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The Campanian
Campanian
is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian
Santonian
and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[2] The Campanian
Campanian
was an age when a worldwide sea level rise drowned many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved as an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks.[3][4]

Contents

1 Stratigraphic definition

1.1 Subdivision

2 Paleontology

2.1 †Ankylosaurs 2.2 Birds
Birds
(avian theropods) 2.3 Bony fish 2.4 Cartilaginous fish 2.5 †Ceratopsians 2.6 Crocodylomorphs 2.7 Mammals 2.8 †Ornithopods 2.9 †Pachycephalosaurs 2.10 †Plesiosaurs 2.11 †Pterosaurs 2.12 †Sauropods 2.13 Squamates 2.14 Testudines 2.15 † Theropods
Theropods
(non-avian)

3 References 4 External links

Stratigraphic definition[edit] The Campanian
Campanian
was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne
Aubeterre-sur-Dronne
in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
stage. The base of the Campanian
Campanian
stage is laid at the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites
Marsupites
testudinarius. A GSSP
GSSP
had not yet been ratified in 2009. One possible candidate is in a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas. The top of the Campanian
Campanian
is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus
Pachydiscus
neubergicus first appears. Subdivision[edit] The Campanian
Campanian
is sometimes subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian
Campanian
encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:

zone of Nostoceras
Nostoceras
hyatti zone of Didymoceras
Didymoceras
chayennense zone of Bostrychoceras
Bostrychoceras
polyplocum zone of Hoplitoplacenticeras marroti/Hoplitoplacenticeras vari zone of Delawarella delawarensis zone of Placenticeras
Placenticeras
bidorsatum

Paleontology[edit] During the Campanian
Campanian
age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian
Campanian
to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian
Campanian
can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian
Campanian
probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.[5] Animals that lived in the Campanian
Campanian
include: †Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs
Ankylosaurs
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aletopelta

Point Loma Formation, California, USA A medium-sized ankylosaurid, estimated to be around 6 m (20 ft) long.

Edmontonia

Euoplocephalus

Pinacosaurus

Antarctopelta

Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica A stocky ankylosaur protected by armor plates embedded in the skin. Although a complete skeleton has not been found, the species is estimated to have reached a maximum length of 4 meters (13 feet). Displays characteristics of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids.

Edmontonia

Campanian
Campanian
to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and many sharp spikes along its body sides. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.

Euoplocephalus

Nodocephalosaurus

Palaeoscincus

Judith River Formation known from a single tooth

Panoplosaurus

Judith River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA A 5.5–7 m long nodosaurid.

Pinacosaurus

Saichania

Shanxia

Struthiosaurus

Tarchia

Tianzhenosaurus

Birds
Birds
(avian theropods)[edit]

Birds
Birds
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Hesperornis

Hesperornis

Ichthyornis

Neogaeornis wetzeli

A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian- Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
boundary.

Bony fish[edit]

Bony fish
Bony fish
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Xiphactinus

Xiphactinus

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Cartilaginous fish
Cartilaginous fish
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Chlamydoselachus

Chlamydoselachus

†Schizorhiza

†Ceratopsians[edit]

Ceratopsians of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Achelousaurus

