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Bruges
Bruges
(/bruːʒ/; Dutch: Brugge [ˈbrʏɣə]; French: Bruges [bʁyːʒ]) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region
Flemish Region
of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
(from Brugge aan zee[2] meaning " Bruges
Bruges
by the Sea"[3]). The historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430 hectares in size. The city's total population is 117,073 (1 January 2008),[4] of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 (238 sq mi) and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008.[5] Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as The Venice of the North. Bruges
Bruges
has a significant economic importance thanks to its port and was once one of the world's chief commercial cities.[6][7] Bruges
Bruges
is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, an elite university institute for European studies regarded as "the EU's very own Oxbridge."[8]

Contents

1 Origin of the name 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Golden age (12th to 15th centuries)

2.2.1 Trade

2.3 Decline after 1500 2.4 19th century and later: revival

3 Geography 4 Sights 5 Culture and art

5.1 Theatres and concert halls 5.2 Cinemas 5.3 Festivals 5.4 Museums

5.4.1 Municipal museums 5.4.2 Non-municipal museums

6 Transport

6.1 Road 6.2 Railway 6.3 Air 6.4 Public city transport 6.5 Cycling

7 Port 8 Sports 9 Education 10 Town twinning policy 11 Notable people 12 Miscellaneous 13 Gallery 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Origin of the name[edit] The place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvggas, Brvccia in 840–875, then as Bruciam, Bruociam (in 892), Brutgis uico (toward end of the 9th century), in portu Bruggensi (c. 1010), Bruggis (1012), Bricge (1037, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugensis (1046), Brycge (1049–1052, again in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugias (1072), Bruges
Bruges
(1080–1085), Bruggas (c. 1084), Brugis (1089), and Brugge (1116).[9] The name probably derives from the Old Dutch
Old Dutch
for "bridge": brugga. Also compare Middle Dutch brucge, brugge (or brugghe, brigghe, bregghe, brogghe), and modern Dutch bruggehoofd ("bridgehead") and brug ("bridge").[10] The form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant.[11] The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*brugjō-.[12] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Bruges Origins[edit] Bruges
Bruges
was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory. This Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges
Bruges
area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii
Menapii
in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks
Franks
took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus
Pagus
Flandrensis. The Viking
Viking
incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications; trade soon resumed with England and Scandinavia. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain, probably with a fortified settlement and church[citation needed] Golden age (12th to 15th centuries)[edit]

The Markt (market square)

Bruges
Bruges
became important due to the tidal inlet that was important to local commerce,[13] This inlet was then known as the "Golden Inlet".[14] Bruges
Bruges
received its city charter on 27 July 1128, and new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges
Bruges
became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme,[13] a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Trade[edit] Bruges
Bruges
had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges
Bruges
was already included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges
Bruges
innovated. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange (i.e. promissory notes) and letters of credit.[15] The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.[16]

"The Burg in Bruges", painted c. 1691–1700 by Meunincxhove

With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, and the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's[17] wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme
Damme
to Sluys
Sluys
to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa
Genoa
appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges
Bruges
the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean. This development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but also advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 (most likely the first stock exchange in the world) and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries
Low Countries
in the 14th century. By the time Venetian galleys first appeared, in 1314, they were latecomers.[18] Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao
Bilbao
(Biscay), thrived as merchants (wool, iron commodities, etc.) and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges
Bruges
by the mid-15th century.[19] The foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700.[20]

An old street in Bruges, with the Church of Our Lady tower in the background

Such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, however, after the Bruges
Bruges
Matins (the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18 May 1302), the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders
Count of Flanders
against the French, culminating in the victory at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, fought near Kortrijk
Kortrijk
on 11 July. The statue of Jan Breydel
Jan Breydel
and Pieter de Coninck, the leaders of the uprising, can still be seen on the Big Market square. The city maintained a militia as a permanent paramilitary body. It gained flexibility and high prestige by close ties to a guild of organized militia, comprising professionals and specialized units. Militia
Militia
men bought and maintained their own weapons and armour, according to their family status and wealth.

