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Bucharester (en) bucureștean, bucureșteancă (ro)

Time zone EET (UTC+2)

 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Postal code 0xxxxx

Area code(s) +40 x1

Car plate prefix B

 - GDP(Nominal)2016 €47 billion[8]

 - Per capita €20,500

Website pmb.ro

a Romanian law stipulates that Bucharest
Bucharest
has a special administrative status which is equal to that of a County; b Bucharest metropolitan area
Bucharest metropolitan area
is a proposed project.

Bucharest
Bucharest
(/ˈb(j)uːkərɛst/; Romanian: București [bukuˈreʃtʲ] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E / 44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250; 26.10389Coordinates: 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E / 44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250; 26.10389, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube
Danube
River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest
Bucharest
was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania
Romania
in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture, and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical (neo-classical), interbellum ( Bauhaus
Bauhaus
and art deco), communist-era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest
Bucharest
the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris).[9] Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom.[10] In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch.[11] According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits,[6] a decrease from the 2002 census.[3] Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest
Bucharest
would have a population of 2.27 million people.[12] According to Eurostat, Bucharest
Bucharest
has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents (as of 2015).[5] Bucharest
Bucharest
is the sixth-largest city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits, after London, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris. Economically, Bucharest
Bucharest
is the most prosperous city in Romania[13] and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern Europe. The city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", and recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest" (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Treaties signed in Bucharest

3 Geography

3.1 General 3.2 Climate

4 Law and government

4.1 Administration 4.2 Justice system 4.3 Crime

5 Quality of life 6 Demographics 7 Economy 8 Transport

8.1 Public transport 8.2 Railways 8.3 Air 8.4 Roads 8.5 Water

9 Culture

9.1 Landmarks 9.2 Visual arts 9.3 Performing arts 9.4 Music and nightlife 9.5 Cultural events and festivals 9.6 Traditional culture 9.7 Religion

10 Architecture

10.1 Historical architecture 10.2 Communist architecture 10.3 Contemporary architecture

11 Education 12 Telecommunications and media 13 Healthcare 14 Sports 15 Natives 16 Twin towns and sister cities 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Etymology[edit] The Romanian name București has an uncertain origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest
Bucharest
with the name of Bucur, who was a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a hunter, according to different legends. In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy" ("happiness"),[14] and it is believed to be of Dacian origin.[15] Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveler, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest
Bucharest
was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie (joy), bucuros (joyful), or a se bucura (to become joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna
Vienna
assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest.[16] A native or resident of Bucharest
Bucharest
is called a "Bucharester" (Romanian: bucureștean). History[edit] Main articles: History of Bucharest
History of Bucharest
and Timeline of Bucharest Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania
Romania
late in the 19th century.

Early 18th-century woodcut (1717)

First mentioned as the " Citadel
Citadel
of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler.[17]:23 The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (Phanariotes) to run the town from the 18th century. A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest.[18] The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest
Bucharest
was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște
Târgoviște
on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia
Muntenia
brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest
Bucharest
finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu). Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, and hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia
Russia
(three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city.

Ottoman massacre of Greek irregulars in Bucharest
Bucharest
(August 1821)

In 1862, after Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest
Bucharest
became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania
Romania
under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced.[19] The Dâmbovița River
Dâmbovița River
was also massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest.[20] The Fortifications of Bucharest
Fortifications of Bucharest
were built. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest
Bucharest
the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris) of the east, with Calea Victoriei
Calea Victoriei
as its Champs-Élysées.

I.C. Brătianu Boulevard in the 1930s

Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in the Moldavia
Moldavia
region. After World War I, Bucharest
Bucharest
became the capital of Greater Romania. In the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf
and Palatul Telefoanelor.[21] However, the Great Depression took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Grivița Strike of 1933.[22]

Calea Victoriei
Calea Victoriei
("Victory Avenue") in 1940

In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest
Bucharest
pogrom. As the capital of an Axis country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. On 23 August 1944, Bucharest
Bucharest
was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania
Romania
into the Allied camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city. After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks. During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by "Socialist realism" style development: (1) the Centrul Civic
Centrul Civic
(the Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans. On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centered in Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre. The Romanian Revolution of 1989
Romanian Revolution of 1989
began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara
Timișoara
in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests in 1990 (the "Golaniad"), which were violently suppressed by the miners of Valea Jiului
Valea Jiului
called in by the authorities (the "Mineriad"). Several other "Mineriads" followed, which finally caused political changes.

