The Info List - C/1874 H1

C/1874 H1
C/1874 H1
(Coggia) is a famous non-periodic comet, which in the summer of 1874 could be seen by naked eye observation. On the basis of its brightness, the comet has been called the Great Comet
of 1874; on July 13 the magnitude of the brightness was between 0 and 1.[2]


1 Discovery and observations 2 Undulations in the tail 3 Scientific analysis 4 Orbit 5 Comet
of 1874 in literature 6 References 7 External links

Discovery and observations[edit] The astronomer Jérôme Eugène Coggia discovered this comet on 17 April 1874 at the Marseille Observatory. During the remainder of April and in May the comet was closely observed by many astronomers, including Winnecke in Straßburg, Tempel in Arcetri, Rayet in Paris, Schulhof in Vienna, Rümker in Hamburg, Schmidt in Athens, Bruhns in Leipzig, Christie in Greenwich
and Dreyer in Copenhagen. In mid-May telescopes revealed the development of a faint tail. In early June the comet became visible to the naked eye[3][4] and by the end of June its brightness reached magnitude 4. By the beginning of July the tail had grown to 6° and by the 16th of July to 45°. The tail was straight and narrow, stretching across from 1° to 2° of the sky at the tail's end.[5] According to David A. J. Seargent,[6]

Without doubt, C/1874 H1
C/1874 H1
(Coggia) was a beauty; a true great comet. At its brightest, it probably exceeded the first magnitude and displayed a series of envelopes within its coma that astronomers compared with Donati's Comet
16 years earlier. Suitably placed observers also noted maximum naked-eye tail lengths reaching 70 degrees as the comet passed near Earth in July.

From 16 July to 23 July, the comet accelerated and moved rapidly southward in the observer's sky, making the comet more difficult to observe in the northern hemisphere. Reports indicate that the tail length was about 60° to 70°; the tail was at least 63°.[7] On 23 July in Athens, Schmidt made the last observation of the comet from the northern hemisphere. On July 27[8] the comet became visible in the southern hemisphere, with observations made in South Africa and by Robert L. J. Ellery[9] in Australia. According to a newspaper report from pre-dawn observations by H. C. Russell on July 29, "The nucleus was as bright as a first magnitude star, and the head about half the diameter of the moon."[10] John Tebbutt
John Tebbutt
in Windsor, New South Wales
Windsor, New South Wales
made observations of the comet from 1 August to 7 October. On 19 October, John M. Thome at Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba, Argentina
made the last observation of Comet
Coggia.[5] Undulations in the tail[edit] On the evening of July 21 with a first quarter moon and a very clear sky, Trouvelot observed undulations in the comet's tail. Trouvelot wrote that he "... saw the comet's tail shortening and extending, lightening up and extinguishing like the rays of certain auroras. Extended undulations, rapid vibrations, ran along it in succession from the horizon to its extremity, giving it the appearance of a fine gauze wavering in a strong breeze. The pulsations and waves of light were of unequal duration; some being rapid, while others lasted a longer time. For over one hour, the comet's tail kindled and extinguished more than one hundred times; the extinction being sometimes so complete that it was impossible to see any trace of the comet; while sometimes it became so bright that, in spite of the light of the moon, it could be distinguished easily in all its contours, even to its very extremity, which was then a little to the south of γ Ursa Minoris. ..." [11] Scientific analysis[edit] From May to July 1874, Huggins, Secchi, Lockyer, Rayet and Wolf made spectrographic observations of the comet. At first only a continuum was found, but by mid-June the three typical comet spectral bands were found.[12] According to Huggins, Comet
Coggia was "the first bright comet which has appeared since the since the spectroscope has become an instrument of scientific research."[13] Orbit[edit] Using 638 observations of Comet
Coggia made over a period of 185 days, Josef von Hepperger in 1882 calculated an elliptical orbit inclined about 66° to the ecliptic.[14] On 9 July 1874 the comet reached perihelion at about .6758 AU from the Sun. On 23 July the comet made its closest approach to planet Earth at about .29 AU.[15] Comet
of 1874 in literature[edit] Gerard Manley Hopkins
Gerard Manley Hopkins
wrote on 13 July 1874 a journal entry concerning Coggia’s comet.[16] References[edit]