Canal in Bruges
Bruges
at dusk

At the end of the 14th century, Bruges
Bruges
became one of the Four Members, along with Franc of Bruges, Ghent
Ghent
and Ypres. Together they formed a parliament; however they frequently quarrelled amongst themselves.[21] In the 15th century, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, set up court in Bruges, as well as Brussels
Brussels
and Lille, attracting a number of artists, bankers, and other prominent personalities from all over Europe.[22] The weavers and spinners of Bruges
Bruges
were thought to be the best in the world, and the population of Bruges
Bruges
grew to at least 125,000 and perhaps up to 200,000 inhabitants at this time around 1400 AD.[23][24] The new oil-painting techniques of the Flemish school
Flemish school
gained world renown. The first book in English ever printed was published in Bruges by William Caxton. This is also when Edward IV and Richard III of England spent time in exile here. Decline after 1500[edit]

Bruges
Bruges
on the Ferraris map
Ferraris map
(around 1775)

Starting around 1500, the Zwin
Zwin
channel, (the Golden Inlet) which had given the city its prosperity, also started silting and the Golden Era had ended.[14] The city soon fell behind Antwerp
Antwerp
as the economic flagship of the Low Countries. During the 17th century, the lace industry took off, and various efforts to bring back the glorious past were made. During the 1650s, the city was the base for Charles II of England and his court in exile.[25] The maritime infrastructure was modernized, and new connections with the sea were built, but without much success, as Antwerp
Antwerp
became increasingly dominant. Bruges
Bruges
became impoverished and gradually faded in importance; its population dwindling from 200,000 to 50,000 by 1900.[24] The symbolist novelist George Rodenbach
George Rodenbach
even made the sleepy city into a character in his novel Bruges-la-Morte, meaning "Bruges-the-dead", which was adapted into Erich Wolfgang Korngold's opera, Die tote Stadt (The Dead City).[26] 19th century and later: revival[edit]

Postcard showing the Cranenburg
Cranenburg
house[27]

In the last half of the 19th century, Bruges
Bruges
became one of the world's first tourist destinations attracting wealthy British and French tourists. By 1909 it had in operation an association called 'Bruges Forward: Society to Improve Tourism.'[28] In World War I
World War I
German forces occupied Bruges
Bruges
but the city suffered virtually no damage and was liberated on 19 October 1918 by the allies. From 1940 in World War II
World War II
the city again was occupied by the Germans and again spared destruction. On 12 September 1944 it was liberated by Canadian troops. After 1965 the original medieval city experienced a renaissance. Restorations of residential and commercial structures, historic monuments, and churches generated a surge in tourism and economic activity in the ancient downtown area. International tourism has boomed, and new efforts resulted in Bruges
Bruges
being designated 'European Capital of Culture' in 2002. It attracts some 2 million tourists annually.[29] The port of Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
was built in 1907. The Germans used it for their U-boats in World War I. It was greatly expanded in the 1970s and early 1980s and has become one of Europe's most important and modern ports.

Geography[edit]

Municipality of Bruges.

The municipality comprises:

The historic city centre of Bruges, Sint-Jozef and Sint-Pieters
Sint-Pieters
(I) Koolkerke
Koolkerke
(II) Sint-Andries
Sint-Andries
(III) Sint-Michiels
Sint-Michiels
(IV) Assebroek
Assebroek
(V) Sint-Kruis
Sint-Kruis
(VI) Dudzele
Dudzele
(VII) Lissewege
Lissewege
(with Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
and Zwankendamme) (VIII)

