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In linguistics, a calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. "Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun calque ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb calquer means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; papier calque is "tracing paper".[1] The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word Lehnwort, just as "loan translation" is a calque of Lehnübersetzung.[2] Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the borrowing language or when the calque contains less obvious imagery. Calquing is distinct from phono-semantic matching.[3] While calquing includes semantic translation, it does not consist of phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existing word or morpheme in the target language).

Contents

1 Types 2 Loan blend 3 Examples

3.1 Phraseological calque: "flea market" 3.2 Loan translation: "skyscraper" 3.3 Loan translation: translatio and traductio 3.4 Semantic calque: mouse

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Types[edit] One system classifies calques into five groups:[4]

the phraseological calque, with idiomatic phrases being translated word-for-word. the syntactic calque, with syntactic functions or constructions of the source language being imitated in the target language. the loan-translation, with words being translated morpheme-by-morpheme or component-by-component into another language. the semantic calque, with additional meanings of the source word being transferred to the word with the same primary meaning in the target language. That is also called a "semantic loan". the morphological calque, with the inflection of a word being transferred.

That terminology is not universal. Some authors call a morphological calque a "morpheme-by-morpheme translation".[5] Loan blend[edit] Loan blends or partial calques translate some parts of a compound, but not others.[6] For example, the Irish digital television service Saorview
Saorview
is a partial calque of the UK Freeview service, translating the first half of the word from English to Irish but leaving the second half unchanged. Other examples are: liverwurst (< German Leberwurst), apple strudel (< German Apfelstrudel). Examples[edit] Main article: List of calques Phraseological calque: "flea market"[edit] The common English phrase "flea market" is a phraseological calque of the French "marché aux puces" ("market with fleas").[7] Other national variations include:

Chinese: 跳蚤市场 Czech: bleší trh Danish loppemarked Dutch: vlooienmarkt Finnish: kirpputori German: Flohmarkt Hebrew: שוק הפשפשים Hungarian: bolhapiac Italian: mercato delle pulci Japanese: 蚤の市 Norwegian: loppemarked Polish: pchli targ Russian: блошиный рынок Serbian: buvlja pijaca Spanish: mercado de pulgas Turkish: bit pazarı

Loan translation: "skyscraper"[edit] An example of a common morpheme-by-morpheme loan-translation in a multitude of languages is that of the English word skyscraper:

Albanian: qiellgërvishtës ("sky-scraper") Afrikaans: wolkekrabber ("clouds-scraper") Arabic: ناطحة سحاب (nāṭiḥat saḥāb, "cloud-butter") Armenian: երկնաքեր (yerk-n-a-ker, "sky-scratcher") Azerbaijani: göydələn ("sky-piercer") Belarusian: хмарачос (khmaračos, "cloud-scraper") Bengali: akash-jharu (আকাশঝাড়ু, "sky-sweeper") or gagan-chumbi গগনচুম্বী ("sky-kisser") Bulgarian: небостъргач (nebostargach, "sky-scraper") Catalan: gratacel ("scrapes-sky") Chinese: 摩天楼; 摩天樓; mótiānlóu ("touch-the-sky building") Croatian: neboder ("sky-ripper") Czech and Slovak: mrakodrap ("cloud-scraper") Danish: skyskraber ("cloud-scraper") Dutch: wolkenkrabber ("clouds-scratcher") Estonian: pilvelõhkuja ("cloud-breaker") Finnish: pilvenpiirtäjä ("cloud-sketcher") French: gratte-ciel ("scrapes-sky") Georgian: ცათამბჯენი ("sky-upleaning", "sky-uppropping"), ცათამწვდომი ("sky-reaching") German: Wolkenkratzer ("cloud-scraper") Greek: ουρανοξύστης (uranoxístis, "sky-scraper") Hebrew: גורד שחקים (goréd šħaqím, "scraper of skies") Hindi: गगनचुंबी' (gagan-chumbi, "sky-kisser") Hungarian: felhőkarcoló ("cloud-scraper") Icelandic: skýjakljúfur ("cloud-splitter") Irish: scríobaire spéire ("sky-scraper") or ilstórach (spéire) ("multistorey") Italian: grattacielo ("scrapes-sky") Japanese: 摩天楼 (matenrou, "sky-scraping tower") Latvian: debesskrāpis ("sky-scraper") Lithuanian: dangoraižis ("sky-scraper") Macedonian: облакодер (oblakoder, "cloud-scraper") Malay and Indonesian: pencakar langit ("sky-clawer") Malayalam: അംബരചുംബി (ambaracumbi, "sky-kisser") Mongolian: тэнгэр баганадсан барилга (tenger baganadsan barilga, "sky-pillaring building") Norwegian: skyskraper ("cloud-scraper") Persian: آسمان‌خراش (âsmânkhrâsh, "sky-scraper") Polish: drapacz chmur ("cloud-scraper") Portuguese: arranha-céus ("scrapes-skies") Romanian: zgârie-nori ("scrapes-clouds") Russian: небоскрёб (neboskryob, "sky-scraper") Serbian: oblakoder ("cloud-ripper") Slovene: nebotičnik ("sky-rubber, -toucher") Spanish: rascacielos ("scrapes-skies") Swedish: skyskrapa ("sky-scraper") Tagalog: gusaling tukudlangit ("building poking the sky") Tamil: வானளாவி (vāṉaḷāvi, "sky-reacher") Thai: ตึกระฟ้า (tụkraf̂ā, "sky-scraping building") Turkish: gökdelen ("sky-piercer") Ukrainian: хмарочос (hmaročos, "cloud-scratcher") Vietnamese: nhà chọc trời ("sky-poking building") Welsh: cwmwlgrafwr ("cloud scraper") or nendwr ("sky tower")

