Bruges (/bruːʒ/; Dutch: Brugge [ˈbrʏɣə]; French: Bruges
[bʁyːʒ]) is the capital and largest city of the province of West
Flanders in the
Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the
The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares,
including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at
Zeebrugge (from Brugge aan
zee meaning "
Bruges by the Sea"). The historic city centre is a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430
hectares in size. The city's total population is 117,073 (1 January
2008), of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre. The
metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area
of 616 km2 (238 sq mi) and has a total of 255,844
inhabitants as of 1 January 2008.
Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam,
it is sometimes referred to as The Venice of the North.
Bruges has a
significant economic importance thanks to its port and was once one of
the world's chief commercial cities.
Bruges is well known as the
seat of the College of Europe, an elite university institute for
European studies regarded as "the EU's very own Oxbridge."
1 Origin of the name
2.2 Golden age (12th to 15th centuries)
2.3 Decline after 1500
2.4 19th century and later: revival
5 Culture and art
5.1 Theatres and concert halls
5.4.1 Municipal museums
5.4.2 Non-municipal museums
6.4 Public city transport
10 Town twinning policy
11 Notable people
15 Further reading
16 External links
Origin of the name
The place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvggas, Brvccia
in 840–875, then as Bruciam, Bruociam (in 892), Brutgis uico (toward
end of the 9th century), in portu Bruggensi (c. 1010), Bruggis (1012),
Bricge (1037, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugensis (1046), Brycge
(1049–1052, again in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugias (1072),
Bruges (1080–1085), Bruggas (c. 1084), Brugis (1089), and Brugge
The name probably derives from the
Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga.
Middle Dutch brucge, brugge (or brugghe, brigghe,
bregghe, brogghe), and modern Dutch bruggehoofd ("bridgehead") and
brug ("bridge"). The form brugghe would be a southern Dutch
variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from
See also: Timeline of Bruges
Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory. This
Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city
development. In the
Bruges area, the first fortifications were built
after Julius Caesar's conquest of the
Menapii in the first century BC,
to protect the coastal area against pirates. The
Franks took over the
whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and
administered it as the
Pagus Flandrensis. The
Viking incursions of the
ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the
Roman fortifications; trade soon resumed with England and Scandinavia.
Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the
Burgh terrain, probably with a fortified settlement and
Golden age (12th to 15th centuries)
The Markt (market square)
Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet that was important to
local commerce, This inlet was then known as the "Golden
Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, and new
walls and canals were built. In 1089
Bruges became the capital of the
County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the
city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however,
re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel
at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a
city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges.
Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern
Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes.
already included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs
at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs
broke down the entrepreneurs of
Bruges innovated. They developed, or
borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several
merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge
of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including
bills of exchange (i.e. promissory notes) and letters of credit.
The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese
traders selling pepper and other spices.
"The Burg in Bruges", painted c. 1691–1700 by Meunincxhove
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool
market, a woollens weaving industry, and the market for cloth all
profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be
safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The
city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England
and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought
Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor,
which had to be expanded beyond
Sluys to accommodate the new
cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from
Genoa appeared in
the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made
main link to the trade of the Mediterranean. This development opened
not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but also advanced
commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon
took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 (most
likely the first stock exchange in the world) and developed into the
most sophisticated money market of the
Low Countries in the 14th
century. By the time Venetian galleys first appeared, in 1314, they
were latecomers. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in
Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the
13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques,
many hailing from
Bilbao (Biscay), thrived as merchants (wool, iron
commodities, etc.) and established their own commercial consulate in
Bruges by the mid-15th century. The foreign merchants expanded the
city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by
their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700.
