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Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir[a] (born 21 November 1965),[2] is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic musical style that draws on a influences and genres spanning electronic, pop, experimental, classical, trip hop, IDM, and avant-garde. She became known as the lead singer of the alternative rock band the Sugarcubes, whose 1987 single "Birthday" was a hit on US and UK indie stations and a favorite among music critics.[3] Björk
Björk
embarked on a solo career in 1993, coming to prominence as a solo artist with albums such as Debut (1993), Post (1995), and Homogenic
Homogenic
(1997), while collaborating with a range of artists and exploring a variety of multimedia projects. Several of Björk's albums have reached the top 20 on the Billboard 200 chart, the most recent being her 2015 album Vulnicura. Björk
Björk
has had 30 singles reach the top 40 on pop charts around the world, with 22 top 40 hits in the UK, including the top 10 hits "It's Oh So Quiet", "Army of Me", and "Hyperballad".[4] She is reported to have sold between 20 and 40 million records worldwide as of 2015.[5][6] She has been ranked twenty-ninth in VH1's "The 100 Greatest Women in Music",[7] eighth in MTV's "22 Greatest Voices in Music",[8] sixtieth in Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Singers of All Time",[9] and was recognized in NPR's "50 Great Voices" feature for her "celestial voice."[10] Björk
Björk
has won five BRIT Awards, four MTV
MTV
Video Music Awards, one MOJO Award, three UK Music Video Awards, 21 Icelandic Music Awards and, in 2010, the Polar Music Prize
Polar Music Prize
from the Royal Swedish Academy of Music
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
in recognition of her "deeply personal music and lyrics, her precise arrangements and her unique voice."[11][12] She has also been nominated for 14 Grammy Awards, one Academy Award, and two Golden Globe Awards. In 2015, Björk
Björk
was included in Time Magazine's list of the 100 most influential people in the world.[13][14] She won the Best Actress Award at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival
2000 Cannes Film Festival
for her performance in the film Dancer in the Dark.[15] A full-scale retrospective exhibition dedicated to Björk
Björk
was held at the Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
in 2015.[16]

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 1965–86: Early life and career beginnings 1.2 1986–92: The Sugarcubes 1.3 1992–96: Debut and Post 1.4 1996–2000: Homogenic
Homogenic
and Dancer in the Dark 1.5 2001–03: Vespertine
Vespertine
and Greatest Hits 1.6 2004–06: Medúlla
Medúlla
and Drawing Restraint 9 1.7 2007–11: Volta 1.8 2011–14: Biophilia 1.9 2015–2017: Vulnicura 1.10 2017–present: Utopia

2 Artistry

2.1 Style 2.2 Evolution 2.3 Influences 2.4 Voice

3 Other ventures

3.1 Charitable work 3.2 Political activity 3.3 Protégés

4 Discography 5 Filmography

5.1 Cameos and soundtrack appearances

6 Tours 7 Bibliography 8 Awards and nominations 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Citations 11.2 Book
Book
sources

12 Further reading 13 External links

Life and career[edit] 1965–86: Early life and career beginnings[edit]

Reykjavík, where Björk
Björk
was born and raised

Björk
Björk
was born on 21 November 1965 in Reykjavík, where she grew up. Björk's mother is activist Hildur Rúna Hauksdóttir, who protested against the development of Iceland's Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant;[17][18] Her stepfather is Sævar Árnason, a former guitarist in a band called Pops.[19] At six, Björk
Björk
enrolled at Reykjavík school Barnamúsíkskóli, where she studied classical piano and flute.[2] After a school recital in which Björk
Björk
sang Tina Charles' 1976 hit "I Love to Love", her teachers sent a recording of her singing the song to the RÚV radio station – then, Iceland's only radio station. The recording was nationally broadcast and, after hearing it, a representative of the Fálkinn record label offered Björk
Björk
a recording contract. Her self-titled début, Björk, was recorded and released in Iceland
Iceland
in December 1977 when she was 11 years old.[20] During her teens, after the diffusion of punk rock music in Iceland, she formed the all-girl punk band Spit and Snot. A year later, in 1980, she formed a jazz fusion group called Exodus and collaborated in another group called JAM80. During the same year she also graduated from music school.[2] In 1982, she and bassist Jakob Magnússon formed another group, Tappi Tíkarrass ("Cork the Bitch's Ass [sic]" in Icelandic), and released EP Bitið fast í vitið
Bitið fast í vitið
("Bite Hard Into Hell" in Icelandic), in August 1982. Their album Miranda was released in December 1983. The group was featured in the documentary Rokk í Reykjavík, with Björk
Björk
being featured on the cover of the VHS release.[2][21] Around this time Björk
Björk
met guitarist Þór Eldon and surrealist group Medusa, which also included poet Sjón, with whom she started a lifelong collaboration and formed a small group called Rokka Rokka Drum.[22] Björk
Björk
appeared as a featured artist on "Afi", a track from the Björgvin Gíslason 1983 record Örugglega.[19] Due to the imminent discontinuance of radio show Áfangar, two radio personalities, Ásmundur Jónsson and Guðni Rúnar, called out to musicians to play on a last live radio show. Björk
Björk
joined with Einar Melax (from the group Fan Houtens Kókó), Einar Örn Benediktsson (from Purrkur Pillnikk), Guðlaugur Kristinn Óttarsson and Sigtryggur Baldursson (from Þeyr), and Birgir Mogensen (from Spilafífl) to perform on the concert.[23] The group developed a gothic rock sound. During this experience Björk
Björk
began to develop her vocalisation – punctuated by howls and shrieks.[2] The project performed as Gott kvöld during the concert but later decided to keep playing together as a group and they used the name Kukl ("Sorcery" in Icelandic).[23] Björk's acquaintance gave the group their studio to record in and released their first single in 1983.[23] Their first big performance was at a festival in Iceland
Iceland
which was headlined by English anarchist punk band Crass, whose record label, Crass
Crass
Records offered the band a record deal. The Eye was released in 1984 and was followed by a two-month tour in Europe, which also included a performance at Roskilde Festival
Roskilde Festival
in Denmark, making Kukl the first Icelandic band to play at the festival.[24][23] During this period Björk
Björk
published a hand-coloured book of poems. Um Úrnat frá Björk was distributed in 1984.[2] In 1985, Björk
Björk
discovered she was expecting a child from Eldon, but continued touring with Kukl.[2] Their second album, called Holidays in Europe (The Naughty Nought), came out in 1986, the eventually band split up due to personal conflict, with Björk
Björk
keeping a collaboration with Óttarsson, which was named The Elgar Sisters. Some of the songs they recorded ended up as B-sides to Björk
Björk
solo singles.[2][25] 1986–92: The Sugarcubes[edit] Main article: The Sugarcubes

Björk
Björk
performing in Japan
Japan
with The Sugarcubes

In 1986, Björk
Björk
wed Þór Eldon. On 8 June the same year, she gave birth to their son, Sindri Eldon Þórsson.[2] Soon after Sindri was born, Björk
Björk
performed in her first acting role on The Juniper Tree, a tale of witchcraft based on the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
story, directed by Nietzchka Keene. Björk
Björk
played the role of Margit, a girl whose mother has been killed for practicing witchcraft.[2] That summer, former band member Einar Örn and Eldon formed the arts collective Smekkleysa ("Bad Taste" in Icelandic), created with the intention of being both a record label and book publishing company.[2][25] Various friends, namely Melax and Sigtryggur from Kukl, along with Bragi Ólafsson and Friðrik Erlingson from Purrkur Pillnikk, joined the group and a band coalesced in the collective solely to make money.[25] They were initially called Þukl, but they were advertised as Kukl (the name of the previous band). At a later concert supporting Icelandic band Stuðmenn (managed by Einar Örn) they addressed themselves as Sykurmolarnir ("The Sugarcubes" in Icelandic). To fund the release of their first double A-side single "Einn mol'á mann", which contained the songs "Ammæli" ("Birthday") and "Köttur" ("Cat"), Smekkleysa printed a postcard bearing the image of Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and Ronald Reagan during the Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Summit.[2][25] The single was released on 21 November 1986, Björk's 21st birthday.[25] At the end of that year, the band was signed by One Little Indian, a new label set up by Derek Birkett, the former bass player of Flux of Pink Indians, but soon after Erlingson left the band.[25] Their first English single, "Birthday", was released in the United Kingdom on 17 August 1987; a week later, it was declared single of the week by Melody Maker.[25] The Sugarcubes
The Sugarcubes
also signed a distribution deal with Elektra Records
Elektra Records
in the United States and recorded their first album, Life's Too Good, which was released in 1988.[26] After the release of the album, Margrét "Magga" Örnólfsdóttir, Eldon's new girlfriend (he and Björk
Björk
had divorced soon after the birth of their child despite being in the same group[2]), replaced Einst Melax as the band keyboardist.[26] The album went on to sell more than one million copies worldwide.[26] Björk
Björk
contributed as a background vocalist on 1987 album Loftmynd
Loftmynd
by Megas, for whom she provided background vocals also on his subsequent album Höfuðlausnir
Höfuðlausnir
(1988) and Hættuleg hljómsveit & glæpakvendið Stella (1990).[19] In the last quarter of 1988, The Sugarcubes
The Sugarcubes
toured North America to positive reception.[26] In September, the band played at The Ritz in New York, a concert attended by David Bowie
David Bowie
and Iggy Pop.[26] On 15 October, the band appeared on Saturday Night Live. Björk
Björk
alone contributed a rendition of the Christmas
Christmas
song "Jólakötturinn" ("The Christmas
Christmas
Cat") on the compilation Hvít Er Borg Og Bær.[19] The band's second album, Here Today, Tomorrow Next Week!
Here Today, Tomorrow Next Week!
was released in October 1989.[26] Unlike their debut album, it was not well received by critics. Due to negative backlash regarding Einar Örn by music critics,[19][26] the band started to ponder about splitting up and went on hiatus after a promotional tour in 1990. During the hiatus the band members formed a light-hearted big-band named Hljómsveit Kondráds B, in which Björk
Björk
played clarinet.[19][26] During the hiatus Björk
Björk
started working on her solo projects. In 1990 she provided background vocals on Gums, an album by a band called Bless.[19] In the same year she recorded Gling-Gló, a collection of popular jazz and original work, with the jazz group Tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar, which as of 2011 was still her best-selling album in her home country.[2][26] Björk
Björk
also contributed vocals to 808 State's album ex:el, with whom she cultivated her interest in house music. She contributed vocals on the songs "Qmart" and on "Ooops", which was released as a single in the UK in 1991.[19] She also contributed vocals to the song "Falling", on the album Island by Current 93
Current 93
and Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson.[19] In the same year she met harpist Corky Hale, with whom she had a recording session that ended up on her début album.[2] At this point, Björk
Björk
had decided to leave the band to pursue her solo career, but their contract included the making of one last album with a subsequent promotional tour, which Björk
Björk
agreed to do.[26] Stick Around for Joy was released in February 1992. The record received positive reviews. The Sugarcubes
The Sugarcubes
opened for U2 during the US leg of their Zoo TV Tour
Zoo TV Tour
in October and November, playing to a grand total of 700,000 people.[26] Coinciding with this string of concerts, their label released a remix album named It's-It. Björk
Björk
was featured on two tracks of the soundtrack for the 1992 film Remote Control (known as Sódóma Reykjavík
Reykjavík
in Iceland).[19] After the Sugarcubes played one last show at the Reykjavík
Reykjavík
club Tunglið in December, they split up.[26] Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
has called them "the biggest rock band to emerge from Iceland."[27] 1992–96: Debut and Post[edit] Björk
Björk
moved to London
London
to pursue a solo career; she began working with producer Nellee Hooper (who had produced Massive Attack, among others). Their partnership produced Björk's first international solo hit, "Human Behaviour", a clattering dance track based on a guitar rhythm sampled from Antônio Carlos Jobim. In most countries, the song was not widely played on radio but was widely seen on MTV, accompanied by an influential video by Oscar-winning film director Michel Gondry, who became a frequent collaborator for Björk.[28] Her first adult solo album, Debut, was released in June 1993 to positive reviews; it was named album of the year by NME
NME
and eventually went platinum in the United States.[29] Debut was the leap Björk
Björk
made from being in numerous bands during her teens and early twenties to her solo career. She named the album Debut to signify a start of something new. Debut had a mix of songs Björk
Björk
had been writing since she was a teenager, as well as more recent lyrical collaborations with Hooper. Although the music was mostly dance-oriented, it was varied in instrumentation. One single from the album, "Venus as a Boy", featured a Bollywood-influenced string arrangement. Björk
Björk
covered the jazz standard "Like Someone in Love" to the accompaniment of a harp, and the final track, "The Anchor Song", was sung with only a saxophone ensemble for accompaniment. At the 1994 Brit Awards, Björk
Björk
won the awards for Best International Female and Best International Newcomer.[30] The success of Debut enabled her to collaborate with British and other artists on one-off tracks. She worked with David Arnold on "Play Dead", the theme to the 1993 film The Young Americans (which appeared as a bonus track on a re-release of Debut), collaborated on two songs for Tricky's Nearly God project, appeared on the track "Lilith" for the album Not for Threes by Plaid, and co-wrote the song "Bedtime Story" for Madonna's 1994 album Bedtime Stories. Björk
Björk
also had an uncredited role as a runway model in 1994's film Prêt-à-Porter. Post was Björk's second solo studio album. Released in June 1995, the album was produced in conjunction with Nellee Hooper, Tricky, Graham Massey of 808 State, and electronica producer Howie B. Building on the success of Debut, Björk
Björk
continued to pursue different sounds, taking particular interest in dance and techno. Production by Tricky and Howie B
Howie B
also provided trip hop/electronica-like sounds on tracks like "Possibly Maybe" and "Enjoy". It was these producers' influence along with older friend Graham Massey that inspired Björk
Björk
to create material like the storming industrial beats of "Army of Me". The album was ranked number 7 in Spin's "Top 90 Albums of the '90s" list and number 75 in its "100 Greatest Albums, 1985–2005" list.[31][32] Post and Homogenic
Homogenic
were placed back to back on Pitchfork Media's "Top Albums of the '90s" list at numbers 21 and 20, respectively.[33][34] In 2003, the album was ranked number 373 on Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.[35] Although again Björk
Björk
received more mainstream attention for her videos than her singles, Post included several UK pop hits and was eventually certified platinum in the US.[29] Björk
Björk
also contributed to the 1995 Hector Zazou
Hector Zazou
collaborative album Chansons des mers froides, singing the traditional Icelandic song "Vísur Vatnsenda-Rósu". During this period, Björk
Björk
complained of being hounded by paparazzi. In 1996, Björk
Björk
arrived at Bangkok International Airport with her son Sindri after a long haul flight; reporters were present, despite Björk's early request that the press leave her and her son alone until a press conference.[36] While Björk
Björk
was walking away from the reporters, Julie Kaufman, a female reporter, began to ask questions to Sindri, which was then followed by Björk's lunging at her and knocking her to the ground.[36] Björk's record company said that the reporter had been pestering Björk
Björk
for four days. Björk later apologized to Kaufman, who declined to involve the police.[36] 1996–2000: Homogenic
Homogenic
and Dancer in the Dark[edit]