Anti-government protests in Bucharest
Bucharest
in 2017

Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernized and is still undergoing urban renewal. Residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old historic centre is being restored. Treaties signed in Bucharest[edit]

Treaty of Bucharest, between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Russian Empire ending the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) Treaty of Bucharest, between Serbia and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
ending the Serbo-Bulgarian War Treaty of Bucharest, between Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece
Greece
ending of the Second Balkan War Treaty of Bucharest, a treaty of alliance between Romania
Romania
and the Entente Powers Treaty of Bucharest, between Romania
Romania
and the Central Powers

Geography[edit] General[edit]

Footpath and bikeway in Herăstrău Park

Bucharest
Bucharest
is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the northern parts of the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the Cișmigiu
Cișmigiu
Gardens. These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre. Besides Cișmigiu, Bucharest
Bucharest
parks and gardens include Herăstrău Park and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău Park
Herăstrău Park
is located in the northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the site the Village Museum. The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni
Cotroceni
neighborhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania
Romania
and contains over 10,000 species of plants (many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family.[23]

Black swans
Black swans
on Lake Cișmigiu
Cișmigiu
in Cișmigiu
Cișmigiu
Gardens

Lake Văcărești
Lake Văcărești
is located in the southern part of the city. Over 190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals.[24] The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. The area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a lake. After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution.[25] For nearly two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a sports centre. The redevelopment deal failed,[26] and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. In May 2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature Park.[27]

Since 2015, Lake Văcărești, dubbed the "Delta of Bucharest", is a protected area.[28]

Bucharest
Bucharest
is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest
Bucharest
is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Spirei, Văcărești, and Sf. Gheorghe Nou. The city has an area of 226 km2 (87 sq mi). The altitude varies from 55.8 m (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, southeastern Bucharest
Bucharest
and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari
Militari
church. The city has a roughly round shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main north-south/east-west axes at University Square. The milestone for Romania's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from 10 to 12 km (6 to 7 mi). Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest
Bucharest
were largely rural, but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late 2010s, when the " Bucharest
Bucharest
Metropolitan Area" plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.[29] Climate[edit] Using the milder isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F) for the coldest month, Bucharest
Bucharest
has a humid continental climate Dfa.[citation needed] By using the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm, the climate is a crossover between continental and the extreme varieties of warm oceanic and cool subtropical.[citation needed] Owing to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Winter temperatures often dip below 0 °C (32 °F), sometimes even to −20 °C (−4 °F). In summer, the average temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August). Temperatures frequently reach 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F) in midsummer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. During spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between 17 and 22 °C (63 and 72 °F), and precipitation during spring tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.

Climate data for Bucharest
Bucharest
Băneasa(1981–2010, extremes 1929–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.1 (62.8) 24.1 (75.4) 29.0 (84.2) 32.2 (90) 36.9 (98.4) 39.0 (102.2) 42.2 (108) 41.0 (105.8) 38.5 (101.3) 35.2 (95.4) 25.1 (77.2) 18.4 (65.1) 42.2 (108)

Average high °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 5.5 (41.9) 11.4 (52.5) 18.0 (64.4) 24.0 (75.2) 27.7 (81.9) 29.8 (85.6) 29.8 (85.6) 24.6 (76.3) 17.9 (64.2) 9.8 (49.6) 3.8 (38.8) 17.1 (62.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.3 (29.7) 0.4 (32.7) 5.4 (41.7) 11.2 (52.2) 16.8 (62.2) 20.6 (69.1) 22.5 (72.5) 22.0 (71.6) 16.9 (62.4) 11.0 (51.8) 4.7 (40.5) 0.2 (32.4) 10.8 (51.4)

Average low °C (°F) −4.8 (23.4) −4.0 (24.8) 0.1 (32.2) 4.9 (40.8) 9.6 (49.3) 13.6 (56.5) 15.4 (59.7) 14.9 (58.8) 10.5 (50.9) 5.4 (41.7) 0.6 (33.1) −3.4 (25.9) 5.2 (41.4)

Record low °C (°F) −32.2 (−26) −29.0 (−20.2) −21.7 (−7.1) −9.5 (14.9) −1.1 (30) 4.5 (40.1) 7.4 (45.3) 5.2 (41.4) −3.1 (26.4) −8.0 (17.6) −19.4 (−2.9) −25.6 (−14.1) −32.2 (−26)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37 (1.46) 37 (1.46) 44 (1.73) 50 (1.97) 56 (2.2) 83 (3.27) 70 (2.76) 56 (2.2) 64 (2.52) 53 (2.09) 46 (1.81) 48 (1.89) 643 (25.31)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 13.7 (5.39) 11.0 (4.33) 10.5 (4.13) 1.5 (0.59) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 8.8 (3.46) 10.5 (4.13) 56.0 (22.05)

Average rainy days 6 6 9 11 12 11 9 8 8 10 10 9 109

Average snowy days 8 7 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 3 7 31

Average relative humidity (%) 89 83 75 71 69 70 68 68 73 79 85 88 76

Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.6 84.5 138.0 184.8 246.3 265.8 289.2 281.4 224.1 177.4 87.5 62.8 2,112.4

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net (average temperatures, humidity, precipitation, and snowy days)[30]

Source #2: NOAA (snowfall and sunshine, 1961–1990),[31] Administrația Națională de Meteorologie (extremes)[32]

Law and government[edit] Administration[edit] See also: Bucharest
Bucharest
metropolitan area

Bucharest
Bucharest
City
City
Hall

Bucharest
Bucharest
has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a county. Its population, however, is larger than that of any other Romanian county, hence the power of the Bucharest
Bucharest
General Municipality (Primăria Generală), which is the capital's local government body, is the same as any other Romanian county council. The city government is headed by a general mayor (Primar General). Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council (Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of which has its own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor. The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest
Bucharest
municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services. The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters (cartiere) which are not part of the official administrative division:

Sector 1 (population 227,717): Dorobanți, Băneasa, Aviației, Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău Park, Bucureștii Noi, Dămăroaia, Strǎulești, Grivița, 1 Mai, Băneasa
Băneasa
Forest, Pajura, Domenii, Chibrit Sector 2 (population 357,338): Pantelimon, Colentina, Iancului, Tei, Floreasca, Moșilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Plumbuita, Ștefan cel Mare, Baicului Sector 3 (population 399,231): Vitan, Dudești, Titan, Centrul Civic, Dristor, Lipscani, Muncii, Unirii Sector 4 (population 300,331): Berceni, Olteniței, Giurgiului, Progresul, Văcărești, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului Sector 5 (population 288,690): Rahova, Ferentari, Giurgiului, Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii Sector 6 (population 371,060): Giulești, Crângași, Drumul Taberei, Militari, Grozăvești (also known as Regie), Ghencea

Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Sector 1 – Daniel Tudorache (PSD, since 2016), Sector 2 – Mihai Mugur Toader (PSD, since 2016), Sector 3 – Robert Negoiță
Robert Negoiță
(PSD, since 2012), Sector 4 – Daniel Băluță (PSD, since 2016), Sector 5 – Daniel Florea (PSD, since 2016),[33] Sector 6 – Gabriel Mutu (PSD, since 2016). Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest
Bucharest
sectoral councils, the capital's general council, and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Additionally, Bucharest
Bucharest
has a prefect, who is appointed by Romania's national government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level. The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level. The prefect of Bucharest
Bucharest
(as of 2014[update]) is Paul Nicolae Petrovan.[34] The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov County, is part of the București – Ilfov development region project, which is equivalent to NUTS-II
NUTS-II
regions in the European Union and is used both by the EU and the Romanian government for statistical analysis, and to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage funds from the EU. The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet. Justice system[edit]

The Palace of Justice viewed across the Dâmbovița River

Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Each of the six sectors has its own local first-instance court (judecătorie), while more serious cases are directed to the Bucharest
Bucharest
Tribunal (Tribunalul Bucureşti), the city's municipal court. The Bucharest
Bucharest
Court of Appeal (Curtea de Apel Bucureşti) judges appeals against decisions taken by first-instance courts and tribunals in Bucharest
Bucharest
and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman, Ialomița, Giurgiu, Călărași, and Ilfov). Bucharest
Bucharest
is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania. Bucharest
Bucharest
has a municipal police force, the Bucharest
Bucharest
Police (Poliția București), which is responsible for policing crime within the whole city, and operates a number of divisions. The Bucharest
Bucharest
Police are headquartered on Ștefan cel Mare Blvd. in the city centre, and at precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector city hall also has under its administration a community police force (Poliția Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the national police. Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in Bucharest Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offenses declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004,[35] and by 7% between 2012 and 2013.[36] The violent crime rate in Bucharest
Bucharest
remains very low, with 11 murders and 983 other violent offenses taking place in 2007.[37] Although violent crimes fell by 13% in 2013 compared to 2012, 19 murders (18 of which the suspects were arrested) were recorded.[36] Although in the 2000s, a number of police crackdowns on organized crime gangs occurred, such as the Cămătaru clan, organized crime generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined. However, in general, theft was reduced by 13.6% in 2013 compared to 2012.[36] Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially disadvantaged area. Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest
Bucharest
in the 1990s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at or below the average of major European capital cities.[38] A documentary called Children Underground
Children Underground
depicted the life of Romanian street kids in 2001. An estimated 1,000 street children still inhabit the city,[38] some of whom engage in petty crime and begging. Quality of life[edit]

Cocor Store in 2013

Carol Park's central alley in autumn

As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest
Bucharest
occupied the 94th place in 2001[39] and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009 and the 107th place in 2010. Compared to it, Vienna
Vienna
occupied number one worldwide in 2011 and 2009.[40] Budapest
Budapest
ranked 73rd (2010) and Sofia
Sofia
114th (2010).[41] Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues. Among them: political stability, currency-exchange regulations, political and media censorship, school quality, housing, the environment, and public safety. Mercer collects data worldwide, in 215 cities. The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest
Bucharest
is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism.[42] In 2016, Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a Romanian Order of Architects (OAR) report that criticised the city's weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources.[43] Bucharest's historical city centre is listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch
World Monuments Watch
(as of 2016).[11] Although many neighbourhoods, particularly in the southern part of the city, lack sufficient green space, being formed of cramped high density block of flats, Bucharest
Bucharest
has also many parks, such as Herăstrău Park, Carol Park, Cișmigiu
Cișmigiu
Gardens, Tineretului
Tineretului
Park, Titan/Alexandru Ion Cuza Park, Izvor Park, Grădina Icoanei
Grădina Icoanei
Park, Circului Park, Moghioros/ Drumul Taberei
Drumul Taberei
Park, National Park, Tei Park, Eroilor Park, Crângași
Crângași
Park.[44] Other green attractions are the Bucharest Botanical Garden
Bucharest Botanical Garden
and Văcărești Nature Park, a nature park containing the wetlands surrounding Lake Văcărești.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1595 10,000 —    