^ a b c d e Kronk, G. W. (2003). "J. von Heppeger's orbital calculation for C/1874 H1". Cometography: A Catalog of Comets. Volume 2: 1800–1899. Cambridge University Press. p. 411. ISBN 0-521-58505-8.  ^ Donald K. Yeomans. "NASA JPL Solar System Dynamics: Great Comets in History".  ^ "Coggia's Comet". Haydn's Dictionary of Dates and Universal Information (17th ed.). NY: Harper and Brothers. 1884. p. 175.  To the casual observer near London the comet became readily visible about July 4th. ^ Bailey, Greg, ed. (2014). "The Voyage of the F. H. Moore" and Other 19th Century Whaling Accounts. p. 60.  According to Samuel Grant Williams’s journal entry for July 10, 1874, “… About the 3d this month we began to see a beautiful comet in the southern sky. It has been visible every night since. We see it a little after sundown and about midnight it fades from sight. …” Williams’s whaling ship (under the command of Captain Soper) might have been near 24.22°N, 85.40°W. ^ a b Kronk, G. W. (2003). " C/1874 H1
C/1874 H1
(Coggia)". Cometography: A Catalog of Comets. Volume 2: 1800–1899. Cambridge University Press. pp. 405–412. ISBN 0-521-58505-8.  ^ Seargent, David A. J. (2008). " C/1874 H1
C/1874 H1
(Coggia)". The greatest comets in history. p. 126.  ^ Moore, P.; Rees, R. (2011). "Table 14.8 Selected list of brilliant comets, 1500–1900". Patrick Moore’s Data Book of Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-521-89935-2.  ^ Hayter, Henry Heylyn (1875). "alleged sightings near Melbourne". Victorian Year Book for 1874. p. 226.  "July 26.—Coggia's comet first seen in Victoria from Wilson's Promontory, Point Lonsdale, and the suburbs of Melbourne." ^ A. Guillemin, trans. & ed. by J. Glaisher (1877). "comet observed by R. L. J. Ellery". The world of comets. London. p. 353.  ^ "The Comet". The Evening News, Sydney, New South Wales. 31 July 1874. p. 2.  ^ Trouvelot, L. "Undulations observed in the tail of Coggia's comet, 1874". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 13, May 1877 – May 1878: 185–186.  ^ Grego, Peter (2013). Blazing a Ghostly Trail: ISON and Great Comets of the Past and Future. Springer. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-3-319-01774-7.  ^ " Comet
Coggia". The Astronomical Register (140): 183–193. August 1874.  ^ "NASA JPL Small-Body Database Browser: C/1874 H1".  ^ Vitagliano, A. "SOLEX 11.0". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29.  ^ David H. Levy: Poet and Observer: Gerard Manley Hopkins
Gerard Manley Hopkins
and some mid-19th Century Comets. In: Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Vol. 75, No. 3, 1981, pp. 139–150. (PDF; 974 kB).

External links[edit]

THE BRIGHT-COMET CHRONICLES by John E. Bortle, 1998 Coggia's Comet, State Historical Society, Official Nebraska Government Website two pictures from The world of comets (1877) by Amédée Guillemin, trans. & ed. by James Glaisher