An old street in Bruges, with the Church of Our Lady tower in the
Such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most
part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, however, after the
Bruges Matins (the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges
by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18 May 1302), the
population joined forces with the
Count of Flanders
Count of Flanders against the
French, culminating in the victory at the Battle of the Golden Spurs,
Kortrijk on 11 July. The statue of
Jan Breydel and Pieter
de Coninck, the leaders of the uprising, can still be seen on the Big
Market square. The city maintained a militia as a permanent
paramilitary body. It gained flexibility and high prestige by close
ties to a guild of organized militia, comprising professionals and
Militia men bought and maintained their own weapons
and armour, according to their family status and wealth.
Bruges at dusk
At the end of the 14th century,
Bruges became one of the Four Members,
along with Franc of Bruges,
Ghent and Ypres. Together they formed a
parliament; however they frequently quarrelled amongst themselves.
In the 15th century, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, set up court
in Bruges, as well as
Brussels and Lille, attracting a number of
artists, bankers, and other prominent personalities from all over
Europe. The weavers and spinners of
Bruges were thought to be the
best in the world, and the population of
Bruges grew to at least
125,000 and perhaps up to 200,000 inhabitants at this time around
The new oil-painting techniques of the
Flemish school gained world
renown. The first book in English ever printed was published in Bruges
by William Caxton. This is also when Edward IV and Richard III of
England spent time in exile here.
Decline after 1500
Bruges on the
Ferraris map (around 1775)
Starting around 1500, the
Zwin channel, (the Golden Inlet) which had
given the city its prosperity, also started silting and the Golden Era
had ended. The city soon fell behind
Antwerp as the economic
flagship of the Low Countries. During the 17th century, the lace
industry took off, and various efforts to bring back the glorious past
were made. During the 1650s, the city was the base for Charles II of
England and his court in exile. The maritime infrastructure was
modernized, and new connections with the sea were built, but without
much success, as
Antwerp became increasingly dominant.
impoverished and gradually faded in importance; its population
dwindling from 200,000 to 50,000 by 1900.
The symbolist novelist
George Rodenbach even made the sleepy city into
a character in his novel Bruges-la-Morte, meaning "Bruges-the-dead",
which was adapted into Erich Wolfgang Korngold's opera, Die tote Stadt
(The Dead City).
19th century and later: revival
Postcard showing the
In the last half of the 19th century,
Bruges became one of the world's
first tourist destinations attracting wealthy British and French
tourists. By 1909 it had in operation an association called 'Bruges
Forward: Society to Improve Tourism.'
World War I
World War I German forces occupied
Bruges but the city suffered
virtually no damage and was liberated on 19 October 1918 by the
allies. From 1940 in
World War II
World War II the city again was occupied by the
Germans and again spared destruction. On 12 September 1944 it was
liberated by Canadian troops.
After 1965 the original medieval city experienced a renaissance.
Restorations of residential and commercial structures, historic
monuments, and churches generated a surge in tourism and economic
activity in the ancient downtown area. International tourism has
boomed, and new efforts resulted in
Bruges being designated 'European
Capital of Culture' in 2002. It attracts some 2 million tourists
The port of
Zeebrugge was built in 1907. The Germans used it for their
U-boats in World War I. It was greatly expanded in the 1970s and early
1980s and has become one of Europe's most important and modern ports.
Municipality of Bruges.
The municipality comprises:
The historic city centre of Bruges,
Zeebrugge and Zwankendamme) (VIII)
Bruges has most of its medieval architecture intact, making it one of
the most well-preserved medieval towns in Europe. The historic
Bruges has been a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site since 2000.
Many of its medieval buildings are notable, including the Church of
Our Lady, whose brick spire reaches 122.3 m (401.25 ft),
making it one of the world's highest brick towers/buildings. The
sculpture Madonna and Child, which can be seen in the transept, is
believed to be the only of Michelangelo's sculptures to have left
Italy within his lifetime.
Bruges' most famous landmark is its 13th-century belfry, housing a
municipal carillon comprising 48 bells. The city still employs a
full-time carillonneur, who gives free concerts on a regular basis.
