Black Stone (Arabic: ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,
al-Ḥajaru al-Aswad, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern
corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the
Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is revered by Muslims as an
Islamic relic which, according to
Muslim tradition, dates back to the
Adam and Eve.
The stone was venerated at the
Kaaba in pre-Islamic pagan times.
According to Islamic tradition, it was set intact into the Kaaba's
wall by the prophet
Muhammad in 605 CE, five years before his first
revelation. Since then it has been broken into fragments and is now
cemented into a silver frame in the side of the Kaaba. Its physical
appearance is that of a fragmented dark rock, polished smooth by the
hands of pilgrims. Islamic tradition holds that it fell from heaven as
a guide for
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve to build an altar. It has often been
described as a meteorite.
Muslim pilgrims circle the
Kaaba as a part of the tawaf ritual during
the hajj and many try to stop and kiss the Black Stone, emulating the
kiss that Islamic tradition records that it received from
1 Physical description
1.1 Appearance of the Black Stone
2 History and tradition
3 Ritual role
4 Meaning and symbolism
5 Scientific origins
Black Stone as it appeared in the 1850s, front and side
Black Stone was originally a single piece of rock but today
consists of a number of fragmented pieces which have been cemented
together. They are surrounded by a silver frame which is fastened by
silver nails to the Kaaba's outer wall. The fragments are
themselves made up of smaller pieces which have been combined to form
the seven or eight fragments visible today. The Stone's exposed face
measures about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) by 16 centimetres
(6.3 in). Its original size is unclear and the recorded
dimensions have changed considerably over time, as the pieces have
been rearranged in their cement matrix on several occasions. In the
10th century, an observer described the
Black Stone as being one cubit
(46 cm or 18 in) long. By the early 17th century, it was
recorded as measuring 1.40 by 1.22 m (4 ft 7 in by
4 ft 0 in). According to
Ali Bey in the 18th century, it was
described as 110 cm (3 ft 7 in) high, and
Pasha reported it as being 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) long by
46 cm (1 ft 6 in) wide.
Black Stone is attached to the east corner of the Kaaba, known as
al-Rukn al-Aswad (the Corner of the Stone). Another stone, known as
the Hajar as-Sa’adah (Stone of Felicity) is set into the Kaaba's
opposite corner, al-Rukn al-Yamani (the Yemeni Corner), at a somewhat
lower height than the Black Stone. The choice of the east corner
may have had ritual significance; it faces the rain-bringing east wind
(al-qabul) and the direction from which
The silver frame around the
Black Stone and the black kiswah or cloth
Kaaba were for centuries maintained by the Ottoman
Sultans in their role as Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The frames
wore out over time due to the constant handling by pilgrims and were
periodically replaced. Worn-out frames were brought back to Istanbul,
where they are still kept as part of the sacred relics in the Topkapı
Appearance of the Black Stone
Black Stone was described by European travellers to Arabia in the
19th and early 20th centuries, who visited the
Kaaba disguised as
pilgrims. Swiss traveller
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt visited
1814, and provided a detailed description in his 1829 book Travels in
It is an irregular oval, about seven inches [18 cm] in diameter,
with an undulated surface, composed of about a dozen smaller stones of
different sizes and shapes, well joined together with a small quantity
of cement, and perfectly well smoothed; it looks as if the whole had
been broken into as many pieces by a violent blow, and then united
again. It is very difficult to determine accurately the quality of
this stone which has been worn to its present surface by the millions
of touches and kisses it has received. It appeared to me like a lava,
containing several small extraneous particles of a whitish and of a
yellow substance. Its colour is now a deep reddish brown approaching
to black. It is surrounded on all sides by a border composed of a
substance which I took to be a close cement of pitch and gravel of a
similar, but not quite the same, brownish colour. This border serves
to support its detached pieces; it is two or three inches in breadth,
and rises a little above the surface of the stone. Both the border and
the stone itself are encircled by a silver band, broader below than
above, and on the two sides, with a considerable swelling below, as if
a part of the stone were hidden under it. The lower part of the border
is studded with silver nails.
Kaaba in 1853,
Richard Francis Burton
Richard Francis Burton also noted that:
The colour appeared to me black and metallic, and the centre of the
stone was sunk about two inches below the metallic circle. Round the
sides was a reddish-brown cement, almost level with the metal, and
sloping down to the middle of the stone. The band is now a massive
arch of gold or silver gilt. I found the aperture in which the stone
is, one span and three fingers broad.
Ritter von Laurin, the Austrian consul-general in Egypt, was able to
inspect a fragment of the Stone removed by
Ali in 1817 and
reported that it had a pitch-black exterior and a silver-grey,
fine-grained interior in which tiny cubes of a bottle-green material
were embedded. There are reportedly a few white or yellow spots on the
face of the Stone, and it is officially described as being white with
the exception of the face.