Björk
Björk
performing at Ruisrock, Turku, Finland (1998)

On 12 September 1996, obsessed fan Ricardo López mailed an acid-spraying letter bomb to Björk's London
London
home.[37] The package was intercepted by the Metropolitan Police Service
Metropolitan Police Service
before the plot could be carried out.[36][37][38] López wrote a diary and recorded 22 hours of videotape of himself that described his obsession with Björk, his learning of Björk's romantic relationship with Goldie, his manufacture of the acid bomb, and ended with López committing suicide by shooting himself.[37][38] In her few public comments on this event, Björk
Björk
said she was "very distressed" by the incident[39] and "I make music, but in other terms, you know, people shouldn't take me too literally and get involved in my personal life."[37] Björk
Björk
left London
London
for Spain where she recorded the album Homogenic,[40] released in 1997. It marked a dramatic shift from her earlier "pixie" image, cultivated on the Debut and Post albums. Björk
Björk
worked with producers Mark Bell of LFO and Howie B
Howie B
on the album, as well as Eumir Deodato; numerous remixes followed. Homogenic
Homogenic
was her first conceptually self-contained album and is regarded as one of Björk's most experimental and extroverted works to date, with enormous beats that reflect the landscape of Iceland, most notably in the song "Jóga", which fuses lush strings with rocky electronic crunches. The album was certified gold in the US in 2001.[29] The emotionally charged album contains a string of music videos, several of which received airplay on MTV. The video for "Bachelorette" was directed by frequent collaborator Michel Gondry, while "All Is Full of Love" was directed by Chris Cunningham. The single "All is Full of Love" was also the first DVD
DVD
single to ever be released in the US, which paved the way for other artists to include DVD
DVD
video and other multimedia features with their singles. In an interview with Spin magazine, Radiohead
Radiohead
singer Thom Yorke
Thom Yorke
called the song "Unravel" from this album "one of the most beautiful songs I've ever heard."[41] In November 2007, the band would cover the song as part of a live webcast.[42] Björk
Björk
began to write more personally, saying "It wasn't just the letter bomb, […] I realised that I'd come to the end of the extrovert thing. I had to go home and search for myself again."[40] In 1999, Björk
Björk
was asked to write and produce the musical score for the film Dancer in the Dark, a musical drama about an immigrant named Selma who is struggling to pay for an operation to prevent her son from going blind. Director Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
eventually asked her to consider playing the role of Selma, convincing her that the only true way to capture the character of Selma was to have the composer of the music play the character.[43] Eventually, she accepted. Filming began in early 1999, and the film debuted in 2000 at the 53rd Cannes Film Festival. The film received the Palme d'Or, and Björk
Björk
received the Best Actress Award for her role.[15] It was reported that the shoot was so physically and emotionally tiring that she vowed never to act again. She stated about Trier, who among other things shattered a monitor while it was next to her, "...you can take quite sexist film directors like Woody Allen
Woody Allen
or Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
and still they are the one that provide the soul to their movies. In Lars von Trier’s case it is not so and he knows it. He needs a female to provide his work soul. And he envies them and hates them for it. So he has to destroy them during the filming. And hide the evidence."[44] Björk
Björk
later stated that she always wanted to do one musical in her life, and Dancer in the Dark
Dancer in the Dark
was the one.[45] The soundtrack Björk
Björk
created for the film was released with the title Selmasongs. The album features a duet with Thom Yorke
Thom Yorke
of Radiohead
Radiohead
titled "I've Seen It All", which was nominated for an Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song and was performed at the 2001 Oscars (without Yorke), while Björk
Björk
was wearing her celebrated[46] "swan dress", a copy of which was auctioned off for international aid agency Oxfam
Oxfam
on eBay and sold for $9,500 in 2005.[47] 2001–03: Vespertine
Vespertine
and Greatest Hits[edit]

Björk
Björk
at the 2001 Academy Awards, wearing her swan dress

In 2001, Björk
Björk
released the album Vespertine. The album featured chamber orchestras, choirs, hushed vocals, microbeats made from household sounds, and personal, vulnerable themes. She collaborated with experimental sound manipulators Matmos, Denmark-based DJ Thomas Knak, and the experimental harpist Zeena Parkins
Zeena Parkins
for the album. Lyrical sources included the works of American poet E. E. Cummings, the American independent filmmaker Harmony Korine, and English playwright Sarah Kane's penultimate play, Crave. To coincide with the album's release, Björk
Björk
released a coffee table book of loose prose and photographs titled Björk.[48] Björk
Björk
embarked on the Vespertine World Tour, a tour of theatres and opera houses in Europe and North America in support of the album, accompanied by the musicians Matmos and Zeena Parkins
Zeena Parkins
and an Inuit
Inuit
choir, whom she had held auditions for on a trip to Greenland
Greenland
prior to the tour.[49] At the time, Vespertine was Björk's fastest selling album ever, having sold two million copies by the end of 2001.[50] Vespertine
Vespertine
spawned three singles: "Hidden Place", "Pagan Poetry", and "Cocoon". MTV2
MTV2
played the album's first video, "Hidden Place", which was subsequently released as a DVD
DVD
single. The next video, for "Pagan Poetry", brought Björk
Björk
to an even higher level of controversy with the channel. The video features graphic piercings, Björk's exposed nipples, and simulated fellatio.[51] As a result, the clip was initially rarely shown by MTV, and certain parts (for example, Björk's breasts) were censored during the rare occasions when it was played.[citation needed] In 2002, the clip was aired unedited as part of a late night special on MTV2
MTV2
titled, "Most Controversial Music Videos". The video for "Cocoon" also featured a seemingly naked Björk (actually wearing a close fitting bodysuit), this time with her nipples secreting a red thread that eventually enveloped her in a cocoon. The video was directed by Japanese artist Eiko Ishioka
Eiko Ishioka
and was not aired by MTV. She was invited to record "Gollum's Song" for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers but declined the invitation, as she was then pregnant; the song was instead recorded by another Icelander, Emilíana Torrini.

