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Brixton
Brixton
is a district of south London, England, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London
London
Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.[3] Brixton
Brixton
is mainly residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector.[4] It is a multiethnic community, with a large percentage of its population of Caribbean descent.[5] It lies within Inner south London
London
and is bordered by Stockwell, Clapham, Streatham, Camberwell, Tulse Hill
Tulse Hill
and Herne Hill.[6] The district houses the main offices of the London
London
Borough of Lambeth.[7] Brixton
Brixton
is 2.7 miles (4.3 km) south-southwest of the geographical centre of London
London
near Lambeth
Lambeth
North Underground station.[8][9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Until the mid-20th century 1.2 1948: The Windrush generation 1.3 1980s: Riots after police actions and Scarman Report 1.4 1990s 1.5 JayDay Cannabis Festival 1.6 Gentrification

2 Transition Town

2.1 Brixton
Brixton
Pound

3 Housing

3.1 Housing estates 3.2 Victorian buildings

4 Brixton
Brixton
Market 5 Culture

5.1 Brixton
Brixton
murals 5.2 Entertainment

6 Religious sites

6.1 Brixton
Brixton
Synagogue 6.2 Christian churches 6.3 Brixton
Brixton
Mosque

7 Policing, drugs and crime

7.1 Operation Swamp 7.2 Gang culture 7.3 Drugs 7.4 Brian Paddick 7.5 Gun crime

8 In popular culture

8.1 Music 8.2 Film and television 8.3 Video Games

9 Transport

9.1 Buses 9.2 London
London
Underground 9.3 National Rail 9.4 Road Network 9.5 Cross River Tram

10 Notable people 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Ashby's Mill, Brixton, also known as Brixton
Brixton
Windmill in 1864

A map showing the Brixton
Brixton
ward of Lambeth
Lambeth
Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.

Until the mid-20th century[edit] The name Brixton
Brixton
is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, a Saxon
Saxon
lord. Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey. The location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton
Brixton
Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, long before any settlement in the area. Brixton
Brixton
marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth
Lambeth
up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham. At the time the River Effra
River Effra
flowed from its source in Upper Norwood
Upper Norwood
through Herne Hill
Herne Hill
to Brixton. At Brixton
Brixton
the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road
Brixton Road
and Clapham
Clapham
Road. The main roads were connected through a network of medieval country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton
Brixton
Water Lane and Lyham Road, formerly Black Lane. It was only at the end of the 18th century that villages and settlements formed around Brixton, as the original woodland was gradually reduced until the area was covered in farmland and market gardens known for game and strawberries.[citation needed] The area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, the main settlements being near Stockwell, Brixton Hill
Brixton Hill
and Coldharbour Lane. With the opening of Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
in 1816, improved access to Central London
London
led to a process of suburban development. The largest single development, and one of the last in suburban character, was Angell Town, laid out in the 1850s on the east side of Brixton
Brixton
Road, and so named after a family that owned land in Lambeth
Lambeth
from the late 17th century until well into the 20th.[10] One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill
Brixton Hill
and surrounded by houses built during Brixton's Victorian expansion. When the London
London
sewerage system was constructed during the mid-19th century, its designer Sir Joseph Bazalgette
Sir Joseph Bazalgette
incorporated flows from the River Effra, which used to flow through Brixton, into his 'high-level interceptor sewer', also known as the Effra sewer.[citation needed] Brixton
Brixton
was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1860s and 1890s. Railways linked Brixton
Brixton
with the centre of London
London
when the Chatham Main Line
Chatham Main Line
was built through the area by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in the 1860s. In 1880, Electric Avenue
Electric Avenue
was so named after it became the first street in London
London
to be lit by electricity. In this time, large expensive houses were constructed along the main roads in Brixton, which were converted into flats and boarding houses at the start of the 20th century as the middle classes were replaced by an influx of the working classes. By 1925, Brixton
Brixton
attracted thousands of new people. It housed the largest shopping centre in South London
South London
at the time, as well as a thriving market, cinemas, pubs and a theatre. In the 1920s, Brixton was the shopping capital of South London
South London
with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britain's major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road
Brixton Road
is the main shopping area, fusing into Brixton
Brixton
Market. A prominent building on Brixton
Brixton
High Street (at 472–488 Brixton
Brixton
Road) is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1920s.[11]

The Sunlight Laundry, Brixton

On the western boundary of Brixton
Brixton
with Clapham
Clapham
stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco
Art Deco
factory building. Designed by architect F.E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, this is one of the few art deco buildings that is still owned by the firm that commissioned it and is still used for its original purpose. The Brixton
Brixton
area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by slum clearances and the building of council housing. In the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants, particularly from the West Indies, settled in Brixton.[10] More recent immigrants include a large Portuguese community (see Little Portugal) and other European citizens. Brixton
Brixton
also has an increasingly ageing population, which affects housing strategies in the area.[12] 1948: The Windrush generation[edit] See also: Windrush generation

The Empire Windrush
Empire Windrush
which brought immigrants from the Caribbean to Tilbury
Tilbury
in 1948.

