CANNABIS (/ˈkænəbɪs/ ) is a genus of flowering plant in the
Cannabaceae . The number of species within the genus is
disputed. Three species may be recognized,
Cannabis sativa , Cannabis
Cannabis ruderalis ; C. ruderalis may be included within C.
sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species,
C. sativa. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian
Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils , for
medicinal purposes , and as a recreational drug . Industrial hemp
products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an
abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention , some
cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent .
Many plants have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC
(cannabinoids ), which is obtained by curing the flowers. Various
compounds, including hashish and hash oil , are extracted from the
Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally
. In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users (3.8%
of the population aged 15–64). This percentage has not changed
significantly between 1998 and 2014.
* 1 Description
* 1.1 Reproduction
* 1.2 Biochemistry and drugs
* 1.3 Chromosomes and genome
* 1.4 Taxonomy
* 1.5 History of cannabis
* 1.6 Early classifications
* 1.7 20th century
* 1.8 Continuing research
* 1.9 Popular usage
* 2 Uses
* 2.1 Recreational use
* 2.2 Medical use
* 2.3 Industrial use (hemp)
* 2.4 Ancient and religious uses
* 3 Reproduction
* 3.1 Breeding systems
* 3.2 Sex determination
* 4 Etymology
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
Cannabis growing as weeds at the foot of
A thicket of wild cannabis in
Cannabis is an annual , dioecious , flowering herb . The leaves are
palmately compound or digitate , with serrate leaflets . The first
pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually
increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf
(usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions.
At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a
single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an
opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate
arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that
enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a
cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar
leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each
serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the
serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the
leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch
down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib
of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip
of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the
vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass
by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein
(occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the
leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern
varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell
Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty
and without special equipment. Tiny samples of
Cannabis plants also
can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf
cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and
The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions
northwest of the Himalayas. It is also known as hemp, although this
term is often used to refer only to varieties of
for non-drug use.
Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers , with staminate "male" and
pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. It is not
unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female
flowers. Although monoecious plants are often referred to as
"hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear
staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers,
whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different
locations on the same plant. Male flowers are normally borne on loose
panicles , and female flowers are borne on racemes . "At a very early
period the Chinese recognized the
Cannabis plant as dioecious", and
the (c. 3rd century BCE)
Erya dictionary defined xi 枲 "male
Cannabis" and fu 莩 (or ju 苴) "female Cannabis".
All known strains of
Cannabis are wind-pollinated and the fruit is
an achene . Most strains of
Cannabis are short day plants , with the
possible exception of C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea (= C.
ruderalis), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be
BIOCHEMISTRY AND DRUGS
Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids,
which produce mental and physical effects when consumed.
Cannabinoids , terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by
glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes
and bracts of female plants. As a drug it usually comes in the form
of dried flower buds (marijuana ), resin (hashish ), or various
extracts collectively known as hashish oil . In the early 20th
century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or
Cannabis for sale or personal use.
Root system side view
Root system top view
Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)
CHROMOSOMES AND GENOME
Cannabis, like many organisms, is diploid , having a chromosome
complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been
artificially produced. The first genome sequence of Cannabis, which
is estimated to be 820 Mb in size, was published in 2011 by a team of
Cannabis sativa leaf, showing diagnostic venation
Cannabis was formerly placed in the Nettle (
Urticaceae ) or
Moraceae ) family, and later, along with the
(hops ), in a separate family, the
Hemp family (
stricto ). Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction
site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the
Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former Celtidaceae
family, and that the two families should be merged to form a single
monophyletic family, the
Cannabaceae sensu lato .
Various types of
Cannabis have been described, and variously
classified as species , subspecies , or varieties :
* plants cultivated for fiber and seed production, described as
low-intoxicant, non-drug, or fiber types.
* plants cultivated for drug production, described as
high-intoxicant or drug types.
* escaped, hybridised, or wild forms of either of the above types.
Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds
called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be
experienced from consuming marijuana. There are 483 identifiable
chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, and at
least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant.
The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are
cannabidiol (CBD ) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (
THC ), but only
THC is psychoactive. Since the early 1970s,
Cannabis plants have been
categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype", based on the
overall amount of
THC produced, and on the ratio of
THC to CBD.
Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental
factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed
throughout the life of a plant. Non-drug plants produce relatively
low levels of
THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce
high levels of
THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two
chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1)
generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite
amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce
THC to be utilized for drug production. Top of Cannabis
plant in vegetative growth stage
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis
constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is
polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for
well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is
no universally accepted definition of a species . One widely applied
criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of
actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are
reproductively isolated from other such groups." Populations that are
physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or
genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are
sometimes considered to be separate species. Physiological barriers
to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants
from widely divergent sources are interfertile. However, physical
barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might
Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human
intervention, resulting in speciation. It remains controversial
whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within
the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to
justify recognition of more than one species.
HISTORY OF CANNABIS
Cannabis sativa appears naturally in many tropical and humid parts of
the world. Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by
archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa.