Björk
Björk
at the Hurricane Festival
Hurricane Festival
on 21 June 2003

In 2002 the CD box set Family Tree appeared, containing a retrospective of Björk's career, comprising many previously unreleased versions of her compositions, including her work with the Brodsky Quartet. Also released alongside Family Tree was the album Greatest Hits, a retrospective of the previous 10 years of her solo career as deemed by the public. The songs on the album were chosen by Björk's fans through a poll on her website. A DVD
DVD
edition of the CD was also released. It contained all of Björk's solo music videos up to that point. The new single from the set, "It's in Our Hands" charted in the UK at number 37. The video, directed by Spike Jonze, features a heavily pregnant Björk.  Björk
Björk
gave birth to daughter Isadora Bjarkardottir Barney on 3 October 2002.[52] Björk and the Brodsky Quartet recorded a composition written, especially for her, by composer John Tavener
John Tavener
called "Prayer of the Heart" in 2001, and it was played then for a slide show presentation in 2003 for the American photographer, Nan Goldin. In 2003, Björk
Björk
released a box set called Live Box, consisting of four CDs containing live recordings of her previous albums and a DVD
DVD
featuring a video of one track from each CD. Each of the four CDs was later released separately at a reduced price. 2004–06: Medúlla
Medúlla
and Drawing Restraint 9[edit] In August 2004, Björk
Björk
released Medúlla. During production, Björk decided the album would work best as an entirely vocal-based album. This initial plan was modified, as the majority of the sounds on the album are indeed created by vocalists but several feature prominent basic electronic programming, as well as the occasional musical instrument. Björk
Björk
used the vocal skills of throat singer Tanya Tagaq, hip hop beatboxer Rahzel, Japanese beatboxer Dokaka, avant-rocker Mike Patton, Soft Machine
Soft Machine
drummer/singer Robert Wyatt, and several choirs. She again appropriated text from E. E. Cummings
E. E. Cummings
for the song "Sonnets/Unrealities XI". At the time, Medúlla
Medúlla
became her highest charting album in the US, debuting at number 14.[53] In August 2004, Björk
Björk
performed the song "Oceania" at the Opening Ceremony of the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
in Athens. As she sang, her dress slowly unfurled to reveal a 10,000 square foot (900 m²) map of the world, which she let flow over all of the Olympic athletes. The song "Oceania" was written especially for the occasion and features the talents of Shlomo, a Leeds-based beatboxer, and a London
London
choir. An alternate version of the song began circulating on the Internet with additional vocals by Kelis. It originally appeared on the promotional "Oceania" single released to radio stations and later became available to the public as a B-side of the "Who Is It" single, which charted at number 26 in the UK.[54] This was followed in early 2005 by "Triumph of a Heart", charting at number 31.[55] A video for the potential next single, "Where Is the Line", was filmed in collaboration with the Icelandic artist Gabríela Friðriksdóttir in late 2004. This was initially a sequence from an art installation movie of the artists but was released exclusively on the Medúlla
Medúlla
Videos DVD
DVD
as an official promo for the track. In 2005, Björk
Björk
collaborated with partner Matthew Barney
Matthew Barney
on the experimental art film Drawing Restraint 9, a dialogueless exploration of Japanese culture. Björk
Björk
and Barney both appear in the film, playing two occidental guests on a Japanese factory whaling vessel who ultimately transform into two whales. She is also responsible for the film's soundtrack, her second after Selmasongs. Björk
Björk
also appeared in the 2005 documentary Screaming Masterpiece, which delves into the Icelandic music scene. The movie features archive footage of the Sugarcubes and Tappi Tíkarrass and an ongoing conversation with Björk
Björk
herself. During this era, Björk
Björk
earned another BRIT Awards nomination for Best International Female Solo Artist.[56] She was also awarded the Inspiration Award at the Annual Q Magazine Awards in October 2005, accepting the prize from Robert Wyatt, with whom she collaborated on Medúlla.[57] In 2006, Björk
Björk
remastered her first three solo studio albums (Debut, Post, Homogenic) and her two soundtrack albums ( Selmasongs
Selmasongs
and Drawing Restraint 9) in 5.1 surround sound for a re-issue in a new box-set titled Surrounded, released on 27 June. Vespertine
Vespertine
and Medúlla
Medúlla
were already available in 5.1 as either DVD-A or SACD but are also included in the box set in repackaged format. The DualDiscs were also released separately.[58] Björk's former band, the Sugarcubes, reunited for a one-night-only concert in Reykjavík
Reykjavík
on 17 November 2006. Profits from the concert were donated to the Sugarcubes' former label, Smekkleysa, who according to Björk's press statement, "continue to work on a non-profit basis for the future betterment of Icelandic music".[59] 2007–11: Volta[edit] Björk
Björk
contributed a cover of Joni Mitchell's song "The Boho Dance" to the album A Tribute to Joni Mitchell, released on 24 April 2007. Director and previous collaborator Michel Gondry
Michel Gondry
asked Björk
Björk
to star in his film The Science of Sleep, but she declined. The role was played by Charlotte Gainsbourg
Charlotte Gainsbourg
instead.[60] Björk
Björk
starred in Gunar Karlsson's 2007 animated film Anna and the Moods, along with Terry Jones and Damon Albarn. Björk's sixth full-length studio album, Volta, was released on 7 May 2007. It features 10 tracks. It features input from hip hop producer Timbaland, singer Antony Hegarty, poet Sjón, electronic beat programmer Mark Bell, kora master Toumani Diabaté, Congolese thumb piano band Konono No 1, pipa player Min Xiaofen, and, on several songs, an all-female ensemble from Iceland
Iceland
performing brass compositions. It also uses the Reactable, a novel "tangible-interface" synthesizer from the Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Universitat Pompeu Fabra
in Barcelona, which on Volta is played by Damian Taylor. The first single from the album, "Earth Intruders", was released digitally on 9 April 2007 and became her second-ever Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
entry in the United States. Volta debuted at number nine on the Billboard 200
Billboard 200
albums chart, becoming her first top 10 album in the US, netting week-one sales of 43,000. The album also reached number three on the French albums chart with sales of 20,600 albums sold in its first week, and number seven in the UK Albums Chart with 20,456 units sold. The second single from the album, "Innocence", was digitally released on 23 July 2007, with an accompanying music video chosen from a contest conducted through her official website. "Declare Independence" was released on 1 January 2008 in a super deluxe package including two 12" vinyls, a CD, and a DVD
DVD
featuring Oscar-winning French director Michel Gondry's "Declare Independence" video.[61] "Wanderlust" was subsequently released in a similar format, featuring Encyclopedia Pictura's short film directed for the track, shot in stereoscopic 3D. The fifth single released from the album was "The Dull Flame of Desire", featuring vocals by Antony Hegarty.

Björk
Björk
performing in Amsterdam (2007)

Björk
Björk
then completed the 18-month Volta Tour, having performed at many festivals and returning to Latin America after nine years, playing in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba, Guadalajara, Bogotá, Lima, Santiago de Chile, and Buenos Aires, as part of different events. She also returned to Australia and New Zealand for the first time in 12 years in January 2008, touring the nations with the Big Day Out Festival. She played a one-off show at the Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House
as part of the Sydney Festival. On 13 January 2008, Björk
Björk
attacked a photographer who had photographed her arrival at Auckland International Airport in New Zealand for her scheduled performance at the Big Day Out
Big Day Out
festival.[62] Björk
Björk
allegedly tore the photographer's shirt down the back, and in the process she fell to the ground.[63] Neither the photographer nor his employer, The New Zealand Herald, lodged a formal complaint, and Auckland police did not investigate further.[64] At a Shanghai
Shanghai
performance she caused controversy by shouting "Tibet! Tibet!" at the end of the song "Declare Independence". A Chinese official later claimed that she had hurt the feelings of the Chinese people.[65] Also in 2008, her music was featured in the documentary Horizons: The Art of Steinunn Þórarinsdóttir directed by Frank Cantor.[66] Announced via an eBay auction, a new Björk
Björk
track was revealed under the title "Náttúra". Björk
Björk
commented the song was intended "to encourage active support for a more environmental approach to Iceland's natural resources." The song was initially labelled as a new single by Björk, with backing vocals from Radiohead
Radiohead
frontman Thom Yorke. Björk's official website later stated that the single would be released on 27 October 2008 through iTunes,[67] but the track was eventually made available at nattura.grapewire.net, exclusively.[68] In a statement released by bjork.com, a limited edition box set titled Voltaïc
Voltaïc
from One Little Indian Records was announced, with a release date in North America of 20 April 2009 (later delayed to mid-June). The release consists of various live recordings of performances in Paris
Paris
and Reykjavík. The live set was also recorded at the Olympic Studio in London. The first disc is audio of songs from the Volta Tour
Volta Tour
performed live at Olympic Studios; the second disc contains video of the Volta Tour
Volta Tour
live in Paris
Paris
and live in Reykjavik; the third disc contains "The Volta Videos" and the video competition, while the fourth is The Volta Mixes CD.[69] In May 2010, the Royal Swedish Academy of Music
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
announced that Björk was to receive the prestigious Polar Music Prize
Polar Music Prize
alongside Ennio Morricone.[70] A month later, Björk, along with Dirty Projectors, announced that they would be collaborating on a joint EP, titled Mount Wittenberg Orca, which was released on 30 June, to raise money for marine conservation.[71] In September 2010, Björk
Björk
released "The Comet Song" as part of the soundtrack for the movie Moomins and the Comet Chase. Also in 2010, she dueted with fellow Icelander (and One Little Indian labelmate) Ólöf Arnalds
Ólöf Arnalds
on a track called "Surrender" from Arnalds's new album, Innundir skinni,[72] and performed a duet with Antony and the Johnsons
Antony and the Johnsons
on the album Swanlights. The song is titled "Flétta".[73] On 20 September 2010, Björk
Björk
performed her version of "Gloomy Sunday" at designer Alexander McQueen's memorial in St. Paul's cathedral in London. On 7 December 2010, a previously unreleased song, called "Trance", was released by Björk
Björk
as the backing track of a short film made by Nick Knight, titled "To Lee, with Love", as a tribute to McQueen, with whom Björk
Björk
collaborated on multiple occasions. Björk
Björk
appeared on Átta Raddir, one of Jónas Sen's TV shows. The episode aired on 27 February 2011.[74] The shows are produced by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service.[75] In the show Björk performed eight songs, including "Sun in My Mouth", which had not previously been performed live. 2011–14: Biophilia[edit]

Björk
Björk
performing at the Cirque en Chantier in Paris, France, on 27 February 2013.

Björk, along with long-time collaborative partner, Michel Gondry, were originally announced to collaborate on a 3-D "scientific musical". Gondry states that it will be a 40-minute IMAX museum project.[76] On 3 December 2010, in an interview with Pitchfork, Björk
Björk
was asked if she was "working on anything at the moment," and she replied, "Yes, it will be ready in [a] few months."[77] On 17 February 2011, Pitchfork reported that Björk
Björk
would release a collaboration with Syrian musician Omar Souleyman.[78] On 17 March 2011, Björk
Björk
confirmed details about her next project, Biophilia. The new project combined music with technological innovation and themes of science and nature, including an "app album", educational collaborations with children and specialized live performance, debuting in Manchester, United Kingdom at the Manchester International Festival on 30 June. This was the first part of the Biophilia Tour, that toured the world for two years. In June 2011, the first single from Biophilia, "Crystalline", was released.[79] The song was composed using one of the several instruments custom built for the project, the "gameleste", a celesta modified with elements of gamelan. A central part of Biophilia was a series of interactive iPad apps made by programmers and designers, one app for each of the 10 songs on the new album. The second single, "Cosmogony", which served as the "mother app" for all the others, was released on 19 July 2011, followed by "Virus" and "Moon". Biophilia was the first ever album to be released, in October 2011, as a series of interactive apps.[80] Björk's Biophilia education program is another layer of the multi-tiered app album, consisting of a series of workshops for schoolchildren that explore the intersection of music and science, teaching students ages 10–12, using the Biophilia app suite as a starting point. Students engaged in activities ranging from playing with Björk's custom instruments to extracting DNA from an onion to watching the division of a cell on a flat-screen television. The Reykjavik City Board of Education decided to bring the program to all schools in the city over the next three years.[81] In July 2013, she featured in a Channel 4
Channel 4
documentary programme along with Sir David Attenborough
David Attenborough
called When Björk
Björk
Met Attenborough, as part of their Mad4Music season of programmes. Björk
Björk
and Attenborough discussed the human relationship with music, focusing around Biophilia, and also featuring scientist Oliver Sacks.[82] In 2014, the apps were the first ever to be inducted into the Museum of Modern Art's permanent collection.[80] In June, Björk
Björk
recorded original vocal samples for Death Grips, which they used on all 8 songs of Niggas on the Moon, the first part of their double LP, The Powers That B. In late 2014, a concert film, Björk: Biophilia Live, was released worldwide, including in more than 400 cinemas.[83] 2015–2017: Vulnicura[edit]

Björk
Björk
on stage at New York City
New York City
Center, on April 1, 2015.

