Busan (Korean pronunciation: [pu.sɐn]), formerly known as Pusan
and now officially
Busan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's second
most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million
inhabitants. It is the economic, cultural and educational center of
southeastern Korea, with its port—Korea's busiest and the
9th-busiest in the world[a]—only about 120 miles (190 km) from
the Japanese islands of
Kyushu and Honshu. The surrounding "Southeast
Economic Zone" (including
Ulsan and South Gyeongsang) is now South
Korea's largest industrial area.
Busan is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single
county, together housing a population of approximately 3.6 million.
The full metropolitan area, including the adjacent cities of Gimhae
and Yangsan, has a population of approximately 4.6 million. The most
densely built-up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow
valleys between the Nakdong and the Suyeong Rivers, with mountains
separating most of the districts. The Nakdong is Korea's longest river
Haeundae Beach is also the country's largest.
Busan is a center for international conventions, hosting APEC in 2005.
It is also a center for sports tournaments in Korea, having hosted the
2002 Asian Games
2002 Asian Games and FIFA World Cup. It is home to the world's largest
department store, the
Shinsegae Centum City.
4 Administrative divisions
5.1 Shopping and commerce
5.2 Major department stores
5.3 Premium outlets
5.4 Major large discount stores
6 Educational facilities
6.1 Universities with graduate schools
6.2 Other institutes of higher education
6.3 Foreign schools
7 Culture and attractions
7.1 Parks, beaches, and highlights
7.2 Temples, religious and historical sites
7.5 Traditional cuisine
7.6 Hot spring resorts and spas
10.4 Thoroughbred racing
10.5 Bicycle racing
11 Festivals and events
12 Medical facilities
12.1 Major medical centers
13.3 National railway
14 International relations
14.1 Twin towns and sister cities
14.2 Friendship cities
14.3 Sister ports
15 See also
18 External links
The name "Busan" is the
Revised Romanization of the city's Korean name
since the late 15th century. It officially replaced the earlier
McCune-Reischauer romanization Pusan in 2000.[b] The name 釜山
(now written 부산 using the hangul syllabary) is Sino-Korean for
"Cauldron Mountain", believed to be a former name of
Mt Hwangryeong (황령산, 荒嶺山, Hwangryeong-san) west of
the city center. The area's ancient state Mt Geochil
(거칠산국, 居柒山國, Geochilsan-guk, "Rough-Mountain Land") is
similarly thought to refer to the same mountain, which towers over the
town's harbor on the Suyeong. (The later
Silla district of
Geochilsan-gun was renamed
Dongnae in 757.)
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Busan at night
Busan harbour painted in 1899
Mt Geochil (Geochilsan-guk) is recorded as a chiefdom of the
Jinhan Confederacy in the 2nd–4th centuries. It was absorbed by
Silla and organized as a district (gun). The grave goods excavated
from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dong indicate that a complex chiefdom
ruled by powerful individuals was present in the
Busan area in the 4th
century, just as Korea's Three Kingdoms were forming. The mounded
burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that
overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day
Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron weapons and
ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong.
From the beginning of the 15th century, the Korean government
Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their
settlement. Other Japanese settlements in
later, but the
Busan settlement continued until
Japan invaded Korea in
1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in
Japan were established in 1607, and
Busan was permitted to be
reconstructed. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang
later, continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy
in 1876. In 1876,
Busan became the first international port in Korea
under the terms of the Treaty of Ganghwa.
During the Japanese rule,
Busan developed into a hub trading port with
Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway
before electrification was introduced in 1924.[verification needed]
During the Korean War,
Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea
not captured by the
North Korean army
North Korean army within the first three months of
the War. As a result, the city became a refugee camp site for Koreans
during the war, along with Daegu.
Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the
South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it
served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops
established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan
Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since then, like Seoul,
the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong
Busan separated from
Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly
Governed City (Jikhalsi). In 1983, the provincial capitol of
Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from
Busan to Changwon.
Busan became a Metropolitan City (Gwangyeoksi).
View from Geumjeong Mountain.
Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula. It
is located on the coast, which determined the development of the whole
city itself. It is the nearest of South Korea's six largest cities to
Japan. The distance as the crow flies from
Busan to Tsushima Island,
Japan, is about 49.5 km (31 mi), to Fukuoka, Japan, about
180 km (112 mi), and by contrast, to
Seoul about 314 km
Busan borders low mountains on the north and west, and
the seas on the south and east. The
Nakdong River Delta is located on
the west side of the city, and Geumjeongsan, the highest mountain in
the city, on the north. The Nakdong River, South Korea's longest
river, flows through the west and empties into the Korea Strait. The
southeastern region, called
Yeongnam in Korea, encompasses both
Gyeongsang Provinces and 3 metropolitan cities of Busan,
Ulsan lies northeast of Busan. Combined population exceeds 13
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula,
a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate
classification Cwa). Extremely high or low temperatures are rare. The
highest temperature ever recorded is 37.3 °C (99.1 °F) on
14 August 2016 while the lowest temperature ever recorded is
−14.0 °C (6.8 °F) on 13 January 1915. May to July,
late Springs and early Summers, are usually cooler than inland regions
because of the ocean effect. Late Summer, and early Autumn, August and
September, are generally hot and humid and the city may experience
typhoons at that time and be generally rainy. On September 15, 1959,
Typhoon Sarah passed by the coast of the city and caused
catastrophic damage. An unusually severe storm on September 12, 2003,
Typhoon Maemi, also caused damage to ships and buildings and resulted
in over 48 fatalities.
October and November are generally the most comfortable, with clear
skies and pleasant temperatures. Winters are cold and comparatively
dry with high winds, but much milder than other parts of Korea except
Jeju-do and several islands off the southern coast.
Busan and the
nearby area has the least amount of snow compared to other regions of
Korea due to its location. Snow falls on an average of only about 5
days per year. Even a little accumulation of snow can effectively
shut down this seaport city because of the hilly terrain and
unfamiliarity of motorists with driving on snow.
Climate data for
Busan (1981–2010, extremes 1904–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration (percent
sunshine and snowy days)
Busan adopted a division system with the creation of six gu
(districts): Busanjin-gu, Dong-gu, Dongnae-gu, Jung-gu, Seo-gu, and
Busan is divided into fifteen gu and one gun
Hanjin Heavy Industries
Busan is an international business and financial center and renowned
for its machinery, steel, ship building and marine industries,
fashion, tourism and trade fairs.
Busan is the fifth busiest seaport
in the world, with transportation and shipping among the most
high-profile aspects of the local economy. Since 1978,
opened three container ports including Jaseungdae, Shinsundae, and
Busan has one of the world's largest ports and can handle up
to 13.2 million TEU shipping containers per year.
Jinhae Free Economic Zone Authority, one of two such
administrations in Korea, was created to reassert Busan's status as a
traditional international trading centre. The port attracts ships from
all over the globe and the surrounding area aspires to become a
regional financial centre.
Korea Exchange (KRX), Korea's sole securities exchange operator, is
headquartered in Busan.
Busan is the home of the headquarters of Renault Samsung Motors,
Hanjin Heavy Industries,
Busan Bank, Air Busan, Hi Investment &
Securities, Woori Aviva Life Insurance, Korea Technology Finance
Corporation, Korea Asset Management Corporation, Korea Housing-Finance
Corporation, Korea Securities Depository, Korea Housing Guarantee
Company, Korea Southern Power Company, BNK Financial Group.
Jagalchi Fish Market
Jagalchi Fish Market is the largest fish market in Korea.
Busan is ranked the fourth best city after Singapore,
Seoul and Tokyo
among Asia's top convention cities in a 2011 global ranking by the
International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA).
Busan was ranked the 27th among 83 cities and top 8 Asia/Pacific
centres of the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) published by
UK-based Z/Yen Group in March 2014.
Shopping and commerce
Marine City, Busan
Commercial areas are dispersed throughout the city near busy
intersections and adjacent to university campuses, but the two largest
central business districts in
Busan are Seomyeon and
Gwangbok-dong/Nampo-dong. There are also four substantial shopping
areas of note: Seomyeon, Gwangbok-dong,
Busan Dae Hakap in
Centum City in Haeundae-gu.