The oldest written record of cannabis usage is the Greek historian
Herodotus 's reference to the central Eurasian
cannabis steam baths. His (c. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The
Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed , and, creeping
under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones;
immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian
vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy."
Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle
East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In
1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards
imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America, cannabis,
in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper.
Relative size of varieties of
Cannabis genus was first classified using the "modern" system of
taxonomic nomenclature by
Carl Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the
system still in use for the naming of species. He considered the
genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named
Cannabis sativa L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the
authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with
European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a
description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis
indica Lam. Lamarck based his description of the newly named species
on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as
having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an
inebriant . Additional
Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th
century, including strains from
China and Vietnam (Indo-China)
assigned the names
Cannabis chinensis Delile, and
Delile ex Vilmorin. However, many taxonomists found these putative
species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the
single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet
Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic
study. The name
Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias ,
and was widely used to designate
Cannabis suitable for the manufacture
of medicinal preparations.
In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal
Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a
separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch,
Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names. In 1929,
renowned plant explorer
Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral
Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var.
kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in
Europe to C. sativa L.
var. spontanea Vav. In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and
Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized
C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they
recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr.
(consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea
(Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and
Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including
four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not
divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties. This excessive
splitting of C. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many
In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of
Cannabis took on added
significance in North America. Laws prohibiting
Cannabis in the United
Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as
prohibited materials. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few
drug busts argued that the seized
Cannabis material may not have been
C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law. Attorneys on both
sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those
testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard
E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists
engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned
the other's integrity. The defense attorneys were not often
successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was
In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small and American taxonomist
Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a
single species of
Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small C. sativa subsp.
sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed
production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for
drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist
described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or
escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp.
indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small "> Comparison of physical
harm and dependence regarding various drugs A dried bud,
typical of what is sold for drug use
Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind
alcohol , caffeine and tobacco . In the
United States alone, it is
believed that over 100 million Americans have tried cannabis, with 25
million Americans having used it within the past year.
The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic
nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation,
and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound,
tetrahydrocannabinol . Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a
facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition
have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia . Finally, the
tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an
increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC
, a psychoactive metabolite of
THC produced in the liver .
Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for
larger doses via a smoking pipe , bong or vaporizer . However, if a
large amount is taken orally the effects may last much longer. After
24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt,
depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug.
Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as
hashish and hash oil which, because of appearance, are more
susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated.
Cannabidiol (CBD), which has no psychotropic effects by itself
(although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to
caffeine ), attenuates, or reduces the higher anxiety levels caused
According to Delphic analysis by British researchers in 2007,
cannabis has a lower risk factor for dependence compared to both
nicotine and alcohol. However, everyday use of
Cannabis can in some
cases be correlated with psychological withdrawal symptoms such as
irritability and insomnia, and evidence could suggest that if a user
experiences stress, the likeliness of getting a panic attack increases
because of an increase of
THC metabolites. However, cannabis
withdrawal symptoms are typically mild and are never life-threatening.
Medical cannabis (or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis
and its constituent cannabinoids , to treat disease or improve
Cannabis is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during
chemotherapy , to improve appetite in people with
HIV/AIDS , and to
treat chronic pain and muscle spasms .
Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.
Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and
Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.
Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction,
schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by
Cannabinoids are under preliminary research for their potential to
affect stroke or children's epilepsy .
INDUSTRIAL USE (HEMP)
Ancient Sanskrit on
Hemp based Paper.
Hemp Fiber was commonly
used in the production of paper from 200 BCE to the Late 1800's.
Cannabis (industrial uses)
Cannabis sativa stem
The term hemp is used to name the durable soft fiber from the
Cannabis plant stem (stalk).
Cannabis sativa cultivars are used for
fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than
six metres tall. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or
foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug. Many
countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound (
concentrations in products labeled as hemp.
Cannabis for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of
commercial products, especially as fibre ranging from paper , cordage
, construction material and textiles in general, to clothing .
stronger and longer-lasting than cotton . It also is a useful source
of foodstuffs (hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil) and biofuels .
been used by many civilizations, from
Europe (and later North
America ) during the last 12,000 years. In modern times novel
applications and improvements have been explored with modest
ANCIENT AND RELIGIOUS USES
Religious and spiritual use of cannabis and History of
Cannabis Museum in
Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back
thousands of years across many cultures. The Yanghai Tombs, a vast
ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) situated in the
Turfan district of the
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People\'s Republic of
have revealed the 2700-year-old grave of a shaman . He is thought to
have belonged to the
Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries
later in the
Hanshu , Chap 96B. Near the head and foot of the shaman
was a large leather basket and wooden bowl filled with 789g of
cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. An
international team demonstrated that this material contained
tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive component of cannabis. The
cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or
psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest
documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent.
Settlements which date from c. 2200–1700 BCE in the
Margiana contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing
everything needed for making drinks containing extracts from poppy
(opium), hemp (cannabis), and ephedra (which contains ephedrine ).
While we have no evidence of the use of ephedra among the steppe
tribes, we have already seen that they did share in the cultic use of
hemp, a practice that ranged from
Romania east to the Yenisei River
from at least the 3rd millennium BC onwards where its use was later
encountered in the apparatus for smoking hemp found at Pazyryk .