Other famous buildings in
Béguinage (Dutch: Begijnhof)
Basilica of the Holy Blood
Basilica of the Holy Blood (Dutch: Heilig-Bloedbasiliek). The
relic of the Holy Blood, which was brought to the city after the
Second Crusade by Thierry of Alsace, is paraded every year through the
streets of the city. More than 1,600 inhabitants take part in this
mile-long religious procession, many dressed as medieval knights or
The modern Concertgebouw ("Concert Building")
The Old St. John's Hospital
The Saint Salvator's Cathedral
The Groeningemuseum, which has an extensive collection of medieval and
early modern art, including a notable collection of Flemish
Primitives. Various masters, including
Hans Memling and Jan van Eyck,
lived and worked in Bruges.
The City Hall on the Burg (Bruges) (nl; Burg (Brugge)) square
The Provincial Court (Provinciaal Hof)
The preserved old city gateways: the Kruispoort, the Gentpoort, the
Smedenpoort and the Ezelpoort. The Dampoort, the Katelijnepoort and
the Boeveriepoort are gone.
The Church of Our Lady.
The Dijver canal and the tower of the Church of Our Lady.
The Provinciaal Hof.
The Groenerei (canal).
View from the Rozenhoedkaai.
An aerial view over one of Bruges' canals.
Roofs of old houses in the city centre.
The Burg square with the City Hall.
View of the Steenstraat with the
St. Salvator's Cathedral
St. Salvator's Cathedral in the
Part of the Markt (market square).
The Bonne-Chière windmill.
Culture and art
Theatres and concert halls
Concertgebouw, Bruges ("Concert Building")
Stadsschouwburg Brugge (nl)
Cinema Lumière (alternative movies)
Airbag (accordion festival)
Ars Musica (contemporary music)
Blues in Bruges
Brugge Tripel Dagen
Brugges Festival (world music)
Elements Festival (electronic music)
Fuse on the Beach (dance festival in Zeebrugge)
Hafabrugge (orchestra festival)
Internationale Fedekam Taptoe
Jazz Brugge (jazz festival)
Koorfestival (choir festival)
Festival van Vlaanderen – MAfestival
Music in Mind (atmospheric (rock) music)
September Jazz (jazz festival)
Sint-Gillis Blues – en Folkfestival
Many small rock festivals; the best known are:
Comma Rocks Festival
Red Rock Rally
Cultural or food festivals:
BAB-bierfestival (beer festival)
Brugse Kantdagen ("Bruges'
Chapter 2 (juggling convention)
Choco-Laté (chocolate festival)
Cinema Novo (film festival)
Cirque Plus (circus festival)
European Youth Film Festival of Flanders
Ice Magic (snow and ice sculpture festival)
Jonge Snaken Festival
NAFT (theatre festival)
Bruges – Knack thrillerfestival
Razor Reel Fantastic Film Festival
Reiefeest (festival on the canals)
Musical cultural festivals:
December Dance (dance festival)
Feest In 't Park
Polé Polé Beach (in Zeebrugge)
Summer End Festival
Vama Veche festival
Artistic works from the 15th to 21st century:
Arents House (contains a
Sir Frank Brangwyn
Sir Frank Brangwyn collection and holds
temporary art exhibitions)
The Bruggemuseum ("
Bruges Museum") (general name for 11 different
historical museums in the city):
Welcome Church of Our Lady
Manor of the Brugse Vrije
Museum of Folklore
Guido Gezelle Museum
Koelewei (Cool Meadow) Mill
Sint-Janshuis (St. John's House) Mill
Old St. John's Hospital
Old St. John's Hospital (
Hans Memling museum)
Our Lady of the Potteries
Basilica of the Holy Blood
Choco-Story (chocolate museum)
Lumina Domestica (lamp museum)
Museum-Gallery Xpo: Salvador Dalí
Frietmuseum (museum dedicated to Belgian Fries)
Historium (museum about the medieval history of Bruges)
St. George's Archers Guild
Saint Salvator's Cathedral
St. Sebastian's Archers’ Guild
St. Trudo Abbey
Public Observatory Beisbroek
Ter Doest Abbey (in Lissewege)
The annual procession of the Holy Blood of Jesus Christ, UNESCO
Concertgebouw (Bruggeà (nl) ("Concert Building")
t Zand (nl) square with the Concertgebouw
Belfry of Bruges
Belfry of Bruges – situated on the south side of the Markt
Bruges City Hall
St. Salvator's Cathedral
Bruges has motorway connections to all directions:
Ghent and Brussels
Veurne and France
Kortrijk and Tournai
Driving within the 'egg', the historical centre enclosed by the main
circle of canals in Bruges, is discouraged by traffic management
schemes, including a network of one-way streets. The system encourages
the use of set routes leading to central car parks and direct exit
routes. The car parks are convenient for the central commercial and
tourist areas; they are not expensive.