Coggia's Comet, 1874, seen from the Pont-Neuf, Paris Fig. 59.—Coggia's Comet
on July 13, 1874, according to M. G. Rayet

v t e



Nucleus Coma Tails Antitail Comet
dust Meteor shower



Numbered Lost Halley-type Jupiter-family Encke-type Main-belt


Hyperbolic Unknown-orbit

Great Comet Sungrazing (Kreutz) Extinct Rock Exocomet Interstellar


Naming of comets Centaur Comet


Extraterrestrial atmosphere Oort cloud Small Solar System body Asteroid

Space missions

Planned and proposed

Hopper CONDOR CORSAIR CRAF Hayabusa Mk2 Marco Polo Vesta

Past and current

CONTOUR Deep Impact/EPOXI Deep Space 1 Giotto ICE Rosetta

Philae Timeline

Sakigake Stardust/NeXT Suisei Ulysses Vega program

Vega 1 Vega 2


C/2016 U1 (NEOWISE) C/2015 G2 (MASTER) C/2015 F5 (SWAN-XingMing) C/2015 F3 C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) C/2014 E2 (Jacques) C/2013 US10
C/2013 US10
(Catalina) C/2013 A1
C/2013 A1
(Siding Spring) C/2012 S4 (PANSTARRS) C/2012 K1
C/2012 K1

Culture and speculation

Antimatter comet Comets in fiction

Fictional comets


Lists of comets
Lists of comets

Periodic comets

Until 1985 (all)

1P/Halley 2P/Encke 3D/Biela 4P/Faye 5D/Brorsen 6P/d'Arrest 7P/Pons–Winnecke 8P/Tuttle 9P/Tempel 10P/Tempel 11P/Tempel–Swift–LINEAR 12P/Pons–Brooks 13P/Olbers 14P/Wolf 15P/Finlay 16P/Brooks 17P/Holmes 18D/Perrine–Mrkos 19P/Borrelly 20D/Westphal 21P/Giacobini–Zinner 22P/Kopff 23P/Brorsen–Metcalf 24P/Schaumasse 25D/Neujmin 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup 27P/Crommelin 28P/Neujmin 29P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 30P/Reinmuth 31P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 32P/Comas Solà 33P/Daniel 34D/Gale 35P/Herschel–Rigollet 36P/Whipple 37P/Forbes 38P/Stephan–Oterma 39P/Oterma 40P/Väisälä 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák 42P/Neujmin 43P/Wolf–Harrington 44P/Reinmuth 45P/Honda–Mrkos–Pajdušáková 46P/Wirtanen 47P/Ashbrook–Jackson 48P/Johnson 49P/Arend–Rigaux 50P/Arend 51P/Harrington 52P/Harrington–Abell 53P/Van Biesbroeck 54P/de Vico–Swift–NEAT 55P/Tempel–Tuttle 56P/Slaughter–Burnham 57P/du Toit–Neujmin–Delporte 58P/Jackson–Neujmin 59P/Kearns–Kwee 60P/Tsuchinshan 61P/Shajn–Schaldach 62P/Tsuchinshan 63P/Wild 64P/Swift–Gehrels 65P/Gunn 66P/du Toit 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 68P/Klemola 69P/Taylor 70P/Kojima 71P/Clark 72P/Denning–Fujikawa 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 74P/Smirnova–Chernykh 75D/Kohoutek 76P/West–Kohoutek–Ikemura 77P/Longmore 78P/Gehrels 79P/du Toit–Hartley 80P/Peters–Hartley 81P/Wild 82P/Gehrels 83D/Russell 84P/Giclas 85P/Boethin 86P/Wild 87P/Bus 88P/Howell 89P/Russell 90P/Gehrels 91P/Russell 92P/Sanguin 93P/Lovas 94P/Russell 95P/Chiron 96P/Machholz 97P/Metcalf–Brewington 98P/Takamizawa 99P/Kowal 100P/Hartley 101P/Chernykh 102P/Shoemaker

After 1985 (notable)