Björk
Björk
worked with producers Arca and The Haxan Cloak
The Haxan Cloak
on her ninth studio album, titled Vulnicura.[84] On 18 January 2015, just days after being publicly announced, and two months ahead of its scheduled release, a supposed full version of the album leaked online.[85][86] In an effort to salvage potential losses in sales due to the leak and to allow fans to hear the album in superior quality, it was made available worldwide on 20 January 2015 on iTunes.[87] Vulnicura
Vulnicura
is a portrayal of her breakup with former partner, Matthew Barney
Matthew Barney
with lyrics that are emotionally raw in comparison to the abstract concerns of her previous album.[88] Its surprise release was positively compared to recent album releases from Madonna and Beyoncé, the former of whom also released her album to iTunes after being leaked, and the latter of whom wanted to revolutionize how albums were released and consumed.[89] Björk
Björk
began her world tour in March 2015 at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
performing "Black Lake" and other tracks from Vulnicura
Vulnicura
as well as several from her back catalog with accompaniment from the ensemble Alarm Will Sound, Arca on electronics (on festival dates The Haxan Cloak
The Haxan Cloak
took over) and percussionist Manu Delago.[90] After completing its New York residency, the tour traveled to Europe before ending in August 2015. New York's MoMA
MoMA
hosted a retrospective exhibition from 8 March – 7 June 2015 that chronicled Björk's career from Debut to Biophilia; however, aspects of Vulnicura
Vulnicura
were included as well but not previously announced.[91] The retrospective consisted of 4 parts: the Biophilia instruments (Tesla coil, MIDI
MIDI
controlled organ, the newly created Gameleste, and gravity harp) were on display in the lobby of the museum and played automatically throughout the day, the MoMA commissioned video installation, "Black Lake", which consisted of 2 complementary edits of the "Black Lake" video screened in a small room with 49 speakers hidden in the walls and ceiling, a Cinema room showcasing most of Björk's music videos, newly transferred in high definition, and the Songlines walking exhibit which showcased Björk's notebooks, costumes and props from throughout her career. A book entitled Björk: Archives, documenting the content of the exhibition, was published on 30 March 2015.[92] In addition to the "Black Lake" video, videos for "Lionsong" (which played in the Cinema room of the MoMA
MoMA
exhibit), "Stonemilker" (a 360 degree VR video) "Family", and "Mouth Mantra" were also produced for the album, as well as a three part remix series available digitally and on limited edition vinyls. No traditional singles were released for Vulnicura. On 21 December 2015, the " Stonemilker VR App" was released for iOS devices, featuring an exclusive strings mix of the song.[93] It is the same version on display at MoMA
MoMA
earlier that year.

Björk
Björk
performing at the Auditorio Nacional in Mexico City
Mexico City
on March 29, 2017.

On 2 October 2015, Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Strings was announced. The album serves as a purely acoustic companion to Vulnicura, and features additional string arrangements plus the viola organista, a unique string instrument played on a keyboard designed by Leonardo da Vinci. It was released on 6 November 2015 on CD and digital and 4 December 2015 on vinyl.[94] A week later, Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Live was announced on double CD / double LP sets sold exclusively through Rough Trade record shops. The set sold out online five days after being announced but limited quantities were made available in store in London
London
and Brooklyn. Each format is limited to 1000 copies each, making it one of the rarest physical releases of Björk's recent career. The CD was released on 13 November 2015 with the picture disc vinyls released a week later.[95] On 7 December 2015, Vulnicura
Vulnicura
was nominated for the Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Alternative Music Album.[96] On 15 July 2016, a standard "commercial" edition of Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Live was released, featuring the same performances but newly mixed and with different artwork. A luxury version of Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Live was released on 23 September. 2017–present: Utopia[edit] On 7 March 2016, Björk
Björk
announced in an interview that she and Arca were working on her next full-length studio album. "The last album, we sort of call it 'hell'. It was like divorce!" she said. "So we are doing paradise now. Utopia. We have done hell, we have earned some points."[97][98] On 3 June 2016, Björk
Björk
launched Björk
Björk
Digital, a virtual reality exhibit showcasing all the VR videos completed for Vulnicura
Vulnicura
thus far, including the world premiere of "Notget", directed by Warren du Preez and Nick Thornton Jones, at Carriageworks
Carriageworks
for Vivid Sydney 2016 in Sydney, Australia. She DJ'd the opening night party[99] and did the same when the show traveled to Tokyo, Japan
Japan
on 29 June,[100] showing at Miraikan. During the Miraikan residency, Björk made history by featuring in the world's first ever virtual reality live stream broadcast on YouTube. She gave a live performance of Vulnicura's final song "Quicksand", and the footage was incorporated into the "Quicksand" VR experience. Björk
Björk
Digital has traveled the world with stops in London, Montreal, Houston, Los Angeles and Barcelona. On 10 April 2017, a special box set of 7" records was announced entitled 7-inches for Planned Parenthood.[101] It is in support of the women's health organization Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
and features a wide range of musicians, visual artists, comedians, and authors, all of whom have contributed new, previously unreleased, or rare material. Björk
Björk
contributed a live version of her 1993 song "Come to Me", the same performance found on the 2016 Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Live album. The collection was released digitally on 20 October 2017.[102] On 2 August 2017, Björk
Björk
announced her unnamed new album with a hand-written note on social media, stating that the album "will be out very soon." The news broke a day before Dazed
Dazed
magazine released their August 2017 issue featuring Björk
Björk
on the cover. She described it as her "Tinder album" and stated that "it's about that search (for utopia) – and about being in love. Spending time with a person you enjoy is when the dream becomes real."[103][104] The album was produced by Björk
Björk
and Arca, whom she collaborated with on Vulnicura. Björk
Björk
has described her collaborative journey with Arca as "the strongest musical relationship [she's] had", likening it to that of Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
and Jaco Pastorius
Jaco Pastorius
during the albums Hejira and Don Juan's Reckless Daughter ("It's that synergy when two people lose their ego"), which have both been praised by Björk.[105] With the announcement came pre-order links to Björk's official online stores featuring blank place-holder images and the news that the album will be released on vinyl and two different CD versions.[106] Four song titles have been revealed: "Allow", "Loss", "Features Creatures" and "The Gate", the latter of which has had a music video shot for it by visual artist Andrew Thomas Huang.[105] The lead single of her upcoming album, "The Gate", was released at midnight on 15 September, three days earlier than the originally announced release date.[107][108] A single-sided 12" vinyl of the song was released on 22 September and was made available for pre-order.[109][110] On September 15, the album title was announced as Utopia.[111][112] It was released on November 24, 2017.[113][114] Artistry[edit] Style[edit]

"The last 30 years in art history are in large part a story of collaborative enterprises, of collapsed boundaries between high art and low, and of the end of divisions between media. Few cultural figures have made the distinctions seem as meaningless as the Icelandic singer who combined trip hop with 12-tone, and who brought the avant garde to MTV
MTV
just before both those things disappeared. When even Rihanna
Rihanna
is now photographed by the Dutch duo Inez & Vinoodh wearing an Alexander McQueen
Alexander McQueen
mask, who can doubt that Björk
Björk
– who made both the photographers' and the late designer's careers – is the master of today's cultural terrain?" – Jason Farago, The Guardian[115]

Over her three-decade solo career, Björk
Björk
has developed an eclectic and avant-garde[116][117] musical style that incorporates aspects of electronic,[116][118][119][120] dance,[120][121] alternative dance,[122] trip hop,[123] experimental,[1][124][125] glitch,[117] jazz,[117][126] alternative rock,[127][128] instrumental,[116] and contemporary classical music.[119][125] Her music has since been subject to critical analysis and scrutiny; as she consistently defies categorization in a musical genre.[129] Although she often calls herself a pop artist,[1] she is considered a "restlessly experimental creative force."[130][131] According to The New Yorker's Taylor Ho Bynum, "no contemporary artist so gracefully bridges the divide [between music experimentalist and pop celebrity] as Björk."[132] Her album Debut, which incorporated electronic, house, jazz, and trip hop, has been credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic music into mainstream pop.[133][134] Her work has been described as "frequently explor[ing] the relationship between nature and technology."[135] Broadly summarizing her wide-ranging integration of art and popular music, Joshua Ostroff suggested that "there is no better descriptor for what Björk
Björk
does than artpop."[122] She is considered an important figure of the genre, having been variously referred to as the "high priestess of art-pop,"[134] "art-pop queen",[136] and "art-pop boss";[137] She has also been referred to as "a shimmering shining beacon in progressive pop over the last 25 years."[138] while in 2005, the NME
NME
called her output a "consistently progressive pop agenda."[139] Björk's work is idiosyncratically collaborative, having worked with various producers, photographers, fashion designers and music video directors. This, however, has sometimes led to the lack of acknowledgment of auteurship in her music, something Björk
Björk
attributes to being a woman. She has discussed this in a 2015 The Pitchfork Review interview:

If whatever I'm saying to you now helps women, I'm up for saying it. For example, Vespertine, I did 80 percent of the beats on that album and Matmos
Matmos
came in right at the end. […] They are credited everywhere as having done the whole album. […] I spend 80 percent of the writing process of my albums on my own. I write the melodies—I'm outside. I'm by the computer, I edit a lot. That for me is very solitary, and I enjoy it a lot. […] The 20 percent of the album process when I get in the string orchestras, the extras, that's documented more. That's the side people see.[140]

Evolution[edit]

"Human Behaviour"

"Human Behaviour", the lead single from Debut (1993). An underground dance hit, it showcases Björk's interest in house music early in her solo career, evident in its four on the floor rhythm pattern.

"Hidden Place"

The first single from Vespertine
Vespertine
(2001), "Hidden Place" shows a general meshing of organic and synthetic textures, a recurring motif in Björk's music.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