Bruges' main railway station is the focus of lines to the Belgian
coast. It also provides at least hourly trains to all other major
cities in Belgium, as well as to Lille, France. Further there are
several regional and local trains.
The main station is also a stop for the
Bus links to the centre are frequent, though the railway station is
just a 10-minute walk from the main shopping streets and a 20-minute
walk from the Market Square.
Plans for a north–south light rail connection through Bruges, from
Zeebrugge to Lichtervelde, and a light rail connection between Bruges
Ostend are under construction.
Brussels Airport, one hour away by train or car, offers
the best connections. The nearest airport is the Ostend-Bruges
International Airport in
Ostend (around 25 kilometres (16 miles) from
the city centre of Bruges), but it offers limited passenger transport
and connections. Recently there also started a direct bus line from
Brussels South Charleroi Airport to Bruges.
t Zand (nl) bus station
Public city transport
Bruges has an extensive web of bus lines, operated by De Lijn,
providing access to the city centre and the suburbs (city lines,
Dutch: stadslijnen) and to many towns and villages in the region
around the city (regional lines, Dutch: streeklijnen).
In support of the municipal traffic management (see "Road" above),
free public transport is available for those who park their cars in
the main railway station car park.
Although a few streets are restricted, no part of
Bruges is car
Cars are required to yield to pedestrians and cyclists. Plans have
long been under way to ban cars altogether from the historic center of
Bruges or to restrict traffic much more than it currently is, but
these plans have yet to come to fruition. In 2005, signs were changed
for the convenience of cyclists, allowing two-way cycle traffic on
more streets, however car traffic has not decreased.
Nevertheless, in common with many cities in the region, there are
thousands of cyclists in the city of Bruges.
The Elly Mærsk, here at
Zeebrugge port, currently one of the world's
largest container vessels.
Main article: Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge
The port of
On 6 March 1987, the British ferry MS Herald of Free Enterprise
capsized after leaving the port, killing 187 people, the worst
disaster involving a British civilian vessel since 1919.
Jan Breydel Stadium.
Between 1998 and 2016
Bruges hosted the start of the annual Tour of
Flanders cycle race, held in April and one of the biggest sporting
events in Belgium.
Football is also popular in Bruges; the city hosts two professional
football teams, of which one currently plays at the top level (Belgian
First Division): Club Brugge K.V.. The second team, Cercle Brugge
K.S.V., currently plays at the second tier, the Belgian Second
Division. Both teams play their home games at the
Jan Breydel Stadium
(30,000 seats) in Sint-Andries. There are plans for a new stadium for
Club Brugge with about 45,000 seats in the north of the city, while
Cercle Brugge would renovate and reduce the capacity of the Jan
Bruges was one of the eight host cities for the UEFA European
Football Championship, co-hosted by
Belgium and its neighbour the
The KHBO campus in Sint-Michiels.