Sights[edit] Bruges
Bruges
has most of its medieval architecture intact, making it one of the most well-preserved medieval towns in Europe.[30] The historic centre of Bruges
Bruges
has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 2000.[31] Many of its medieval buildings are notable, including the Church of Our Lady, whose brick spire reaches 122.3 m (401.25 ft), making it one of the world's highest brick towers/buildings. The sculpture Madonna and Child, which can be seen in the transept, is believed to be the only of Michelangelo's sculptures to have left Italy within his lifetime. Bruges' most famous landmark is its 13th-century belfry, housing a municipal carillon comprising 48 bells.[32] The city still employs a full-time carillonneur, who gives free concerts on a regular basis. Other famous buildings in Bruges
Bruges
include:

The Béguinage
Béguinage
(Dutch: Begijnhof) The Basilica of the Holy Blood
Basilica of the Holy Blood
(Dutch: Heilig-Bloedbasiliek). The relic of the Holy Blood, which was brought to the city after the Second Crusade
Second Crusade
by Thierry of Alsace, is paraded every year through the streets of the city. More than 1,600 inhabitants take part in this mile-long religious procession, many dressed as medieval knights or crusaders. The modern Concertgebouw ("Concert Building") The Old St. John's Hospital The Saint Salvator's Cathedral The Groeningemuseum, which has an extensive collection of medieval and early modern art, including a notable collection of Flemish Primitives. Various masters, including Hans Memling
Hans Memling
and Jan van Eyck, lived and worked in Bruges. The City Hall on the Burg (Bruges) (nl; Burg (Brugge)) square The Provincial Court (Provinciaal Hof) The preserved old city gateways: the Kruispoort, the Gentpoort, the Smedenpoort and the Ezelpoort. The Dampoort, the Katelijnepoort and the Boeveriepoort are gone.

The Church of Our Lady.

The Dijver canal and the tower of the Church of Our Lady.

The Provinciaal Hof.

The Kruispoort.

The Dweersstraat.

The Béguinage.

The Groenerei (canal).

View from the Rozenhoedkaai.

An aerial view over one of Bruges' canals.

Roofs of old houses in the city centre.

The Burg square with the City Hall.

View of the Steenstraat with the St. Salvator's Cathedral
St. Salvator's Cathedral
in the background.

Part of the Markt (market square).

The Bonne-Chière windmill.

Rozenhoedkaai

Spiegelrei canal

Culture and art[edit] Theatres and concert halls[edit]

Aquariustheater Biekorf Concertgebouw, Bruges
Concertgebouw, Bruges
("Concert Building") De Dijk De Werf Het Entrepot Joseph Ryelandtzaal Magdalenazaal Sirkeltheater Stadsschouwburg Brugge (nl) Studio Hall

Cinemas[edit]

Cinema Lumière (alternative movies) Cinema Liberty Kinepolis
Kinepolis
Bruges

Festivals[edit]

Music festivals:

Airbag (accordion festival) Ars Musica (contemporary music) Blues in Bruges Brugge Tripel Dagen Brugges Festival (world music) Cactusfestival Elements Festival (electronic music) Fuse on the Beach (dance festival in Zeebrugge) Hafabrugge (orchestra festival) Internationale Fedekam Taptoe Jazz Brugge (jazz festival) Koorfestival (choir festival) Festival van Vlaanderen – MAfestival Music in Mind (atmospheric (rock) music) September Jazz (jazz festival) Sint-Gillis Blues – en Folkfestival Many small rock festivals; the best known are:

BurgRock Comma Rocks Festival Red Rock Rally Thoprock

Cultural or food festivals:

Aristidefeesten BAB-bierfestival (beer festival) Brugse Kantdagen ("Bruges' Lace
Lace
Days") Chapter 2 (juggling convention) Choco-Laté (chocolate festival) Cinema Novo (film festival) Cirque Plus (circus festival) European Youth Film Festival of Flanders Ice Magic (snow and ice sculpture festival) Jonge Snaken Festival Midwinterfeest NAFT (theatre festival) Poirot in Bruges
Bruges
– Knack thrillerfestival Razor Reel Fantastic Film Festival Reiefeest (festival on the canals)