During her career beginnings, Björk
Björk
performed in several bands from various musical genres: punk rock in Spit and Snot, jazz fusion in Exodus, post-punk in Tappi Tíkarrass and gothic rock in Kukl.[2] When working with Tappi Tíkarrass, she was heavily influenced by such British new wave bands as Siouxsie and the Banshees,[141] Wire, The Passions, The Slits, Joy Division,[142] and Killing Joke.[143] The studio album Gling-Gló
Gling-Gló
(1990) was recorded with Tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar and featured jazz and popular standards sung "very much in the classic Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
and Sarah Vaughan
Sarah Vaughan
mould."[144] The Sugarcubes' style has been described as avant-pop[118] and alternative rock.[145] Debut has been credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic music into mainstream pop.[146][147] Being a fan of dance music since the early days of acid house, Björk
Björk
used dance music as the framework for her songs in Debut, stating in 1993 that it was "the only pop music that is truly modern" and "house is the only music where anything creative is happening today."[148] However, in a Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
interview she also stated that "[she] was more influenced by ambient music than what you'd call dance music, and by things that were happening way back in Chicago and Detroit that were sensual and daring and groundbreaking in their time."[149] The music of Debut "reflects the contemporary musical environment of London, where [Björk] lived in the early 1990s, especially the burgeoning trip-hop scene of bands like Portishead and Massive Attack.[150] Michael Cragg of The Guardian
The Guardian
has described it as an "indefinable conflation of electronic pop, trip-hop, world music and otherworldly lyrics";[151] while The Face's Mandi James felt it was "a delightful fusion of thrash metal, jazz, funk and opera, with the odd dash of exotica thrown in for good measure."[152] Post, released in 1995, is known for its eclecticism.[153] Some critics consider it to be the "quintessential Björk" release, due to its protean form – more than any of her albums — and its "wide emotional palette".[154] The entirety of the album was written after Björk's move to England, and intended to reflect the faster pace of her new urban life.[155] guardian.com wrote that "Post tapped into the vortex of multicultural energy that was mid-90s London, where she had relocated and where strange hybrids such as jungle and trip-hop were bubbling."[156] Post built on the dance-pop blueprint of Debut, but pushed its production and beats to the fore, "adding influence from all over the world."[157] While the "distant echoes" of IDM and trip-hop were present in Debut, Post is characterized by Björk's fuller incorporation of these styles.[147] Referred to as a "genre roulette" by the San Francisco Chronicle,[158] it touches on various musical styles, including industrial music,[159] big-band jazz, trip-hop, chillout,[159] and experimental music.[160] The balance between synthetic and organic elements in the album – generated through the combination of electronic and "real" instruments – is a recurring characteristic in Björk's output.[161][162] With her 1997 album Homogenic, Björk
Björk
intended to make a "simple record with 'only one flavour'", in contrast with her previous releases.[163] Conceptually focused on her native Iceland,[163] the album is a "fusion of chilly strings (courtesy of the Icelandic String Octet), stuttering, abstract beats, and unique touches like accordion and glass harmonica".[164][165] Björk
Björk
incorporated a traditional singing method used by Icelandic choir men, a combination of speaking and singing as illustrated in the song "Unravel".[166] While Homogenic still showed Björk
Björk
"steeping in the cutting edge of electronic dance-music culture, her embrace of techno futurism, her time spent pulling all-nighters in London
London
clubs", Neva Chonin of Rolling Stone stated the album was "certain to be rough going for fans looking for the sweet melodies and peppy dance collages of her earlier releases."[167] On the 2001 album Vespertine, Björk
Björk
continued with her idiosyncratic general meshing of organic and synthetic textures, once again via the combination of electronic sounds and string arrangements.[168] However, Vespertine
Vespertine
differed from Homogenic
Homogenic
in its greater interest in intimacy and sexuality (the result of her new relationship with artist Matthew Barney),[169][170] and "its desire for stark melodies and minimalist production."[168][171] Vespertine
Vespertine
is also characterized by "the obsession with sonic traces of analog technology – that is, the pervasive use of loops, static and white noise— despite the obviously digital orientation of twenty-first-century electronics";[172] thus, elements of glitch music have been identified.[173][174] Unlike previous albums like Debut and Post, "electronic sounds are the norm, and the acoustic sounds become the interjections."[172] Björk
Björk
also stepped away from her signature shrieking singing style; her vocals often appear to be recorded close to the microphone and with little treatment, and sung in a sometimes "unstable whisper", conveying a sense of close proximity and reduced space suitable for the intimate lyrics.[175] Björk's 2004 studio album, Medúlla, is almost entirely constructed with human vocals.[1] musicOMH's review stated that: "Despite its voice-only premise, Medúlla
Medúlla
shows off a mile-wide scope of influences"; noting elements of folk and medieval music.[176] Wondering Sound wrote that despite "its comparative starkness, [ Medúlla
Medúlla
is] every bit as sensual as [Vespertine].[168] The publication also added: "The electronic treatments range from industrial distortion to percussive glitches and dreamy layering, rarely descending into novelty."[168] The album combines beatboxing, classical choirs that suggest composers like Penderecki
Penderecki
or Arvo Pärt, and "mews, moans, counterpoint and guttural grunts" provided by Björk and guests like Mike Patton, Robert Wyatt
Robert Wyatt
and Tanya Tagaq.[177] Medúlla
Medúlla
includes "vocal fantasias" that lean toward chamber music, alongside tracks that "are obviously but distantly connected to hip-hop."[177] Glimpses of Bulgarian women's choirs, the polyphony of central African pygmies, and the "primal vocalisms" of Meredith Monk were also noted.[177] Volta, released in 2007, generated anticipation after the inclusion of R&B producer Timbaland; however, NME
NME
wrote that "this is not Björk
Björk
'going hip-hop' or having a late-breaking pop reinvention."[178] It has been said that the album: "finds the perfect balance between the vibrancy of her poppier work in the '90s and her experiments in the 2000s."[179] Björk
Björk
wanted the album's beats to be "effortless, primitive, lo-fi style", in contrast with Vespertine.[180] It combines a large brass ensemble with live and programmed drums and "ethnic instruments" like likembé, pipa and kora.[180] Volta alternates between potent, joyful songs, and moodier, more contemplative tracks, "all of which are tied together by found-sound and brass-driven interludes that give the impression that the album was recorded in a harbor".[179] Biophilia, of 2011, showcases Björk's more avant-garde tendencies, drawing comparisons to Stockhausen
Stockhausen
and Nico's 1969 album, The Marble Index.[116][181] The music in Vulnicura
Vulnicura
is centered on Björk's voice, orchestral strings and electronic beats.[1][136] This combination was already present in Homogenic, certainly the consequence of the common topics treated by both albums: "heartbreak and perseverance".[1] Influences[edit]

"I grew up with a lot of people who thought that their music was the only right one, and that the others were not so good... I realised that a good song is a good song if it's got the right intention, if it has true emotion and originality. It doesn't matter if it's by ABBA
ABBA
or Stockhausen." – Björk, 1994[182]

Björk's influences have been described "as diverse as those she inspires".[132] The Big Issue
The Big Issue
wrote that: "her passion from everything from minimalist techno to free jazz has been well documented."[183] For his biography of her, Björk
Björk
told Mark Pytlik: "If I were to say who influenced me most, I would say people like Stockhausen, Kraftwerk, Brian Eno
Brian Eno
and Mark Bell."[184] Some "confessional singer-songwriters" Björk
Björk
commends include Abida Parveen, Chaka Khan, Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
and Kate Bush, the latter being a definitive influence in her career.[140] According to The Big Issue, "the artist that inspired [Björk] to start writing her own songs was Joni Mitchell."[183] She said: "Growing up in Iceland
Iceland
I had no knowledge of Joni's impact on the whole hippy era and the Californian folk scene. [...] Most of the music around at that time was created by men and the few female songwriters what were around were usually backed by male musicians. In comparison, Joni created her own musical universe with female emotion, energy, wisdom courage and imaginations. I found that very liberating."[183] Her favorite albums include Steve Reich's Tehillim, Kate Bush's The Dreaming, Nico's Desertshore, Joni Mitchell's Don Juan's Reckless Daughter and, The Black Dog's Bytes, among others.[185] According to Alex Ross of The Guardian, this list "circumnavigates the globe and, at the same time, it overruns the boundaries separating art from pop, mainstream from underground, primeval past from hi-tech present."[116] Through her mother —who had embraced many aspects of the counterculture of the 1960s—, Björk
Björk
was exposed to rock music such as Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
and Deep Purple
Deep Purple
during her childhood; a style of music she disliked.[186] Instead, during her formative years at music school, Björk
Björk
became interested in avant-garde, classical, and minimalistic music;[116][186] also becoming a "jazz freak".[187] Although her music is more consistently tonal and has more crossover appeal, she is considered indebted to avant-garde composers Karlheinz Stockhausen, Meredith Monk, Sun Ra
Sun Ra
and Philip Glass.[132][188] In a 2008 article for The Guardian, Björk
Björk
considered Stockhausen
Stockhausen
as the root of electronic music, writing "he sparked off a sun that is still burning and will glow for a long time."[189] Early in her career, Björk
Björk
cited Sir David Attenborough
David Attenborough
as her biggest musical influence, saying "she identified with his thirst for exploring new and wild territories."[190] Although Björk
Björk
was in various post-punk and alternative rock bands during the late 1980s, her contact with London's underground club culture helped her find her own musical identity.[191] Reflecting on this, she stated in 2015: "...as a music nerd, I just had to follow my heart, and my heart was those beats that were happening in England. And maybe what I'm understanding more and more as I get older, is that music like Kate Bush
Kate Bush
has really influenced me. Brian Eno. Acid. Electronic beats. Labels like Warp. And if there's such a thing in pop music as a Music Tree, I see myself on the same branch, you know. And for me it's almost like you know, I've been calling it 'matriarch electronic music.' So I think that was the heart I was following."[191] According to i-D, the music of Debut and Post "couldn't have existed without Aphex Twin, Black Dog, A Guy Called Gerald, LFO and all the other producers who reshaped the language of music since 1988."[192] Collaborator Marius de Vries said: "She's very au fait with contemporary avant-garde music and the more pioneering electronic stuff. She's always been very comfortable and enthusiastic about both, and it's also a passion I share. To find someone who is making pop records but was prepared to accommodate such influences was very exciting for me."[193] When asked if she was inspired by David Bowie, Björk
Björk
replied that she could not associate herself with his artistry, saying: "Obviously, [David Bowie] is a musical legend, and I really respect him as an artist, especially the visual aspect of what he does. But for me, it is part of the patriarchal world that is rock 'n' roll. I never listened to a lot of rock. I prefer electronic music, which is less virile. I feel more belonging to this family than that of David Bowie. At home I mostly listen to instrumental music, experimental, I like to discover sounds I had never heard before."[194] In 1996, when asked about the musical influences of her album Post, Björk
Björk
stated:

I'm influenced by everything. By books, by the weather, by the water, by my shoes, if they're comfortable or not. Everything. One of it is music, but I think it is very important with people who are dealing with making music that they are not only influenced by music. And I find it very sad when you find a record, and it says on [it]: "this record was inspired by Miles Davis." Because it's like making... If you make a film, you don't make a film about a film, you make a film about real life. And you wouldn't sit down and write a book about a book, it's like recycling, it misses the point. And music isn't brilliant unless it goes beyond the point of being music and becomes real life. So I'm influenced by real life. And when people listen to my music and say "Oh, I can see great influence from this artist in there", I read that and I say "Okay, I didn't succeed". But if people listen to my music and say "Oh, this made me feel like this and that [...]", that's right. It should be beyond style, beyond influence, it should be about pure emotion, and real life.[195]