Windrush Square
Windrush Square
street sign[13]

The first wave of immigrants (492 individuals) who formed the British African-Caribbean community arrived in 1948 at Tilbury
Tilbury
Docks on the HMT Empire Windrush
Empire Windrush
from Jamaica
Jamaica
and were temporarily housed in the Clapham
Clapham
South deep shelter. The nearest Labour Exchange (Jobcentre) was on Coldharbour Lane, Brixton, and the new arrivals spread out into local accommodation.[14][15][16] Many immigrants only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently.[14] The arrival of the passengers has become an important landmark in the history of modern Britain, and the image of West Indians filing off its gangplank has come to symbolise the beginning of modern British multicultural society.[14] In 1998 the area in front of the Tate Library in Brixton
Brixton
was renamed "Windrush Square" to mark the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Windrush.[10] 1980s: Riots after police actions and Scarman Report[edit] Main articles: 1981 Brixton
Brixton
riot, 1985 Brixton
Brixton
riot, and Scarman report

Atlantic Road, August 2007

Brixton
Brixton
was the scene of riots in April 1981 at a time when Brixton underwent deep social and economic problems—high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, no amenities—in a predominantly African-Caribbean community.[17] The Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime, largely through the repeated use of the so-called sus law, which allowed police officers to stop and search any individual on the grounds of mere "suspicion" of possible wrongdoing. Plain clothes police officers were dispatched into Brixton, and within five days almost 1,000 people were stopped and searched under this law.[18] There was intense local indignation at this, since the vast majority of those stopped by the police were young black men. The riot resulted in almost 279 injuries to police and 45 injuries to members of the public,[19] more than a hundred vehicles were burned (including 56 police vehicles), and almost 150 buildings were damaged, with 30 burned. There were 82 arrests. Reports suggested that up to 5,000 people were involved in the riot.[20] Following the 1981 Brixton riot
1981 Brixton riot
the Government commissioned a public inquiry into the riot headed by Lord Scarman. The subsequent Scarman report was published in November 1981 and found unquestionable evidence of the disproportionate and indiscriminate use of 'stop and search' powers by the police against black people. The report made a number of recommendations and led to a new code for police behaviour in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
and the creation of an independent Police Complaints Authority in 1985.[21] The 1999 Macpherson Report, an investigation into the murder of Stephen Lawrence, found that recommendations of the 1981 Scarman report had been ignored and concluded that the police force was "institutionally racist".[22] The 1985 Brixton riot followed the police shooting of a local black woman, Dorothy 'Cherry' Groce, after the police had entered her house looking for her son Michael Groce. Although the Brixton
Brixton
area subsequently saw pioneering community policing initiatives, the continued death of young black men in police custody (and in one case the death of a man pointing a fake gun at people) coupled with general distrust of the police led to smaller scale protests through the 1990s. 1990s[edit] The 1995 riots were initially sparked by the death of a black man (Wayne Douglas) in police custody and occurred in an atmosphere of discontent about the gentrification of Brixton. Former Prime Minister John Major's own childhood roots in Brixton
Brixton
were used in a campaign poster during the Conservative Party's 1992 election campaign: "What does the Conservative Party offer a working class kid from Brixton? They made him Prime Minister."[23]

Electric Avenue, inspiration of the Eddy Grant
Eddy Grant
single, part of Brixton Market, and site of the 1999 bombing

On 17 April 1999 neo-nazi bomber David Copeland
David Copeland
planted a nail bomb in Electric Avenue, which exploded on a market day by the Iceland supermarket at the junction with Brixton Road
Brixton Road
( Brixton
Brixton
High Street). Copeland was sentenced to six concurrent life sentences in June 2000. The Brixton
Brixton
bombing is reported to have targeted the black community in Brixton. Copeland also bombed Brick Lane, the heart of East London's Bangladeshi and Asian community, and the Admiral Duncan pub in Soho, London, frequented predominantly by the gay community. The BBC reports that Copeland intended to ignite a race war across Britain with his bombing campaign.[24] A 2009 play about the events, The First Domino, was written by one victim in the Soho
Soho
attack.[25] JayDay Cannabis Festival[edit] From 2001 to 2004, Brockwell Park
Brockwell Park
hosted the annual Cannabis Festival, or JayDay, organised by the Cannabis Coalition. The police reportedly maintained a low profile, tolerating the smoking of cannabis.[26][27] In 2005 the London Borough of Lambeth
London Borough of Lambeth
rejected the application for a further Cannabis Festival on the following grounds:

"While Lambeth
Lambeth
Council supports freedom of speech and the right to take part in a legitimate campaign, the council cannot condone illegal activities such as cannabis use and drug pushing – both of which have taken place at a previous festival held by the Cannabis Coalition. Indeed council officers monitoring the event in the past were approached by drug dealers who offered them drugs."[28]

Gentrification[edit] There is debate regarding whether Brixton's recent renaissance is regeneration or gentrification.[29] Some believe the area has slowly undergone a process of gentrification since the 1990s and has resulted in many wealthy middle-class people taking advantage of the area's location and the thriving Bohemian
Bohemian
art scene. However, others argue that the area is undergoing exciting regeneration.[30][31][32] In recent years Brixton
Brixton
has hosted a regular farmers' market on Station Road, as well as Pop-up restaurants and pop-up shops. New art galleries, delicatessens, bars, cafes and vintage clothing stores, particularly in and around Brixton
Brixton
Village Market have also opened, which some believe is gentrifying the area in a similar way to that in nearby Clapham.[33] Brixton
Brixton
was awarded The Great Neighbourhood Award 2013 (covering the UK and Ireland) by The Academy of Urbanism.[34] In April 2015, a Reclaim Brixton
Brixton
protest was held by local residents and activists. Transition Town[edit] Brixton
Brixton
was one of the first inner-city based 'Transition Town' projects in the UK.[35] Brockwell Park
Brockwell Park
hosts the now annual Urban Green Fair, first held in summer 2007.[36] Brixton
Brixton
Pound[edit] The Brixton
Brixton
Pound was first trialled at Transition Town Brixton's "Local Economy Day" on 19 June 2008. It was then launched on 17 September 2009 by Transition Town Brixton.[37] The Brixton
Brixton
Pound is a local currency that is available as an alternative to the pound sterling.[38] The first trading day of the Brixton
Brixton
Pound was on 18 September 2009 with 80 local businesses accepting the currency.[39] Other towns in the UK that use their own currency include Bristol, Totnes in Devon, Stroud in Gloucestershire and Lewes in Sussex. The Brixton
Brixton
Pound aims to boost the local economy and build a mutual support system amongst independent businesses by tying local shoppers to local shops and by encouraging local shops to source goods and services locally.[39] The notes are available in B£1, B£5, B£10, and B£20 denominations and depict local celebrities such as the community activist Olive Morris and the environmentalist James Lovelock. Lambeth
Lambeth
Council has endorsed the project,[39] which the New Economics Foundation helped to develop.[40] On 29 September 2011, the Brixton
Brixton
Pound launched an electronic version of the currency where users can pay by text message.

