "Short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers are hypervariable and informative in Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa: Implications for forensic investigations". Forensic Science International. 131 (1): 65–74. PMID 12505473 . doi :10.1016/S0379-0738(02)00397-3 . * ^ Kojoma, Mareshige; Iida, Osamu; Makino, Yukiko; Sekita, Setsuko; Satake, Motoyoshi (2002). "DNA Fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Amplification". Planta Medica. 68 (1): 60–3. PMID 11842329 . doi :10.1055/s-2002-19875 . * ^ Dr. Paul G. Mahlberg\'s Cannabis
Cannabis
Research. North American Industrial Hemp
Hemp
Council. Retrieved on 23 February 2007 * ^ Hillig, Karl William. 2005. A systematic investigation of Cannabis. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Biology, Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana. Published by UMI. Retrieved on 23 February 2007 Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Hillig, Karl W (2004). "A chemotaxonomic analysis of terpenoid variation in Cannabis". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 32 (10): 875–891. doi :10.1016/j.bse.2004.04.004 . * ^ 2005. Rasta lends its name to a third type of Cannabis. New Scientist 2517: 12. Retrieved on 24 February 2007 * ^ Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James (2007). "Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa". Forensic Science International. 172 (2–3): 179–90. PMID 17293071 . doi :10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.10.025 . * ^ "Drug Toxicity". Web.cgu.edu. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ "Introduction". NORML. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ A B C Cannabis. "Erowid Cannabis
Cannabis
(Marijuana) Vault : Effects". Erowid.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ Block, R (1998). "Sedative, Stimulant, and Other Subjective Effects of Marijuana: Relationships to Smoking Techniques". Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Biochemistry and Behavior. 59 (2): 405–412. doi :10.1016/S0091-3057(97)00453-X . * ^ Zuardi, A. W.; Shirakawa, I.; Finkelfarb, E.; Karniol, I. G. (1982). "Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by ?9- THC
THC
in normal subjects". Psychopharmacology. 76 (3): 245–50. PMID 6285406 . doi :10.1007/BF00432554 . * ^ Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, José A.; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Seal, Marc; Surguladze, Simon A.; O'Carrol, Colin; Atakan, Zerrin; Zuardi, Antonio W.; McGuire, Philip K. (2009). "Distinct Effects of Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
and Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (1): 95–105. PMID 19124693 . doi :10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.519 . * ^ Nutt, David; King, Leslie A; Saulsbury, William; Blakemore, Colin (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. PMID 17382831 . doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4 . * ^ "Marijuana Detection Times Influenced By Stress, Dieting". NORML. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ " Cannabis
Cannabis
use and panic disorder". Cannabis.net. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ "Myths and Facts About Marijuana". Drugpolicy.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ A B Borgelt LM, Franson KL, Nussbaum AM, Wang GS (February 2013). "The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis". Pharmacotherapy (Review). 33 (2): 195–209. PMID 23386598 . doi :10.1002/phar.1187 . * ^ A B C Whiting, PF; Wolff, RF; Deshpande, S; Di Nisio, M; Duffy, S; Hernandez, AV; Keurentjes, JC; Lang, S; Misso, K; Ryder, S; Schmidlkofer, S; Westwood, M; Kleijnen, J (23 June 2015). " Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.". JAMA. 313 (24): 2456–2473. PMID 26103030 . doi :10.1001/jama.2015.6358 . * ^ Wang, T.; Collet, J.-P.; Shapiro, S.; Ware, M. A. (2008). "Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: A systematic review" . Canadian Medical Association Journal. 178 (13): 1669–78. PMC 2413308  . PMID 18559804 . doi :10.1503/cmaj.071178 . * ^ England, TJ; Hind, WH; Rasid, NA; O'Sullivan, SE (March 2015). " Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