Cannabis is first referred to in
Vedas between 2000 and 1400
BCE, in the
Atharvaveda . By the 10th century CE, it has been
suggested that it was referred to by some in
India as "food of the
Cannabis use eventually became a ritual part of the Hindu
Holi . One of the earliest to use this plant in medical
Korakkar , one of the 18 Siddhas . The plant is called
Korakkar Mooli in the
Tamil language , meaning Korakkar's herb.
Buddhism , cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may
be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In
ancient Germanic culture ,
Cannabis was associated with the Norse love
Freya . An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some
translators, said to contain Cannabis. Sufis have used
Cannabis in a
spiritual context since the 13th century CE.
In modern times, the
Rastafari movement has embraced
Cannabis as a
sacrament. Elders of the
Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church , a religious
movement founded in the
United States in 1975 with no ties to either
Ethiopia or the Coptic Church , consider
Cannabis to be the Eucharist
, claiming it as an oral tradition from
Ethiopia dating back to the
Christ . Like the Rastafari, some modern
sects have asserted that
Cannabis is the Tree of Life . Other
organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat
a sacrament are the
THC Ministry , Cantheism , the
Church of Cognizance . Rastafarians tend to be among the
biggest consumers of modern
Cannabis is frequently used among Sufis – the mystical
Islam that exerts strong influence over local Muslim
Turkey , and
Cannabis preparations are frequently used at
Sufi festivals in those
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar in Sindh
province is particularly renowned for the widespread use of cannabis
at the shrine's celebrations, especially its annual
Urs festival and
Thursday evening dhamaal sessions - or meditative dancing sessions.
Clay pipes at William Shakespeare\'s
Stratford-upon-Avon garden may
contain cannabis, indicating that Shakespeare may have been a cannabis
Cannabis sativa fruits (achenes) that contain the seeds
Cannabis is predominantly dioecious , although many monoecious
varieties have been described. Subdioecy (the occurrence of
monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same
population) is widespread. Many populations have been described as
Cannabis flower with visible trichomes
Cannabis flower buds
As a result of intensive selection in cultivation,
many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of
female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the
Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production,
where the female flowers are used.
Dioecious varieties are also
preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties
are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested
that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops
of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. However, sativa strains
often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of
Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated
mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many
models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp , it was first reported by
K. Hirata in 1924 that an
XY sex-determination system is present. At
the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex
determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in
1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,
and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp,
concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was
strongly influenced by environmental conditions.
Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have
been discovered, particularly in plants. Dioecy is relatively
uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious
plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases
where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently
Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been
proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the
genus as using "an X/autosome dosage type".
The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed
present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly
visible in a karyotype .
Cannabis was one of the first plant species
to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype
preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of
Cytogenetics ). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur
in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not
found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious
"Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were
not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp,
nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed
to have sex chromosome composition XX. According to other
researchers, no modern karyotype of
Cannabis had been published as of
1996. Proponents of the XY system state that
Y chromosome is slightly
larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.
More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used
isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name
Male-Associated DNA in
Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as
indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups
have reported identification of male-associated markers using
AFLP . Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,
It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively
abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been
identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex
chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods
or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex
Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of
species. Many researchers have suggested that sex in
determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors. Ainsworth
reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing
effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have
masculinizing effects. It has been reported that sex can be reversed
Cannabis using chemical treatment. A
PCR -based method for the
detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has
A male hemp plant
Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of
The word cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis) (see
Latin cannabis), which was originally Scythian or Thracian . It is
related to the Persian kanab, the English canvas and possibly even to
the English hemp (
Old English hænep). In modern Hebrew ,
קַנַּבּוֹס qannabōs (modern pronunciation: ) is used
but there are those who have theorized that it was referred to in
antiquity as קני בושם q'nei bosem, a component of the biblical
anointing oil. Old Akkadian qunnabtu, Neo-Assyrian and
Neo-Babylonian qunnabu were used to refer to the plant meaning "a way
to produce smoke."
Cannabis drug testing
Cannabis Social Club
* Hash, Marihuana -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
* ^ A B Geoffrey William Guy; Brian Anthony Whittle; Philip Robson
(2004). The Medicinal Uses of
Cannabis and Cannabinoids.
Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 74–. ISBN 978-0-85369-517-2 .
* ^ "Classification Report".
United States Department of
Agriculture . Retrieved 13 February 2017.
* ^ "Indica, Sativa, Ruderalis – Did We Get It All Wrong?". The
Leaf Online. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
* ^ "
Species of Cannabis". GRIN Taxonomy. Retrieved 13 February
* ^ A. ElSohly, Mahmoud (2007). Marijuana and the Cannabinoids.
Humana Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-58829-456-0 . Retrieved 2 May 2011.
* ^ A B C Erowid. 2006.
Cannabis Basics. Retrieved on 25 February
* ^ Narcotic
Drugs 2014 (pdf). INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL
BOARD. 2015. p. 21. ISBN 9789210481571 .