Reverse of the B£10 note

A second issue of the paper currency was launched, featuring a new set of well-known people with Brixton
Brixton
connections: On the B£1, the Black Cultural Archives founder Len Garrison, on the B£5, NBA basketball player Luol Deng
Luol Deng
(the reverse was inspired by the Evelyn Grace Academy), David Bowie
David Bowie
on the B£10 and World War II
World War II
secret agent Violette Szabo
Violette Szabo
on the B£20.[41] The reverse of the notes, designed by a Brixton
Brixton
creative agency This Ain't Rock'n'Roll, feature notable local landmarks such as the Stockwell
Stockwell
Skatepark, public art on Electric Avenue, Nuclear Dawn (one of the Brixton
Brixton
murals), and the Stirling Prize-winning Evelyn Grace Academy. All four notes feature a design motif inspired by Coldharbour Lane's Southwyck House
Southwyck House
(or "Barrier Block"). In 2015, to celebrate the Brixton
Brixton
Pound's fifth anniversary, the Turner Prize-winning artist Jeremy Deller
Jeremy Deller
was commissioned to design a limited-edition B£5 note.[42] It was described as "psychedelic and political", with the front featuring bright colors and the back with a quotation from Karl Marx’s Das Kapital
Das Kapital
("Capital is money, capital is commodities...By virtue of it being value, it has acquired the occult ability to add value to itself. It brings forth living offspring, or, at the least, lays golden eggs.")[43] Housing[edit] Housing estates[edit]

The Loughborough Estate in the east of the area

Brixton
Brixton
is home to six large housing estates: Stockwell
Stockwell
Park Estate off Stockwell
Stockwell
and Brixton
Brixton
Roads respectively; Myatt's Fields South and North off Vassall Road; Angell Town off Brixton Road
Brixton Road
on the boundary with Camberwell; Loughborough in the centre of Brixton; Moorlands Estate, situated off Coldharbour Lane; St Matthew's, located in the fork between Brixton Hill
Brixton Hill
and Effra Road; Tulse Hill
Tulse Hill
Estate a little further south of St. Matthews.[5] The six estates account for a large part of the Brixton
Brixton
residence.[4] Estates like the Stockwell
Stockwell
Park Estate and the Angell Town Estate were originally designed to accommodate high-level walkways which were envisaged to link the whole of Brixton. The ground-floor garages of these estates have proved to be a major security problem.[12] The Somerleyton Estate is dominated by Southwyck House
Southwyck House
(known locally as "Barrier Block"), a large horseshoe-shaped brick and concrete 1970s structure that backs onto Coldharbour Lane. The 176-apartment block was originally constructed in this shape to provide a noise barrier against Ringway 1, a proposed inner- London
London
motorway that was planned to pass through Brixton
Brixton
and Camberwell, later abandoned.[44]

Map of Brixton
Brixton
in 1889, showing Coldharbour Lane, Angell Town and Loughborough Road. Published in Life and Labour of the People in London
London
by Charles Booth. The red areas are "middle-class, well-to-do" and the yellow areas are "upper-middle and upper classes, wealthy".

Some housing estates have been linked with urban decay and crime. New gates and iron bars have been constructed for the Loughborough Estate around Loughborough Road and Minet Road in response to a number of murders around the estate. The Loughborough Estate is home to more than 3,000 families and a mix of 1940s low-rise buildings and 1960s/1970s tower blocks and houses.[5] Problems of urban decay have been reported around Loughborough Junction, the catchment area for Loughborough Estate, the Angell Town Estate and the Moorlands Estate.[45] Victorian buildings[edit] Brixton
Brixton
still features some grand Victorian housing.[5] As bridges were built across the Thames
Thames
in the early 19th century those working in the City of London
London
and the London
London
West End moved to south London. The earliest built development was in Washway, now Brixton
Brixton
Road. With the enclosing of the Manor of Lambeth, owned by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1806 and the opening of Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
in 1816 development of terraced houses and detached villas started to line the main roads. St Matthew's Church in the centre of Brixton
Brixton
was consecrated in 1824, indicating a sizeable population by this time. The Rush Common enclosure stipulations dictated that the large terraced and detached houses that were built along the main roads were set back from the road, allowing for generous gardens. The windmill was erected in 1816 by John Ashby on Brixton Hill
Brixton Hill
and the Surrey
Surrey
House of Correction, later Brixton
Brixton
prison, was established in 1819.[46] Brixton
Brixton
Market[edit]

Scotch bonnet
Scotch bonnet
peppers imported from the Caribbean on sale at Brixton Market. The peppers are a key ingredient of "Jerk" dishes (Caribbean cuisine).