Musical cultural festivals:

Come On! Coupurefeesten December Dance (dance festival) Feest In 't Park FEST! Klinkers Polé Polé Beach (in Zeebrugge) Sint-Michielse Feeste Summer End Festival Vama Veche festival

Museums[edit]

Municipal museums[edit]

Artistic works from the 15th to 21st century:

Groeningemuseum Arents House (contains a Sir Frank Brangwyn
Sir Frank Brangwyn
collection and holds temporary art exhibitions)

The Bruggemuseum (" Bruges
Bruges
Museum") (general name for 11 different historical museums in the city):

Gruuthusemuseum Welcome Church of Our Lady Archaeological Museum Gentpoort Belfry City Hall Manor of the Brugse Vrije Museum of Folklore Guido Gezelle
Guido Gezelle
Museum Koelewei (Cool Meadow) Mill Sint-Janshuis (St. John's House) Mill

Hospitalmuseums:

Old St. John's Hospital
Old St. John's Hospital
( Hans Memling
Hans Memling
museum) Our Lady of the Potteries

Non-municipal museums[edit]

Béguinage Brewery museum Hof Bladelin Basilica of the Holy Blood Choco-Story (chocolate museum) Lumina Domestica (lamp museum) Museum-Gallery Xpo: Salvador Dalí Diamond Museum[33] English Convent Frietmuseum
Frietmuseum
(museum dedicated to Belgian Fries) Historium (museum about the medieval history of Bruges) Jerusalem Church Lace
Lace
centre St. George's Archers Guild Saint Salvator's Cathedral St. Sebastian's Archers’ Guild St. Trudo Abbey Public Observatory Beisbroek Ter Doest Abbey (in Lissewege)

The annual procession of the Holy Blood of Jesus Christ, UNESCO heritage

Concertgebouw (Bruggeà (nl) ("Concert Building")

t Zand (nl) square with the Concertgebouw

The Belfry of Bruges
Belfry of Bruges
– situated on the south side of the Markt

Bruges
Bruges
City Hall

Gruuthusemuseum

St. Salvator's Cathedral

Transport[edit] Road[edit] Bruges
Bruges
has motorway connections to all directions:

to Ostend to Ghent
Ghent
and Brussels to Veurne
Veurne
and France to Kortrijk
Kortrijk
and Tournai to Zeebrugge to Antwerp

Driving within the 'egg', the historical centre enclosed by the main circle of canals in Bruges, is discouraged by traffic management schemes, including a network of one-way streets. The system encourages the use of set routes leading to central car parks and direct exit routes. The car parks are convenient for the central commercial and tourist areas; they are not expensive. Railway[edit] Bruges' main railway station is the focus of lines to the Belgian coast. It also provides at least hourly trains to all other major cities in Belgium, as well as to Lille, France. Further there are several regional and local trains. The main station is also a stop for the Thalys
Thalys
train Paris–Brussels–Ostend. Bus links to the centre are frequent, though the railway station is just a 10-minute walk from the main shopping streets and a 20-minute walk from the Market Square. Plans for a north–south light rail connection through Bruges, from Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
to Lichtervelde, and a light rail connection between Bruges and Ostend
Ostend
are under construction. Air[edit] The national Brussels
Brussels
Airport, one hour away by train or car, offers the best connections. The nearest airport is the Ostend-Bruges International Airport in Ostend
Ostend
(around 25 kilometres (16 miles) from the city centre of Bruges), but it offers limited passenger transport and connections. Recently there also started a direct bus line from Brussels
Brussels
South Charleroi Airport to Bruges.