* ^ A B "Statistical tables". World Drug Report 2016 (pdf). Vienna,
Austria. May 2016. p. xiv, 43. ISBN 978-92-1-057862-2 . Retrieved 1
* ^ "
Leaf Terminology (Part 1)". Waynesword.palomar.edu. Retrieved
17 February 2011.
* ^ Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The
Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed
Pub. E Grant, Sarah R. (1997). "Genetics of sex determination in
flowering plants". Trends in
Plant Science. 2 (4): 130–6. doi
* ^ Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Cattivelli, Luigi; Ranalli, P.;
Mandolino, Giuseppe (2004). "The sexual differentiation of Cannabis
sativa L.: A morphological and molecular study". Euphytica. 140:
95–106. doi :10.1007/s10681-004-4758-7 .
* ^ Bouquet, R. J. 1950. Cannabis. United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crime . Retrieved on 23 February 2007
* ^ Li Hui-Lin (1973). "The Origin and Use of
Cannabis in Eastern
Asia: Linguistic-Cultural Implications", Economic Botany 28.3:
293–301, p. 294.
* ^ 13/99 and 13/133. In addition, 13/98 defined fen 蕡 "Cannabis
inflorescence" and 13/159 bo 薜 "wild Cannabis".
* ^ A B C Clarke, Robert C. 1991. Marijuana Botany, 2nd ed. Ron
Publishing, California. ISBN 0-914171-78-X
* ^ Small, Ernest (1975). "Morphological variation of achenes of
Cannabis". Canadian Journal of Botany. 53 (10): 978–87. doi
* ^ Mahlberg Paul G.; Soo Kim Eun (2001). "THC
(tetrahyrdocannabinol) accumulation in glands of Cannabis
Hemp Report. 3 (17).
* ^ A B Small, Ernest (1972). "Interfertility and chromosomal
uniformity in Cannabis". Canadian Journal of Botany. 50 (9): 1947–9.
doi :10.1139/b72-248 .
* ^ Van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling
M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R; Page, Jonathan E (2011). "The
draft genome and transcriptome of
Cannabis sativa" . Genome Biology.
12 (10): R102. PMC 3359589 . PMID 22014239 . doi
* ^ Schultes, R. E., A. Hofmann, and C. Rätsch. 2001. The nectar
of delight. In: Plants of the Gods 2nd ed., Healing Arts Press,
Rochester, Vermont, pp. 92–101. ISBN 0-89281-979-0
* ^ Song, B.-H.; Wang, X.-Q.; Li, F.-Z.; Hong, D.-Y. (2001).
"Further evidence for paraphyly of the Celtidaceae from the
chloroplast gene mat K".
Plant Systematics and Evolution. 228:
107–15. doi :10.1007/s006060170041 .
* ^ Sytsma, K. J.; Morawetz, J.; Pires, J. C.; Nepokroeff, M.;
Conti, E.; Zjhra, M.; Hall, J. C.; Chase, M. W. (2002). "Urticalean
rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on
rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 89 (9):
1531–46. PMID 21665755 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531 .
* ^ A B C Small, E (1975). "American law and the species problem in
Cannabis: Science and semantics". Bulletin on narcotics. 27 (3):
1–20. PMID 1041693 .
* ^ "What chemicals are in marijuana and its byproducts?".
ProCon.org. 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
* ^ El-Alfy, Abir T.; Ivey, Kelly; Robinson, Keisha; Ahmed, Safwat;
Radwan, Mohamed; Slade, Desmond; Khan, Ikhlas; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Ross,
Samir (2010). "Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol
and other cannabinoids isolated from
Cannabis sativa L" . Pharmacology
Biochemistry and Behavior. 95 (4): 573–82. PMC 2866040 . PMID
20332000 . doi :10.1016/j.pbb.2010.03.004 .
* ^ A B Ahrens J, Demir R, Leuwer M, et al. (2009). "The
nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly
activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function".
Pharmacology . 83 (4): 217–222. PMID 19204413 . doi
:10.1159/000201556 . Retrieved 4 August 2009.
* ^ A B C Small, E; Beckstead, HD (1973). "Common cannabinoid
phenotypes in 350 stocks of Cannabis". Lloydia. 36 (2): 144–65. PMID
* ^ A B C De Meijer, EP; Bagatta, M; Carboni, A; Crucitti, P;
Moliterni, VM; Ranalli, P; Mandolino, G (2003). "The inheritance of
chemical phenotype in
Cannabis sativa L" . Genetics. 163 (1):
335–46. PMC 1462421 . PMID 12586720 .
* ^ A B C Hillig, K. W.; Mahlberg, P. G. (2004). "A chemotaxonomic
analysis of cannabinoid variation in
Cannabis (Cannabaceae)". American
Journal of Botany. 91 (6): 966–75. PMID 21653452 . doi
* ^ Small, E. 1979. Fundamental aspects of the species problem in
biology. In: The
Species Problem in Cannabis, vol. 1: Science. Corpus
Information Services, Toronto, Canada, pp. 5–63. ISBN 0-919217-11-7
* ^ A B Rieger, R., A. Michaelis, and M. M. Green. 1991. Glossary
of Genetics, 5th ed. Springer-Verlag, pp. 458–459. ISBN
* ^ A B Hillig, Karl W. (2005). "Genetic evidence for speciation in
Cannabis (Cannabaceae)". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 52 (2):
161–80. doi :10.1007/s10722-003-4452-y .