Main article: Brixton
Brixton
Market With the arrival of the railway in Brixton
Brixton
in the 1870s a building boom set in and Brixton
Brixton
developed into a major shopping centre. The first purpose-built department store, Bon Marché, was opened on Brixton Road
Brixton Road
in 1877 and Electric Avenue
Electric Avenue
was one of the first shopping arcades to have electric lighting. The now famous Brixton Market
Brixton Market
began in Atlantic Road and was moved to Station Road in the 1920s to ease traffic congestion.[46] Brixton Market
Brixton Market
is open every day, selling a range of Afro-Caribbean products and reflects other communities in the local area with Indian and Vietnamese supermarkets and South American butchers amongst the shops and stalls.[citation needed]. London Farmers' Markets opened a farmers market on Brixton
Brixton
Station Road in September 2009. It is open every Sunday from 10 am to 2 pm. Culture[edit] Brixton
Brixton
murals[edit]

Brixton Academy
Brixton Academy
Mural, 1982

Main article: Brixton
Brixton
murals After the riots in 1981 a series of murals were funded by the council. The murals portray nature, politics, community and ideas. The surviving murals include the Brixton Academy
Brixton Academy
Mural ( Stockwell
Stockwell
Park Walk) by Stephen Pusey (1982) showing a mixed group of young people, intended to portray the natural harmony that could be found between children of mixed backgrounds in the local schools. Entertainment[edit]

The Ritzy Cinema

Brixton
Brixton
Academy

The Ritzy Cinema, Coldharbour Lane, is a formerly independent cinema now owned by Picturehouse Cinemas. The building was designed as the Electric Pavilion in 1910 by E. C. Homer and Lucas, one of England's first purpose-built cinemas.[47] Brixton
Brixton
has a significant clubbing and live music scene. Large venues include Brixton
Brixton
Academy, Electric Brixton
Electric Brixton
and Mass at St Matthew's Church. A range of smaller venues such as The Prince Albert, The Prince / DexClub, The Windmill, The Dogstar, Jamm, The Telegraph, Plan B, Hootananny, The 414, The Effra Tavern, Upstairs at the Ritzy, and The Grosvenor are a major part of London's live music scene.[48] The Brixton
Brixton
Splash is an annual one-day street party held since 2006. The event is community run, showcasing local talent and celebrating the cultural diversity and history of Brixton.[49] Brixton
Brixton
is also home to a 1970s purpose-built skatepark, named Stockwell
Stockwell
Skatepark.[citation needed] Religious sites[edit] Brixton
Brixton
Synagogue[edit] Brixton
Brixton
Synagogue at 49 Effra Road opened in 1913 and closed in 1986, with the congregation then amalgamating with the nearby Streatham Synagogue. The front of the building still exists.[50] Christian churches[edit]