103P/Hartley 105P/Singer Brewster 107P/Wilson–Harrington 109P/Swift–Tuttle 111P/Helin–Roman–Crockett 114P/Wiseman–Skiff 128P/Shoemaker–Holt 139P/Väisälä–Oterma 144P/Kushida 147P/Kushida–Muramatsu 153P/Ikeya–Zhang 163P/NEAT 168P/Hergenrother 169P/NEAT 177P/Barnard 178P/Hug–Bell 205P/Giacobini 209P/LINEAR 238P/Read 246P/NEAT 252P/LINEAR 255P/Levy 273P/Pons–Gambart 276P/Vorobjov 289P/Blanpain 311P/PANSTARRS 322P/SOHO 332P/Ikeya-Murakami 354P/LINEAR

P/1997 B1 (Kobayashi) P/2010 B2 (WISE) P/2011 NO1 (Elenin)

Comet-like asteroids

596 Scheila 2060 Chiron
2060 Chiron
(95P) 4015 Wilson–Harrington
4015 Wilson–Harrington
(107P) 7968 Elst–Pizarro
7968 Elst–Pizarro
(133P) 165P/LINEAR 166P/NEAT 167P/CINEOS 60558 Echeclus (174P) 118401 LINEAR (176P) 238P/Read 259P/Garradd 311P/PANSTARRS 324P/La Sagra P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) P/2013 R3 (Catalina-PANSTARRS) (300163) 2006 VW139



11P/Tempel–Swift–LINEAR 15P/Finlay 17P/Holmes 27P/Crommelin 54P/de Vico–Swift–NEAT 55P/Tempel–Tuttle 57P/du Toit–Neujmin–Delporte 69P/Taylor 72P/Denning–Fujikawa 80P/Peters–Hartley 97P/Metcalf–Brewington 107P/Wilson–Harrington 109P/Swift–Tuttle 113P/Spitaler 122P/de Vico 157P/Tritton 177P/Barnard 205P/Giacobini 206P/Barnard–Boattini 271P/van Houten–Lemmon 273P/Pons–Gambart 289P/Blanpain


3D/Biela 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker–Levy 9)

Not found

D/1770 L1 (Lexell) 5D/Brorsen 18D/Perrine–Mrkos 20D/Westphal 25D/Neujmin 34D/Gale 75D/Kohoutek 83D/Russell

Visited by spacecraft

(1985) 1P/Halley
(1986) 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup
(1992) 19P/Borrelly
(2001) 81P/Wild
(2004) 9P/Tempel
(2005, 2011) C/2006 P1
C/2006 P1
(2007) 103P/Hartley
(2010) 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Non-Periodic comets (notable)

Until 1910

C/-43 K1 (Caesar's Comet) X/1106 C1 (Great Comet
of 1106) C/1577 V1 (Great Comet
of 1577) C/1652 Y1 C/1680 V1 (Great Comet
of 1680, Kirsch's Comet, Newton's Comet)) C/1702 H1 ( Comet
of 1702) C/1729 P1 ( Comet
of 1729, Comet
Sarabat) C/1743 X1 (Great Comet
of 1744, Comet
Klinkenberg-Chéseaux) C/1760 A1 (Great Comet
of 1760) C/1769 P1
C/1769 P1
(Great Comet
of 1769) C/1807 R1
C/1807 R1
(Great Comet
of 1807) C/1811 F1 (Great Comet
of 1811) C/1819 N1 (Great Comet
of 1819) C/1823 Y1 (Great Comet
of 1823) C/1843 D1 (Great March Comet
of 1843) C/1847 T1 (Miss Mitchell's Comet) C/1858 L1 ( Comet
Donati) C/1861 G1 ( Comet
Thatcher) C/1861 J1
C/1861 J1
(Great Comet
of 1861) C/1865 B1 (Great Southern Comet
of 1865) X/1872 X1
X/1872 X1
(Pogson's Comet) C/1874 H1
C/1874 H1
( Comet
Coggia) C/1881 K1
C/1881 K1
( Comet
Tebbutt) C/1882 R1 (Great Comet
of 1882) C/1887 B1 (Great Southern Comet
of 1887) C/1890 V1 ( Comet
Zona) C/1901 G1 (Great Comet
of 1901) C/1910 A1 (Great January Comet
of 1910)