* ^ A B Small, E (1975). "On toadstool soup and legal species of
Plant Science Bulletin. 21 (3): 34–9.
* ^ A B Emboden, William A. (1981). "The
Cannabis and the
Correct Use of Taxonomic Categories". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.
13 (1): 15–21. PMID 7024491 . doi :10.1080/02791072.1981.10471446 .
* ^ Schultes, R. E., and A. Hofmann. 1980. Botany and Chemistry of
Hallucinogens. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 82–116. ISBN
* ^ Ernest Abel, Marijuana, The First 12,000 years (Plenum Press,
New York 1980)
* ^ Butrica James L (2002). "The Medical Use of
Cannabis Among the
Greeks and Romans". Journal of
Cannabis Therapeutics. 2 (2): 51–70.
doi :10.1300/j175v02n02_04 .
Herodotus (translated by George Rawlinson) (1994–2009). "The
History of Herodotus". The Internet Classics Archive. Daniel C.
Stevenson, Web Atomics. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
* ^ "Cannabis: History". deamuseum.org.
* ^ Chris Conrad, HEMP, Lifeline to the Future (ISBN 0-9639754-1-2
* ^ Jack Herer,
The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN 1-878125-00-1 )
* ^ Peter Stratford, Psychedelics Encyclopaedia (ISBN 0-914171-51-8
* ^ Linnaeus, C. 1753.
Species Plantarum 2: 1027. Salvius,
* ^ de Lamarck, J.B. 1785. Encyclopédie Méthodique de Botanique,
vol. 1, pt. 2. Paris, France, pp. 694–695
* ^ A B C D Small, Ernest; Cronquist, Arthur (1976). "A Practical
and Natural Taxonomy for Cannabis". Taxon. 25 (4): 405–35. JSTOR
1220524 . doi :10.2307/1220524 .
* ^ Winek, Charles L. (1977). "Some Historical Aspects of
Marijuana". Clinical Toxicology. 10 (2): 243–53. PMID 322936 . doi
* ^ Serebriakova T. Ya. and I. A. Sizov. 1940. Cannabinaceae Lindl.
In: Vavilov N. I. (ed.), Kulturnaya Flora SSSR, vol. 5,
Moscow-Leningrad, USSR, pp. 1–53.
* ^ Watts, G. (2006). "
Cannabis confusions" . BMJ. 332 (7534):
175–6. PMC 1336775 . PMID 16424501 . doi
* ^ Ernest Small (biography) Archived 11 February 2007 at the
Wayback Machine .. National Research Council Canada. Retrieved on 23
* ^ Small, Ernest; Jui, Perry Y.; Lefkovitch, L. P. (1976). "A
Numerical Taxonomic Analysis of
Special Reference to
Species Delimitation". Systematic Botany. 1 (1): 67–84. JSTOR
2418840 . doi :10.2307/2418840 .
* ^ Schultes R. E.; Klein W. M.; Plowman T.; Lockwood T. E. (1974).
"Cannabis: an example of taxonomic neglect". Harvard University
Botanical Museum Leaflets. 23: 337–367.
* ^ Anderson, L. C. 1974. A study of systematic wood anatomy in
Cannabis. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 24: 29–36.
Retrieved on 23 February 2007
* ^ Anderson, L. C. 1980.
Leaf variation among
from a controlled garden. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets
28: 61–69. Retrieved on 23 February 2007
* ^ Emboden, William A. (1974). "
Cannabis — a polytypic genus".
Economic Botany. 28 (3): 304–310. doi :10.1007/BF02861427 .
* ^ Schultes, R. E. 1970. Random thoughts and queries on the botany
of Cannabis. In: Joyce, C. R. B. and Curry, S. H. (eds), The Botany
and Chemistry of Cannabis. J. Carboni, A.; Forapani, S.; Faeti, V.;
Ranalli, P. (1999). "Identification of DNA markers linked to the male
sex in dioecious hemp (
Cannabis sativa L.)". TAG Theoretical and
Applied Genetics. 98: 86–92. doi :10.1007/s001220051043 .
* ^ Forapani, Silvia; Carboni, Andrea; Paoletti, Claudia;
Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe
(2001). "Comparison of
Hemp Varieties Using Random Amplified
Polymorphic DNA Markers". Crop Science. 41 (6): 1682. doi
* ^ A B C Mandolino, Giuseppe; Ranalli, Paolo (2002). "The
Applications of Molecular Markers in Genetics and Breeding of Hemp".
Journal of Industrial Hemp. 7: 7–23. doi :10.1300/J237v07n01_03 .
* ^ Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James (2003). "Short
tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers are hypervariable and informative in
Cannabis sativa: Implications for forensic investigations". Forensic
Science International. 131 (1): 65–74. PMID 12505473 . doi
* ^ Kojoma, Mareshige; Iida, Osamu; Makino, Yukiko; Sekita,
Setsuko; Satake, Motoyoshi (2002). "DNA Fingerprinting of Cannabis
sativa Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Amplification".