t Zand (nl) bus station

Public city transport[edit] Bruges
Bruges
has an extensive web of bus lines, operated by De Lijn, providing access to the city centre and the suburbs (city lines, Dutch: stadslijnen) and to many towns and villages in the region around the city (regional lines, Dutch: streeklijnen). In support of the municipal traffic management (see "Road" above), free public transport is available for those who park their cars in the main railway station car park. Cycling[edit] Although a few streets are restricted, no part of Bruges
Bruges
is car free.[citation needed] Cars are required to yield to pedestrians and cyclists. Plans have long been under way to ban cars altogether from the historic center of Bruges
Bruges
or to restrict traffic much more than it currently is, but these plans have yet to come to fruition. In 2005, signs were changed for the convenience of cyclists, allowing two-way cycle traffic on more streets, however car traffic has not decreased.[citation needed] Nevertheless, in common with many cities in the region, there are thousands of cyclists in the city of Bruges.[citation needed]

The Elly Mærsk, here at Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
port, currently one of the world's largest container vessels.

Port[edit] Main article: Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge The port of Bruges
Bruges
is Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
(Bruges-on-Sea). On 6 March 1987, the British ferry MS Herald of Free Enterprise capsized after leaving the port, killing 187 people, the worst disaster involving a British civilian vessel since 1919.[34] Sports[edit]

Jan Breydel
Jan Breydel
Stadium.

Between 1998 and 2016 Bruges
Bruges
hosted the start of the annual Tour of Flanders cycle race, held in April and one of the biggest sporting events in Belgium. Football is also popular in Bruges; the city hosts two professional football teams, of which one currently plays at the top level (Belgian First Division): Club Brugge K.V.. The second team, Cercle Brugge K.S.V., currently plays at the second tier, the Belgian Second Division. Both teams play their home games at the Jan Breydel
Jan Breydel
Stadium (30,000 seats) in Sint-Andries. There are plans for a new stadium for Club Brugge with about 45,000 seats in the north of the city, while Cercle Brugge would renovate and reduce the capacity of the Jan Breydel Stadium.[35] In 2000 Bruges
Bruges
was one of the eight host cities for the UEFA European Football Championship, co-hosted by Belgium
Belgium
and its neighbour the Netherlands.

Education[edit]

The KHBO campus in Sint-Michiels.

Bruges
Bruges
is an important centre for education in West Flanders. Next to the several common primary and secondary schools, there are a few colleges, like the VIVES ( a fusion of the former KHBO (katholieke hogeschool Brugge Oostende) and the KATHO (katholieke hoge school) or the HOWEST (Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen). Furthermore, the city is home to the College of Europe, a prestigious institution of postgraduate studies in European Economics, Law and Politics, and of the United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS), a Research and Training Institute[36] of the United Nations University
United Nations University
specialising in the comparative study of regional integration. Town twinning policy[edit] On principle, Bruges
Bruges
has to date never entered into close collaboration with twin cities. Without denying the usefulness of these schemes for towns with fewer international contacts, the main reason is that Bruges
Bruges
would find it difficult to choose between cities and thinks that it has enough work already with its many international contacts.[citation needed] Also, it was thought[who?] in Bruges
Bruges
that twinning was too often an occasion for city authorities and representatives to travel on public expense.[citation needed] This principle resulted, in the 1950s, in Bruges
Bruges
refusing a jumelage with Nice
Nice
and other towns, signed by a Belgian ambassador without previous consultation. In the 1970s, a Belgian consul in Oldenburg made the mayor of Bruges
Bruges
sign a declaration of friendship which he tried to present, in vain, as a jumelage. The twinning between some of the former communes, merged with Bruges in 1971, were discontinued. This does not mean that Bruges
Bruges
would not be interested in cooperation with others, as well in the short term as in the long run, for particular projects. Here follow a few examples.