Voice[edit] Björk
Björk
has a soprano vocal range spanning from E3 to D6,[196][197][198][199] which has been described as both "elastic" and "somersaulting" in quality as well as having been praised for her scatting ability, unique vocal stylings and delivery.[200] In a review for her live performance at the 2011 Manchester
Manchester
International Festival, Bernadette McNulty of The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
commented, "the 45-year-old still uses electronic dance beats with a full-blooded raver's passion and the elemental timbre of her voice has grown more powerful with age".[201] Björk
Björk
has been known to reach notes beyond the seventh and eighth octave through her use of reverse phonation.[citation needed] In late 2012, it was reported that Björk
Björk
had undergone surgery for a polyp on her vocal cords. Commenting on the success of the procedure after years of maintaining a strict diet and using vocal exercises to prevent vocal injury, she stated, "I have to say, in my case anyway: surgery rocks! [...] I stayed quiet for three weeks and then started singing and definitely feel like my cords are as good as pre-nodule, it's been very satisfying to sing all them clear notes again."[202] However, in a review for Biophilia, Kitty Empire of The Guardian stated that pre-surgery Björk
Björk
still sounded strong, commenting that her voice was "spectacular and swooping", particularly on the song "Thunderbolt".[203] In a similar vein, Matthew Cole of Slant Magazine adds that her voice has been "preserved quite well," however he also stipulates that "her once-formidable wail is too hoarse and shouty to be the ace in the hole that it once was," also adding "it's only where her most dramatic vocal pyrotechnics are concerned that there's any question of physical ability".[204] National Public Radio counted Björk
Björk
among its list of "50 Great Voices" and MTV
MTV
placed her at number 8 on its countdown "22 Greatest Voices in Music." She has been ranked 60th as one of the 100 greatest singers ever, and 81st as one of the 100 greatest songwriters ever by Rolling Stone, who praised her voice as being unique, fresh and extremely versatile, fitting and being influenced by a wide range of influences and genres.[8][9][205] Other ventures[edit] Charitable work[edit] After the tsunami which struck Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in late 2004, Björk began work on a new project titled Army of Me: Remixes and Covers to help raise money for a relief fund. This project recruited fans and musicians from around the world to either cover or remix the 1995 track, "Army of Me". From over 600 responses Björk
Björk
and her co-writer Graham Massey picked the best twenty to appear on the album. The album was released in April in the UK and in late May 2005 in the US. By January 2006, the album had raised around £250,000 to help UNICEF's work in the southeast Asian region.[206] Björk
Björk
visited Banda Aceh
Banda Aceh
in February 2006 to view some of UNICEF's work with the children who were affected by the tsunami.[207] On 2 July 2005 Björk
Björk
took part in the Live 8
Live 8
series of concerts, headlining the Japan
Japan
show with Do As Infinity, Good Charlotte, and McFly. She performed eight songs with Matmos, a Japanese string octet, and Zeena Parkins.[208][209] Political activity[edit] Björk's years in Kukl aligned her with the anarchist Crass Collective.[210] While she has since been hesitant to be seen as an overtly political figure, and has said so on her website,[211] she is strongly supportive of numerous liberation movements across the globe, including support for independence for Kosovo.[212] She dedicated her song "Declare Independence" to Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands, which caused a minor controversy in the Faroes. When Björk
Björk
twice dedicated "Declare Independence" to the people of Kosovo during a concert in Japan,[213] a planned performance of hers was cancelled at Serbia's Exit Festival, reportedly due to safety concerns. In 2008, Björk
Björk
created international controversy after she dedicated "Declare Independence" to the Tibet
Tibet
freedom movement during a Shanghai
Shanghai
concert, chanting "Tibet! Tibet!" during the song. China's Culture Ministry issued a denunciation through state news agency Xinhua, stating that Björk
Björk
"broke Chinese law" and "hurt Chinese people's feelings" and pledged to further tighten control over foreign artists performing in China. A later statement accused Björk
Björk
of "whipping up ethnic hatred".[214] In 2014, Björk
Björk
made a Facebook post dedicating the song to the people of Scotland as they neared the referendum on their independence that year.[215] In October 2017, she posted a tweet[216] dedicating the song to Catalonia
Catalonia
on account of the Catalan independence referendum. Björk
Björk
has also taken an interest in environmental issues in her native country. In 2006, she took part in the "Hætta" concert in Reykjavík, organised in protest against the building of Alcoa aluminium smelters in the country, which would make Iceland
Iceland
the biggest smelter in Europe.[citation needed] She founded the organization "Náttúra", which aims to promote Icelandic nature and grassroots industries. On 28 October 2008, Björk
Björk
wrote an article for the Times[citation needed] discussing the state of the Icelandic economy and her thoughts on the proposed use of natural resources to get the country out of debt. Björk, in collaboration with Audur Capital, set up a venture capital fund titled "BJÖRK" to support the creation of sustainable industries in Iceland. She has written the foreword to the English translation of the Iceland
Iceland
bestseller by Andri Snær Magnason titled "Dreamland". On 21 May 2010, Björk
Björk
wrote an open letter in the newspaper The Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Grapevine, calling on the Icelandic government to "do everything in its power to revoke the contracts with Magma Energy", the Canadian company which now has complete ownership of Icelandic geothermal company HS Orka.[217] In 2014, Björk
Björk
helped to organize Stopp, Let's Protect the Park, an event that aimed to raise money and awareness towards the preservation of Icelandic nature. The event included a show at Harpa Concert
Concert
Hall at which Björk
Björk
herself also performed three songs. The concert initially raised $310,000[218] and the project went on to raise £3 million overall, with plans to use the money to establish a national park.[219] Protégés[edit] Over her extensive career, Björk
Björk
has frequently used her position and influence to help launch new acts or mentor them as they establish themselves as recording artists. The first example of this was most evident with Iranian-born electronica producer Leila Arab. Leila was initially recruited to play keyboards and provide backing vocals on Björk's first international solo tour in 1993 in support of Debut. In 1995, Björk
Björk
recalled Leila to be part of her second touring band for her next tour in support of Post. This time Leila was given the opportunity to experiment with the live output mixing from the stage, rather than playing keyboards. This was to be Leila's first encounter with live mixing and would later form the basis of her own solo music career where she has integrated live mixing into her own compositions and live shows. Leila has gone on to release three international solo albums throughout the 1990s and appears on the influential electronica labels Rephlex Records, XL Recordings, and Warp Records.[220] In 1998, Björk
Björk
established her own short-lived record label, Ear Records, which operated under the One Little Indian Records umbrella. Her only signee that received a release was her long-time friend, Magga Stína. Magga Stína recorded her debut solo album under the production of Björk's longtime collaborator, Graham Massey (of the British electronica act 808 State.) The album was simply titled An Album and featured just one single release, "Naturally". In 1998, Björk
Björk
invited Magga Stína to perform as her support act on the Homogenic
Homogenic
Tour, and in 2004 Magga Stína contributed to the production of Medúlla. Magga Stína is presently still performing and recording in Iceland. In 2001, Björk
Björk
became aware of Canadian Inuit
Inuit
throat singer Tanya Tagaq and invited her to perform on several dates of Björk's Vespertine
Vespertine
World Tour as a special guest. In 2004, Tagaq was invited to collaborate on the a cappella album, Medúlla, in which the duet "Ancestors" was recorded. "Ancestors" was later featured on Tagaq's first solo album, Sinaa, in 2005. In 2004, Leila discovered the work of Finnish multimedia artist Heidi Kilpeläinen, who had taken her combination of lo-fi, homemade electro pop with her own self-produced music videos and combined them under the alter ego character, HK119. Leila soon referred HK119's work to Björk, who started mentioning HK119 in various press and interviews. In 2004, Björk
Björk
announced HK119 as her favourite act of 2004 and cited her as "The Perfect Blonde Woman".[221] HK119 was soon signed to Björk's parent label One Little Indian Records, which released her debut album in 2006. HK119 and Björk
Björk
appeared in a joint interview in Dazed
Dazed
& Confused magazine in 2006, where Björk
Björk
stated about HK119's work, "It's unique. Even if I gave you $3 million, you couldn't improve on it... [Its] simplicity is [its] strength."[222] HK119 later released her albums, Fast, Cheap and Out of Control in 2008 and Imaginature in 2013, both on One Little Indian Records. In 2009, Björk
Björk
used her website and various radio interviews throughout the year to promote two more new acts. The first was fellow Icelandic musician, Ólöf Arnalds, who is also a member of Icelandic folktronica band múm. In 2006, Arnalds released her debut solo album Við Og Við
Við Og Við
in Iceland, which Björk
Björk
citied as one of her favourite recent new acts of the last few years during a radio interview, and encouraged One Little Indian Records to reissue the album in the UK and Europe in 2009. On the same radio show for the American NPR channel, Björk
Björk
also praised the works of emerging English artist Micachu
Micachu
and the more obscure, Omar Souleyman. Björk
Björk
later used her official website to host the premier of Micachu's debut video on the Rough Trade Records, "Turn Me Well".[223] Discography[edit] Main articles: Björk
Björk
discography and List of songs recorded by Björk

Björk
Björk
(1977) Debut (1993) Post (1995) Homogenic
Homogenic
(1997) Vespertine
Vespertine
(2001) Medúlla
Medúlla
(2004) Volta (2007) Biophilia (2011) Vulnicura
Vulnicura
(2015) Utopia (2017)

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Role Notes

1987 Glerbrot Maria

1990 The Juniper Tree Margit

2000 Dancer in the Dark Selma Ježková Also composer of the Soundtrack Selmasongs

Acting Awards: Bodil Award for Best Actress Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress (Prix d'interprétation féminine) Edda Award for Best Leading Actress European Film Award for Best Actress European Film Awards
European Film Awards
– Jameson People's Choice Award for Best Actress National Board of Review Award for Outstanding Dramatic Music Performance Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Breakthrough Performance Robert Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role Russian Guild of Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Actress Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Promising Actress Nominated – Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama Nominated – Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama Nominated – Sierra Award for Best Actress Nominated – Sierra Award for Best Female Newcomer Composer Awards: Robert Award for Best Score Satellite Award for Best Original Song Nominated – Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Original Score Nominated – Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Original Song Nominated – Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Original Score Nominated – Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Original Song

2005 Drawing Restraint 9 Occidental Guest Also composer of the soundtrack Drawing Restraint 9

2007 Anna and the Moods Anna Young (voice)

2014 Björk: Biophilia Live Herself Concert
Concert
film

Cameos and soundtrack appearances[edit]

Year Title Notes

1982 Rokk í Reykjavík Cameo with the Tappi Tíkarrass

1983 Nýtt líf Features music of the Tappi Tíkarrass

1994 Prêt-à-Porter Cameo as a model (uncredited)

1994 Tank Girl Features "Army of Me"

1998 The X-Files: The Album Features "Hunter"

1999 Being John Malkovich Features "Amphibian" (2 mixes on soundtrack)

2001 Space Ghost Coast to Coast Björk
Björk
plays herself, one episode

2005 Screaming Masterpiece Features "All Is Full of Love", "Pluto" and "Oceania"

2005 Arakimentari Documentary on Japanese photographer Nobuyoshi Araki

2006 Huldufólk 102 Features "One Day" (Wood & Metal Version)

2006 Matthew Barney: No Restraint Documentary on the making of Drawing Restraint 9

2008 Dagvaktin Björk
Björk
plays herself, one episode

2010 Moomins and the Comet Chase Features "The Comet Song"

2011 Sleepless Nights Stories Cameo in Jonas Mekas
Jonas Mekas
film

2011 Sucker Punch Features the remixed version of "Army of Me"

Tours[edit] Main article: List of Björk
Björk
concert tours

Debut Tour
Debut Tour
(1993–94) Post Tour
Post Tour
(1995–97) Homogenic
Homogenic
Tour (1997–99) Vespertine
Vespertine
World Tour (2001) Greatest Hits Tour (2003) Volta Tour
Volta Tour
(2007–08) Biophilia Tour
Biophilia Tour
(2011–13) Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Tour (2015–17) Utopia Tour (2018–)

Bibliography[edit]

1984 – Um Úrnat frá Björk 1995 – Post 2001 – Björk/ Björk
Björk
as a book 2003 – Live Book 2011 – Biophilia – Manual Edition 2012 – Biophilia Live 2015 – Björk: Archives 2017 – 34 Scores for Piano, Organ, Harpsichord and Celeste

Awards and nominations[edit] Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Björk See also[edit]

Book: Björk

Björk
Björk
portal Iceland
Iceland
portal Music portal

Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir & tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar Kraumur – a music fund of which Björk
Björk
is an advisory board member List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. dance chart List of number-one dance hits (United States) List of trip hop artists Mononymous person Music of Iceland Vegvísir
Vegvísir
– Björk's largest tattoo, located on her left arm

Notes[edit]

^ Pronounced (/bjɜːrk/; Icelandic: [ˈpjœr̥k ˈkvʏðmʏntsˌtouhtɪr] ( listen)