1650 20,000 +100.0%

1789 30,030 +50.2%

1831 60,587 +101.8%

1851 60,000 −1.0%

1859 121,734 +102.9%

1877 177,646 +45.9%

1900 282,071 +58.8%

1912 341,321 +21.0%

1930 639,040 +87.2%

1948 1,025,180 +60.4%

1956 1,177,661 +14.9%

1966 1,366,684 +16.1%

1977 1,807,239 +32.2%

1992 2,064,474 +14.2%

2002 1,926,334 −6.7%

2011 1,883,425 −2.2%

1851 data: Chambers's Encyclopaedia,[45] 1900: Encyclopædia Britannica,[46] Other data:[47][48][49]

As per the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.[6] This decrease is due to low natural increase, but also to a shift in population from the city itself to its smaller satellite towns such as Voluntari, Buftea, and Otopeni. In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest
Bucharest
placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from 1990 to the mid-2010s. In particular, the population fell by 3.77%.[50] The city's population, according to the 2002 census, was 1,926,334 inhabitants,[3] or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist.[51] Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first beginning in the late 19th century when the city was consolidated as the national capital and lasting until the Second World War, and the second during the Ceaușescu years (1965–1989), when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to Ceaușescu's decision to ban abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant. Bucharest
Bucharest
is a city of high population density: 8,260/km2 (21,400/sq mi),[52] owing to the fact that most of the population lives in high-density communist era apartment blocks (blocuri). However, this also depends on the part of the city: the southern boroughs have a higher density than the northern ones. Of the European Union
European Union
country capital-cities, only Paris
Paris
and Athens
Athens
have a higher population density (see List of European Union
European Union
cities proper by population density). About 96.6% of the population of Bucharest
Bucharest
is Romanian.[53] Other significant ethnic groups are Roma Gypsies, Hungarians, Jews, Turks, Chinese, and Germans. A relatively small number of Bucharesters are of Greek, North American, French, Armenian, Lippovan, and Italian descent. One of the predominantly Greek neighborhoods was Vitan – where a Jewish population also lived (with a population of 69,885 (10.9%) out of the total of 639,040, as of 1930 census,[54] Jews were the second-largest ethnic group in Bucharest); they were more present in Văcărești and areas around Unirii Square. In terms of religious affiliation, 96.1% of the population is Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% is Roman Catholic, 0.5% is Muslim, and 0.4% is Romanian Greek Catholic. Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any religion, attends a place of worship once a week or more.[55] The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest
Bucharest
in 2003–2005 was 74.14 years, around two years higher than the Romanian average. Female life expectancy was 77.41 years, in comparison to 70.57 years for males.[56]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Bucharest

Office buildings on Nicolae Titulescu
Nicolae Titulescu
Street

Bucharest
Bucharest
is the center of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 23% (2013) of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9% of the country's population.[57] Almost one-third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies.[citation needed]. In 2016, Bucharest
Bucharest
had a nominal GDP per-capita €20,500, or 122% that of the European Union
European Union
average and more than twice the Romanian average.[58] After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic growth has revitalized infrastructure and led to the development of shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings. In January 2013, Bucharest
Bucharest
had an unemployment rate of 2.1%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.8%.[59][60] Bucharest's economy is centered on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest.[61] An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest
Bucharest
is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest
Bucharest
Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy. International supermarket chains such as Carrefour, Cora, and METRO are operating in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom, with supermarkets and hypermarkets opened every year (see supermarkets in Romania). Bucharest
Bucharest
hosts luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Hermes, Gucci, Armani, Hugo Boss, Prada, Calvin Klein, Rolex, Burberry, and many others. Malls and large shopping centres have been built since the late 1990s, such as AFI Palace Cotroceni, Sun Plaza, Băneasa Shopping City, Plaza Romania, Unirea Shopping Center, and Liberty Center. Traditional retail arcades and markets include the one at Obor. Transport[edit]

A public bus owned and operated by Bucharest's RATB

Public transport[edit]

Bucharest Metro
Bucharest Metro
Map - 2017

Main article: Transport in Bucharest Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania
Romania
and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest
Bucharest
Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by RATB
RATB
(Regia Autonomă de Transport București), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, a private minibus system operates there. As of 2007[update], a limit of 10,000 taxicab licenses was imposed.[62]

Piața Unirii
Piața Unirii
Station, Bucharest
Bucharest
Metro

Railways[edit] Bucharest
Bucharest
is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord ("North Station"), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chișinău, Kiev, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow, etc. The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest
Bucharest
and the surrounding Ilfov County. Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest. The oldest station in Bucharest
Bucharest
is Filaret. It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.[63] Air[edit]

Henri Coandă
Henri Coandă
International Airport

Bucharest
Bucharest
has two international airports:

Henri Coandă International Airport
Henri Coandă International Airport
(IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the Bucharest
Bucharest
city center, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic: 8,317,168 in 2014.[64] Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
(IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the Bucharest
Bucharest
city center.

Roads[edit]

Victory Avenue (Calea Victoriei), a major avenue in central Bucharest

Bucharest
Bucharest
is a major intersection of Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Ukraine. The A1 to Pitești, the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanta and the A3 to Ploieşti all start from Bucharest.