Bastogne, Luxembourg, Belgium  After World War II
World War II
and into the 1970s, Bruges, more specifically the Fire Brigade of Bruges, entertained friendly relations with Bastogne. Each year a free holiday was offered at the seaside in Zeebrugge, to children from the Nuts city. Arolsen, Hesse, Germany  From the 1950s until the 1980s, Bruges
Bruges
was the patron of the Belgian First Regiment of Horse Guards, quartered in Arolsen. Salamanca, Castilla y León, Spain  Both towns having been made European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2002, Bruges
Bruges
had some exchanges organized with Salamanca. Mons, Hainaut, Belgium  In 2007, cultural and artistic cooperation between Mons
Mons
and Bruges
Bruges
was inaugurated. Burgos, Castilla y León, Spain  On 29 January 2007, the mayors of Burgos
Burgos
and Bruges
Bruges
signed a declaration of intent about future cooperation on cultural, touristic and economic matters.

Notable people[edit] Main article: Notable people from Bruges

The following people were born in Bruges: In the 15th century, the city became the magnet for a number of prominent personalities:

Jan Breydel
Jan Breydel
and Pieter de Coninck, freedom fighters Philip I of Castile, first Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler in Spain
Spain
(1478–1506) Simon Stevin, mathematician and engineer (1548–1620) Franciscus Gomarus, Calvinist
Calvinist
theologian (1563–1641) Guido Gezelle, poet and priest (1830–1899) Gotye, Australian-Belgian singer songwriter (1980) Isidore van Kinsbergen, Dutch-Flemish engraver, (1821–1905) Hugo Claus, Belgian author (1929–2008) Tony Parker, NBA Basketball Player (1982)

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy
Burgundy
set up court in Bruges, Brussels, and Lille William Caxton, English merchant, diplomat, writer, and printer Petrus Christus, Flemish painter Gerard David, Flemish painter Hans Memling, Flemish painter Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter Juan Luís Vives, Spanish scholar and humanist Simon Bening
Simon Bening
Flemish illuminator Levina Teerlinc, Flemish illuminator

Miscellaneous[edit]

Brugse Zot (nl).

The exterior of the Boudewijn Seapark
Boudewijn Seapark
dolphinarium in Bruges.

Bruges
Bruges
is known for its lace. The city, and this textile technique in particular, were the source of inspiration that triggered contemporary multimedia artist Kimsooja's Thread Routes
Thread Routes
film series. The second episode of this ongoing project, shot in 2011, was partly set in Bruges.[37] Several beers are named after Bruges, such as Brugge Blond, Brugge Tripel, Brugs, Brugse Babbelaar, Brugse Straffe Hendrik and Brugse Zot. However, only Brugse Zot and Brugse Straffe Hendrik are still brewed in the city itself, in the Halve Maan Brewery. In Sint-Michiels
Sint-Michiels
is the amusement park Boudewijn Seapark, which features a dolphinarium. The patron saint of Bruges
Bruges
is Andrew the Apostle.[38] Fiction:

Bruges-la-Morte, a short novel by the Belgian author Georges Rodenbach, first published in 1892. The libretto of Erich Wolfgang Korngold's opera Die Tote Stadt, written in 1920, is based on this book In Bruges, a film from Irish-British director Martin McDonagh, starring Colin Farrell
Colin Farrell
and Brendan Gleeson, is set almost entirely in Bruges. The city's major landmarks and history are mentioned repeatedly throughout the film, as are the contrasted viewpoints of the two lead characters of the story. The detective stories of Pieter Aspe
Pieter Aspe
are situated in Bruges. The Nun's Story, a dramatic film released by Warner Bros. Pictures in 1959, is mostly set in Bruges. Niccolò Rising, the first volume of the 8 book House of Niccolò series by Dorothy Dunnett is largely set in Bruges, and other books in the series also have sections set in Bruges. Floris, a Dutch television action series, written by Gerard Soeteman. Alan Hollinghurst's novel The Folding Star
The Folding Star
is set in a Flemish town that is recognisably Bruges. L'Astrologue de Bruges, a Belgian bande dessinée in the Yoko Tsuno series by Roger Leloup, is entirely set in Bruges, both contemporary and in 1545. In the last chapter of Saul Bellow's novel The Adventures of Augie March Augie is driving through France on his way to Bruges
Bruges
on business. In 2014 Bollywood
Bollywood
film PK, opening scenes involving Anushka Sharma
Anushka Sharma
and Sushant Singh Rajput
Sushant Singh Rajput
(including song Chaar Kadam) are set in Bruges. In Austin Powers film series, the main antagonist, Dr. Evil was raised in Bruges Some scenes from episode 6 of season 2 of Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. took place in Bruges, and local beer "Straffe Hendrik" was mentioned and shown.[39] The story of the removal of the Madonna of Bruges
Madonna of Bruges
being removed by the Nazis and then returned is told in the fact-based 2014 movie The Monuments Men