St Matthew's Brixton

Brixton
Brixton
lies within the Anglican Diocese of Southwark.[51] The grade II*listed St Matthew's Church, located on Brixton
Brixton
Green, was built in 1822 by the architect C. F. Porden in the Greek Revival style.[52] It is one of the "Waterloo churches" built to celebrate Britain's victory at the Battle of Waterloo. St. Saviour's Church was a location filming site of Alfred Hitchcock's The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1955, identified in the film as Ambrose Chapel. The 1868 parish church of St Jude, located on Dulwich
Dulwich
Road, was designed by the architect John Kirk of Woolwich. It closed in 1975, and the parish merged with St Matthew's. The church building is today used as business premises by a publishing company.[53] Christ Church on Brixton Road
Brixton Road
is an Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
and Byzantine-style Grade II*listed building built in 1902 by Beresford Pite,[54] and St Paul's church on Ferndale Road was originally built in 1958 as a Seventh-day Adventist church by John Soper. Corpus Christi Church in Brixton
Brixton
comes under the remit of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Southwark.[55] Brixton
Brixton
Mosque[edit] Main article: Brixton
Brixton
Mosque The Masjid ibn Taymeeyah, or Brixton Mosque
Brixton Mosque
and Islamic Cultural Centre, is located in Gresham Road, close to Brixton
Brixton
Police Station. The mosque has facilities for both men and women and space for 400 worshippers during prayer.[56] Opened in 1990 it is one of the oldest mosques in South London. The mosque provides religious, social and financial support to its members.[57] The mosque made international headlines when it was reported that Richard Reid, the so-called "shoe bomber", had attended the mosque. Abdul Haqq Baker, chairman of Brixton
Brixton
Mosque, told the BBC that Reid came to the mosque to learn about Islam but soon fell in with what he called "more extreme elements".[58] Zacarias Moussaoui, who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens of the USA as part of 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks, made his initial steps into radical indoctrination in Brixton
Brixton
Mosque, where he met Reid, though he was expelled from the mosque after he turned up wearing combat fatigues and a backpack, and pressured the cleric to give him information on joining the jihad. Abdullah el-Faisal, a radical Muslim cleric who preached in the UK until imprisoned for stirring up hatred and later deported to Jamaica
Jamaica
in 2007, was associated with the Brixton
Brixton
Mosque and began preaching to crowds of up to 500 people, but was ousted by its Salafi
Salafi
administration in 1993.[59][59] Afterward, he gave a lecture he called The Devil's Deception of the Saudi Salafis, scorning the Salafi
Salafi
Muslims (especially the members of the Brixton
Brixton
Mosque), calling them hypocrites and apostates (takfir).[60] Brixton
Brixton
was a site of a conference after the London
London
bombings, at which local Muslims condemned all use of terror and indiscriminate killing. Footage of the conference was included in a six-part ITV series called Mosque. It included local Muslims talking about the discrimination they face from people not able to differentiate between Muslims and terrorists, and the local Brixton
Brixton
community, on the whole, is described as welcoming towards Muslims.[citation needed] Policing, drugs and crime[edit] Operation Swamp[edit] Main article: 1981 Brixton
Brixton
riot Before the 1981 riot was the centre of "Operation Swamp 81" aimed at reducing street crime mainly through the heavy use of the so-called sus law, which allowed police to stop and search individuals on the basis of a mere "suspicion" of wrongdoing. Plainclothes police officers were dispatched into Brixton, and in five days almost 1,000 people were stopped and searched. The local community was not consulted about the operation and tensions between the black community and the police on the streets of Brixton
Brixton
reached breaking point. Local residents complained about young, inexperienced police officers being sent on the streets, provoking confrontation.[61] Gang culture[edit] Main article: Yardies In 2003 The Independent
The Independent
reported that around 200 "hardcore Yardies" are based in Lambeth, some operating as members of "Firehouse Posse" or Brixton's "Kartel Crew".[62] Yardies were historically associated with Jamaican immigrants and had a recognised stronghold in Brixton. Parts of Brixton
Brixton
were referred to as "Little Tivoli" after "Tivoli Gardens", a notorious "garrison community" in Jamaica
Jamaica
ruled by gunmen.[63][64] In 1999 a scandal broke over Metropolitan Police detectives allowing two known Jamaican Yardies to stay in Britain as an intelligence tool. Eaton Green, one of the Yardies, escaped bail in Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1991 and settled in Brixton, dealing in crack cocaine. Three months later Green was arrested by a Brixton
Brixton
constable, Steve Barker, and became a paid informer. Green provided intelligence about Yardie activity for two years, continuing the use of firearms and the dealing of crack throughout this time.[65] Several gangs are headquartered in the Brixton
Brixton
area. The "Murderzone" (MZ) gang, which is involved in illegal drug dealing, hail from the Somerleyton Estate.[66] The "Poverty Driven Children"/"Pil dem crew" (PDC) are located in the Angell Town and Loughborough Junction area.[67][68] "Organised Crime" (OC), a gang linked with various shootings and an ongoing rivalry with the Peckham
Peckham
Boys, are based in the Myatts Field Estate.[69][70] "Guns and Shanks"/"Grind and Stack"/"Grip and Shoot" (GAS) is located mainly in Angell Town.[71] In 2011, five of the most prominent members of the GAS Gang — Ricardo Giddings, Helder Demorais, Jamal Moore, Shaquille Haughton and Kyle Kinghorn — were sentenced to a total of 76 years in prison for the murder of rival gang member, fifteen-year-old Zac Olumegbon.[72] Members of local gangs are mostly in their late teens or early 20s, with gang leaders usually being childhood friends. Brought up in some of London's poorest areas some gang members reportedly move from house to house on an almost nightly basis, making it hard to track them. According to the Metropolitan Police, these youth gangs are far from organised criminal masterminds; however, they continue to evade the police and have been responsible for numerous offences of homicide. Operation Trident officers stated that it is a "struggle" to persuade local people to testify, because of fear of reprisals. Trident officers stated that some gang members were "inept at handling powerful guns", and that gangs have machine guns, 9 mm. According to the detective many of the deactivated guns are shipped in from the Balkans and then reactivated.[73] Drugs[edit] Some media commentators persistently call Brixton
Brixton
"the drugs capital of London".[74] Val Shawcross, Labour representative on the London Assembly for Lambeth
Lambeth
and Southwark, runs a " Brixton
Brixton
Drug Crime" campaign and she states on her website:

I have been raising the disgraceful state of Brixton
Brixton
and the existence of an open drugs market in the centre – with the Council, Mayor and the Metropolitan police... The police, the Drugs and Firearms Unit and Transport Operational Unit officers have been undertaking long-term surveillance of the area ( Brixton
Brixton
Town Centre) culminating in a three-day operation at the end of June to arrest those dealing Class A drugs... The police will be carrying out continuing covert operations in Brixton
Brixton
and patrolling with drug detection dogs. This is a long-term crackdown with the aim on cleaning the dealers out of Brixton.(retrieved July 2008)[75]

For many decades, Brixton
Brixton
has had a reputation for cannabis use and the BBC has quoted a local resident as saying "People have always smoked cannabis in Brixton
Brixton
– everyone knows that, people have walked down the street smoking spliffs for years." This reputation was amplified by the "softly softly" police approach to cannabis that was piloted in Brixton
Brixton
in 2001 to 2005. Concerns were raised about "drug tourism" to the area.[45] The "softly-softly" pilot occurred in the context of a wider debate in Britain about the classification of cannabis. Despite the pilot being stopped and replaced by a "no deal" policy, the Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
was in favour of a reclassification of cannabis from class B to class C. Cannabis was officially reclassified in Britain from a class B down to a class C drug in early 2004. In January 2009 the UK government reclassified cannabis back to a class B drug.[76][77][78] Brian Paddick[edit] In 2001 Brixton
Brixton
became subject of newspaper headlines due to the implementation of a pilot cannabis programme, also known as the "softly softly" approach, initiated by Brian Paddick, then Police Commander for the London
London
Borough of Lambeth. Police officers were instructed not to arrest or charge people who were found to be in possession of cannabis. They were instead to issue on-the-spot warnings and confiscate the drugs. Although Paddick is credited with the idea, the pilot programme was sanctioned by the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, Sir John Stevens. Paddick asserts that he implemented the policy because he wanted his officers to deal with cannabis quickly and informally so that they could concentrate on heroin and crack cocaine offences, and street robbery and burglary, which were affecting the quality of life in Lambeth
Lambeth
to a greater extent.[79] The pilot was ended December 2005 and was replaced by a so-called "no deal" policy on cannabis in Brixton
Brixton
following complaints about increasing numbers of dealers openly selling the drug.[80] Paddick was a sergeant on the front line during the 1981 Brixton riot,[81] an experience which shaped his attitudes about confrontational police action and strengthened his belief in community policing.[82] In December 2000 he was appointed Police Commander for the London Borough of Lambeth
London Borough of Lambeth
where he worked until December 2002,[83] fulfilling his ambition of becoming head of policing in Brixton.[84] Paddick gained much support from the local community for his approach to policing and addressed a rally in his support in March 2002, leading Dominic Casciani from the BBC to comment:

If someone had said just five years ago that black, white, young and old, straight and gay, liberal and anarchist would all be standing together giving a standing ovation to a police commander in Brixton, people might have said they had smoked one spliff too many.[85]

Gun crime[edit] In June 1998, gun crime in Brixton
Brixton
was reported on widely in connection with the linked murders of Avril Johnson and Michelle Carby, in Brixton
Brixton
and Stratford respectively. Both women were shot in their respective homes in separate, but connected, attacks; in addition, both victims were shot in the head.[86] In 2008 Tony Thompson, a former Time Out news editor, reported that "Gun crime began to escalate following a series of South London
South London
gang executions in the late 1990s." Thompson states that "Previous Met operations were seen as putting down the black community. Trident, from the start, was intelligence-led and had strong links with the black community."[87] In 2001 the Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
raised concerns over rapidly increasing gun crime in London. At the time Lambeth
Lambeth
had the highest rate of robberies in London. In July 2001 two armed police officers shot dead black 29-year-old Derek Bennett in Brixton, Angell Town Estate, after Bennett brandished a gun-shaped cigarette lighter. The verdict of the subsequent inquest ruled that Bennett had been "lawfully killed", the verdict was upheld in a subsequent appeal.[88][89][90] In December 2004 Operation Trident officers and armed officers were assisting Lambeth
Lambeth
police in a number of stop and search operations targeting "suspected gunmen or vehicles that have been associated with firearms" and called "Operation Trident Swoop" by the police. The Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
hoped that "the searches will deter suspects from carrying weapons and prevent shootings taking place, as well as possibly recovering weapons and leading to arrests."[91] Superintendent Jerry Savill, Lambeth
Lambeth
Police has responsibility for policing in the Brixton
Brixton
area, stated:

This operation is aimed very specifically at people we have information to suggest may be involved in gun crime or other offences. We want to send out a very clear message to those who carry guns in Lambeth, don't. It is time to stop the vast majority of people in this borough feeling afraid to be on the street and make it the gunmen who are fearful of their community helping the police to arrest them.[91]

In September 2006 Brixton
Brixton
was the scene of a widely reported shooting, involving two boys being shot in the packed McDonald's on Brixton Road/Acre Lane.[92] In 2007 firearm offences rose by 4 per cent in London, totalling 3,459 "gun-enabled" crimes, including 30 gun murders of which nine victims were aged 18 or under. A series of gun crimes in the Brixton, Clapham and Streatham, including the Murders of three boys in one week, lead some media commentators to call the area "gun capital".[93] In popular culture[edit] Music[edit]

Electric Avenue, the street that gave its name to Eddy Grant's 1982 single

David Bowie's mural painted by James Cochran in his hometown of Brixton
Brixton
features his character Aladdin Sane. The mural became a shrine to Bowie after his death.[94]

References to Brixton
Brixton
in song started with the release of "Whoppi King" by Laurel Aitken
Laurel Aitken
in 1968 and " Brixton
Brixton
Cat" by Dice the Boss in 1969. This was later followed in August 1975 by a popular novelty song written and sung by Geraint Hughes and Jeff Calvert (who billed themselves as "Typically Tropical"): two white men who told the story of a Brixton
Brixton
bus-driver "going to Barbados" with "Coconut Airways" to escape the rain of London.

The 1979 punk song "The Guns of Brixton" by the Clash deals with law enforcement violence in Brixton. Written by the group's bass player Paul Simonon, who grew up in Brixton, it had a strong reggae influence. Sex Gang Children, a post-punk band who are attributed with pioneering the goth movement, were formed and based in Brixton
Brixton
in the early 1980s. Andi Sex Gang
Andi Sex Gang
lived in Brixton
Brixton
for many years. Before a Jam gig, well-known punk band the Misfits were involved in a fight and thrown into Brixton
Brixton
Prison, which led them to write their song " London
London
Dungeon". Sneakbo, rapper Big Narstie, rapper Eddy Grant's 1982 album Killer on the Rampage
Killer on the Rampage
contains his hit song "Electric Avenue", a reference to the well known shopping street in central Brixton, which was one of the first in the UK to have electric street lighting installed (when Brixton's character was very different). The song evokes images of poverty, violence and misery but also celebrates the energising vibe of the area. Simple Minds
Simple Minds
mention "Get out of Bombay... go up to Brixton" in their 1984 song 'Up on the Catwalk'. The song "Journey to the Centre of Brixton" by R.O.C. The song "Brixton, Bronx ou Baixada" by Brazilian rock-reggae band O Rappa, tells about social differences. The song "And God Created Brixton" features on the Carter USM
Carter USM
album A World Without Dave. It mentions many of the most famous landmarks in the community including the Ritzy cinema and the prison. The subject of Maxi Priest's 1990 hit song "Close to You" is from Brixton. Amy Winehouse's song "Me and Mr Jones" features a reference to Brixton. California punk band Rancid wrote a song called "Brixton" that appeared on the Rock Stars Kill compilation, and later on B Sides and C Sides. The electronic band Chase and Status collaborated with Cee-Lo Green
Cee-Lo Green
on their record Brixton
Brixton
Briefcase, which features on the album No More Idols. In the track "Buckingham Palace" on rapper Canibus' 1998 debut album Can-I-Bus, Brixton
Brixton
is mentioned in the lyrical line "From Brixton
Brixton
to Clapham
Clapham
Common, my lyrics invade Europe like Josef Stalin, I murder n*****for rhymin". Robbie Williams
Robbie Williams
mentions "moving bricks to Brixton" in his 2012 song "Candy".