Loan translation: translatio and traductio[edit] The Latin
Latin
word translatio ("a transferring") derives from trans, "across" + latus, "borne". (Latus is the past participle of ferre, "to carry".) The Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and some Slavic languages
Slavic languages
calqued their words for "translation" from the above Latin
Latin
word, translatio, substituting their respective Germanic or Slavic root words for the Latin
Latin
roots. The remaining Slavic languages
Slavic languages
instead calqued their words for "translation" from an alternative Latin
Latin
word, traductio, itself derived from traducere ("to lead across" or "to bring across", from trans, "across" + ducere, "to lead" or "to bring").[8] The West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
adopted the "translatio" pattern. The East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(except for Belarusian and Ukrainian) and the South Slavic languages
Slavic languages
adopted the "traductio" pattern. The Romance languages, deriving directly from Latin, did not need to calque their equivalent words for "translation". Instead, they simply adapted the second of the above two alternative Latin
Latin
words, traductio, literally meaning "leading across" or "putting across". Thus, Aragonese: traducción; Catalan: traducció; French: traduction; Italian: traduzione; Portuguese: tradução; Romanian: traducere; and Spanish: traducción. The English verb "to translate" similarly derives from the Latin translatio, itself derived from transferre, "to transfer": in this case, "transferred" (translatus) from one language to another.[8] Were the English verb "translate" calqued, it would be "overset", akin to the calques in other Germanic languages. Following are the Germanic- and Slavic-language calques for "translation", as discussed above:[8]

Germanic languages
Germanic languages
(from "translatio")

Danish: oversættelse Dutch: overzetting[note 1][9] German: Übersetzung Norwegian (NB): oversettelse Norwegian (NN): omsetjing Swedish: översättning West Frisian: oersetting

Slavic languages

Belarusian: пераклад (from "translatio") Bulgarian: превод (from "traductio") Croatian: prijevod (from "traductio") Czech: překlad (from "translatio") Macedonian: превод (from "traductio") Polish: przekład (from "translatio") Russian: перевод (from "traductio") Serbian: prevod (from "traductio") Slovak: preklad (from "translatio") Slovene: prevod (from "traductio") Ukrainian: переклад (from "translatio")

Semantic calque: mouse[edit] The computer mouse was named in English for its resemblance to the animal. Many other languages have extended their own native word for "mouse" to include the computer mouse.

Armenian: մկնիկ (mknik, diminutive of մուկ "mouse") Bulgarian: мишка (mishka) Burmese: ကြွက် (krwak) Czech: myš Dutch: muis Estonian: hiir European Portuguese: rato Finnish: hiiri French: souris German: Maus Greek: ποντίκι (pontíki) Hebrew: עכבר (akhbár) Hungarian: egér Icelandic: mús Latvian: pele Lingala: mpóko Lithuanian: pelė Malay: tetikus Mongolian: хулгана (hulgana) Polish: mysz Russian: мышь (mysh') Spanish: ratón Swahili: kipanya Swedish: mus Turkish: fare Vietnamese: chuột

See also[edit]

Anglicism Chinese Pidgin English Cognate Gallicism Germanism Loanword Metatypy Semantic loan Translation Wasei-eigo

Notes[edit]

^ Overzetting (noun) and overzetten (verb) in the sense of "translation" and "to translate", respectively, are considered archaic. While omzetting may still be found in early modern literary works, it has been replaced entirely in modern Dutch by vertaling.

References[edit]

^ The New Cassell's French Dictionary: French-English, English-French, New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1962, p. 122. ^ Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.com ^ Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.  ^ May Smith, The Influence of French on Eighteenth-century Literary Russian, p. 29-30. ^ Claude Gilliot, "The Authorship of the Qur'ān" in Gabriel Said Reynolds, The Qur'an in its Historical Context, p. 97 ^ Philip Durkin, The Oxford Guide to Etymology, sec. 5.1.4 ^ "flea market", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, 2000 Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, p. 83. ^ "overzetting" in Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal, IvdNT

Sources[edit]

Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 83–87. Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.com Ghil'ad Zuckermann, "Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns", Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2, 2009, pp. 40–67. Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.

External links[edit]

EtymOnline Merriam Webster Online

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