Gallery[edit]

This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Panorama of the city, taken from the belfry (2009).

360° panorama of 't Zand.

The Markt.

View on the Groenerei (nl) (centre) and the Rozenhoedkaai (nl) (right).

View from the Rozenhoedkaai.

The Spiegelrei (nl) and the Langerei (nl).

The Burg (nl) square at dawn.

Outside of the Beguinage, with the Minnewater (nl) Park in the background.

Inside of the Beguinage.

References[edit]

^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB) ^ Degraer, Hugo (1968). Repertorium van de pers in West-Vlaanderen 1807-1914. Nauwelaerts, University of Michigan. p. 143. , Snippet pages 143 ^ Boniface, Brian G.; Cooper, Christopher P. (2001). Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism (3 ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 140. ISBN 0-7506-4231-9. , page 140 ^ Statistics Belgium; Population de droit par commune au 1 janvier 2008 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 19 October 2008. ^ Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Bruges
Bruges
is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie), which in this case is Bruges
Bruges
municipality, with 117,073 inhabitants (1 January 2008). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 166,502. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 255,844. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. ^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 158.  ^ Charlier, Roger H. (2005). "Grandeur, Decadence and Renaissance". Journal of Coastal Research: 425–447. , quote: "Rise, fall and resurrection make up the life story of Bruges, a city that glittered in Northern Europe with as much panache as Venice did in the Mediterranean World." ^ Adam Fleming (25 October 2013). " College of Europe
College of Europe
in Bruges: Home of Thatcher speech". BBC. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Maurits Gysseling, Toponymisch woordenboek van België, Nederland, Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226), Brussel 1960, p. 195. ^ "etymologiebank.nl". etymologiebank.nl. 5 April 1922. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ M. Philippa, F. Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim & N. van der Sijs (2003–2009), Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands, AUP: Amsterdam. ^ William Morris, ed. (1969). "Appendix, "Indo-European Roots"". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. American Heritage Publishing Co. p. 1510.  ^ a b Charlier, Roger H. (2005). "Charlier, Roger H. "Grandeur, Decadence and Renaissance". Journal of Coastal Research: 425–447.  ^ a b Charlier, Roger H. (2010). "The Zwin: From Golden Inlet to Nature Reserve". Journal of Coastal Research. 27 (4): 746–756. doi:10.2112/10A-00003.1.  ^ Mack Ott (2012). The Political Economy of Nation Building: The World's Unfinished Business. Transaction Publishers. p. 92.  ^ James Donald Tracy (1993). The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750. Cambridge U.P. p. 263.  ^ Nimmo, William; Gillespie, Robert (1880). The history of Stirlingshire (3rd ed.). Glasgow: Thomas D. Morison. p. 369. Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, in Vol. III Civilization and Capitalism, 1984 ^ Collins, Roger (1990). The Basques (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. p. 241. ISBN 0631175652.  ^ Phillips, William D.; Jr (1986). "Local Integration and Long-Distance Ties: The Castilian Community in Sixteenth-Century Bruges". Sixteenth Century Journal. 17 (1): 33–49. doi:10.2307/2541354.  ^ Philip the Good: the apogee of Burgundy
Burgundy
by Richard Vaughan, p201 ^ Dumolyn, Jan (2010). "'Our land is only founded on trade and industry.' Economic discourses in fifteenth-century Bruges". Journal of Medieval
Medieval
History. 36 (4): 374–389. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2010.09.003.  ^ Spruyt, H. (1996). The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780691029108. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ a b Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 160.  ^ David Plant (10 September 2007). "Charles, Prince of Wales, (later Charles II), 1630-85". British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ Andre de Vries (2007). Flanders:A Cultural History: A Cultural History. Oxford U.P. p. 143.  ^ (Excelsior Series 11, No. 51, Albert Sugg a Gand; ca. 1905): Cranenburg, from the windows of which, in olden times, the Counts of Flanders, with the lords and ladies of their Court, used to watch the tournaments and pageants for which Bruges
Bruges
was celebrated, and in which Maximilian was imprisoned by the burghers in 1488 ( Bruges
Bruges
and West Flanders, George W. T. Omond, Illustrated by Amédée Forestier, 1906. Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Edition.) ^ Stephen V. (Stephen Victor) Ward (1998). Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities, 1850-2000. Spon. p. 40.  ^ Boucher, Jack E. (1978). "Bruges, Belgium". American Preservation. 2 (1): 30–39.  ^ Hahn, Lindsay. "Skip the Crowds at Venice: 5 Better Canal Towns to Visit". iExplore.com. Inside-Out Media. Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ "Historic Centre of Brugge – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 161.  ^ "Diamond Museum". Diamond Museum. Retrieved 20 January 2014.  ^ "The Merchant Shipping Act : mv Herald of Free Enterprise : Formal Investigation" (PDF). Maib.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "Club Brugge krijgt schitterend nieuws in verband met nieuw stadion". 22 October 2015.  ^ University, United Nations. "Training Centres and Programmes - United Nations University".  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Blog Archive » Saint Andrew the Apostle". Saints. SQPN.com. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "Brugse Straffe Hendrik valt in de smaak bij Amerikaanse acti... (Brugge) - Het Nieuwsblad". nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Bruges