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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and Arca at Work on New Björk
Björk
Album". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 7 March 2016.  ^ Kate Hennessy. " Björk
Björk
Digital review – singer's past, present and future unveiled amid fans and foliage Music". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-12-09.  ^ [1] Archived 1 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Björk, Bon Iver, Sleater-Kinney, St. Vincent, More on Planned Parenthood 7" Comp Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2017-09-20.  ^ "7-Inches For Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
Announces Digital and Physical Release Date". Artistdirect.com. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ Bulut, Selim (August 2, 2017). "Björk: 'My new album is coming out very soon'". Dazed. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (2017-08-04). " Björk
Björk
announces new album: 'This is like my Tinder record'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-23.  ^ a b Eisinger, Dale (August 3, 2017). " Björk
Björk
on Her New Record: "It's Like My Tinder Album"". Spin. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Cuby, Michael (August 3, 2017). "Don't Scream Now But a New Björk Album Is Available for Preorder". Paper. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ " Björk
Björk
announces new single 'The Gate'". DIY. Retrieved 2017-09-10.  ^ Cinquemani, Sal. "Review: Björk
Björk
Opens Up on New Single "The Gate"". Slant. Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ " Björk
Björk
Announces New Single "The Gate" Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2017-09-10.  ^ " Björk
Björk
announces new single 'The Gate' - NME". NME. 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2017-09-10.  ^ " Björk
Björk
Reveals New Album Title". Pitchfork. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ " Björk
Björk
reveals new album title - NME". NME. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-09-23.  ^ " Björk
Björk
Reveals New Album Release Date, Stunning Cover". Pitchfork. Retrieved 2017-10-31.  ^ Trendell, Andrew. " Björk
Björk
unveils beautiful artwork and release date for new album 'Utopia'". NME. Retrieved 2017-10-31.  ^ Farago, Jason (4 March 2015). " Björk
Björk
review – a strangely unambitious hotchpotch". theguardian.com. Retrieved 4 March 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Alex Ross (26 March 2014). "How Björk
Björk
broke the sound barrier". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ a b c Telekom. "Björk". Electronic Beats. Retrieved 2 January 2016.  ^ a b Hampton, Dream (January 2002). "As quiet as it's kept". Vibe. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ a b Sandall, Robert (23 March 2008). "Down time: Bjork". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ a b Allen, Liam (28 July 2011). "Bjork on Biophilia and her debt to UK dance music". BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 197 ^ a b Ostroff, Joshua (16 September 2013). "Björk's Been ARTPOP Since Before Gaga Was Born This Way". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ Phares, Heather. "Post- Björk". AllMusic. AllMedia Network. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Cragg, Michael (26 March 2014). "10 of the best: Björk". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ a b Roberts, Randall (22 January 2015). "Review: On 'Vulnicura,' Bjork is heavy and at her most personal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ Joslyn Layne. " Björk
Björk
/ Gudmundar Ingólfsson Trio". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Simpson, Dave (8 January 2015). "Björk, KUKL and Purrkur Pillnikk – the anarcho-punk roots of Iceland's music scene". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ Stephen Cook. " The Sugarcubes
The Sugarcubes
– Stick Around for Joy". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ " Björk
Björk
at MoMA: It's oh so disappointing". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Schjeldahl, Peter (17 March 2015). "MOMA's Embarrassing Björk Crush". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Dylan S (18 January 2010). "Bjork – Post". SputnikMusic. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ a b c Ho Bynum, Taylor (10 March 2015). "Björk's Healing Music". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ "Debut Turns 20". Stereogum. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ a b "Bjork's 'Debut' Turns 20: Backtracking « Music News, Reviews, and Gossip". Idolator.com. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ "Björk". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
18 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ a b Hermes, Will (23 January 2015). " Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Album Review". Rolling Stone. Wenner Publishing. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Hunter, James (October 1997). " Björk
Björk
– Homogenic". Spin. Vol. 13 no. 7. Spin Media. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ " Björk
Björk
– Vulnicura". Turks and Underdog. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Oldham, James (12 September 2005). "Bjork : All is full of love". NME. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ a b Harper, Jessica (21 April 2015). "The Invisible Woman: A Conversation with Björk". The Pitchfork Review. Pitchfork Media
Pitchfork Media
(5): 38–51. ISBN 978-0-9913992-4-6. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Widder, Katy (28 August 2001). "Björk: Vespertine". PopMatters. Retrieved 5 March 2016.  ^ Snow, Mat (1 November 1989). "World Domination or Die!". Q.  ^ Davis, Andy. "The secret history of Björk". Record Collector. March 1994. "Kukl [...] indebted, stylistically at least, to the Fall, Killing Joke
Killing Joke
and Siouxsie and the Banshees." ^ "The Secret History of Björk". Record Collector. Diamond Publishing. 29 March 1994.  ^ " The Sugarcubes
The Sugarcubes
– US Alternative Songs". billboard.com. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ Hamilton, John (12 July 2013). "Bjork's 'Debut' Turns 20: Backtracking". Idolator. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ a b Breihan, Tom (3 July 2013). "Debut Turns 20". Stereogum. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ Gunnarsson, Thorsteinn (1 May 1993). "Björk". i-D. No. 116. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ Gardner, Elysa (1 June 1993). "In a Björk
Björk
state of mind". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ Malawey, Victoria (2007). Temporal Process, Repetition, and Voice in Bjork's "Medúlla". ProQuest. p. 6.  ^ Cragg, Michael (26 March 2014). "10 of the best: Björk". theguardian.com. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 14 January 2015.  ^ James, Mandi (1 June 1993). " Björk
Björk
again". The Face. Emap.  ^ "Cool Eccentric – Björk". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
30 June 1995.  ^ Tabakis, Peter (29 June 2015). "The Diva Cuts Loose". Pretty Much Amazing. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ "Albums: Post". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ Reynolds, Simon (4 July 2011). "Is Björk
Björk
the last great pop innovator?". guardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ Mackay, Emily (12 June 2015). "Bjork's 'Post' 20 Years On: How The Icelandic Genius Created A Glossy, Future-Focused Avant-Pop Wonderland". NME. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ Snyder, Michael (2 July 1995). " Björk
Björk
lives up to debut with 'Post'". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.  Available at bjork.fr ^ a b " Björk
Björk
Albums From Worst To Best". Stereogum.com. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ Phares, Heather. "Post – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 91 ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 94 ^ a b Pytlik 2003, p. 119 ^ ">Phares, Heather. " Homogenic
Homogenic
– Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 April 2009.  ^ Homogenic
Homogenic
(Linear notes). Björk. Elektra. 1997. CD62061.  ^ Lysloff, René T. A.; Leslie C. Gay (2003). Music and technoculture. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 0-8195-6514-8.  ^ Chonin, Neva (3 October 1997). "Homogenic". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2009.  ^ a b c d "Icon: Björk". Wondering Sound. eMusic.com. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 155 ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 160 ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 159 ^ a b Howe, Blake; Jensen-Moulton, Stephanie; Lerner, Neil; Straus, Joseph (15 October 2015). The Oxford Handbook of Music and Disability Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0199331444.  ^ Plagenhoef, Scott (9 June 2004). "Björk: Debut Live
Debut Live
/ Post Live
Post Live
/ Homogenic
Homogenic
Live / Vespertine
Vespertine
Live". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 9 July 2014. Live, Vespertine's glitch-pop nuances are magnified, the choir is less cloying, and the music box melodies are more embraceable.  ^ "Cocoon". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2005. Retrieved 31 July 2014.  ^ Born, Georgina (17 January 2013). Music, Sound and Space: Transformations of Public and Private Experience. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1107504127.  ^ McDonnell, Sarah (30 August 2004). " Björk
Björk
– Medúlla". musicOMH. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ a b c Pareles, Jon (29 August 2004). " Björk
Björk
Grabs The World By the Throat". The New York Times. The New York Times
The New York Times
Company. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Elan, Priya (10 May 2007). "Björk: Volta". NME. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ a b Phares, Heather. "Volta – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ a b Micallef, Ken (1 July 2007). "Gypsy Queen". Remixmag.com.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Fricke, David. " Björk
Björk
– Biophilia". Album review. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ Dade, Stuart (1 December 1994). "Ice Ice Baby". For Women.  ^ a b c Jane, Sarah (31 March 2008). "The Volta Face". The Big Issue.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 126 ^ Ross, Alex (13 November 2011). "My Favorite Records: Björk". The Rest is Noise. Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ a b Pytlik 2003, p. 7 ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 5 ^ Smith, Roberta (5 March 2015). "Björk, a One-of-a-Kind Artist, Proves Elusive at MoMA". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Björk
Björk
(30 October 2008). "Why I love Stockhausen". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Ali, Lorraine (2 February 1998). "Post". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 28 April 2012.  ^ a b Guzmán, Isaac (5 March 2015). " Björk
Björk
Is Your Tour Guide: An Exclusive TIME Interview for Her MOMA Retrospective". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ "..love bites Björk
Björk
& Goldie". i-D. No. 154. Time Out. 1 July 1996.  ^ Tom, Flint (November 2001). "Musical Differences". Sound on Sound. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ Gourdon, Jessica (27 February 2015). "Björk : "Comment accrocher une chanson à un mur ?"". Libération
Libération
(in French). Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ Björk, Fabio Massari (October 1996). Lado B (TV show). São Paulo, Brazil: MTV
MTV
Brasil.  ^ "GCSE Bitesize Western Voice Classification". BBC. Retrieved 9 December 2011.  ^ Grant, Sarah H. (5 December 2012). "Album Review: Björk
Björk
– bastards". Consequence of sound. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ Walton, Sam (22 November 2017). " Björk
Björk
- Utopia Review". Loud and Quiet. Retrieved 26 November 2017.  ^ Kristobak, Ryan (May 20, 2014). "Comparing The Top Artists, Past And Present, By Vocal Range". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2014.  ^ Layne, Joslyn (1990). " Björk
Björk
/ Gudmundar Ingólfsson Trio review". Allmusic. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ McNulty, Bernadette (1 July 2011). " Björk
Björk
at Manchester International Festival, review". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ "Bjork undergoes throat surgery". BBC. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ Empire, Kitty (9 October 2011). "Björk: Biophilia – review". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ Empire, Kitty (8 October 2011). "Björk: Biophilia – review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ "100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 October 2017. ^ "Army of Me : The progress". Web.archive.org. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ Björk
Björk
visits UNICEF's work in Banda Aceh
Banda Aceh
photo gallery, 2008 ^ " Live 8
Live 8
entices Bjork to perform". Los Angeles Times. 2005-06-25. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  ^ "Bjork steals show as Tokyo kicks-off Live8". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  ^ Vidar Ringstrøm. "Kukl". Hanshan.org. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "Statement" Archived 7 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine., björk.com/news 2008, 4 March 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008. ^ nme.com (2008). "Bjork Serbian gig cancelled over her pro-Kosovan stance". Retrieved 4 March 2008.  ^ Asia-Pacific Bjork makes 'free Tibet' gesture. BBC
BBC
News (4 March 2008). Retrieved 28 February 2011. ^ Entertainment Western acts 'welcome' in China. BBC
BBC
News (13 March 2008). Retrieved 28 February 2011. ^ " Björk
Björk
shows support for Scottish yes vote with Declare Independence post". The Guardian. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2017.  ^ "for catalonia". 2017-10-02. Retrieved 2017-10-07.  ^ grapevine.is (2010). " Björk
Björk
On Magma Energy". Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.  ^ "Bjork and friends raise ISK 35 million for nature protection". 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.  ^ "Björk: Even venture capitalists understand our future is in nature". 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ words in edgeways with leila arab « wears the trousers magazine :: a women in music compendium Archived 23 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Wearsthetrousers.com (10 September 2009). Retrieved 28 February 2011. ^ interrupting yr broadcast: hk119 « wears the trousers magazine :: a women in music compendium Archived 16 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Wearsthetrousers.com (15 October 2008). Retrieved 28 February 2011. ^ HK119 & Björk
Björk
Interview, Dazed
Dazed
& Confused Archived 22 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ björk.com/news 2011. Bjork.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011. Archived 25 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

Book
Book
sources[edit]