History and tradition
A 1315 illustration from the Jami al-Tawarikh, inspired by the Sirah
Allah story of
Muhammad and the Meccan clan elders lifting the
Black Stone into place.
Black Stone was held in reverence well before the preaching of
Islam by Muhammad. It had long been associated with the Kaaba, which
was built in the pre-Islamic period and was a site of pilgrimage of
Nabateans who visited the shrine once a year to perform their
Kaaba held 360 idols of the Meccan gods. The
Semitic cultures of the Middle East had a tradition of using unusual
stones to mark places of worship, a phenomenon which is reflected in
Hebrew Bible as well as the Qur'an, although bowing to or
kissing such sacred objects is repeatedly described in the
idolatrous and was the subject of prophetic
rebuke.[better source needed] The
meteorite-origin theory of the
Black Stone has seen it likened by some
writers to the meteorite which was placed and worshipped in the Greek
Temple of Artemis. Some writers remark on the apparent
similarity of the
Black Stone and its frame to the external female
genitalia, and ascribe this to its earlier association with
fertility rites of Arabia.
A "red stone" was associated with the deity of the south Arabian city
of Ghaiman, and there was a "white stone" in the
Kaaba of al-Abalat
(near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca). Worship at that time period
was often associated with stone reverence, mountains, special rock
formations, or distinctive trees. The
Kaaba marked the location
where the sacred world intersected with the profane, and the embedded
Black Stone was a further symbol of this as an object as a link
between heaven and earth. It may have been associated with the
pre-Islamic deities al-Rahman and Hubal, to whom the
Muhammad is said to have called the stone "the
right hand of al-Rahman".
According to Islamic belief
Muhammad is credited with setting the
Black Stone in the current place in the wall of the Kaaba. A story
found in Ibn Ishaq's
Sirah Rasul Allah
Sirah Rasul Allah tells how the clans of Mecca
Kaaba following a major fire which had partly destroyed
the structure. The
Black Stone had been temporarily removed to
facilitate the rebuilding work. The clans could not agree on which one
of them should have the honour of setting the
Black Stone back in its
They decided to wait for the next man to come through the gate and ask
him to make the decision. That person was 35-year-old Muhammad, five
years before his prophethood. He asked the elders of the clans to
bring him a cloth and put the
Black Stone in its centre. Each of the
clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and carried the Black Stone
to the right spot. Then,
Muhammad set the stone in place, satisfying
the honour of all of the clans. After his Conquest of
Muhammad is said to have ridden round the
Kaaba seven times on
his camel, touching the
Black Stone with his stick in a gesture of
The Stone has suffered repeated desecrations and damage over the
course of time. It is said to have been struck and smashed to pieces
by a stone fired from a catapult during the Umayyad Caliphate's siege
Mecca in 683. The fragments were rejoined by Abd
al-Zubayr using a silver ligament. In January 930, it was stolen
by the Qarmatians, who carried the
Black Stone away to their base in
Hajar (modern Eastern Arabia). According to Ottoman historian Qutb
al-Din, writing in 1857, the Qarmatian leader
Abu Tahir al-Jannabi
Abu Tahir al-Jannabi set
Black Stone up in his own mosque, the Masjid al-Dirar, with the
intention of redirecting the hajj away from Mecca. This failed, as
pilgrims continued to venerate the spot where the
Black Stone had
According to the historian al-Juwayni, the Stone was returned
twenty-three years later, in 952. The
Qarmatians held the Black Stone
for ransom, and forced the Abbasids to pay a huge sum for its return.
It was wrapped in a sack and thrown into the Friday
Mosque of Kufa,
accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we
have brought it back." Its abduction and removal caused further
damage, breaking the stone into seven pieces. Its
abductor, Abu Tahir, is said to have met a terrible fate; according to
Qutb al-Din, "the filthy Abu Tahir was afflicted with a gangrenous
sore, his flesh was eaten away by worms, and he died a most terrible
death". To protect the shattered stone, the custodians of the Kaaba
commissioned a pair of Meccan goldsmiths to build a silver frame to
surround it, and it has been housed within a similar frame ever
In the 11th century, a man allegedly sent by the Fatimid caliph
Allah attempted to smash the
Black Stone but was
killed on the spot, having caused only slight damage. In 1674,
according to Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, someone smeared the Black Stone
with excrement so that "every one who kissed it retired with a sullied
beard". Twelvers from Safavid Iran were suspected of being responsible
and were the target of curses from other Muslims for centuries
afterwards, though the explorer Sir
Richard Francis Burton
Richard Francis Burton doubted
that they were the culprits; he attributed the act to "some Jew or
Greek, who risked his life to gratify a furious bigotry".