in experimental stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis" . Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 35 (3): 348–58. PMC 4348386  . PMID 25492113 . doi :10.1038/jcbfm.2014.218 . * ^ Butticè, Claudio (December 9, 2015). "Therapeutic Cannabis
Cannabis
for children – a possible new treatment for epilepsy". Meds News. Retrieved February 2, 2016. * ^ A B " Hemp
Hemp
Facts". Naihc.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ "The cultivation and use of hemp in ancient China". Hempfood.com. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ Van Roekel; Gerjan J. (1994). " Hemp
Hemp
Pulp and Paper
Paper
Production". Journal of the International Hemp
Hemp
Association. Wageningen, The Netherlands. * ^ Atkinson, Gail (2011). "Industrial Hemp
Hemp
Production in Alberta". CA: Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Development. * ^ Ben Amar M (2006). " Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
in medicine: a review of their therapeutic potential" (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Review). 105 (1–2): 1–25. PMID 16540272 . doi :10.1016/j.jep.2006.02.001 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2010. * ^ Hulsewé (1979), p. 183. * ^ Russo, E. B.; Jiang, H.-E.; Li, X.; Sutton, A.; Carboni, A.; Del Bianco, F.; Mandolino, G.; Potter, D. J.; Zhao, Y.-X.; Bera, S.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Lü, E.-G.; Ferguson, D. K.; Hueber, F.; Zhao, L.-C.; Liu, C.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-S. (2008). "Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia" . Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (15): 4171–82. PMC 2639026  . PMID 19036842 . doi :10.1093/jxb/ern260 . * ^ Mallory and Mair (2000), p. 262. * ^ Mallory and Mair (2000), p. 306. * ^ Abel, Ernest L. (1980). "Marijuana – The First Twelve Thousand Years". Chapter 1: Cannabis
Cannabis
in the Ancient World. India: The First Marijuana-Oriented Culture. * ^ Murdoch, John (1865-01-01). Classified Catalogue of Tamil Printed Books: With Introductory Notices. Christian vernacular education society. * ^ Jayaprasad, Vasu. Parkinson\'s Disease Dravidian Cure Chintarmony System. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781105917882 . * ^ Karthigayan, P. (2016-08-01). History of Medical and Spiritual Sciences of Siddhas of Tamil Nadu. Notion Press. ISBN 9789352065523 . * ^ Pillai, M. S. Purnalingam (1904-01-01). A Primer of Tamil Literature. Ananda Press. * ^ Pilcher, Tim (2005). Spliffs 3: The Last Word in Cannabis Culture?. Collins & Brown Publishers. p. 34. ISBN 1-84340-310-2 . ISBN 978-1-84340-310-4 . * ^ Vindheim, Jan Bojer. "The History of Hemp
Hemp
in Norway". The Journal of Industrial Hemp. International Hemp
Hemp
Association. * ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1981). The Living Torah . New York. p. 442. ISBN 0-940118-35-1 . * ^ Ernest, Abel (1979). A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature. Greenwood Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-313-20721-1 . * ^ Joseph Owens (1982). Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-435-98650-3 . * ^ The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church. "Marijuana and the Bible". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved 13 September 2007. * ^ "Zion Light Ministry". Retrieved 20 August 2007. * ^ Chris Bennett, Lynn; Osburn, Judy Osburn (1938). Green Gold: the Tree of LifeMarijuana in Magic & Religion. Access Unlimited. p. 418. ISBN 0-9629872-2-0 . * ^ "The Hawai\'i Cannabis
Cannabis
Ministry". Retrieved 13 September 2007. * ^ "Cantheism". Retrieved 13 September 2007. * ^ " Cannabis
Cannabis
