Bodrum (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbodɾum]) is a district and a
port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern
Aegean Region of
Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of
Bodrum Peninsula, at a
point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the
center of the eponymous district. The city was called
Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the
Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Built by the
Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century,
Bodrum Castle, overlooks the
harbour and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of
Underwater Archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout
the year. The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012. It takes 50
minutes via boat to reach
Kos from Bodrum, with services running
multiple times a day by at least three operators.
2.3 20th century
7 Notable people
8 Twin towns — sister cities
9 See also
11 External links
Bodrum derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller
Castle of St. Peter (see history). The site was formerly known as
Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός, Turkish:
Bodrum has a hot-summer
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen
climate classification). Winter average is around 15 °C
(59 °F) and in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very
sunny spells. Summers are hot and mostly sunny and winters are mild
Climate data for Bodrum
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü 
Average Sea & Swimming Pool temperatures for Bodrum
Sea Temp (°C)
Swimming Pool Temp (°C)
"Average swimming pool and sea temperatures for Bodrum".
BodrumBulletin. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the
Bodrum Castle seen in the
See also: Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός,
translit. Halikarnassós or Ἀλικαρνασσός
Alikarnassós; Turkish: Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the
site of modern
Bodrum in Turkey.
Halicarnassus was founded by Dorian
Greeks, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa,
Athena or Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the
mother cities were
Troezen and Argos. The inhabitants appear to
have accepted Anthes, a son of Poseidon, as their legendary founder,
as mentioned by Strabo, and were proud of the title of Antheadae. The
Carian name for
Halicarnassus has been tentatively identified with
Alosδkarnosδ in inscriptions.
At an early period
Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis,
which included Kos, Cnidus, Lindos,
Kameiros and Ialysus; but it was
expelled from the league when one of its citizens, Agasicles, took
home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games, instead
of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo. In the
early 5th century
Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia I of
Caria (also known as Artemesia of
Halicarnassus ), who made herself
famous as a naval commander at the battle of Salamis. Of Pisindalis,
her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, the tyrant of
Halicarnussus, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to
death the poet
Panyasis and causing Herodotus, possibly the best known
Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c. 457 BC).
The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was the
capital city of the satrapy of Caria, the region that had since long
constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal port. Its
strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed considerable
autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as the recently
discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in
of Underwater Archaeology, attest to the particular pride its
inhabitants had developed.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great laid siege to the city after his arrival in Carian
lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of Caria, captured it
after fighting in 334 BCE.
Surviving substructures and ruins of the
Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of
the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in
Caria from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians
and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377
to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of Caria, who was both
his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects
Satyros and Pythis, and the four sculptors Bryaxis, Scopas, Leochares
and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for him. The
word "mausoleum" derives from the structure of this tomb. It was a
temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a massive
base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture remain.
The Castle of St. Peter was built by the Knights Hospitaller.
Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum
as a quarry to build the still impressively standing
(Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of the late
Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights
Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by
the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I, after
Tamerlane had destroyed their
previous fortress located in İzmir's inner bay. The castle and its
town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader
knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to
Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle of Saint
Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire.
Marina of Bodrum
Bodrum was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the
mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a
large community of bilingual Cretan Turks, coupled with the conditions
of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern Dodecanese
until 1935, made it less provincial. The fact that traditional
agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the rather dry
peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large landowners.
Bodrum has no notable history of political or religious extremism
either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form after the
1950s around the writer Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, who had first come
here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the town to the
point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı ('The
Fisherman of Halicarnassus').
The population for the town of
Bodrum was 35,795 in the 2012 census.
The surrounding towns & villages had an additional 100,522, for a
total for the province of 136,317.
The district of
Bodrum is one of 957 in Turkey. It is in Muğla
Province which is part of the Aydin Subregion, which, in turn, is part
of the Aegean Region.
The district includes the municipalities of Bodrum, Turgutreis,
Ortakent, Göltürkbükü, Yalıkavak, Gümüşlük, Bitez, Konacık,
Yalı and Mumcular.
During the 20th century the country's economy was mainly based on
fishing and sponge diving. Over the years, tourism became one of the
major activities in Bodrum.
There are no airports in the city. Two airports serve the city.
Milas–Bodrum Airport is located 36 kilometres (22 mi) northeast
of Bodrum, with both domestic and international flights. Kos
Island International Airport, 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the SW,
located in Andimachia, Greece, accessible by boats from
a 20 kilometres (12 mi) stretch of the Aegean Sea. Aside from
year-round flights to Greek destinations,
Kos airport's traffic is
There is a main bus stop in the city center with transportation to
other locations in Turkey.
The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and
Bodrum Castle Mosque
Gulet type schooners near Bodrum
Herodotus – ancient Greek historian, the "father of history"
Halicarnassus was a bishop in the early 6th
Mausolus – Carian ruler
Artemisia II of
Caria – Carian ruler
Dionysius – ancient Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric in the
Turgut Reis – Ottoman admiral
Avram Galanti Bodrumlu - University Teacher, Journalist, Politician
and Philosopher of Sephardic Origin
Halikarnas Balıkçısı, literally 'The Fisherman of Halicarnassus'
– Turkish writer born in Istanbul, resident of
Bodrum for decades
and a symbol for the town
Neyzen Tevfik – Turkish ney virtuoso and pundit
Zeki Müren – Turkish singer born in Bursa, resident of
decades and a symbol for the town
Janet Akyüz Mattei – director of the American Association of
Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) from 1973 to 2004
Abdurrahman Nafiz Gürman - military officer in the Ottoman and
Turkish armies
Twin towns — sister cities
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Bodrum is twinned with:
Guidan Roumji, Niger
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology (within
Marinas in Turkey
Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey
Gumusluk, a neighborhood north of Bodrum
^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics
Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved
^ "Turkey: Registered Population". City Population. Retrieved
^ Ἁλικαρνασσός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel
Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 1971-11-30. Archived from the original on
2012-08-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
^ Hogarth, David George (1911). "Halicarnassus". In Chisholm,
Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University
Press. p. 837.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Artemisia (daughter of
Lygdamis)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 665.
^ "Herodotus". Suda. At the
Suda On Line Project.
^ Signe Isager (1998). "The Pride of Halicarnassus" (PDF). Zeitschrift
für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 123 p. 1-23.
^ Fatma Mansur (1972).
Bodrum ISBN 90-04-03424-2. Brill
^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, pp.62-66
^ Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by
districts - 2012 Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine./
^ a b "BODRUM Place to Visit Things to Do Famous For". Very
Turkey. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bodrum.
Turkish Republic Municipalities of Bodrum
Ministry of Culture and Tourism: Bodrum
Bodrum travel guide from Wikivoyage