After 1910

C/1911 O1
C/1911 O1
(Brooks) C/1911 S3 (Beljawsky) C/1927 X1 (Skjellerup–Maristany) C/1931 P1 (Ryves) C/1941 B2 (de Kock-Paraskevopoulos) (de) C/1947 X1 (Southern Comet) (de) C/1948 V1 (Eclipse) C/1956 R1 (Arend–Roland) C/1957 P1 (Mrkos) (de) C/1961 O1 (Wilson-Hubbard) (de) C/1961 R1 (Humason) C/1962 C1 (Seki-Lines) (de) C/1963 R1 (Pereyra) C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki) C/1969 Y1 (Bennett) C/1970 K1 (White–Ortiz–Bolelli) C/1973 E1 (Kohoutek) C/1975 V1 (West) C/1980 E1
C/1980 E1
(Bowell) C/1983 H1 (IRAS–Araki–Alcock) C/1989 X1 (Austin) C/1989 Y1 (Skorichenko–George) C/1992 J1 (Spacewatch–Rabinowitz) C/1993 Y1 (McNaught–Russell) C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp) C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) C/1997 L1 (Zhu–Balam) C/1998 H1 (Stonehouse) C/1998 J1 (SOHO) C/1999 F1 (Catalina) C/1999 S4
C/1999 S4
(LINEAR) C/2000 U5 (LINEAR) C/2000 W1 (Utsunomiya-Jones) C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS) C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) C/2004 F4 (Bradfield) (de) C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) C/2006 A1 (Pojmański) C/2006 M4 (SWAN) C/2006 P1
C/2006 P1
(McNaught) C/2007 E2 (Lovejoy) C/2007 F1 (LONEOS) C/2007 K5 (Lovejoy) C/2007 N3 (Lulin) C/2007 Q3
C/2007 Q3
(Siding Spring) C/2007 W1 (Boattini) C/2008 Q1 (Matičič) C/2009 F6 (Yi–SWAN) C/2009 R1
C/2009 R1
(McNaught) C/2010 X1
C/2010 X1
(Elenin) C/2011 L4
C/2011 L4
(PANSTARRS) C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) C/2012 E2 (SWAN) C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) C/2012 K1
C/2012 K1
(PANSTARRS) C/2012 S1 (ISON) C/2012 S4 (PANSTARRS) C/2013 A1
C/2013 A1
(Siding Spring) C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) C/2013 US10
C/2013 US10
(Catalina) C/2013 V5
C/2013 V5
(Oukaimeden) C/2014 E2 (Jacques) C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) C/2015 V2
C/2015 V2

After 1910 (by name)

Arend–Roland Austin Beljawsky Bennett Boattini Bowell Bradfield (de) Brooks Catalina

C/1999 F1 C/2013 US10

de Kock–Paraskevopoulos (de) Eclipse Elenin Hale-Bopp Humason Hyakutake Ikeya-Seki IRAS–Araki–Alcock ISON Jacques Johnson Kohoutek Lemmon LINEAR

C/1999 S4 C/2000 U5 C/2002 T7


C/2001 OG108 C/2007 F1


C/2007 E2 C/2007 K5 C/2011 W3 C/2013 R1 C/2014 Q2

Lulin Machholz Matičič McNaught

C/2006 P1 C/2009 R1

McNaught–Russell Mrkos (de) NEAT Oukaimeden Pan-STARRS

C/2011 L4 C/2012 K1 C/2012 S4 311P

Pereyra Pojmański Ryves Seki–Lines (de) Siding Spring

C/2007 Q3 C/2013 A1

Skjellerup–Maristany Skorichenko–George SOHO Southern (de) Spacewatch–Rabinowitz Stonehouse SWAN

C/2006 M4 C/2012 E2

Utsunomiya–Jones West White–Ortiz–Bolelli Wilson–Hubbard (de) Yi–SWAN Zhu–Balam

Category Commo