Assembly". Retrieved 13 September 2007. * ^ A B Ferrara, Mark S. (Oct 20, 2016). Sacred Bliss: A Spiritual History of Cannabis. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442271920 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Chapple, Amos (February 17, 2017). "Music, Dancing, And Tolerance -- Pakistan\'s Embattled Sufi Minority". RFERL. Retrieved 8 April 2017. During the festival the air is heavy with drumbeats, chanting and cannabis smoke. * ^ Osella, Filippo; Osella, Caroline (2013). Islamic Reform in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 65, 509. ISBN 9781107031753 . * ^ Thackeray, Francis. "Could Shakespeare have been high when he penned his plays?". * ^ "Was Shakespeare A Stoner?". 28 June 2011. * ^ Liu, Alec (23 June 2011). "Did Shakespeare Smoke Weed? Let\'s Dig Him Up and Find Out". * ^ Readhead, Harry (23 April 2015). "Here are eight bizarre and little-known facts about Shakespeare". * ^ "National Geographic News @ nationalgeographic.com". * ^ A B C D E Ainsworth, C (2000). "Boys and Girls Come Out to Play: The Molecular Biology of Dioecious
Dioecious
Plants". Annals of Botany. 86 (2): 211–221. doi :10.1006/anbo.2000.1201 . * ^ de Meijer, E. P. M. 1999. Cannabis
Cannabis
germplasm resources. In: Ranalli P. (ed.). Advances in Hemp
Hemp
Research, Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 131–151. ISBN 1-56022-872-5 * ^ A B " Cannabis
Cannabis
as a licit crop: recent developments in Europe". Archived from the original on 13 March 2003. Retrieved February 2008. Check date values in: access-date= (help )CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Schumann, Erika; Peil, Andreas; Weber, Wilhelm Eberhard (1999). "Preliminary results of a German field trial with different hemp ( Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L.) accessions". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 46 (4): 399–407. doi :10.1023/A:1008696018533 . * ^ Ranalli, Paolo (2004). "Current status and future scenarios of hemp breeding". Euphytica. 140: 121–131. doi :10.1007/s10681-004-4760-0 . * ^ A B Hirata K (1924). "Sex reversal in hemp". Journal of the Society of Agriculture and Forestry. 16: 145–168. * ^ A B C Schaffner, John H. (1931). "The Fluctuation Curve of Sex Reversal in Staminate Hemp
Hemp
Plants Induced by Photoperiodicity". American Journal of Botany. 18 (6): 424–30. JSTOR 2435878 . doi :10.2307/2435878 . * ^ A B Truţa, E; Gille, E; Tóth, E; Maniu, M (2002). "Biochemical differences in Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L. Depending on sexual phenotype". Journal of applied genetics. 43 (4): 451–62. PMID 12441630 . * ^ Bridges, Calvin B. (1925). "Sex in Relation to Chromosomes and Genes". The American Naturalist. 59 (661): 127–37. JSTOR 2456354 . doi :10.1086/280023 . * ^ Schaffner, John H. (1929). "Heredity and sex". Ohio Journal of Science. 29 (1): 289–300. hdl :1811/2398 . * ^ Negrutiu, I; Vyskot, B; Barbacar, N; Georgiev, S; Moneger, F (2001). " Dioecious
Dioecious
plants. A key to the early events of sex chromosome evolution" . Plant
Plant
Physiology. 127 (4): 1418–24. PMC 1540173  . PMID 11743084 . doi :10.1104/pp.010711 . * ^ Menzel, Margaret Y. (1964). "Meiotic Chromosomes of Monoecious Kentucky Hemp
Hemp
( Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 91 (3): 193–205. JSTOR 2483524 . doi :10.2307/2483524 . * ^ Hong, Shao; Clarke, Robert C. (1996). "Taxonomic studies of Cannabis
Cannabis
in China". Journal of the International Hemp
Hemp
Association. 3 (2): 55–60. * ^ Peil, A; Flachowsky, H; Schumann, E; Weber, WE (2003). "Sex-linked AFLP markers indicate a pseudoautosomal region in hemp ( Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
L.)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 107 (1): 102–9. PMID 12835935 . doi :10.1007/s00122-003-1212-5 . * ^ Sakamoto, K; Shimomura, K; Komeda, Y; Kamada, H; Satoh, S (1995). "A male-associated DNA sequence in a dioecious plant, Cannabis sativa L". Plant
Plant