Planta Medica. 68 (1): 60–3. PMID 11842329 . doi
* ^ Dr. Paul G. Mahlberg\'s
Cannabis Research. North American
Hemp Council. Retrieved on 23 February 2007
* ^ Hillig, Karl William. 2005. A systematic investigation of
Cannabis. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Biology, Indiana
University. Bloomington, Indiana. Published by UMI. Retrieved on 23
February 2007 Archived 21 November 2008 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Hillig, Karl W (2004). "A chemotaxonomic analysis of terpenoid
variation in Cannabis". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 32 (10):
875–891. doi :10.1016/j.bse.2004.04.004 .
* ^ 2005. Rasta lends its name to a third type of Cannabis. New
Scientist 2517: 12. Retrieved on 24 February 2007
* ^ Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James (2007).
"Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and
geographic origins of
Cannabis sativa". Forensic Science
International. 172 (2–3): 179–90. PMID 17293071 . doi
* ^ "Drug Toxicity". Web.cgu.edu. Archived from the original on 25
March 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ "Introduction". NORML. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ A B C Cannabis. "Erowid
Cannabis (Marijuana) Vault : Effects".
Erowid.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ Block, R (1998). "Sedative, Stimulant, and Other Subjective
Effects of Marijuana: Relationships to Smoking Techniques".
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 59 (2): 405–412. doi
* ^ Zuardi, A. W.; Shirakawa, I.; Finkelfarb, E.; Karniol, I. G.
(1982). "Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects
produced by ?9-
THC in normal subjects". Psychopharmacology. 76 (3):
245–50. PMID 6285406 . doi :10.1007/BF00432554 .
* ^ Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, José A.; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik;
Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Seal, Marc;
Surguladze, Simon A.; O'Carrol, Colin; Atakan, Zerrin; Zuardi, Antonio
W.; McGuire, Philip K. (2009). "Distinct Effects of
Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During
Emotional Processing". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (1):
95–105. PMID 19124693 . doi :10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.519 .
* ^ Nutt, David; King, Leslie A; Saulsbury, William; Blakemore,
Colin (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of
drugs of potential misuse". The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. PMID
17382831 . doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4 .
* ^ "Marijuana Detection Times Influenced By Stress, Dieting".
NORML. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ "
Cannabis use and panic disorder". Cannabis.net. Retrieved 17
* ^ "Myths and Facts About Marijuana". Drugpolicy.org. Retrieved 17
* ^ A B Borgelt LM, Franson KL, Nussbaum AM, Wang GS (February
2013). "The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis".
Pharmacotherapy (Review). 33 (2): 195–209. PMID 23386598 . doi
* ^ A B C Whiting, PF; Wolff, RF; Deshpande, S; Di Nisio, M; Duffy,
S; Hernandez, AV; Keurentjes, JC; Lang, S; Misso, K; Ryder, S;
Schmidlkofer, S; Westwood, M; Kleijnen, J (23 June 2015).
Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and
Meta-analysis.". JAMA. 313 (24): 2456–2473. PMID 26103030 . doi
* ^ Wang, T.; Collet, J.-P.; Shapiro, S.; Ware, M. A. (2008).
"Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: A systematic review" .
Canadian Medical Association Journal. 178 (13): 1669–78. PMC 2413308
. PMID 18559804 . doi :10.1503/cmaj.071178 .
* ^ England, TJ; Hind, WH; Rasid, NA; O'Sullivan, SE (March 2015).
Cannabinoids in experimental stroke: a systematic review and
meta-analysis" . Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 35
(3): 348–58. PMC 4348386 . PMID 25492113 . doi
* ^ Butticè, Claudio (December 9, 2015). "Therapeutic
children – a possible new treatment for epilepsy". Meds News.
Retrieved February 2, 2016.
* ^ A B "
Hemp Facts". Naihc.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ "The cultivation and use of hemp in ancient China".
Hempfood.com. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
* ^ Van Roekel; Gerjan J. (1994). "
Hemp Pulp and
Journal of the International
Hemp Association. Wageningen, The
* ^ Atkinson, Gail (2011). "Industrial
Hemp Production in Alberta".
CA: Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Development.
* ^ Ben Amar M (2006). "
Cannabinoids in medicine: a review of their
therapeutic potential" (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Review).
105 (1–2): 1–25. PMID 16540272 . doi :10.1016/j.jep.2006.02.001 .
Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2010.
* ^ Hulsewé (1979), p. 183.
* ^ Russo, E. B.; Jiang, H.-E.; Li, X.; Sutton, A.; Carboni, A.;
Del Bianco, F.; Mandolino, G.; Potter, D. J.; Zhao, Y.-X.; Bera, S.;
Zhang, Y.-B.; Lü, E.-G.; Ferguson, D. K.; Hueber, F.; Zhao, L.-C.;
Liu, C.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-S. (2008). "Phytochemical and genetic
analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia" . Journal of
Experimental Botany. 59 (15): 4171–82. PMC 2639026 . PMID
19036842 . doi :10.1093/jxb/ern260 .
* ^ Mallory and Mair (2000), p. 262.
* ^ Mallory and Mair (2000), p. 306.