Achelousaurus
Achelousaurus
horneri

74.2 million years ago

Achelousaurus

Agujaceratops

Albertaceratops

Anchiceratops

Avaceratops

Bagaceratops

Brachyceratops

Centrosaurus

Cerasinops

Chasmosaurus

Coahuilaceratops

Diabloceratops

Einiosaurus

Graciliceratops

Kosmoceratops

Medusaceratops

Pentaceratops

Prenoceratops

Protoceratops

Rubeosaurus

Spinops

Styracosaurus

Titanoceratops

Udanoceratops

Utahceratops

Vagaceratops

Agujaceratops

Agujaceratops
Agujaceratops
mariscalensis

77 million years ago

Albertaceratops

Albertaceratops
Albertaceratops
nesmoi

Anchiceratops

Anchiceratops
Anchiceratops
longirostris

Avaceratops

Avaceratops
Avaceratops
lammersi

Bagaceratops

Bagaceratops
Bagaceratops
rozhdestvenskyi

Bainoceratops

Bainoceratops
Bainoceratops
efremovi

Brachyceratops

Brachyceratops
Brachyceratops
montanensis

Breviceratops

Breviceratops
Breviceratops
kozlowskii

Centrosaurus

Centrosaurus
Centrosaurus
apertus

Cerasinops

Cerasinops
Cerasinops
hodgskissi

Ceratops

Ceratops
Ceratops
montanus

Chasmosaurus

Chasmosaurus
Chasmosaurus
russelli Chasmosaurus
Chasmosaurus
belli

Coahuilaceratops

Coahuilaceratops
Coahuilaceratops
magnacuerna

Coronosaurus

Coronosaurus
Coronosaurus
brinkmani

Diabloceratops

Diabloceratops
Diabloceratops
eatoni

?Dysganus

Dysganus encaustus Dysganus bicarinatus Dysganus peiganus

Einiosaurus

Einiosaurus
Einiosaurus
procurvicornis

Eoceratops

Eoceratops
Eoceratops
canadensis

Graciliceratops

Graciliceratops
Graciliceratops
mongoliensis

Gryphoceratops

Gryphoceratops
Gryphoceratops
morrisoni

Judiceratops

Judiceratops
Judiceratops
tigris

Kosmoceratops

Kosmoceratops
Kosmoceratops
richardsoni

Lamaceratops

Lamaceratops
Lamaceratops
tereschenkoi

Magnirostris

Magnirostris
Magnirostris
dodsoni

Medusaceratops

Medusaceratops
Medusaceratops
lokii

Mercuriceratops

Mercuriceratops
Mercuriceratops
gemini

Mojoceratops

Mojoceratops
Mojoceratops
perifania

Monoclonius

Monoclonius
Monoclonius
crassus

Nasutoceratops

Nasutoceratops
Nasutoceratops
titusi

?Notoceratops

Notoceratops
Notoceratops
bonarellii

Chubut Province, Argentina A dubious genus of possible ceratopsian affinity

Pachyrhinosaurus

Pachyrhinosaurus
Pachyrhinosaurus
canadensis Pachyrhinosaurus
Pachyrhinosaurus
lakustai Pachyrhinosaurus
Pachyrhinosaurus
perotorum

Pentaceratops

Pentaceratops
Pentaceratops
sternbergii

Platyceratops

Platyceratops
Platyceratops
tatarinovi

Prenoceratops

Prenoceratops
Prenoceratops
pieganensis

Protoceratops

Protoceratops
Protoceratops
andrewsi Protoceratops
Protoceratops
hellenikorhinus

Rubeosaurus

Rubeosaurus
Rubeosaurus
ovatus

Spiclypeus

Spiclypeus
Spiclypeus
shipporum

Spinops

Spinops
Spinops
sternbergorum

Styracosaurus

Styracosaurus
Styracosaurus
albertensis

Titanoceratops

Titanoceratops
Titanoceratops
ouranos

Udanoceratops

Udanoceratops
Udanoceratops
tschizhovi

Unescoceratops

Unescoceratops
Unescoceratops
koppelhusae

Utahceratops

Utahceratops
Utahceratops
gettyi

Vagaceratops

Vagaceratops
Vagaceratops
irvinensis

Xenoceratops

Xenoceratops
Xenoceratops
foremostensis

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Crocodylomorphs
Crocodylomorphs
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Deinosuchus

Mammals[edit]

Mammals
Mammals
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alphadon

Didelphodon

Kamptobaatar

Kennalestes

Kryptobaatar

Zalambdalestes

†Ornithopods[edit]

Ornithopods
Ornithopods
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aralosaurus

85.8 mya Asia Aralosaurus
Aralosaurus
was about the size of an elephant. Although very little is known about Aralosaurus
Aralosaurus
(only one near complete skull has been found); it was identified by a beak with nearly 1,000 small teeth in 30 rows. These teeth were used for breaking up plant matter by chewing, a feature common in herbivorous dinosaurs, but unusual for reptiles.The back of an Aralosaurus
Aralosaurus
skull was wide, a feature suggestive of large jaw muscles used to power its chewing apparatus.