Basarab Overpass

Union Boulevard (Bulevardul Unirii), one of the most transited road arteries of the city

A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591.[65] This results in wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City
City
Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008.[66] On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass
Basarab Overpass
was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania
Romania
and the widest such bridge in Europe;[67] upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge
Grant Bridge
and in the Gara de Nord
Gara de Nord
area became noticeably more fluid.[68] Water[edit] Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest
Bucharest
has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanța
Constanța
and Galați
Galați
acting as the country's main ports. The unfinished Danube- Bucharest
Bucharest
Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi) long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest
Bucharest
to the Danube River, and via the Danube- Black Sea
Black Sea
Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.[69] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Romania

National Library of Romania

Bucharest
Bucharest
has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture. Landmarks[edit]

Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf
(The Triumphal Arch)

Interior of the Cărturești Carusel Bookstore

The statue of Ion Luca Caragiale
Ion Luca Caragiale
near InterContinental Bucharest

Bucharest
Bucharest
has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. The largest Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world. Another landmark in Bucharest
Bucharest
is Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf
(The Triumphal Arch), built in its current form in 1935 and modeled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylized marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as "the olive on the toothpick", (măslina-n scobitoare), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons.[70] The Romanian Athenaeum
Romanian Athenaeum
building is considered to be a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 is on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites.[71] InterContinental Bucharest
InterContinental Bucharest
is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city.[72] House of the Spark (Casa Scânteii) is a replica of the famous “Lomonosov” Moscow
Moscow
State University. This edifice built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin’s death that occurred in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scânteii (“House of the Spark”) after the name of the official gazette of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scânteia, it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest’s official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in Bucharest
Bucharest
featuring the “Hammer and Sickle”, the Red Star and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade. Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Museum of Natural History Grigore Antipa, Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul țăranului Român), National History Museum, and the Military Museum. Visual arts[edit]

National Museum of Art of Romania

In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania
Romania
is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest
Bucharest
museums. It is located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family. Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso. The Gheorghe Tattarescu
Gheorghe Tattarescu
Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu, and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest
Bucharest
Museum patrimony. The Theodor Pallady Museum
Theodor Pallady Museum
is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest
Bucharest
and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces.

Throne room at the royal palace, which today houses the National Museum of Art

The Museum of Art Collections
Museum of Art Collections
contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady. Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and experimental art. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre. The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations. Performing arts[edit] Performing arts
Performing arts
are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu
George Enescu
Festival, and is home to the George Enescu
George Enescu
Philharmonic Orchestra. Bucharest
Bucharest
is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest
Bucharest
is the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tănase. Music and nightlife[edit]

Covaci Street in Lipscani

Bucharest
Bucharest
is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s, the hip hop/rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest
Bucharest
such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia enjoy national and international recognition. The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians. With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani
Lipscani
and Regie. The city hosts some of the best electronic music clubs in Europe, such as Kristal Glam Club and Studio Martin.[73] Some other notable venues are Fratelli and Control. Cultural events and festivals[edit]

Romanian Atheneum

A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest
Bucharest
throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival
George Enescu Festival
at locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). The Museum of the Romanian Peasant
Museum of the Romanian Peasant
and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts. In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. The first officially organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest
Bucharest
City
City
Hall.[74] In 2005, Bucharest
Bucharest
was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city.

Concert at the George Enescu
George Enescu
Philarmonic

In 2004, Bucharest
Bucharest
imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest
Bucharest
International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honor famous names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović, Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu Mihăileanu, and many others.[75] Since 2005, Bucharest
Bucharest
has its own contemporary art biennale, the Bucharest
Bucharest
Biennale. Traditional culture[edit]

Timișeni wooden church at Village Museum

Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Bucharest
Bucharest
has two internationally renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, in Herăstrău Park. tI contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania.[76] The Museum of the Romanian Peasant
Museum of the Romanian Peasant
was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996. Patronized by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects, religious objects, customs, etc.[77] The Museum of Romanian History
Museum of Romanian History
is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era. Religion[edit] Bucharest
Bucharest
is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia
Muntenia
and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city. The city is a center for other Christian organizations in Romania, including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in 1883, and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great, founded in 2014. Bucharest
Bucharest
also hosts 6 synagogues, including the Choral Temple of Bucharest, the Great Synagogue of Bucharest
Bucharest
and the Holy Union Temple. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services.[78] A mosque with a capacity of 2,000 people[79] is in the planning stages and will be built on 22–30 Expoziției Boulevard. The plot of land on which the mosque will be built was granted to the Muftiyat of the Muslim Cult in Romania
Romania
under a 49-year lease by the Romanian Government. The project will be funded by the Turkish Government and from various donations.[80]

Romanian Patriarchal Cathedral
Romanian Patriarchal Cathedral
and Palace of the Patriarchate

St. Spyridon the New – the largest church in Bucharest

Inside the Church of Saint Anthony, the city's oldest extant church

The ceiling of Stavropoleos Church

St. Nicholas Russian Church

Detail of Yeshua Tova, the city's oldest extant synagogue

Architecture[edit] The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, and art nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the 1920s and 1930s.[citation needed] The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape. Historical architecture[edit]