Seomyeon is the crossroads of Busan. The local subway station serves
two lines and is one of the busiest in the city. Seomyeon subway
station is also home to a large number of underground shops, selling a
variety of products, predominately clothing and footwear. These are
small boutique shops, selling locally produced products. The local
head offices of Korean and international banks are located in
Seomyeon. It is recognized as the ascendant shopping and entertainment
district. It is also home to "Seomyeon Medical Street", the district
encompassing the 1 km-radius range around Lotte Department Store
in Seomyeon and the Buam subway station. The Street is home to a total
of 160 cosmetic and other medical clinics, including those
specializing in cosmetic surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology and
dentistry. Directly adjacent to Seomyeon is Bujeon Market, the
largest traditional market in the city. Other companies with offices
here include Yeolmae Food.
The Gwangbok-dong, Nampo-dong, and Jungang-dong areas form the old
central business district. Some of the restaurants in this district
use family recipes passed down the generations. Jagalchi Market, a
large seafood market, is located in this area. The
Gukje Market is
also nearby. Jungang-dong is the home of many international law
offices, the old Immigration Office, and the international ferry
terminal serving Japanese routes. Lotte World II is currently under
construction along the water between Jungang-dong 7-Ga and 8-Ga.
Centum City, an industrial complex, is a popular new shopping area
with luxury department stores.
Major department stores
Locations of Branch(es) in Busan
Lotte Department Store
Centum City, Seomyeon, Gwangbok, Dongnae
Shinsegae Department Store
Hyundai Department Store
Lotte Premium Outlets
Shinsegae Simon Premium Outlets
Lotte Mall DongBusan
Major large discount stores
Universities with graduate schools
A panoramic view of PNU
Korea Maritime University
Busan University of Foreign Studies
Busan University of Foreign Studies (BUFS)
Busan Presbyterian University
Busan National University of Education (BNUE)
Catholic University of Pusan
Inje University –
Korea Maritime University
Pukyong National University (PKNU)
Pusan National University (PNU)
Other institutes of higher education
Busan Arts College
Busan College of Information Technology
Busan Kyungsang College
Busan Polytechnic College
Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology
Primary and secondary schools:
Busan International Foreign School  (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th
Busan Foreign School  (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade)
Overseas Chinese High School, Busan
Overseas Chinese Elementary School Busan
Busan Japanese School (釜山日本人学校/부산일본인학교)
Colleges and universities:
Busan Campus  (German University in
Culture and attractions
Busan not only features a variety of antique and souvenir shops, but
also unique restaurants, attractions and accommodations.
Parks, beaches, and highlights
Nurimaru APEC House
Nampo-dong is a popular central shopping and café district. The area
Pukyong National University and
Kyungsung University also has
many cafés, bars, and restaurants attracting college students and
Busan is called the summer capital of Korea since it attracts tourists
from all over the country to its six beaches. Luxury hotels and a
carnival boardwalk line the beach at Haeundae.
Gwangalli Beach has
cafés, bars, and restaurants along the beach, and the Grand Gwangan
Bridge. Other beaches include Dadaepo Beach on the west edge of the
city and Songdo Beach, which is south-central.
Geumjeongsan to the west is a popular weekend hiking spot for Busan
residents. To the north, the neighborhoods around Pusan National
University (also known as PNU, which is one of the most highly
recognized national institutes of higher education in Korea) have
student theaters, cafés, bars and restaurants, as well as open-air
cultural street performances on weekend nights. Nearby is Beomeosa,
the city's main Korean Buddhist temple.
Yongdusan Park occupies 69,000 square meters/17 acres (7 ha) and
is home to the
Busan Tower, Yongdusan Art Gallery, and the Busan
Aquarium. The park supports approximately seventy different species of
trees and is a favorite tourist destination, with various cultural
events throughout the year.