Edmontosaurus

Gasparinisaura

Hypacrosaurus

Maiasaura

Mochlodon

Nipponosaurus

Prosaurolophus

Shantungosaurus

Velafrons

Brachylophosaurus

76.5 mya Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada Brachylophosaurus
Brachylophosaurus
was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of 9 meters (30 feet).

Corythosaurus

77-76.5 mya Alberta, Canada Corythosaurus
Corythosaurus
weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (33 feet) from nose to tail. Like other hadrosaurs it had a toothless beak, the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away.

Diclonius

75 mya Montana, USA

Edmontosaurus

73.0-76.5 mya Canada Edmontosaurus
Edmontosaurus
included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 12 metres (39 feet) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).

Gasparinisaura

85 mya Argentina Gasparinisaura
Gasparinisaura
was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 1.7 metres, the weight at thirteen kilogrammes.

Gilmoreosaurus

72 mya Mongolia

Gryposaurus

83-75.5 mya Alberta, Canada Gryposaurus
Gryposaurus
was a hadrosaurid of typical size and shape.

Hadrosaurus

79.5 mya New Jersey, USA It was likely bipedal for the purposes of running, but could use its forelegs to support itself while feeding.

Hypacrosaurus

75-67 mya Alberta, Canada Hypacrosaurus
Hypacrosaurus
is most easily distinguished from other hollow-crested duckbills by its tall neural spines and the form of its crest. The neural spines, which project from the top of the vertebrae, are 5 to 7 times the height of the body of their respective vertebrae in the back,[4] which would have given it a tall back in profile. The skull's hollow crest is like that of Corythosaurus, but is more pointed along its top, not as tall, wider side to side, and has a small bony point at the rear

Hypsibema

North Carolina
North Carolina
and Missouri, USA

Kritosaurus

73 mya North America The type specimen of Kritosaurus
Kritosaurus
navajovius is only represented by a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated postcranial remains.

Lambeosaurus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada

Lophorhothon

80 mya Alabama, USA

Maiasaura

76.7 mya Montana, USA Maiasaura
Maiasaura
was large, attaining an adult length of about 9 metres (30 feet) and had the typical hadrosaurid flat beak and a thick nose. It had a small, spiky crest in front of its eyes. The crest may have been used in headbutting contests between males during the breeding season.

Mandschurosaurus

Asia

Microhadrosaurus

China

Mochlodon

Austria A rhabdodontid.

Naashoibitosaurus

73 mya New Mexico, USA Naashoibitosaurus, based as it is on a single partial skeleton, is not well known in terms of anatomy. Its skull, the most thoroughly described portion, has a low nasal crest that peaks in front of the eyes, but does not strongly arch as in Gryposaurus.

Nipponosaurus

Russia

Orodromeus

76.7 mya Montana, USA Orodromeus
Orodromeus
was a small fast bipedal herbivore that probably coexisted with dinosaurs such as Daspletosaurus
Daspletosaurus
and Einiosaurus. Its length was estimated by Horner & Weishampel at 2.5 metres.

Parasaurolophus

76.5-73 mya Alberta, Canada; New Mexico
New Mexico
and Utah, USA

Prosaurolophus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada Prosaurolophus
Prosaurolophus
was a large-headed duckbill; the most complete described specimen has a skull around 0.9 meters (3.0 feet) long on a ~8.5 meter long skeleton (~28 ft).[2] It had a small, stout, triangular crest in front of the eyes; the sides of this crest were concave, forming depressions. The upper arm was relatively short.