Church of the Stavropoleos Monastery

Interior view of National Military Circle

Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist systematization, fire, and military incursions. Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani
Lipscani
area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn
Manuc's Inn
(Hanul lui Manuc) and the ruins of the Old Court (Curtea Veche); during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair.[citation needed] In 2005, the Lipscani
Lipscani
area was pedestrianised and is undergoing restoration.[81] The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest
Bucharest
architecture. During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu. In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity. The Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
movement finds expression through new architectural style initiated by Ion Mincu
Ion Mincu
and taken over by other prestigious architects who capitalize important references of Romanian laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs.[82] Two notable buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace, housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni
Cotroceni
Palace, the residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephone Palace
Telephone Palace
date from these times. In the 2000s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-the-20th-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s.

French Baroque
French Baroque
style – Cantacuzino Palace

Macca-Vilacrosse, glass covered arcaded street

Eclectic style – CEC Palace

Casa Capșa, café and hotel

Gothic revival
Gothic revival
Caru' cu Bere

Neo-Romanian style – Central School of Bucharest

Communist architecture[edit]

House of the Free Press (Casa Presei Libere), built in the 1950s during the early years of the communist regime

Standardized apartment blocks built as part of systematization

A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant portions of the historic center of Bucharest
Bucharest
were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the Parliament (then officially called the House of the Republic). In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built upon. One of the singular examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic center of Bucharest
Bucharest
were leveled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco
Art Deco
sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city. Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years of the system, in the late 1940s and 1950s. Buildings constructed in this era followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, and include the House of the Free Press (which was named Casa Scînteii during communism).

Contemporary architecture[edit]

Headquarters of the Union of Romanian Architects, an unusual combination of new and old

Financial Plaza

City
City
Gate Towers, an example of 21st century modern architecture

Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernized, and used for other purposes.[83] Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant, circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution. Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Center, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, and City
City
Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic
Centrul Civic
into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. Many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance. The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic growth. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest
Bucharest
Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, etc.[citation needed] During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest
Bucharest
Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. In 2013, the Bucharest
Bucharest
skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building (SkyTower of Floreasca
Floreasca
City
City
Center), currently the tallest building in Romania. Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century include Bucharest
Bucharest
Tower Center, Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral Plaza, City
City
Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest Corporate Center, Millennium Business Center, PGV Tower, Charles de Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Center Bucharest, BRD Tower, and Bucharest
Bucharest
Financial Plaza. Despite this development on vertical, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes.[84] Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities. An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.

Education[edit]

Bucharest
Bucharest
Academy of Economic Studies

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Palace of the University of Bucharest

Central University Library

Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Bucharest
Bucharest
Academy of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, and the Politehnica University of Bucharest. These are supplemented by 19 private universities, such as the Romanian-American University and Spiru Haret University, the latter being the largest in Europe with some 302,000 enrolled students in 2009.[85] Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Private universities, however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities in the educational process[86] as well as perceived corruption.[87] In the 2012 QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
University of Bucharest
University of Bucharest
was included in the Top 700 universities of the world, together with three other Romanian universities.[88][89] Also, in recent years, the city has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its universities.[90] The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy of Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest
University of Bucharest
and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.[91][92] Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest
Bucharest
Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the municipal one. Telecommunications and media[edit] The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network. Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread throughout the city, with the central post office (Romanian: Oficiul Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Public telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom Romania, a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom
Deutsche Telekom
and successor of the former monopoly Romtelecom. Bucharest
Bucharest
is headquarters of most of the national television networks and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest
Bucharest
include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, România Liberă, and Adevărul, while the biggest news websites are Hotnews.ro (with an English and Spanish version), Ziare.com, and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Click!, Libertatea, and Cancan are popular for commuters. A number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei Libere (The House of the Free Press), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist Romania-era official newspaper Scînteia. Casa Presei Libere
Casa Presei Libere
is not the only Bucharest
Bucharest
landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Palatul Telefoanelor
Palatul Telefoanelor
("The Telephone Palace") was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei
Calea Victoriei
in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera. English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in the 1990s. The two daily English-language newspapers are the Bucharest Daily News
Bucharest Daily News
and Nine O' Clock; several magazines and publications in other languages are available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó. Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines Șapte Seri ("Seven Evenings") and B24FUN, list entertainment events. The city is home to the intellectual journal Dilema veche
Dilema veche
and the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu. Bucharest was the host city of the fourth edition of the Junior Eurovision Song Contest in 2006. Healthcare[edit]

Colțea Hospital

One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. It specializes in oncological and cardiac disorders. Also, the oldest hospital in Bucharest, Coltea Hospital, was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses.[93] Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the hospital land property was 400,000 m2 (4,305,564 sq ft). The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities. Other hospitals or clinics are Bucharest
Bucharest
Emergency Hospital, Floreasca Emergency Clinic Hospital, Bucharest
Bucharest
University Emergency Hospital, and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and Euroclinic, which are private. Sports[edit]

National Stadium (Arena Națională)