* ^ Abel, Ernest L. (1980). "Marijuana – The First Twelve
Thousand Years". Chapter 1:
Cannabis in the Ancient World. India: The
First Marijuana-Oriented Culture.
* ^ Murdoch, John (1865-01-01). Classified Catalogue of Tamil
Printed Books: With Introductory Notices. Christian vernacular
* ^ Jayaprasad, Vasu. Parkinson\'s Disease Dravidian Cure
Chintarmony System. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781105917882 .
* ^ Karthigayan, P. (2016-08-01). History of Medical and Spiritual
Sciences of Siddhas of Tamil Nadu. Notion Press. ISBN 9789352065523 .
* ^ Pillai, M. S. Purnalingam (1904-01-01). A Primer of Tamil
Literature. Ananda Press.
* ^ Pilcher, Tim (2005). Spliffs 3: The Last Word in Cannabis
Culture?. Collins & Brown Publishers. p. 34. ISBN 1-84340-310-2 .
ISBN 978-1-84340-310-4 .
* ^ Vindheim, Jan Bojer. "The History of
Hemp in Norway". The
Journal of Industrial Hemp. International
* ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1981).
The Living Torah . New York. p. 442. ISBN
* ^ Ernest, Abel (1979). A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis
Literature. Greenwood Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-313-20721-1 .
* ^ Joseph Owens (1982). Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica.
London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-435-98650-3 .
* ^ The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church. "Marijuana and the Bible".
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
* ^ "Zion Light Ministry". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
* ^ Chris Bennett, Lynn; Osburn, Judy Osburn (1938). Green Gold:
the Tree of LifeMarijuana in Magic & Religion. Access Unlimited. p.
418. ISBN 0-9629872-2-0 .
* ^ "The Hawai\'i
Cannabis Ministry". Retrieved 13 September 2007.
* ^ "Cantheism". Retrieved 13 September 2007.
* ^ "
Cannabis Assembly". Retrieved 13 September 2007.
* ^ A B Ferrara, Mark S. (Oct 20, 2016). Sacred Bliss: A Spiritual
History of Cannabis. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442271920 .
access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Chapple, Amos (February 17, 2017). "Music, Dancing, And
Tolerance -- Pakistan\'s Embattled
Sufi Minority". RFERL. Retrieved 8
April 2017. During the festival the air is heavy with drumbeats,
chanting and cannabis smoke.
* ^ Osella, Filippo; Osella, Caroline (2013). Islamic Reform in
South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 65, 509. ISBN
* ^ Thackeray, Francis. "Could Shakespeare have been high when he
penned his plays?".
* ^ "Was Shakespeare A Stoner?". 28 June 2011.
* ^ Liu, Alec (23 June 2011). "Did Shakespeare Smoke Weed? Let\'s
Dig Him Up and Find Out".
* ^ Readhead, Harry (23 April 2015). "Here are eight bizarre and
little-known facts about Shakespeare".
* ^ "National Geographic News @ nationalgeographic.com".
* ^ A B C D E Ainsworth, C (2000). "Boys and Girls Come Out to
Play: The Molecular Biology of
Dioecious Plants". Annals of Botany. 86
(2): 211–221. doi :10.1006/anbo.2000.1201 .
* ^ de Meijer, E. P. M. 1999.
Cannabis germplasm resources. In:
Ranalli P. (ed.). Advances in
Hemp Research, Haworth Press,
Binghamton, NY, pp. 131–151. ISBN 1-56022-872-5
* ^ A B "
Cannabis as a licit crop: recent developments in Europe".
Archived from the original on 13 March 2003. Retrieved February 2008.
Check date values in: access-date= (help )CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link )
* ^ Schumann, Erika; Peil, Andreas; Weber, Wilhelm Eberhard (1999).
"Preliminary results of a German field trial with different hemp
Cannabis sativa L.) accessions". Genetic Resources and Crop
Evolution. 46 (4): 399–407. doi :10.1023/A:1008696018533 .
* ^ Ranalli, Paolo (2004). "Current status and future scenarios of
hemp breeding". Euphytica. 140: 121–131. doi
* ^ A B Hirata K (1924). "Sex reversal in hemp". Journal of the
Society of Agriculture and Forestry. 16: 145–168.
* ^ A B C Schaffner, John H. (1931). "The Fluctuation Curve of Sex
Reversal in Staminate
Hemp Plants Induced by Photoperiodicity".
American Journal of Botany. 18 (6): 424–30.
JSTOR 2435878 . doi
* ^ A B Truţa, E; Gille, E; Tóth, E; Maniu, M (2002).
"Biochemical differences in
Cannabis sativa L. Depending on sexual
phenotype". Journal of applied genetics. 43 (4): 451–62. PMID
* ^ Bridges, Calvin B. (1925). "Sex in Relation to Chromosomes and
Genes". The American Naturalist. 59 (661): 127–37.
JSTOR 2456354 .
doi :10.1086/280023 .
* ^ Schaffner, John H. (1929). "Heredity and sex". Ohio Journal of
Science. 29 (1): 289–300. hdl :1811/2398 .
* ^ Negrutiu, I; Vyskot, B; Barbacar, N; Georgiev, S; Moneger, F
Dioecious plants. A key to the early events of sex chromosome
Plant Physiology. 127 (4): 1418–24. PMC 1540173 .