Pteropelyx

Montana, USA

Rhabdodon

72 mya France; Spain; Haţeg Island, Romania It is unclear whether it was an iguanodont or a hypsilophodont, and may be a "missing link" between the two. Current evidence indicates it is an iguanodont similar to Tenontosaurus.

Saurolophus

69.5-68.5 mya North America, Asia Saurolophus
Saurolophus
is known from material including nearly complete skeletons, giving researchers a clear picture of its bony anatomy. S. osborni, the rarer Albertan species, was around 9.8 meters (32 feet) long, with its skull a meter long (3.3 feet). Its weight is estimated at 1.9 tonnes (2.1 tons). S. angustirostris, the Mongolian species, was larger; the type skeleton is roughly 12 meters (39 feet) long, and larger remains are reported.

Shantungosaurus

72 mya China It is one of the longest and largest known hadrosaurids; the composite skeleton of a medium-sized individual mounted at the Geological Institute of China
China
in Beijing measures 14.72 metres (48.3 feet) in length.

Stephanosaurus

Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Park Formation, Alberta

Tanius

China

Trachodon

77 mya Montana, USA

Tsintaosaurus

72 mya Southern China

Velafrons

72 mya Mexico

†Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs
Pachycephalosaurs
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alaskacephale

Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA

Alaskacephale

Homalocephale

Colepiocephale

Alberta, Canada The oldest known pachycephalosaurid.

Goyocephale

Mongolia

Gravitholus

Hanssuesia

Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA Distinguished from other pachycephalosaurs by having a depressed parietal region, wide frontoparietal dome, broad nasal characteristics, reduced prefontal lobes, and a reduced parietosquamosal shelf.

?Heishansaurus

Homalocephale

Mongolia Sporting a flat, wedge-shaped skull roof, Homalocephale
Homalocephale
was different from other pachycephalosaurs.

?Micropachycephalosaurus

Ornatotholus

Prenocephale

Sphaerotholus

Stegoceras

Tylocephale

Wannanosaurus

†Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosaurs
Plesiosaurs
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Elasmosaurus

80.5 mya Pierre Shale, Kansas, USA Elasmosaurus
Elasmosaurus
is a genus of plesiosaur with an extremely long neck.

Elasmosaurus

Styxosaurus

†Styxosaurus

83.5-80.5 mya Logan County, Kansas Styxosaurus
Styxosaurus
is an Elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

†Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs
Pterosaurs
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aerotitan

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

Pteranodon

Quetzalcoatlus

Bogolubovia

Rybushka Formation, Petrovsk, Russia

Geosternbergia

USA, North America Geosternbergia
Geosternbergia
was originally a species of Pteranodon
Pteranodon
and is famous for its oddly shaped crest.

Montanazhdarcho

Montana, USA Small azhdarchoid pterosaur, probably a tapejarid

Navajodactylus

New Mexico, USA, and Alberta, Canada Known primarily from forearm elements; tentatively assigned to Azhdarchidae, though most likely not part of it.

Nyctosaurus

mid-western United States Nyctosaurus
Nyctosaurus
is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur.

Piksi

Montana, USA Piksi is a genus of pterosaurs containing the single species Piksi barbarulna.

Pteranodon

Kansas, USA, North America Pteranodon
Pteranodon
is a genus of pterosaurs which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 6 metres

Quetzalcoatlus

Texas, USA Quetzalcoatlus
Quetzalcoatlus
was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
of North America
North America
and one of the largest known flying animals of all time.

Volgadraco

Saratov, Russia Azhdarchid pterosaur.

†Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alamosaurus

Southwestern United States Alamosaurus
Alamosaurus
is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period of what is now North America. It was a large quadrupedal herbivore.

Alamosaurus

Saltasaurus

Andesaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Andesaurus
Andesaurus
is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur.