Football is the most widely followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having numerous club teams, some of them being known throughout Europe: Steaua, Dinamo, or Rapid. Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011, hosted the 2012 Europa League Final[94] and has a 55,600-seat capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern Europe.[95] Sport clubs have formed for ice hockey, rugby union, basketball, handball, water polo, and volleyball. The majority of Romanian track and field athletes and most gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The Athletics and many Gymnastics National Championships are held in Bucharest
Bucharest
at the Polyvalent Hall, which is also used for other indoor sports such as volleyball and handball. The largest indoor arena in Bucharest
Bucharest
is the Romexpo
Romexpo
Dome with a seating capacity of 10,000. It is used for tennis, boxing, and kickboxing. Starting in 2007, Bucharest
Bucharest
has hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest Ring. The competition is called the Bucharest
Bucharest
City
City
Challenge, and has hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races in 2007 and 2008. The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in Bucharest
Bucharest
due to a lawsuit. Bucharest
Bucharest
GP, owned by the controversial businessman Nicolae Șerbu, won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP.[96] Every year, Bucharest
Bucharest
hosts the BRD Năstase Țiriac Trophy international tennis tournament, which is included in the ATP Tour. The outdoor tournament is hosted by the tennis complex BNR Arenas. Ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf
Stadium, which is also home to the Romanian national rugby team. Natives[edit] Main article: List of people from Bucharest

Tudor Arghezi
Tudor Arghezi
(1880–1967), writer Nicolae Bălcescu
Nicolae Bălcescu
(1819–52), historian, writer and revolutionary Marthe Bibesco
Marthe Bibesco
(1889–1973), novelist, poet, politician and memoirist George Călinescu
George Călinescu
(1899–1965), critic, literary historian, writer, publicist and academician Henri Coandă
Henri Coandă
(1886–1972), aviation pioneer and inventor of the jet engine Gheorghe Dinică
Gheorghe Dinică
(1934–2009), one of the most important Romanian actors Mircea Eliade
Mircea Eliade
(1907–1986), historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher and professor at the University of Chicago Ion Ghica
Ion Ghica
(1816–1897), economist, mathematician, writer, educator, diplomat and Prime Minister of Romania Iulia Hasdeu
Iulia Hasdeu
(1869–1888), poet Dinu Lipatti
Dinu Lipatti
(1917–1950), pianist, composer and educator Alexandru Macedonski
Alexandru Macedonski
(1854–1920), poet, novelist, playwright and publicist Maia Morgenstern
Maia Morgenstern
(b. 1962), theater and film actress Ilie Năstase
Ilie Năstase
(b. 1946), professional tennis player and former world number one between 1972 and 1973 Nicolae Paulescu
Nicolae Paulescu
(1869–1931), physician, physiologist and discoverer of insulin C. A. Rosetti
C. A. Rosetti
(1816–85), leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848 and Prime Minister of Romania Alec Secăreanu (b. 1984), actor Elena Văcărescu
Elena Văcărescu
(1864–1947), writer and laureate of the French Academy Vazken I of Bucharest
Bucharest
(1908–1994), Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, Hero of Armenia Florin Vlaicu
Florin Vlaicu
(b. 1986), Rugby Union football player, the leading active top point scorer in international rugby

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Romania The twin towns and sister cities of Bucharest
Bucharest
are:

São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(2000)[97] Beijing, China
China
(2005)[98][99] Nicosia, Cyprus
Cyprus
(2004)[98] Amman, Jordan
Jordan
(1999)[98] Tirana, Albania[98] Chișinău, Moldova[98][100] Manila, Philippines[101] Atlanta, United States
United States
(1994)[98] Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(1997)[102] London, United Kingdom[102] Moscow, Russia[102] Athens, Greece[102][103] Hannover, Germany[102] Montreal, Canada[102] Detroit, United States[102] Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada[102] Sofia, Bulgaria[102] Ankara, Turkey[102] Pretoria, South Africa[102] Damascus, Syria[102] Lagos, Nigeria[102] Hanoi, Vietnam[103] Athens, Georgia, United States[103]

See also[edit]

List of Bucharesters List of buildings in Bucharest OPENCities

Bucharest
Bucharest
portal Romania
Romania
portal European Union
European Union
portal

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Modern history of Bucharest, City
City
Hall of Bucharest Șerban Cantacuzino, Două Orașe Distincte. Revista Secolul XX 4/6 (1997): 11–40 Ernie Schoffham, Luminița MacHedon, Șerban Cantacuzino, Romanian Modernism: The Architecture of Bucharest, 1920–1940 Romania: Arts & Architecture, Romanian Tourist Office Tatiana Murzin, Romanian Education, 2005 Romanian Education Portal, Site for the Ministry of Education containing lists of all educational establishments. Bucharest, the small Paris
Paris
of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site. Bucica, Cristina. "Legitimating Power in Capital Cities: Bucharest
Bucharest
– Continuity Through Radical Change?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2005.  (39.0 KB), 2000.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutBucharestat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Bucharest: Official administration site

Links to related articles

v t e

Transport in Bucharest

Operators

Metro

Metrorex

Bus

RATB Serviciul Transport Voluntari
Voluntari
(STV)

Tram
Tram
and Trolleybus

RATB

Mass transit

Metro

 M1   M2   M3   M4   M5  (under construction)  M6  (planned)  M7  (planned) List of Bucharest
Bucharest
metro stations