& cell physiology. 36 (8): 1549–54. PMID 8589931 . * ^ Sakamoto, Koichi; Abe, Tomoko; Matsuyama, Tomoki; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ohmido, Nobuko; Fukui, Kiichi; Satoh, Shinobu (2005). "RAPD markers encoding retrotransposable elements are linked to the male sex in Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa". Genome. 48 (5): 931–6. PMID 16391699 . doi :10.1139/g05-056 . * ^ Törjék, Ottó; Bucherna, Nándor; Kiss, Erzsébet; Homoki, Hajnalka; Finta-Korpelová, Zsuzsanna; Bócsa, Iván; Nagy, István; Heszky, László E. (2002). "Novel male-specific molecular markers (MADC5, MADC6) in hemp". Euphytica. 127 (2): 209–218. doi :10.1023/A:1020204729122 . * ^ Tanurdzic, M.; Banks, JA (2004). "Sex-Determining Mechanisms in Land Plants" . The Plant
Plant
Cell Online. 16 (Suppl): S61–71. PMC 2643385  . PMID 15084718 . doi :10.1105/tpc.016667 . * ^ Mohan Ram, HY; Sett, R (1982). "Induction of fertile male flowers in genetically female Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
plants by silver nitrate and silver thiosulphate anionic complex". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 62 (4): 369–75. PMID 24270659 . doi :10.1007/BF00275107 (inactive 2017-01-31). * ^ Shao, Hong; Song, Shu-Juan; Clarke, Robert C. (2003). "Female-Associated DNA Polymorphisms of Hemp
Hemp
( Cannabis
Cannabis
sativaL.)". Journal of Industrial Hemp. 8: 5–9. doi :10.1300/J237v08n01_02 . * ^ "cannabis" OED Online. July 2009. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. 2009. * ^ A B "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 17 February 2011. * ^ "Judaism and the Legalization of Marijuana?". Algemeiner.com. * ^ "Is there a place in religious life for marijuana? Ask Yoseph Needelman – Religion". Jewish Journal. * ^ Reinhard K. Sprenger (2004). Die Entscheidung liegt bei dir!: Wege aus der alltäglichen Unzufriedenheit. Campus Verlag. p. 305. ISBN 3-593-37442-0 . * ^ Rubin, Vera D. (1975). Cannabis
Cannabis
and culture. The Hague: Mouton. p. 305. ISBN 90-279-7669-4 . * ^ Black, Jeremy; George, Andrew; Nicholas, Postgate, eds. (1999). A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. SANTAG. 5 (2 ed.). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447042642 .

FURTHER READING

* Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant with a Divided History. Algora Pub. ISBN 0-87586-206-3 . * Earleywine, Mitchell (2005). Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513893-7 . * Emmett, David; Graeme Nice (2009). What you need to know about cannabis: understanding the facts. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1-84310-697-3 . * Hulsewé, A. F. P. (1979). China
China
in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-05884-2 . * Geoffrey William, Guy; Brian Anthony Whittle; Philip Robson (2004). The medicinal uses of cannabis and cannabinoids. Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-517-2 . * Holland, Julie M.D. (2010). The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis: Its Role in Medicine, Politics, science, and culture. Park Street Press. ISBN 978-1-59477-368-6 . * Iversen, Leslie L (2008). The science of marijuana (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532824-0 . * Jenkins, Richard (2006). Cannabis
Cannabis
and Young People: Reviewing the Evidence. Jessica Kingsley. ISBN 1-84310-398-2 . * Lambert, Didier M (2008). Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
in Nature and Medicine. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-906390-56-X . * Mallory, J. P. and Victor H. Mair (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China
China
and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames Robert S. Stephens (2006). Cannabis
Cannabis
Dependence: Its Nature, Consequences, and Treatment. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81447-2 . * Russo, Ethan; Melanie Creagan Dreher; Mary Lynn Mathre (2004). Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-2101-3 . * Solowij, Nadia (1998). Cannabis
Cannabis
and Cognitive Functioning. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59114-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutCANNABISat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Data from Wikidata * Taxonomy

.