Pilgrims jostle for a chance to kiss the Black Stone; if they are
unable to kiss it, they can point towards it on each circuit with
their right hand
Black Stone plays a central role in the ritual of istilam, when
pilgrims kiss the Black Stone, touch it with their hands or raise
their hands towards it while repeating the takbir, "
God is Greatest".
They perform this in the course of walking seven times around the
Kaaba in a counterclockwise direction (tawaf), emulating the actions
of Muhammad. At the end of each circuit, they perform istilam and may
Black Stone to kiss it at the end of tawaf. In modern
times, large crowds make it practically impossible for everyone to
kiss the stone, so it is currently acceptable to point in the
direction of the Stone on each of their seven circuits around the
Kaaba. Some even say that the Stone is best considered simply as a
marker, useful in keeping count of the ritual circumambulations that
one has performed.
Writing in Dawn in Madinah: A Pilgrim's Progress, Muzaffar Iqbal
described his experience of venerating the
Black Stone during a
pilgrimage to Mecca:
At the end of the second [circumambulation of the Kaaba], I was
granted one of those extraordinary moments which sometimes occur
around the Black Stone. As I approached the Corner the large crowd was
suddenly pushed back by a strong man who had just kissed the Black
Stone. This push generated a backward current, creating a momentary
opening around the
Black Stone as I came to it; I swiftly accepted the
opportunity reciting, Bismillahi Allahu akbar wa lillahi-hamd ["In the
name of God,
God is great, all praise to God"], put my hands on the
Black Stone and kissed it. Thousands of silver lines sparkled, the
Stone glistened, and something stirred deep inside me. A few seconds
passed. Then I was pushed away by the guard.
Black Stone and the Kaaba's opposite corner, al-Rukn al-Yamani,
are both often perfumed by the mosque's custodians. This can cause
problems for pilgrims in the state of ihram ("consecration"), who are
forbidden from using scented products and will require a kaffara
(donation) as a penance if they touch either.
Meaning and symbolism
Kaaba in Mecca. The
Black Stone is set into the eastern corner of
Islamic tradition holds that the
Black Stone fell from
Jannah to show
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve where to build an altar, which became the first temple on
Earth. Muslims believe that the stone was originally pure and
dazzling white, but has since turned black because of the sins of the
people who touch it. Its black colour is deemed to symbolize
the essential spiritual virtue of detachment and poverty for God
(faqr) and the extinction of ego required to progress towards God
According to a prophetic tradition, "Touching them both (the Black
Stone and al-Rukn al-Yamani) is an expiation for sins." Adam's
altar and the stone were said to have been lost during Noah's Flood
and forgotten. Ibrahim (Abraham) was said to have later found the
Black Stone at the original site of Adam's altar when the angel
Jibrail revealed it to him. Ibrahim ordered his son Ismael – who
Muslim belief is an ancestor of
Muhammad – to build a new temple,
the Kaaba, into which the stone was to be embedded.
Another tradition says that the
Black Stone was originally an angel
that had been placed by
God in the
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden to guard Adam. The
angel was absent when
Adam ate the forbidden fruit and was punished by
being turned into a jewel — the Black Stone.
God granted it the
power of speech and placed it at the top of Abu Qubays, a mountain in
the historic region of Khurasan, before moving the mountain to Mecca.
When Ibrahim took the
Black Stone from Abu Qubays to build the Kaaba,
the mountain asked Ibrahim to intercede with
God so that it would not
be returned to
Khurasan and would stay in Mecca.
According to some scholars, the
Black Stone was the same stone that
Islamic tradition describes as greeting
Muhammad before his
prophethood. This led to a debate about whether the Black Stone's
greeting comprised actual speech or merely a sound, and following
that, whether the stone was a living creature or an inanimate object.
Whichever was the case, the stone was held to be a symbol of
A hadith records that, when the second
Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab
(580–644) came to kiss the stone, he said in front of all assembled:
"No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither harm anyone nor
benefit anyone. Had I not seen Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] kissing
you, I would not have kissed you." In the hadith collection Kanz
al-Ummal, it is recorded that
Ali responded to Umar, saying, "This
stone (Hajar Aswad) can indeed benefit and harm. ...
Allah says in
Quran that he created human beings from the progeny of
Adam and made
them witness over themselves and asked them, 'Am I not your creator?'