Dongnae-gu is a wealthy and traditional residential area. Dongnae
Oncheon is a natural spa area with many baths, tourist hotels,
restaurants, clubs and shopping areas. Many restaurants in the area
use family recipes. Chungnyeolsa is a Confucian shrine for soldiers
who died during the 16th century battle against the Japanese at
Taejongdae is a natural park with magnificent cliffs facing the open
sea on the island of Yeongdo.
The area known as the "Foreigners' Shopping Street", but commonly
referred to as "Texas Street" near part of the Port of Busan, and
adjacent to the front entrance to the
Busan Train Station (부산역)
has many businesses that cater to the local Russian population, as
well as the crews of foreign ships. The area was originally the
location of the local Chinatown and still contains a Chinese school.
Busan Aquarium, located in
Haeundae Beach, is the largest aquarium in
Haedong Yonggung temple
Haedong Yonggung temple is one of three sacred places
related to the Goddess Buddha. It is located right next to the sea. It
lies in a mountain in the front and the sea at the back.
Gamcheon-dong, located west of Nampo-dong, is a hidden hillside area
within the city with high, sweeping views of the ocean and brightly
Busan Citizens Park (formerly Camp Hialeah) is a former Imperial
Japanese Army base and
United States Army camp located in the Busanjin
Temples, religious and historical sites
Haedong Yonggungsa Temple
Busanjinjiseong Fortress (or Jaseongdae)
Dongnae Hyanggyo Confucian shrine-school
Dongsam-dong Shell Mound
Fortress site of Jwasuyeong
Haedong Yonggung Temple
Tumuli in Bokcheon-dong, Dongnae
United Nations Memorial Cemetery
Waeseong in Jukseong-ri, Gijang
Busan Cinema Center, Dureraum.
Busan hosts the
Busan International Film Festival
Busan International Film Festival (BIFF)—one of the
most popular international film festivals in Asia—at the Busan
Cinema Center every fall. It is also the home of the
an international contemporary art biennale which takes place every two
It also hosted the 2nd Asia Song Festival, organised by Korea
Foundation for International Culture Exchange, in 2005.
In 2012 German artist Hendrik Beikirch, along with Public Delivery,
painted Asia and the world's tallest mural.
Busan Exhibition and Convention Center
Busan Modern History Museum
Busan Museum of Modern Art
Busan National University Museum
Dongsam-dong Shell Midden Museum
Dong-A University Museum
Dong-eui University Museum
Kyungsung University Museum
National Maritime Museum
Regular Pa-jeon Museum
Silly Pa-Jeon Museum
Busan was once a center of military affairs in the southern region of
the peninsula and therefore was an important site for diplomatic
relationships with Japan; high-ranking officers and officials from the
court frequently visited the city.
Special foods were prepared for the
officers such as
Dongnae pajeon (동래파전), a variant of pajeon
(Korean savory pancakes), made with whole scallions, sliced chili
peppers, and various kinds of seafood in a thick batter of wheat
flour, glutinous rice flour, eggs, salt and water.
During the Korean War,
Busan was the biggest refugee destination on
the peninsula; people from all regions of Korea went there. Some of
these refugees stayed and adapted and adjusted the recipes of their
local specialties. One of these foods is milmyeon (밀면) (lit.
'wheat noodle') a version of naengmyeon, cold buckwheat noodle soup,
but using wheat flour instead. (Naemyeon is originally a specialty
Hamhung and Pyongyang, now part of North Korea.)
Dwaeji gukbap (돼지국밥) (lit. 'pork/pig soup rice') is also a
result of Korean War. It is a hearty pork soup and is becoming more
Hot spring resorts and spas
Busan has the largest hot spring resorts and facilities in Korea.
Spa Land (Haeundae-Gu)
HurShimChung Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Town (Dongnae-Gu)
Haeundae Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Towns (Haeundae-Gu)
Dongnae Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Towns (Dongnae-Gu)
Gwangalli Spa Towns (Suyeong-Gu)
Not religious (43%)
According to the census of 2007, of the people of
Busan 41.9% follow
Buddhism and 16.6% follow
Protestantism and 4.5%
Catholicism), 39.9% of the population is mostly not religious or
follow other indigenous religions.