Dreadnoughtus

Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Argentina Dreadnoughtus
Dreadnoughtus
is one of the largest titanosaurs known.

Gondwanatitan

Adamantina Formation
Adamantina Formation
and Cambabe Formation, Brazil

Huabeisaurus

North East, China A member of the Euhelopodidae sauropods.

Laplatasaurus

Allen Formation
Allen Formation
and Anacleto Formation, both in Argentina; Palacio Formation, Uruguay

Loricosaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Argentina

Microcoelus

Santonian-Campanian Bajo de la Carpa Formation, Argentina

Neuquensaurus

Anacleto Formation, Argentina

Overosaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Small-sized titanosaur.

Quaesitosaurus

Shar Tsav, Mongolia Quaesitosaurus
Quaesitosaurus
is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod.

Saltasaurus

north-west Argentina; Uruguay Saltasaurus
Saltasaurus
is a genus of titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur. An estimated length of 12 metres (39 feet) and a mass of 7 tonnes (8 tons).

Rocasaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina

Squamates[edit]

Squamates
Squamates
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Halisaurus

Mosasaurus

Taniwhasaurus

Mosasaurus

Plotosaurus

Taniwhasaurus

New Zealand, Japan, Antarctica

Tylosaurus

Testudines[edit]

Testudines
Testudines
of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Archelon

Reconstruction of Archelon

Theropods
Theropods
(non-avian)[edit] David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian
Campanian
Alberta
Alberta
and Montana
Montana
had very similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas.[6]

Non-avian theropods of the Campanian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Abelisaurus

Allen Formation?, Anacleto Formation?, Argentina Bipedal
Bipedal
carnivore that probably reached 7 to 9 meters in length; known from only one partial skull.

Abelisaurus

Bambiraptor

Citipati

Portrait of Saurornithoides

Velociraptor

Albertosaurus

Appalachiosaurus

Archaeornithomimus

Bambiraptor

Byronosaurus

Citipati

Carnotaurus

Chirostenotes

Daspletosaurus

Deinodon

Judith River Formation

Dromaeosaurus

Dromiceiomimus

Dryptosaurus

Gobivenator

Gorgosaurus

Harpymimus

Khaan

Kol

Linheraptor

Lythronax

Wahweap Formation, Utah A 7-meter tyrannosaurid known from a partially complete skull, some vertebrae and a complete pubis

Luanchuanraptor

Mahakala

Nanshiungosaurus

Noasaurus

Ornithomimus

Oviraptor

Mongolia

Parvicursor

Pyroraptor

Var, France

Saurornithoides

Saurornitholestes

Shuvuuia

Struthiomimus

Troodon

Tsaagan

Variraptor

Var, France

Velociraptor

Mongolia
Mongolia
and China

Xenotarsosaurus

Zhuchengtyrannus

Wangshi Group, Zhucheng, China One of the largest tyrannosaurids at between 10–12 meters. Known from a lower jaw and maxilla slightly smaller than those of the later Tyrannosaurus.

References[edit]

^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed version of the geological timescale ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Research. 31: 567–576. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.  ^ See Weishampel et al. (2004) ^ "Abstract," in Varricchio (2001). Page 42.

Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press. Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
oviraptorosaur (Theropoda) dinosaurs from Montana. pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter (eds.), Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, Indiana. Weishampel, D.B.; Barrett, P.M.; Coria, R.A.; Le Loueff, J.; Xu, X.; Zhao, X.; Sahni, A.; Gomani, E.M.P. & Noto, C.N.; 2004: Dinosaur distribution, in: Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (eds.): The Dinosauria, University of California Press, Berkeley (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-520-24209-2, pp 517–606.

External links[edit]

GeoWhen Database - Campanian Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Campanian
Campanian
Microfossils: 75+ images of Foraminifera

v t e

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period

Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous

Berriasian Valanginian Hauterivian Barremian Aptian Albian

Cenomanian Turonian Coniacian Santonian Campanian Maastrichtian

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrie

.