Bruges is an important centre for education in West Flanders. Next to
the several common primary and secondary schools, there are a few
colleges, like the VIVES ( a fusion of the former KHBO (katholieke
hogeschool Brugge Oostende) and the KATHO (katholieke hoge school) or
the HOWEST (Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen). Furthermore, the city is home
to the College of Europe, a prestigious institution of postgraduate
studies in European Economics, Law and Politics, and of the United
Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration
Studies (UNU-CRIS), a Research and Training Institute of the
United Nations University
United Nations University specialising in the comparative study of
Town twinning policy
Bruges has to date never entered into close
collaboration with twin cities. Without denying the usefulness of
these schemes for towns with fewer international contacts, the main
reason is that
Bruges would find it difficult to choose between cities
and thinks that it has enough work already with its many international
contacts. Also, it was thought[who?] in
twinning was too often an occasion for city authorities and
representatives to travel on public expense.
This principle resulted, in the 1950s, in
Bruges refusing a jumelage
Nice and other towns, signed by a Belgian ambassador without
previous consultation. In the 1970s, a Belgian consul in Oldenburg
made the mayor of
Bruges sign a declaration of friendship which he
tried to present, in vain, as a jumelage.
The twinning between some of the former communes, merged with Bruges
in 1971, were discontinued.
This does not mean that
Bruges would not be interested in cooperation
with others, as well in the short term as in the long run, for
particular projects. Here follow a few examples.
Bastogne, Luxembourg, Belgium
World War II
World War II and into the 1970s, Bruges, more specifically the
Fire Brigade of Bruges, entertained friendly relations with Bastogne.
Each year a free holiday was offered at the seaside in Zeebrugge, to
children from the Nuts city.
Arolsen, Hesse, Germany
From the 1950s until the 1980s,
Bruges was the patron of the Belgian
First Regiment of Horse Guards, quartered in Arolsen.
Salamanca, Castilla y León, Spain
Both towns having been made
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture in 2002,
Bruges had some exchanges organized with Salamanca.
Mons, Hainaut, Belgium
In 2007, cultural and artistic cooperation between
Burgos, Castilla y León, Spain
On 29 January 2007, the mayors of
Bruges signed a
declaration of intent about future cooperation on cultural, touristic
and economic matters.
Main article: Notable people from Bruges
The following people were born in Bruges:
In the 15th century, the city became the magnet for a number of
Jan Breydel and Pieter de Coninck, freedom fighters
Philip I of Castile, first
Habsburg ruler in
Simon Stevin, mathematician and engineer (1548–1620)
Calvinist theologian (1563–1641)
Guido Gezelle, poet and priest (1830–1899)
Gotye, Australian-Belgian singer songwriter (1980)
Isidore van Kinsbergen, Dutch-Flemish engraver, (1821–1905)
Hugo Claus, Belgian author (1929–2008)
Tony Parker, NBA Basketball Player (1982)
Philip the Good, Duke of
Burgundy set up court in Bruges, Brussels,
William Caxton, English merchant, diplomat, writer, and printer
Petrus Christus, Flemish painter
Gerard David, Flemish painter
Hans Memling, Flemish painter
Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter
Juan Luís Vives, Spanish scholar and humanist
Simon Bening Flemish illuminator
Levina Teerlinc, Flemish illuminator
Brugse Zot (nl).
The exterior of the
Boudewijn Seapark dolphinarium in Bruges.
Bruges is known for its lace. The city, and this textile technique in
particular, were the source of inspiration that triggered contemporary
multimedia artist Kimsooja's
Thread Routes film series. The second
episode of this ongoing project, shot in 2011, was partly set in
Several beers are named after Bruges, such as Brugge Blond, Brugge
Tripel, Brugs, Brugse Babbelaar, Brugse Straffe Hendrik and Brugse
Zot. However, only Brugse Zot and Brugse Straffe Hendrik are still
brewed in the city itself, in the Halve Maan Brewery.
Sint-Michiels is the amusement park Boudewijn Seapark, which
features a dolphinarium.
The patron saint of
Bruges is Andrew the Apostle.