Film and television[edit]

Director Richard Parry's 2001 film South West Nine (SW9), whose name refers to the postcode covering much of central Brixton, was shot here. Confusingly, this postcode is officially that of Stockwell
Stockwell
– although the northern part of Brixton
Brixton
falls within the boundary – whereas SW2 (the Brixton Hill
Brixton Hill
sorting office) also covers Tulse Hill A204 road, Streatham
Streatham
Hill and Brixton
Brixton
Hill. Sarah Manning, a fictional character from Orphan Black, the BBC America Series, was from Brixton. In the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, one of the fictional co-directors listed is Reg Llama of Brixton.

Video Games[edit]

The location of the third games, the sequel to Watch Dogs 2
Watch Dogs 2
is set to be in Brixton
Brixton
in an update of the game which revealed a cutscene.

Transport[edit] Buses[edit] Brixton
Brixton
is served by London
London
Buses routes 2, 3, 35, 37, 45, 57, 59, 109, 118, 133, 137, 159, 196, 201, 250, 322, 333, 345, 355, 415, 417, 432, P4, P5, N2, N3, N35, N109, N133 and N137. London
London
Underground[edit]

Brixton tube station
Brixton tube station
entrance

The nearest station is Brixton
Brixton
on the Victoria line. National Rail[edit]

Map of rail & tube lines passing through Brixton

The nearest station is Brixton
Brixton
for Southeastern services towards London
London
Victoria and Orpington. Road Network[edit] Brixton
Brixton
is located on several main roads. The A203, A204 and A2217 links the area to Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
and the A23 London
London
to Brighton
Brighton
road runs through the area from the north to the south. Brixton
Brixton
was due to be a major interchange of the South Cross Route, part of the London Ringways plan, which was cancelled in the 1970s. Cross River Tram[edit] Transport for London
London
proposed to build the Cross River Tram
Cross River Tram
from Camden Town
Camden Town
to Brixton
Brixton
via central London, but this project was abandoned in 2008 due to lack of funding. Notable people[edit]

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Main article: List of people from Lambeth

Former Prime Minister John Major

Poet Linton Kwesi Johnson

Three people who have lived in Brixton
Brixton
have blue plaques marking their former homes:

Havelock Ellis, pioneer sexologist lived at Dover Mansions on Canterbury Crescent[95] C. L. R. James, the writer and black political activist, lived in Railton Road,[96] above the offices of Race Today.[97] Dan Leno
Dan Leno
(1860–1904), an English music hall comedian famous for his drag acts (56 Akerman Road).

Other notable people with Brixton
Brixton
connections include:

David Bowie
David Bowie
was born at 40 Stansfield Road, Brixton. Former London
London
Mayor Ken Livingstone
Ken Livingstone
grew up and lived for many years in Brixton. Former British Prime Minister John Major
John Major
spent part of his childhood in a two-room flat off Coldharbour Lane
Coldharbour Lane
living with his father, former Music Hall
Music Hall
performer Tom Major-Ball. Although now in Brixton,[dubious – discuss] the address at the time was in Camberwell
Camberwell
prior to a minor boundary change. He then moved to a house on Burton Road, having been born in Worcester Park, Sutton. He began his political career as a local Lambeth
Lambeth
Councillor while still living in the area.[98]

Musician David Bowie

Max Wall, comedian and music hall performer, was born in Brixton. Freddie Davies, the "parrot-faced" comedian and actor, was born in Brixton
Brixton
in 1937. Poly Styrene, the singer of the band X-Ray Spex, was born in Bromley in 1957 but grew up in Brixton.[99] Danny Williams, heavyweight boxer, was born in Brixton Paul Simonon
Paul Simonon
and Mick Jones of The Clash
The Clash
are both from Brixton. Drum and bass
Drum and bass
producer Dillinja is from Brixton. Screenwriter, director Daniel Mulloy was born in Brixton. The band Alabama 3
Alabama 3
were formed in Brixton. Linton Kwesi Johnson
Linton Kwesi Johnson
the poet is a long-time Brixton
Brixton
resident House music
House music
duo Basement Jaxx
Basement Jaxx
formed in Brixton. EBK, long-term resident of Brixton Fruitbat
Fruitbat
of power-pop punk band Carter the Unstoppable Sex Machine
Carter the Unstoppable Sex Machine
was a long-time Brixton
Brixton
resident. Joe Cornish, presenter of the BBC production Adam and Joe in the 1990s, and current comedy radio presenter on BBC6 Music with Adam Buxton. Bradley McIntosh, member of pop group S Club 7. Sharon Osbourne, wife of Ozzy Osbourne
Ozzy Osbourne
and daughter of Don Arden, was born in Brixton. Mike Skinner of the band "The Streets" moved to Brixton
Brixton
c. 2000 to pursue his recording career. Some of his songs are about living in Brixton. Skin, singer of the band Skunk Anansie, grew up in Brixton. Stereo MC's, acid jazz/club dance group, was formed and is still based in Brixton. Novelist Martin Millar lived here, and most of his novels are set in and around Brixton. Environmentalist James Lovelock, famous for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, was born and spent his childhood in Brixton.[100] Frank Reginald Carey, Second World War fighter ace, was born in Brixton. Jo Self, artist, long-term resident of Brixton. Iwan Thomas, Olympic athlete. Nyron Nosworthy, professional footballer Shivani Kapoor, Indian model In the musical comedy Leave it to Jeeves, P. G. Wodehouse
P. G. Wodehouse
revealed that his iconic manservant Jeeves
Jeeves
grew up in Brixton. Several members of the So Solid Crew. Sneakbo, rapper Big Narstie, rapper Luol Deng, player for the American basketball team Miami Heat, lived and played in Brixton. Alex Wheatle, novelist. Lisa Maffia, singer and TV personality, was brought up in Brixton. Bunmi Mojekwu, actress. James Dagwell, journalist and former BBC News presenter, lived in Brixton La Roux
La Roux
(Elly Jackson), musician, was born and raised in Brixton. Hew Locke, contemporary artist, a resident of more than 20 years, has cited Brixton
Brixton
and its market as an influence on his work. Mooji, spiritual teacher, lived in Brixton Nikki Sudden
Nikki Sudden
and Dave Kusworth, of the Jacobites shared a house on Norwood Road, Brixton, in the early 1980s. Danny Kirwan
Danny Kirwan
of the band Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
was born and raised in Brixton.