See also: List of Buddhist temples in Busan
Station or Newspaper
Radio (English, Chinese)
The city planned to bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics, but withdrew
2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics were awarded to Pyeongchang, also
located in South Korea. The
2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics were eventually
awarded to Tokyo. It is currently considering bidding to host the
2032 Summer Olympics.
Sports teams and facilities
Sajik Baseball Stadium
K League Challenge
Busan Asiad Stadium
Busan KT Sonicboom
Sajik Baseball Stadium
Since 1982, the city has been home to the Lotte Giants, who play in
Korea Professional Baseball
Korea Professional Baseball league. In Korea,
Busan is known as
the capital of baseball and has a reputation for very enthusiastic
baseball fans. For the first few years, the
Lotte Giants utilized
Gudeok Baseball Stadium
Gudeok Baseball Stadium as their home. In the mid-1980s, they moved to
Sajik Baseball Stadium, which was built as part of a sports complex
for the 1986 Asian Games.
The city is home to a
K-League football team, the
Busan IPark. The
team was formerly known as the
Daewoo Royals and was a successful team
during the 1990s.
Busan is also home to a National League football
Busan Transportation Corporation.
Busan also has a
Korean Basketball League
Korean Basketball League team, the
Busan KT Sonicboom
that plays in Sajik Arena.
Thoroughbred horse racing
Thoroughbred horse racing is held at Busan-Gyeongnam Horse Racing Park
Bicycle Racing is held at "
Busan Cydrome," the velodrome in Geumjeong
Sports Park, every weekend.
Festivals and events
Busan celebrates festivals all year round.
Annual Festivals and Events
New Year Festival in Busan, Polar Bear Swimming Contest
Haeundae Moontan Road Festival
Busan International Performing Arts Festival
Gwangalli Fishery(Eobang) Festival
Busan Motor Show,
Busan Port Festival,
Busan Contents Market, Busan
International Short Film Festival
Haeundae Sand Festival,
Busan International Dance Festival, Art Busan
Gijang Town Festival
Busan Sea Festival,
Busan International Rock Festival, Busan
International Magic Festival,
Busan International Kids' Film Festival,
Busan International Advertising Festival,
Busan International Comedy
Busan Sea Art Festival,
Busan Maru International Music
Busan International Film Festival,
Busan International Fireworks
Busan Jagalchi Festival
Busan Port Lighting Festival, G-Star-Global Game Exhibition, Busan
Choral Festival & Competition
Busan Christmas Tree Festival, White Night in Busan, 라꼬빛
Busan has many hospitals and clinics. Many cosmetic surgery,
dermatological, ophthalmic, dental clinics are concentrated in
Seomyeon medical street.
Major medical centers
Name of Hospital
Number of beds
Pusan National University Hospital at Yangsan
Pusan National University Hospital at Busan
Inje University Paik Hospital at Haeundae
Dong-A University Hospital
Kosin University Hospital
Busan St. Mary's Medical Center
Dong-eui Medical Center
Busan Baptist Hospital
Busan Medical Center
Maryknoll Medical Center
Inje University Paik Hospital at Busan
Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital
Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center
Major express bus lines link
Busan with other cities in Korea at two
primary bus terminals, Nopodong Bus Terminal (at the northern terminus
of Subway Line 1) and Seobu Bus Terminal at Sasang Station on Subway
134 routes of urban buses service every part of
Busan Urban Bus)
Busan Port Pier 1 with the International Ferry Terminal (3 docked
Ferries leaving from the International Ferry Terminal on
Pier 1 connect
Busan to the Japanese ports of Izuhara and Hitakatsu on
Tsushima Island, as well as the cities of Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, and
Osaka on Japan's mainland.
PanStar operates the PanStar Ferry between
Busan and Osaka.
The Seaflower 2, the ferry to Tsushima operated by Dae-a Express
Shipping, carries passengers only between
Busan and Hitakatsu in 1
hour 40 minutes and between
Busan and Izuhara in 2 hours 40 minutes.