Upon this, all of them confirmed it. Thus
Allah wrote this
confirmation. And this stone has a pair of eyes, ears and a tongue and
it opened its mouth upon the order of Allah, who put that confirmation
in it and ordered to witness it to all those worshippers who come for
Muhammad Labib al-Batanuni, writing in 1911, commented on the practice
that the pre-Islamic practice of venerating stones (including the
Black Stone) arose not because such stones are "sacred for their own
sake, but because of their relation to something holy and
respected". The Indian Islamic scholar
Muhammad Hamidullah summed
up the meaning of the Black Stone:
[T]he Prophet has named the (Black Stone) the "right hand of God"
(yamin-Allah), and for purpose. In fact one poses there one's hand to
conclude the pact, and
God obtains there our pact of allegiance and
submission. In the qur'anic terminology,
God is the king, and ... in
(his) realm there is a metropolis (Umm al-Qurra) and in the metropolis
naturally a palace (Bait-Allah, home of God). If a subject wants to
testify to his loyalty, he has to go to the royal palace and conclude
personally the pact of allegiance. The right hand of the invisible God
must be visible symbolically. And that is the al-Hajar al-Aswad, the
Black Stone in the Ka'bah.
In recent years several literalist views of the
Black Stone have
emerged. A small minority accepts as literally true a hadith, usually
taken as allegorical, which asserts that "the Stone will appear on the
Day of Judgement (Qiyamah) with eyes to see and a tongue to speak, and
give evidence in favour of all who kissed it in true devotion, but
speak out against whoever indulged in gossip or profane conversations
during his circumambulation of the Kaaba".
The nature of the
Black Stone has been much debated. It has been
described variously as basalt stone, an agate, a piece of natural
glass or—most popularly—a stony meteorite. Paul Partsch (de),
the curator of the
Austro-Hungarian imperial collection of minerals,
published the first comprehensive analysis of the
Black Stone in 1857
in which he favoured a meteoritic origin for the Stone. Robert
Dietz and John McHone proposed in 1974 that the
Black Stone was
actually an agate, judging from its physical attributes and a report
Arab geologist that the Stone contained clearly discernible
diffusion banding characteristic of agates.
A significant clue to its nature is provided by an account of the
Stone's recovery in 951 AD after it had been stolen 21 years earlier;
according to a chronicler, the Stone was identified by its ability to
float in water. If this account is accurate, it would rule out the
Black Stone being an agate, a basalt lava or a stony meteorite, though
it would be compatible with it being glass or pumice.
Elsebeth Thomsen of the
University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen proposed a different
hypothesis in 1980. She suggested that the
Black Stone may be a glass
fragment or impactite from the impact of a fragmented meteorite that
fell 6,000 years ago at Wabar, a site in the
Rub' al Khali
Rub' al Khali desert
1,100 km east of Mecca. A 2004 scientific analysis of the Wabar
site suggests that the impact event happened much more recently than
first thought and might have occurred within the last 200–300
The meteoritic hypothesis is viewed by geologists as doubtful. The
British Natural History Museum suggests that it may be a
pseudometeorite, in other words a terrestrial rock mistakenly
attributed to a meteoritic origin.
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People and things in the Quran
Allâh ("The God")
Allah found in the Quran
Beings in Paradise
Ghilmān or Wildān
The baqarah (cow) of Israelites
The dhi’b (wolf) that
Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')
‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one")
Mârid ("Rebellious one")
Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)
‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise)
Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (
Solomon son of David)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (
John the Baptist
John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the
Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (
Joseph son of Jacob)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (
Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (
Abraham Friend of God)
Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?)
Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)
Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)
People of Prophets
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Pharaoh of Moses' time)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)
Adam's immediate relatives
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd))
Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Implied or not specified
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath)
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah's Ark
Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
People of Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of Noah
Tribes, ethnicities or families
A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')
People of Saba’ or Sheba
Thamûd (people of Saleh)
Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")
Rûm (literally "The Romans")
Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel)
Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood")
Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah)
Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.)
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Wives of Muhammad
Household of Salih
People of Fir'aun
Current Ummah of
Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Anṣār Muslims of
Medina who helped
Muhammad and his Meccan
followers, literally 'Helpers')
People of Mecca
Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)
Children of Ayyub
Dead son of Sulaiman
Qabil/Cain (son of Adam)
Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh)
Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut)
Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog)
Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)
Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Aus & Khazraj
People of Quba
Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi)
People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of
Abraham and Lot
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed")
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")
Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")
Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwah
‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)
Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden')
Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")
Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabîl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of
Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il
Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Paradise of Shaddad
Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred")
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The
Place-of-Prostration The Farthest")
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred
Mosque of Mecca)
Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet's Mosque
Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Forbidden fruit of Adam
Bushes, trees or plants
Plants of Sheba
Līnah (Tender palm tree)
Nakhl (date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Gospel of Jesus)
Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")
Objects of people or beings
Heavenly Food of
Staff of Musa
Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of Israfil
Idols of Israelites:
The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites
Idols of Noah's people:
Idols of Quraysh:
Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ
Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)
Water or fluid)
River or sea)
Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates")
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Uhud
Conquest of Mecca
Incident of Ifk
Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of
Marib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada')
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name
/ Biblical name (title or relationship)
Coordinates: 21°25′21.02″N 39°49′34.58″E /
21.4225056°N 39.8262722°E / 21.4