PMID 11743084 . doi :10.1104/pp.010711 .
* ^ Menzel, Margaret Y. (1964). "Meiotic Chromosomes of Monoecious
Cannabis sativa)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical
Club. 91 (3): 193–205.
JSTOR 2483524 . doi :10.2307/2483524 .
* ^ Hong, Shao; Clarke, Robert C. (1996). "Taxonomic studies of
Cannabis in China". Journal of the International
Hemp Association. 3
* ^ Peil, A; Flachowsky, H; Schumann, E; Weber, WE (2003).
"Sex-linked AFLP markers indicate a pseudoautosomal region in hemp
Cannabis sativa L.)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 107 (1):
102–9. PMID 12835935 . doi :10.1007/s00122-003-1212-5 .
* ^ Sakamoto, K; Shimomura, K; Komeda, Y; Kamada, H; Satoh, S
(1995). "A male-associated DNA sequence in a dioecious plant, Cannabis
Plant & cell physiology. 36 (8): 1549–54. PMID 8589931 .
* ^ Sakamoto, Koichi; Abe, Tomoko; Matsuyama, Tomoki; Yoshida,
Shigeo; Ohmido, Nobuko; Fukui, Kiichi; Satoh, Shinobu (2005). "RAPD
markers encoding retrotransposable elements are linked to the male sex
Cannabis sativa". Genome. 48 (5): 931–6. PMID 16391699 . doi
* ^ Törjék, Ottó; Bucherna, Nándor; Kiss, Erzsébet; Homoki,
Hajnalka; Finta-Korpelová, Zsuzsanna; Bócsa, Iván; Nagy, István;
Heszky, László E. (2002). "Novel male-specific molecular markers
(MADC5, MADC6) in hemp". Euphytica. 127 (2): 209–218. doi
* ^ Tanurdzic, M.; Banks, JA (2004). "Sex-Determining Mechanisms in
Land Plants" . The
Plant Cell Online. 16 (Suppl): S61–71. PMC
2643385 . PMID 15084718 . doi :10.1105/tpc.016667 .
* ^ Mohan Ram, HY; Sett, R (1982). "Induction of fertile male
flowers in genetically female
Cannabis sativa plants by silver nitrate
and silver thiosulphate anionic complex". Theoretical and Applied
Genetics. 62 (4): 369–75. PMID 24270659 . doi :10.1007/BF00275107
* ^ Shao, Hong; Song, Shu-Juan; Clarke, Robert C. (2003).
"Female-Associated DNA Polymorphisms of
Journal of Industrial Hemp. 8: 5–9. doi :10.1300/J237v08n01_02 .
* ^ "cannabis" OED Online. July 2009.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press .
* ^ A B "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 17
* ^ "Judaism and the Legalization of Marijuana?". Algemeiner.com.
* ^ "Is there a place in religious life for marijuana? Ask Yoseph
Needelman – Religion". Jewish Journal.
* ^ Reinhard K. Sprenger (2004). Die Entscheidung liegt bei dir!:
Wege aus der alltäglichen Unzufriedenheit. Campus Verlag. p. 305.
ISBN 3-593-37442-0 .
* ^ Rubin, Vera D. (1975).
Cannabis and culture. The Hague: Mouton.
p. 305. ISBN 90-279-7669-4 .
* ^ Black, Jeremy; George, Andrew; Nicholas, Postgate, eds. (1999).
A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. SANTAG. 5 (2 ed.). Wiesbaden:
Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447042642 .
* Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant
with a Divided History. Algora Pub. ISBN 0-87586-206-3 .
* Earleywine, Mitchell (2005). Understanding Marijuana: A New Look
at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Emmett, David; Graeme Nice (2009). What you need to know about
cannabis: understanding the facts. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN
* Hulsewé, A. F. P. (1979).
China in Central Asia: The Early Stage
125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of
the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden. ISBN
* Geoffrey William, Guy; Brian Anthony Whittle; Philip Robson
(2004). The medicinal uses of cannabis and cannabinoids.
Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-517-2 .
* Holland, Julie M.D. (2010). The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to
Cannabis: Its Role in Medicine, Politics, science, and culture. Park
Street Press. ISBN 978-1-59477-368-6 .
* Iversen, Leslie L (2008). The science of marijuana (2nd ed.).
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532824-0 .
* Jenkins, Richard (2006).
Cannabis and Young People: Reviewing the
Evidence. Jessica Kingsley. ISBN 1-84310-398-2 .
* Lambert, Didier M (2008).
Cannabinoids in Nature and Medicine.
Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-906390-56-X .
* Mallory, J. P. and Victor H. Mair (2000). The Tarim Mummies:
China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West.
Thames Robert S. Stephens (2006).
Cannabis Dependence: Its Nature,
Consequences, and Treatment. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Russo, Ethan; Melanie Creagan Dreher; Mary Lynn Mathre (2004).
Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology. Haworth Press.
ISBN 0-7890-2101-3 .
* Solowij, Nadia (1998).
Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59114-7 .
Find more aboutCANNABISat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary
* Media from Commons
* News from Wikinews
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Data from Wikidata