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The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
(French: Rocheuses canadiennes) comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, which is a system of multiple ranges of mountains which runs from the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
to the Pacific Coast. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
mountain system comprises the southeastern part of this system, lying between the Interior Plains
Interior Plains
of Alberta
Alberta
and Northeastern British Columbia
British Columbia
on the east to the Rocky Mountain Trench of BC on the west. The southern end borders Idaho
Idaho
and Montana
Montana
of the USA. In geographic terms the boundary is at the Canada/US border, but in geological terms it might be considered to be at Marias Pass
Marias Pass
in northern Montana. The northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
have numerous high peaks and ranges, such as Mount Robson
Mount Robson
(3,954 m (12,972 ft)) and Mount Columbia (3,747 m (12,293 ft)). The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are composed of shale and limestone. Much of the range is protected by national and provincial parks, several of which collectively comprise a World Heritage Site.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Highest peaks 1.2 Mountain ranges

2 Rivers 3 Geology 4 Parks 5 Human history

5.1 The Rockies and The Canadian Pacific Railway

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes

Geography[edit] The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska
Alaska
to the very tip of South America. The Cordillera, in turn, is the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean.

East Kootenays

The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench, and on the north by the Liard River. Contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon
Yukon
or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a distinct mountain range, form a portion of the border between the Yukon
Yukon
and the Northwest Territories. The mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench
Rocky Mountain Trench
in southern British Columbia
British Columbia
are called the Columbia Mountains, and are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists.[2] Highest peaks[edit] See also: List of mountains in the Canadian Rockies Mount Robson
Mount Robson
(3,954 m (12,972 ft)) is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, but not the highest in British Columbia, since there are some higher mountains in the Coast Mountains
Coast Mountains
and Saint Elias Mountains. However, Mount Robson
Mount Robson
is particularly impressive because it stands out on the continental divide towering over Yellowhead Pass, one of the lowest passes in the Canadian Rockies, and is close to the Yellowhead Highway. Its base is only 985 m above sea level, meaning it has a total vertical relief of 2,969 m or nearly 10,000 feet. In addition, it rises the 3 km to its summit in a distance of only 4 km from its base at Kinney Lake. Climbing Mount Robson
Mount Robson
is a challenge suitable for experienced and well-prepared mountaineers, and usually requires a week on the mountain.

Mount Robson

Mount Columbia (3,747 m (12,293 ft)) is the second-highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, and is the highest mountain in Alberta. There is a non-technical route to the top involving only kicking steps in the snow, but the approach is across the Columbia Icefield
Columbia Icefield
and requires glacier travel and crevasse rescue knowledge. It is normally done in two days, with a night at high camp, but some strong skiers have done it from the highway in a day. On the other hand, many others have been stuck in their tents for days waiting for the weather to clear. From the same high camp as for Mount Columbia, it is possible to ascend a number of other high peaks in the area, including North Twin, South Twin, Kitchener, Stutfield and Snow Dome. Snow Dome (3,456 m (11,339 ft)) is not an impressive peak by Rockies standards, but it has the distinction of being the hydrological apex of North America. Water flows off Snow Dome into three different watersheds, into the Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, and Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via Hudson Bay. It is the easiest and most popular ascent on the Columbia Icefield, a gentle ski to the top from Columbia high camp, but glacier travel is required Of the highest peaks, only Mount Temple (3,543 m (11,624 ft)) has an established scrambling route. All other mountains (including other routes up Mount Temple), require more mountaineering skills and experience. Despite the fact that it is only a moderate scramble, even Mount Temple should not be attempted by novices. According to the Alpine Club of Canada, more people have died on Mount Temple than any other Canadian mountain, including seven youths in an unsupervised American school group in 1955.[3] The upper slopes are usually covered with snow and there is a glacier on top. Scramblers on Mount Temple should carry an ice axe and enough clothing to survive a freezing night on the mountain if a storm hits and prevents them from descending. Contrary to popular misconception, the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are not the highest mountain ranges in Canada. Both the Saint Elias Mountains (highest point in Canada
Canada
Mount Logan
Mount Logan
at 5,959 m (19,551 ft)) and the Coast Mountains
Coast Mountains
(highest point Mount Waddington
Mount Waddington
at 4,016 m (13,176 ft)) have higher summits. Mountain ranges[edit] Main article: Ranges of the Canadian Rockies The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are subdivided into numerous mountain ranges, structured in two main groupings, the Continental Ranges, which has three main subdivisions, the Front Range, Park Ranges and Kootenay Ranges, and the Northern Rockies which comprise two main groupings, the Hart Ranges
Hart Ranges
and the Muskwa Ranges. The division-point of the two main groupings is at Monkman Pass northwest of Mount Robson
Mount Robson
and to the southwest of Mount Ovington. Rivers[edit] Main article: List of rivers of the Canadian Rockies The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are noted for being the source of several major river systems, and also for the many rivers within the range itself. The Rockies form the divide between the Pacific drainage on the west and that of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
and the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
on the east. Of the range's rivers, only the Peace River
Peace River
penetrates the range. Notable rivers originating in the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
include the Fraser, Columbia, North Saskatchewan, Bow and Athabasca Rivers. Geology[edit]