Bus

List of bus routes in Bucharest Night Buses

Tram

List of tram routes in Bucharest Bucharest
Bucharest
Light rail

Trolleybus

List of trolleybus routes in Bucharest

Rail

Stations

Bucharest
Bucharest
North Basarab Băneasa Bucharest
Bucharest
South/Cățelu Titan Sud Bucharest
Bucharest
Carpați Bucharest
Bucharest
East/Obor Bucharest
Bucharest
Triaj Bucharest
Bucharest
West Bucureștii Noi Pajura Pantelimon South Progresul

Operators

Astra Trans Carpatic CFR Călători Regio Călători Softrans Transferoviar Călători

Roads

Motorways

A1 A2 A3 A6 (planned)

Expressway

DX2 (planned)

National roads

DN1 DN1A DN2 DN3 DN4 DN5 DN5A DN6 DN7 DN71

Ring roads

Centura București
Centura București
(DNCB) Autostrada Centura București
Centura București
(A0) (planned)

County roads

DJ200 DJ200A DJ200B DJ300 DJ301 DJ301A DJ301B DJ401 DJ401D DJ503 DJ601 DJ601A DJ602

Local roads

DC13 DC18 DC21 DC22 DC24 DC27 DC55 DC77A DC101 DC121 DC122

European routes

E60 E70 E81 E85

Air

Airports

Henri Coandă
Henri Coandă
International Airport Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
(private jets and some charters) Clinceni Airfield (leisure and air-school)

Airlines

Adria Airways Aegean Airlines Aeroflot Air France Air Moldova Air Serbia Astra Airlines Austrian Airlines Blue Air British Airways Czech Airlines El Al Eurowings flydubai KLM LOT Polish Airlines Lufthansa Pegasus Airlines Qatar Airways Ryanair Scandinavian Airlines Swiss International Air Lines TAP Air Portugal TAROM Turkish Airlines Windrose Airlines Wizz Air Seasonal: Air Canada
Canada
Rouge Arkia Croatia
Croatia
Airlines Ellinair Iberia Express Israir Airlines SunExpress Vueling

Cycling

Cycling in Bucharest

Water

Colentina River: Herăstrău Park
Herăstrău Park
(leisure boats only) Lacul Morii
Lacul Morii
(water-sports only) Danube–Bucharest Canal
Danube–Bucharest Canal
(construction halted in 1990)

v t e

Geography of Bucharest, Romania

Sectors of Bucharest

Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6

Districts (quarters)

13 Septembrie Aviației Băneasa Berceni Bucureștii Noi Centrul Civic Colentina Cotroceni Crângași Dămăroaia Dealul Spirii Dorobanți Dristor Drumul Taberei Dudești Ferentari Floreasca Fundeni Ghencea Giulești Giurgiului Grivița Iancului Lipscani Militari Moșilor Obor Odăi Olteniței Pantelimon Pipera Primăverii Progresul Rahova Regie Tei Tineretului Titan Vitan Văcărești

Squares

Charles de Gaulle Constituției Quito Square Revoluției Romană Rosetti Unirii University Square Victory Square

Major streets

Bulevardul Unirii Calea Moșilor Calea Victoriei Lipscani Magheru Boulevard Șoseaua Kiseleff

Hills

Cotroceni Dealul Mitropoliei Dealul Spirii

Rivers

Colentina Dâmbovița

Lakes

Lacul Morii Lake Băneasa Lake Cișmigiu Lake Dâmbovița Lake Floreasca Lake Fundeni Lake Grivița Lake Herăstrău Lake Pantelimon Lake Plumbuita Lake Străulești Lake Tei Lake Tineretului Lake Titan Lake Văcărești

Parks and forests

Băneasa
Băneasa
Forest (Codrii Vlăsiei) Bordei Park Botanical Garden Carol Park Cișmigiu
Cișmigiu
Gardens Giulești
Giulești
Park Grădina Icoanei Herăstrău Park Tineretului
Tineretului
Park Vitan Park

See also

Bucharest
Bucharest
metropolitan area Kilometre Zero

v t e

Cities in Romania
Romania
by population

1,000,000+

Bucharest

200,000+

Cluj-Napoca Timișoara Iași Constanța Craiova Brașov Galați Ploiești

100,000+

Oradea Brăila Arad Pitești Sibiu Bacău Târgu Mureș Baia Mare Buzău Botoșani Satu Mare

complete list municipalities metropolitan areas counties

v t e

County seats of Romania
Romania
(alphabetical order by county)

Alba Iulia Arad Pitești Bacău Oradea Bistrița Botoșani Brașov Brăila Buzău Reșița Călărași Cluj-Napoca Constanța Sfântu Gheorghe Târgoviște Craiova Galați Giurgiu Târgu Jiu Miercurea Ciuc Deva Slobozia Iași Bucharest Baia Mare Drobeta-Turnu Severin Târgu Mureș Piatra Neamț Slatina Ploiești Satu Mare Zalău Sibiu Suceava Alexandria Timișoara Tulcea Vaslui Râmnicu Vâlcea Focșani

Bucharest
Bucharest
(national capital)

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122531189 LCCN: n79018

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