The Seonghee, operated by Pukwan Ferry, links
One of the ferries to
Fukuoka is the Camellia, operated by Camellia
Camellia makes the trip to
Fukuoka overnight in 7 hours
30 minutes, and trip back in the afternoon in 5 hours 30 minutes.
The other ferry service to
Fukuoka is assumed by the Beetles and the
Kobees, 2 fleets of high-speed hydrofoils operated by Miraejet.
About five departures from each city are scheduled every day. By
hydrofoil it only takes 2 hours 55 minutes to cross the Korea Strait
to Fukuoka. The Beetles are owned by JR Kyushu.
This is administered by the
Busan Port Authority.
Busan lies on a number of rail lines, of which the most important is
Gyeongbu Line which connects it to other major cities such as
Seoul, Daejeon, and Daegu. All classes of trains run along the
Gyeongbu Line, including the superhigh speed
KTX trains which provide
frequent services to
Seoul in approximately 150 minutes. The Gyeongbu
Line terminates at
Busan Station. Other lines include the Donghae
Nambu Line which connects Ulsan,
Pohang and Gyeongju.
Busan Metro Line 2
Busan Metro network contains four lines: 1, 2, 3, and 4. All four
lines are operated by the
Busan Transportation Corporation. The
Gimhae Light Rail Transit line connects from Sasang Station
Busan to Samgye Station, Gimhae.
Busan is served by
Gimhae International Airport in Gangseo-gu. Gimhae
International Airport is connected by Busan-
Gimhae Light Rail Transit
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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea
Twin towns and sister cities
Busan shares the title of sister city with several coastal cities or
provinces around the world.
– Los Angeles, USA (1967)
– Rio de Janeiro,
– Shanghai, People's Republic of
– Surabaya, Republic of
– Victoria, Australian state (1994)
– Ho Chi Minh City,
New Zealand (1996)
– Western Cape, South African province (2000)
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates (2006)
– Chicago, USA (2007)
– Saint Petersburg,
– Phnom Penh,
– Cebu City,
Port of Busan
Port of Busan also has 6 sister ports (listed in order of
– Port of Southampton,
United Kingdom (1978)
– Port of Miami, USA (1981)
– Port of Osaka,
– Port of Rotterdam,
– Port of New York & New Jersey, USA (1988)
– Port of Shanghai,
Busan International Film Festival
Geoje Fixed Link
Centum City, urban complex
Index of Korea-related articles
List of cities in South Korea
List of East Asian ports
Lotte Giants, local baseball team
Pusan Newport International Terminal
^ This is computed by cargo tonnage. Korean sources sometimes claim it
as the 5th busiest in the world by that measure.
^ This name is also encountered as "Pusan City" (Pusan-si) and
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^ "Pusan-gwangyŏksi: South Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved
^ 부산광역시. "2017년 10월말 주민등록인구통계 :
부산통계 부산통계 :
부산광역시". www.busan.go.kr. horizontal tab character in
title= at position 51 (help)
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-08. Retrieved
2014-09-08. , Retrieved 2014-07-02.
^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the
original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
^ a b "Cargo processed at
Busan port dips 6.5 pct in Oct". Yonhap
News. 2016-11-24. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
^ "Largest Department Store - Guinness World Records Blog post - Home
of the Longest, Shortest, Fastest, Tallest facts and feats".
Community.guinnessworldrecords.com. 2009-06-29. Retrieved
^ "The origin of the name Busan" (in Korean).
Busan City. Archived
from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
^ "Pusan: South Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved
^ "Pusan-si: South Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved
^ "Pusan-jikhalsi: South Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved
^ "Pusan-chikhalsi: South Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved
^ Andrei Lankov (2010-01-31) "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on 2015-06-07. Retrieved 2015-04-04. January 1951: Life
Korean War Refugees in
Busan The Korea Times
^ a b "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온
(℃) 최고순위, 부산(159)" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological
Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ a b "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온
(℃) 최고순위, 부산(159)" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological
Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ a b "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological
Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 부산(159)" (in Korean). Korea
Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
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