Sodalite-aegirine-albite pegmatite specimen, Ice River Complex, an intrusion partly in Yoho National Park. Field of view ~7.1 cm across.

Main article: Geology of the Rocky Mountains The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are quite different in appearance and geology from the American Rockies to the south of them. The Canadian Rockies are composed of layered sedimentary rock such as limestone and shale, whereas the American Rockies are made mostly of metamorphic and igneous rock such as gneiss and granite. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are overall more jagged than the American Rockies because the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
have been more heavily glaciated, resulting in sharply pointed mountains separated by wide, U-shaped valleys gauged by glaciers, whereas the American Rockies are overall more rounded, with river-carved V-shaped valleys between them. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are cooler and wetter, giving them moister soil, bigger rivers, and more glaciers. The tree line is much lower in the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
than in the American Rockies. Parks[edit]

Peyto Lake, Banff National Park

Five national parks are located within the Canadian Rockies, four of which are adjacent and make up the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks. These four parks are Banff, Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho. The fifth national park, Waterton is not adjacent to the others. Waterton lies farther south, straddling the Canada–US border as the Canadian half of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. All five of these parks, combined with three British Columbia
British Columbia
provincial parks, were declared a single UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1984[4] for the unique mountain landscapes found there. Numerous provincial parks are located in the Canadian Rockies, including Hamber, Mount Assiniboine
Mount Assiniboine
and Mount Robson
Mount Robson
parks. Throughout the Rockies, and especially in the national parks, the Alpine Club of Canada
Canada
maintains a series of alpine huts for use by mountaineers and adventurers.[5] Human history[edit] The Rockies and The Canadian Pacific Railway[edit] The Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
was founded to provide a link from the province of British Columbia
British Columbia
to the eastern provinces. The main difficulty in providing such a link were the Rockies themselves: treacherous mountain passes, fast rivers and sheer drops made for a difficult railway construction process. The following articles describe in detail the political and technical feats involved:

Canadian Pacific Survey Big Hill Field Hill Kicking Horse Pass Spiral Tunnels

See also[edit]

Geography of Canada
Canada
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canadian Rockies.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
(Canada).