Bruges-la-Morte, a short novel by the Belgian author Georges
Rodenbach, first published in 1892. The libretto of Erich Wolfgang
Korngold's opera Die Tote Stadt, written in 1920, is based on this
In Bruges, a film from Irish-British director Martin McDonagh,
Colin Farrell and Brendan Gleeson, is set almost entirely in
Bruges. The city's major landmarks and history are mentioned
repeatedly throughout the film, as are the contrasted viewpoints of
the two lead characters of the story.
The detective stories of
Pieter Aspe are situated in Bruges.
The Nun's Story, a dramatic film released by Warner Bros. Pictures in
1959, is mostly set in Bruges.
Niccolò Rising, the first volume of the 8 book House of Niccolò
Dorothy Dunnett is largely set in Bruges, and other books in
the series also have sections set in Bruges.
Floris, a Dutch television action series, written by Gerard Soeteman.
Alan Hollinghurst's novel
The Folding Star
The Folding Star is set in a Flemish town
that is recognisably Bruges.
L'Astrologue de Bruges, a Belgian bande dessinée in the Yoko Tsuno
series by Roger Leloup, is entirely set in Bruges, both contemporary
and in 1545.
In the last chapter of Saul Bellow's novel The Adventures of Augie
March Augie is driving through France on his way to
Bollywood film PK, opening scenes involving
Anushka Sharma and
Sushant Singh Rajput
Sushant Singh Rajput (including song Chaar Kadam) are set in Bruges.
In Austin Powers film series, the main antagonist, Dr. Evil was raised
Some scenes from episode 6 of season 2 of Marvel's Agents of
S.H.I.E.L.D. took place in Bruges, and local beer "Straffe Hendrik"
was mentioned and shown.
The story of the removal of the
Madonna of Bruges
Madonna of Bruges being removed by the
Nazis and then returned is told in the fact-based 2014 movie The
This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive
gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the
article subject are discouraged; please improve or remove the section
accordingly. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this
Panorama of the city, taken from the belfry (2009).
360° panorama of 't Zand.
View on the Groenerei (nl) (centre) and the
Rozenhoedkaai (nl) (right).
View from the Rozenhoedkaai.
The Spiegelrei (nl) and the Langerei (nl).
The Burg (nl) square at dawn.
Outside of the Beguinage, with the Minnewater (nl) Park in the
Inside of the Beguinage.
^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB)
^ Degraer, Hugo (1968). Repertorium van de pers in West-Vlaanderen
1807-1914. Nauwelaerts, University of Michigan. p. 143. ,
Snippet pages 143
^ Boniface, Brian G.; Cooper, Christopher P. (2001). Worldwide
destinations: the geography of travel and tourism (3 ed.).
Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 140. ISBN 0-7506-4231-9. ,
^ Statistics Belgium; Population de droit par commune au 1 janvier
2008 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1
January 2008. Retrieved on 19 October 2008.
^ Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file)
Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Definitions of
metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of
divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration
(agglomeratie), which in this case is
Bruges municipality, with
117,073 inhabitants (1 January 2008). Adding the closest surroundings
(banlieue) gives a total of 166,502. And, including the outer commuter
zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 255,844. Retrieved on
^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett.
^ Charlier, Roger H. (2005). "Grandeur, Decadence and Renaissance".
Journal of Coastal Research: 425–447. , quote: "Rise, fall and
resurrection make up the life story of Bruges, a city that glittered
in Northern Europe with as much panache as Venice did in the
^ Adam Fleming (25 October 2013). "
College of Europe
College of Europe in Bruges: Home
of Thatcher speech". BBC. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
^ Maurits Gysseling, Toponymisch woordenboek van België, Nederland,
Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226), Brussel
1960, p. 195.
^ "etymologiebank.nl". etymologiebank.nl. 5 April 1922. Retrieved 20
^ M. Philippa, F. Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim & N. van
der Sijs (2003–2009), Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands,
^ William Morris, ed. (1969). "Appendix, "Indo-European Roots"".
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. American
Heritage Publishing Co. p. 1510.