Murray, James M. Bruges, Cradle of Capitalism 1280–1390 (2005)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bruges.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bruges.

Official website (in English) Texts on Wikisource:

"Bruges". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (9th ed.). 1878.  "Bruges". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911.  "Bruges". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

Places adjacent to Bruges

Blankenberge North Sea Knokke-Heist

Zuienkerke Jabbeke

Bruges

Damme

Zedelgem Oostkamp Beernem

v t e

Municipalities in the Province of West Flanders, Flanders, Belgium

Bruges

Beernem Blankenberge Bruges/Brugge Damme Jabbeke Knokke-Heist Oostkamp Torhout Zedelgem Zuienkerke

Diksmuide

Diksmuide Houthulst Koekelare Kortemark Lo-Reninge

Kortrijk

Anzegem Avelgem Deerlijk Harelbeke Kortrijk Kuurne Lendelede Menen Spiere-Helkijn Waregem Wevelgem Zwevegem

Ostend

Bredene De Haan Gistel Ichtegem Middelkerke Oostende/Ostend Oudenburg

Roeselare

Hooglede Ingelmunster Izegem Ledegem Lichtervelde Moorslede Roeselare Staden

Tielt

Ardooie Dentergem Meulebeke Oostrozebeke Pittem Ruiselede Tielt Wielsbeke Wingene

Veurne

Alveringem De Panne Koksijde Nieuwpoort Veurne

Ypres

Heuvelland Ieper/Ypres Langemark-Poelkapelle Mesen Poperinge Vleteren Wervik Zonnebeke

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Belgium

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier1 Belfries of Belgium
Belgium
and France2 Flemish Béguinages Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs Historic Centre of Brugge La Grand-Place, Brussels Major Mining Sites of Wallonia Major town houses of the architect Victor Horta Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe3 Stoclet House

1 Listing shared with six other countries, which includes Belgium's Maison Guiette; 2 Listing shared with France; 3 Listing shared with twelve other countries, which include's Belgium's Sonian Forest.

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 316731830 GND: 4069688-1 BNF:

.