References[edit]

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Brixton
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has run on the pound as shoppers clamour for local currency". The Times. London.  ^ " Brixton
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Pound ready for launch". AOL. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.  ^ "Show Me the Money". Brixton
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Winner Jeremy Deller Designs Psychedelic Brixton
Brixton
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Brixton
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Brixton
Archived 9 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Ritzy Cinema
Ritzy Cinema
SW2 1JG". Myvillage.com.  ^ " London
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Lambeth
North Deanery". Church of England. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  ^ F. H. W. Sheppard (General Editor) (1956). "Brixton: Rush Common". Survey of London: volume 26: Lambeth: Southern area. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "East Brixton
Brixton
St Jude" (PDF). Former places of worship in the Diocese of Southwark. Church of England. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  ^ "East Brixton
Brixton
Rd Christ Church". Church of England. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  ^ "Corpus Christi Brixton
Brixton
Hill". Archdiocese of Southwark. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  ^ " Brixton Mosque
Brixton Mosque
and Islamic Cultural Centre". Salaam.co.uk. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ " Brixton Mosque
Brixton Mosque
& Islamic Cultural Centre, Museums, Heritage UK". Totaltravel.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 December 2008.  ^ "Shoe bomb suspect 'one of many'". BBC News. 26 December 2001. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ a b Johnston, Philip (27 May 2007). "7 July preacher Abdullah El-Faisal deported". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 December 2007.  ^ "Video of lecture 'The Devil's Deception of the Saudi Salafis'".  ^ Battle for Brixton, Youtube.com Youtube.com ^ "Focus: Gun Culture: Gun gangs of the capital Find Articles at BNET". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007.  ^ "Yardie gangs control cocaine network in Britain". The Times. Jamaica
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Gleaner. 25 February 2002. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008.  ^ Gangsinlondon blog Archived 10 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Police damned over Yardie chaos". The Guardian. London. 16 February 1999.  ^ "10 held in raids on 'Murder Zone' gang". London
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brixton, London
London
district.

Urban75: A resource of Brixton
Brixton
information, features, articles, contemporary photography and " Brixton
Brixton
then and now" comparisons London
London
Borough of Lambeth's Draft Brixton
Brixton
Conservation Area Statement

Places adjacent to Brixton

Stockwell Kennington Camberwell

Clapham

Brixton

Herne Hill

Balham Streatham
Streatham
Hill Tulse Hill

v t e

London
London
Borough of Lambeth

Districts

Brixton Clapham Clapham
Clapham
Park Crystal Palace Gipsy Hill Grange Mills Herne Hill Kennington Knight's Hill Lambeth Loughborough Junction Norbury Oval South Bank South Lambeth Stockwell Streatham Streatham
Streatham
Vale Tulse Hill Upper Norwood Vauxhall Waterloo West Dulwich West Norwood

Attractions

Ashby's Mill BFI Southbank Black Cultural Archives The Chocolate Museum Garden Museum Florence Nightingale Museum Imperial War Museum Lambeth
Lambeth
Archives Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace London
London
County Hall London
London
Eye Lower Marsh Market The Old Vic Oval Cricket Ground Ovalhouse Sea Life London
London
Aquarium South Bank Southbank Centre

Royal National Theatre BFI Southbank Royal Festival Hall Queen Elizabeth Hall Purcell Room Hayward

South London
South London
Theatre White Bear Theatre Young Vic

Bridges

Hungerford Lambeth Westminster Vauxhall Waterloo

Parks and open spaces

Archbishop's Park Brockwell Park Clapham
Clapham
Common Jubilee Gardens Kennington
Kennington
Park Larkhall Park Loughborough Junction Mostyn Gardens Myatt's Fields Park Norbury
Norbury
Park Norwood Park Pedlar's Park Ruskin Park Streatham
Streatham
Common Streatham
Streatham
Vale Park Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Park Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Spring Gardens

Constituencies

Streatham Vauxhall Dulwich
Dulwich
and West Norwood

Tube, rail, and riverboat stations

Brixton

rail tube

Clapham
Clapham
Common Clapham
Clapham
North Clapham
Clapham
High Street Gipsy Hill Herne Hill Lambeth
Lambeth
North Loughborough Junction Norbury
Norbury
railway station Oval Stockwell Streatham Streatham
Streatham
Common Streatham
Streatham
Hill Tulse Hill Vauxhall Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Road Waterloo Waterloo East West Norwood

Other topics

Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Schools The Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey
Surrey
Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London
London
Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London
London
Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greate

.