^ a b Charlier, Roger H. (2005). "Charlier, Roger H. "Grandeur,
Decadence and Renaissance". Journal of Coastal Research:
^ a b Charlier, Roger H. (2010). "The Zwin: From Golden Inlet to
Nature Reserve". Journal of Coastal Research. 27 (4): 746–756.
^ Mack Ott (2012). The Political Economy of Nation Building: The
World's Unfinished Business. Transaction Publishers. p. 92.
^ James Donald Tracy (1993). The Rise of Merchant Empires:
Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750. Cambridge
U.P. p. 263.
^ Nimmo, William; Gillespie, Robert (1880). The history of
Stirlingshire (3rd ed.). Glasgow: Thomas D. Morison. p. 369.
Retrieved 5 April 2017.
^ Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, in Vol. III
Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
^ Collins, Roger (1990). The Basques (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Basil
Blackwell. p. 241. ISBN 0631175652.
^ Phillips, William D.; Jr (1986). "Local Integration and
Long-Distance Ties: The Castilian Community in Sixteenth-Century
Bruges". Sixteenth Century Journal. 17 (1): 33–49.
^ Philip the Good: the apogee of
Burgundy by Richard Vaughan, p201
^ Dumolyn, Jan (2010). "'Our land is only founded on trade and
industry.' Economic discourses in fifteenth-century Bruges". Journal
Medieval History. 36 (4): 374–389.
^ Spruyt, H. (1996). The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An
Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton University Press. p. 88.
ISBN 9780691029108. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
^ a b Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver,
Burdett. p. 160.
^ David Plant (10 September 2007). "Charles, Prince of Wales, (later
Charles II), 1630-85". British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved 7 July
^ Andre de Vries (2007). Flanders:A Cultural History: A Cultural
History. Oxford U.P. p. 143.
^ (Excelsior Series 11, No. 51, Albert Sugg a Gand; ca. 1905):
Cranenburg, from the windows of which, in olden times, the Counts of
Flanders, with the lords and ladies of their Court, used to watch the
tournaments and pageants for which
Bruges was celebrated, and in which
Maximilian was imprisoned by the burghers in 1488 (
Bruges and West
Flanders, George W. T. Omond, Illustrated by Amédée Forestier, 1906.
Project Gutenberg Edition.)
^ Stephen V. (Stephen Victor) Ward (1998). Selling Places: The
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^ Hahn, Lindsay. "Skip the Crowds at Venice: 5 Better Canal Towns to
Visit". iExplore.com. Inside-Out Media. Retrieved 25 September
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Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett.
^ "Diamond Museum". Diamond Museum. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
^ "The Merchant Shipping Act : mv Herald of Free
Enterprise : Formal Investigation" (PDF). Maib.gov.uk. Retrieved
20 February 2014.
^ "Club Brugge krijgt schitterend nieuws in verband met nieuw
stadion". 22 October 2015.
^ University, United Nations. "Training Centres and Programmes -
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(Brugge) - Het Nieuwsblad". nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 13 March
See also: Bibliography of the history of Bruges
Murray, James M. Bruges, Cradle of Capitalism 1280–1390 (2005)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bruges.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bruges.
Official website (in English)
Texts on Wikisource:
"Bruges". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (9th ed.). 1878.
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
"Bruges". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
Places adjacent to Bruges
Municipalities in the Province of West Flanders, Flanders, Belgium
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
World Heritage Sites in Belgium
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier1
Belgium and France2
Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs
Historic Centre of Brugge
La Grand-Place, Brussels
Major Mining Sites of Wallonia
Major town houses of the architect Victor Horta
Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai
Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex
Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe3
1 Listing shared with six other countries, which includes Belgium's
Maison Guiette; 2 Listing shared with France; 3 Listing shared with
twelve other countries, which include's Belgium's Sonian Forest.
Members of the
Hanseatic League by Quarter
Chief cities shown in smallcaps.
Free Imperial Cities of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire shown in italics.
Frankfurt an der Oder
Dortmund were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at
Antwerp gained importance once
Bruges became inaccessible due to the
silting of the