Pytlik, Mark (2003). Björk: Wow and Flutter. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-556-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Björk
Björk
– The Illustrated Story, by Paul Lester. Hamlyn (1996). Björk
Björk
– An Illustrated Biography, by Mick St. Michael. Omnibus Press (1996). Björk
Björk
Björkgraphy, by Martin Aston. Simon & Schuster (1996). Björk, Colección Imágenes de Rock, N°82, by Jordi Bianciotto. Editorial La Máscara (1997). Dancer in the Dark, by Lars von Trier. Film Four (2000). Lobster or Fame, by Ólafur Jóhann Engilbertsson. Bad Taste (2000). Army of She: Icelandic, Iconoclastic, Irrepressible Björk, by Evelyn McDonnell. Random House (2001). Human Behaviour, by Ian Gittins. Carlton (2002). Björk: There's More to Life Than This: The Stories Behind Every Song, by Ian Gittins. Imprint (2002). Björk, by Nicola Dibben. Equinox (2009).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Björk.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Björk

Official website Björk
Björk
discography at Discogs Björk
Björk
on IMDb

v t e

Björk

Discography Tours Awards Songs

Studio albums

Björk Debut Post Homogenic Vespertine Medúlla Volta Biophilia Vulnicura Utopia

Soundtracks

Selmasongs Drawing Restraint 9

Compilations

Greatest Hits

Remix albums

The Best Mixes from the Album Debut for All the People Who Don't Buy White Labels Telegram Army of Me: Remixes and Covers Bastards Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Strings

Live albums

Debut Live Post Live Homogenic
Homogenic
Live Vespertine
Vespertine
Live Voltaïc Björk: Biophilia Live Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Live

Box sets

Family Tree Live Box Surrounded Voltaïc

Video albums

Vessel Live at Shepherds Bush Empire Volumen Live in Cambridge MTV
MTV
Unplugged / Live Live at Royal Opera
Opera
House Volumen Plus Later with Jools Holland The Medúlla
Medúlla
Videos Björk: Biophilia Live

Collaboration albums

Gling-Gló Mount Wittenberg Orca

Singles

"Human Behaviour" "Venus as a Boy" "Play Dead" "Big Time Sensuality" "Violently Happy" "Army of Me" "Isobel" "It's Oh So Quiet" "Hyperballad" "Possibly Maybe" "I Miss You" "Jóga" "Bachelorette" "Hunter" "Alarm Call" "All Is Full of Love" "Hidden Place" "Pagan Poetry" "Cocoon" "It's in Our Hands" "Who Is It" "Triumph of a Heart" "Earth Intruders" "Innocence" "Declare Independence" "Wanderlust" "The Dull Flame of Desire" "Náttúra" "The Comet Song" "Crystalline" "Cosmogony" "Virus" "Moon" "The Gate" "Blissing Me" "Arisen My Senses"

Promotional singles

"I've Seen It All" "Oceania" "Where Is the Line" "Stonemilker" "Lionsong"

Other songs

"Like Someone in Love" "Bedtime Story" "Vísur Vatnsenda-Rósu" "Unravel" "Pluto" "All Neon Like" "Mutual Core"

Concert
Concert
tours

Debut Tour Post Tour Homogenic
Homogenic
Tour Vespertine
Vespertine
World Tour Greatest Hits Tour Volta Tour Biophilia Tour Vulnicura
Vulnicura
Tour Utopia Tour

Documentaries

Inside Björk Minuscule The Inner or Deep Part of an Animal or Plant Structure When Björk
Björk
Met Attenborough

Books

Um Úrnat frá Björk Björk Björk: Archives 34 Scores for Piano, Organ, Harpsichord and Celeste

Bands

Tappi Tíkarrass KUKL The Elgar Sisters The Sugarcubes Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir & tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar

Related articles

Matthew Barney Björk
Björk
(exhibition) Björk
Björk
Digital Enjoyed: A Tribute to Björk's Post Stormy Weather Swan dress

Book Category Portal

Björk
Björk
bands

v t e

The Sugarcubes

Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir Einar Örn Benediktsson Þór Eldon Jónsson Bragi Ólafsson Margrét Örnólfsdóttir Sigtryggur Baldursson

Friðrik Erlingsson Einar Arnaldur Melax

Albums

Life's Too Good Here Today, Tomorrow Next Week! Stick Around for Joy

Compilations

It's-It The Great Crossover Potential

Singles

"Birthday" "Hit" "Leash Called Love"

See also

KUKL Bad Taste/Smekkleysa Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir & tríó Guðmundar Ingólfssonar

v t e

Kukl

Björk
Björk
Guðmundsdóttir Einar Örn Benediktsson Guðlaugur Kristinn Óttarsson Birgir Mogensen Einar Arnaldur Melax Sigtryggur Baldursson

Studio albums

The Eye Holidays in Europe (The Naughty Nought)

Other releases

"Söngull" Kukl á Paris
Paris
14.9.84

Related

The Elgar Sisters The Sugarcubes Crass
Crass
Records

Awards for Björk

v t e

Laureates of the Polar Music Prize

1990s

Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
/ the Baltic states
Baltic states
(1992) Dizzy Gillespie
Dizzy Gillespie
/ Witold Lutosławski
Witold Lutosławski
(1993) Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
/ Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt
(1994) Elton John
Elton John
/ Mstislav Rostropovich
Mstislav Rostropovich
(1995) Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
/ Pierre Boulez
Pierre Boulez
(1996) Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
/ Eric Ericson
Eric Ericson
(1997) Ray Charles
Ray Charles
/ Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
(1998) Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
/ Iannis Xenakis
Iannis Xenakis
(1999)

2000s

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
/ Isaac Stern
Isaac Stern
(2000) Burt Bacharach
Burt Bacharach
/ Robert Moog
Robert Moog
/ Karlheinz Stockhausen
Stockhausen
(2001) Miriam Makeba
Miriam Makeba
/ Sofia Gubaidulina
Sofia Gubaidulina
(2002) Keith Jarrett
Keith Jarrett
(2003) B.B. King
B.B. King
/ György Ligeti
György Ligeti
(2004) Gilberto Gil
Gilberto Gil
/ Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau
(2005) Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
/ Valery Gergiev
Valery Gergiev
(2006) Sonny Rollins
Sonny Rollins
/ Steve Reich
Steve Reich
(2007) Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
/ Renée Fleming
Renée Fleming
(2008) Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
/ José Antonio Abreu
José Antonio Abreu
/ El Sistema (2009)

2010s

Björk
Björk
/ Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2010) Kronos Quartet
Kronos Quartet
/ Patti Smith
Patti Smith
(2011) Paul Simon
Paul Simon
/ Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
(2012) Youssou N'Dour
Youssou N'Dour
/ Kaija Saariaho
Kaija Saariaho
(2013) Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
/ Peter Sellars
Peter Sellars
(2014) Emmylou Harris
Emmylou Harris
/ Evelyn Glennie
Evelyn Glennie
(2015) Max Martin
Max Martin
/ Cecilia Bartoli
Cecilia Bartoli
(2016) Sting / Wayne Shorter
Wayne Shorter
(2017) Metallica
Metallica
/ Afghanistan National Institute of Music (2018)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress

1946–1975

Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1946) Isa Miranda
Isa Miranda
(1949) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1951) Lee Grant
Lee Grant
(1952) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1953) cast of Bolshaya Semya (1955) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1956) Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
(1957) Bibi Andersson
Bibi Andersson
/ Eva Dahlbeck
Eva Dahlbeck
/ Barbro Hiort af Ornäs / Ingrid Thulin (1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Melina Mercouri
Melina Mercouri
/ Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
/ Rita Tushingham
Rita Tushingham
(1962) Marina Vlady
Marina Vlady
(1963) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
/ Barbara Barrie
Barbara Barrie
(1964) Samantha Eggar
Samantha Eggar
(1965) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1966) Pia Degermark
Pia Degermark
(1967) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1969) Ottavia Piccolo
Ottavia Piccolo
(1970) Kitty Winn (1971) Susannah York
Susannah York
(1972) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1973) Marie-José Nat
Marie-José Nat
(1974) Valerie Perrine
Valerie Perrine
(1975)

1976–2000

Dominique Sanda
Dominique Sanda
/ Mari Törőcsik
Mari Törőcsik
(1976) Shelley Duvall
Shelley Duvall
/ Monique Mercure (1977) Jill Clayburgh
Jill Clayburgh
/ Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(1980) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1981) Jadwiga Jankowska-Cieślak
Jadwiga Jankowska-Cieślak
(1982) Hanna Schygulla
Hanna Schygulla
(1983) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1984) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
/ Cher
Cher
(1985) Barbara Sukowa
Barbara Sukowa
/ Fernanda Torres
Fernanda Torres
(1986) Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey
(1987) Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey
/ Jodhi May / Linda Mvusi
Linda Mvusi
(1988) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1989) Krystyna Janda
Krystyna Janda
(1990) Irène Jacob
Irène Jacob
(1991) Pernilla August
Pernilla August
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Virna Lisi
Virna Lisi
(1994) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1995) Brenda Blethyn
Brenda Blethyn
(1996) Kathy Burke (1997) Élodie Bouchez
Élodie Bouchez
/ Natacha Régnier
Natacha Régnier
(1998) Séverine Caneele
Séverine Caneele
/ Émilie Dequenne
Émilie Dequenne
(1999) Björk
Björk
(2000)

2001–present

Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2001) Kati Outinen (2002) Marie-Josée Croze
Marie-Josée Croze
(2003) Maggie Cheung
Maggie Cheung
(2004) Hana Laszlo
Hana Laszlo
(2005) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
/ Carmen Maura
Carmen Maura
/ Lola Dueñas
Lola Dueñas
/ Chus Lampreave
Chus Lampreave
/ Blanca Portillo / Yohana Cobo
Yohana Cobo
(2006) Jeon Do-yeon
Jeon Do-yeon
(2007) Sandra Corveloni (2008) Charlotte Gainsbourg
Charlotte Gainsbourg
(2009) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(2010) Kirsten Dunst
Kirsten Dunst
(2011) Cristina Flutur / Cosmina Stratan (2012) Bérénice Bejo
Bérénice Bejo
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Emmanuelle Bercot
Emmanuelle Bercot
/ Rooney Mara
Rooney Mara
(2015) Jaclyn Jose (2016) Diane Kruger
Diane Kruger
(2017)

v t e

European Film Award for Best Actress

Carmen Maura
Carmen Maura
(1988) Ruth Sheen (1989) Carmen Maura
Carmen Maura
(1990) Clotilde Courau
Clotilde Courau
(1991) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(1992) Maia Morgenstern
Maia Morgenstern
(1993) Emily Watson
Emily Watson
(1996) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(1997) Élodie Bouchez
Élodie Bouchez
and Natacha Régnier
Natacha Régnier
(1998) Cecilia Roth
Cecilia Roth
(1999) Björk
Björk
(2000) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2001) Catherine Deneuve, Isabelle Huppert, Emmanuelle Béart, Fanny Ardant, Virginie Ledoyen, Danielle Darrieux, Ludivine Sagnier
Ludivine Sagnier
and Firmine Richard (2002) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Julia Jentsch
Julia Jentsch
(2005) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
(2006) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2007) Kristin Scott Thomas
Kristin Scott Thomas
(2008) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2009) Sylvie Testud
Sylvie Testud
(2010) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2011) Emmanuelle Riva
Emmanuelle Riva
(2012) Veerle Baetens
Veerle Baetens
(2013) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2014) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015) Sandra Hüller
Sandra Hüller
(2016) Alexandra Borbély
Alexandra Borbély
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 102392116 LCCN: n96008064 ISNI: 0000 0001 1001 3823 GND: 119525054 SELIBR: 209167 SUDOC: 05953978X BNF: cb13193587m (data) BIBSYS: 99058553 MusicBrainz: 87c5dedd-371d-4a53-9f7f-80522fb7f3cb NLA: 4169

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