In linguistics, a calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. "Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun calque ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb calquer means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; papier calque is "tracing paper". The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word Lehnwort, just as "loan translation" is a calque of Lehnübersetzung. Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the borrowing language or when the calque contains less obvious imagery. Calquing is distinct from phono-semantic matching. While calquing includes semantic translation, it does not consist of phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existing word or morpheme in the target language).
1 Types 2 Loan blend 3 Examples
3.1 Phraseological calque: "flea market" 3.2 Loan translation: "skyscraper" 3.3 Loan translation: translatio and traductio 3.4 Semantic calque: mouse
4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links
Types One system classifies calques into five groups:
the phraseological calque, with idiomatic phrases being translated word-for-word. the syntactic calque, with syntactic functions or constructions of the source language being imitated in the target language. the loan-translation, with words being translated morpheme-by-morpheme or component-by-component into another language. the semantic calque, with additional meanings of the source word being transferred to the word with the same primary meaning in the target language. That is also called a "semantic loan". the morphological calque, with the inflection of a word being transferred.
That terminology is not universal. Some authors call a morphological
calque a "morpheme-by-morpheme translation".
Loan blends or partial calques translate some parts of a compound, but
not others. For example, the Irish digital television service
Chinese: 跳蚤市场 Czech: bleší trh Danish loppemarked Dutch: vlooienmarkt Finnish: kirpputori German: Flohmarkt Hebrew: שוק הפשפשים Hungarian: bolhapiac Italian: mercato delle pulci Japanese: 蚤の市 Norwegian: loppemarked Polish: pchli targ Russian: блошиный рынок Serbian: buvlja pijaca Spanish: mercado de pulgas Turkish: bit pazarı
Loan translation: "skyscraper" An example of a common morpheme-by-morpheme loan-translation in a multitude of languages is that of the English word skyscraper:
Albanian: qiellgërvishtës ("sky-scraper") Afrikaans: wolkekrabber ("clouds-scraper") Arabic: ناطحة سحاب (nāṭiḥat saḥāb, "cloud-butter") Armenian: երկնաքեր (yerk-n-a-ker, "sky-scratcher") Azerbaijani: göydələn ("sky-piercer") Belarusian: хмарачос (khmaračos, "cloud-scraper") Bengali: akash-jharu (আকাশঝাড়ু, "sky-sweeper") or gagan-chumbi গগনচুম্বী ("sky-kisser") Bulgarian: небостъргач (nebostargach, "sky-scraper") Catalan: gratacel ("scrapes-sky") Chinese: 摩天楼; 摩天樓; mótiānlóu ("touch-the-sky building") Croatian: neboder ("sky-ripper") Czech and Slovak: mrakodrap ("cloud-scraper") Danish: skyskraber ("cloud-scraper") Dutch: wolkenkrabber ("clouds-scratcher") Estonian: pilvelõhkuja ("cloud-breaker") Finnish: pilvenpiirtäjä ("cloud-sketcher") French: gratte-ciel ("scrapes-sky") Georgian: ცათამბჯენი ("sky-upleaning", "sky-uppropping"), ცათამწვდომი ("sky-reaching") German: Wolkenkratzer ("cloud-scraper") Greek: ουρανοξύστης (uranoxístis, "sky-scraper") Hebrew: גורד שחקים (goréd šħaqím, "scraper of skies") Hindi: गगनचुंबी' (gagan-chumbi, "sky-kisser") Hungarian: felhőkarcoló ("cloud-scraper") Icelandic: skýjakljúfur ("cloud-splitter") Irish: scríobaire spéire ("sky-scraper") or ilstórach (spéire) ("multistorey") Italian: grattacielo ("scrapes-sky") Japanese: 摩天楼 (matenrou, "sky-scraping tower") Latvian: debesskrāpis ("sky-scraper") Lithuanian: dangoraižis ("sky-scraper") Macedonian: облакодер (oblakoder, "cloud-scraper") Malay and Indonesian: pencakar langit ("sky-clawer") Malayalam: അംബരചുംബി (ambaracumbi, "sky-kisser") Mongolian: тэнгэр баганадсан барилга (tenger baganadsan barilga, "sky-pillaring building") Norwegian: skyskraper ("cloud-scraper") Persian: آسمانخراش (âsmânkhrâsh, "sky-scraper") Polish: drapacz chmur ("cloud-scraper") Portuguese: arranha-céus ("scrapes-skies") Romanian: zgârie-nori ("scrapes-clouds") Russian: небоскрёб (neboskryob, "sky-scraper") Serbian: oblakoder ("cloud-ripper") Slovene: nebotičnik ("sky-rubber, -toucher") Spanish: rascacielos ("scrapes-skies") Swedish: skyskrapa ("sky-scraper") Tagalog: gusaling tukudlangit ("building poking the sky") Tamil: வானளாவி (vāṉaḷāvi, "sky-reacher") Thai: ตึกระฟ้า (tụkraf̂ā, "sky-scraping building") Turkish: gökdelen ("sky-piercer") Ukrainian: хмарочос (hmaročos, "cloud-scratcher") Vietnamese: nhà chọc trời ("sky-poking building") Welsh: cwmwlgrafwr ("cloud scraper") or nendwr ("sky tower")
Loan translation: translatio and traductio
Danish: oversættelse Dutch: overzetting[note 1] German: Übersetzung Norwegian (NB): oversettelse Norwegian (NN): omsetjing Swedish: översättning West Frisian: oersetting
Belarusian: пераклад (from "translatio") Bulgarian: превод (from "traductio") Croatian: prijevod (from "traductio") Czech: překlad (from "translatio") Macedonian: превод (from "traductio") Polish: przekład (from "translatio") Russian: перевод (from "traductio") Serbian: prevod (from "traductio") Slovak: preklad (from "translatio") Slovene: prevod (from "traductio") Ukrainian: переклад (from "translatio")
Semantic calque: mouse The computer mouse was named in English for its resemblance to the animal. Many other languages have extended their own native word for "mouse" to include the computer mouse.
Armenian: մկնիկ (mknik, diminutive of մուկ "mouse") Bulgarian: мишка (mishka) Burmese: ကြွက် (krwak) Czech: myš Dutch: muis Estonian: hiir European Portuguese: rato Finnish: hiiri French: souris German: Maus Greek: ποντίκι (pontíki) Hebrew: עכבר (akhbár) Hungarian: egér Icelandic: mús Latvian: pele Lingala: mpóko Lithuanian: pelė Malay: tetikus Mongolian: хулгана (hulgana) Polish: mysz Russian: мышь (mysh') Spanish: ratón Swahili: kipanya Swedish: mus Turkish: fare Vietnamese: chuột
Anglicism Chinese Pidgin English Cognate Gallicism Germanism Loanword Metatypy Semantic loan Translation Wasei-eigo
^ Overzetting (noun) and overzetten (verb) in the sense of "translation" and "to translate", respectively, are considered archaic. While omzetting may still be found in early modern literary works, it has been replaced entirely in modern Dutch by vertaling.
^ The New Cassell's French Dictionary: French-English, English-French, New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1962, p. 122. ^ Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.com ^ Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1723-X. ^ May Smith, The Influence of French on Eighteenth-century Literary Russian, p. 29-30. ^ Claude Gilliot, "The Authorship of the Qur'ān" in Gabriel Said Reynolds, The Qur'an in its Historical Context, p. 97 ^ Philip Durkin, The Oxford Guide to Etymology, sec. 5.1.4 ^ "flea market", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, 2000 Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, p. 83. ^ "overzetting" in Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal, IvdNT
Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 83–87. Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.com Ghil'ad Zuckermann, "Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns", Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2, 2009, pp. 40–67. Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.
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