Ecology of the Rocky Mountains Geology of the Rocky Mountains Arctic Cordillera: an example of another major mountain system in North America east of the Canadian Rockies. The Rocky Mountain Rangers

References[edit]

Roger W. Patillo: The Canadian Rockies: Pioneers, Legends and True Tales. Trafford Publishing 2005, 9781412056274 (restricted online version (Google Books))[self-published source] Brenda Koller: The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
Adventure Guide. Hunter Publishing Inc. 2006, ISBN 978-1-58843-573-6 (restricted online version (Google Books)) Canadian Rockies. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 22, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online[6]

Notes[edit]

^ "Laramide and Sevier orogenies (PLATE TECTONICS) – g17" (PDF). geowords.com. p. 423. Retrieved 2017-08-20.  ^ Gadd, Ben (1995). Handbook of the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
(2nd ed.). Corax Press. ISBN 0-9692631-1-2.  ^ "Mount Temple accident report 11 July 1955". Alpine Accidents in Canada. Alpine Club of Canada. Archived from the original on 2006-05-03.  ^ "Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 2010-01-01.  ^ "Clubhouse and Alpine Huts". Alpine Club of Canada. Retrieved 2010-01-01.  ^ Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
at Encyclopædia Britannica

v t e

Canadian Rockies

Ranges

Ball Bare Beaverfoot Blue Bow Crowsnest Elk Fairholme Flathead Foothills High Rock Kananaskis Livingstone Lizard Maligne Massive Misty Morrissey Palliser President Queen Elizabeth Rainbow Ram Sawback Sentinel Slate South Jasper Sundance Terminal Tower of London Vermilion Victoria Cross Waputik Winston Churchill Continental Ranges Hart Ranges Muskwa Ranges

Mountains

Alberta Andromeda Assiniboine Athabasca Brazeau Bryce Cascade Castle Castleguard Clemenceau Columbia Cory Edith Cavell Forbes Hector Hosmer Hungabee Joffre Kitchener Lyell Heart Pilot Pyramid Resplendent Robson Rundle Sarbach Saskatchewan Smythe Snow Dome Stanley Peak Sulphur Temple Three Sisters Trinity Twin Ulysses Whymper

Passes

Abbot Athabasca Bush Carcajou Crowsnest Elbow Elk Fortress Fraser Highwood Howse Jarvis Kananaskis Kicking Horse Monkman Muncho North Kananaskis Palliser Pine Simpson Sinclair Summit Sunwapta Tonquin Vermilion Wapiti White Man Yellowhead

Glaciers

Athabasca Bow Columbia Icefield Crowfoot Hector Peyto Saskatchewan Vulture Wapta Waputik Icefield

Rivers

see List of rivers of the Canadian Rockies and Category:Rivers of the Canadian Rockies

Peoples

Mountain Stoney Mountain Metis

Parks and protected areas

World Heritage Sites

Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks
Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks
World Heritage Site Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

National

Parks Banff Jasper Kootenay Yoho Waterton Lakes

Historic Sites Jasper House Jasper Park Information Centre Yellowhead Pass Athabasca Pass Howse Pass Kootenae House Kicking Horse Pass Skoki Ski Lodge Twin Falls Tea House Abbot Pass
Abbot Pass
Refuge Cabin Cave and Basin Banff Park Museum Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station First Oil Well in Western Canada

Provincial (AB)

Parks Bow Valley Bragg Creek Elbow-Sheep Ghost River Kananaskis Peter Lougheed Sheep River Siffleur Spray Valley White Goat Willmore

Historic Sites Frank Slide

Provincial (BC)

Akamina-Kishinena Close To The Edge Dune Za Keyih (Frog-Gataga) Elk Lakes Graham-Laurier Hamber Height of the Rockies Hole-in-the-Wall Kakwa Kikomun Creek Kwadacha Mount Assiniboine Mount Fernie Mount Robson Muncho Lake Northern Rocky Mountains Pine Le Moray Stone Mountain Muskwa-Kechika

Ski resorts

Castle Mountain Fernie Fortress Mountain Lake Louise Little Mac Marmot Basin Mount Norquay Nakiska Powder King Sunshine Village

Communities

Banff Canmore Crowsnest Pass Elkford Fernie Field Jasper Lake Louise Sparwood Tumbler Ridge Valemount Waterton Park

Ecoregions

Alberta
Alberta
Mountain forests Alberta- British Columbia
British Columbia
foothills forests North Central Rockies forest

See also Geography of Canada
Canada
portal

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