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BISHNUPRIYA (also BISHNUPRIYA MANIPURI (BPM), MANIPURI, বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
spoken by the Bisnupriya Manipuri people in parts of the Indian states of Assam
Assam
, Tripura
Tripura
and others, as well as in the Sylhet
Sylhet
region of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Burma
Burma
, and other countries. Bishnupriya Manipuri is written with the Bengali alphabet .

CONTENTS

* 1 History and development * 2 Source and origin * 3 Dialects * 4 Vocabulary * 5 Connection with Assamese and Bengali languages * 6 Script

* 7 Speakers

* 7.1 Distribution * 7.2 Statistics

* 8 Literature

* 8.1 Ancient literature * 8.2 Modern literature

* 9 Bishnupriya Manipuri * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 Further reading

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

Bishnupriya Manipuri is spoken in parts of Assam
Assam
and Tripura
Tripura
in India, in the Sylhet
Sylhet
region of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Burma
Burma
, and in several other countries. It is different from many Indian languages like Bengali , Assamese , Oriya , etc. The language originated and developed in Manipur
Manipur
and was originally confined to the surroundings of the Loktak Lake
Loktak Lake
. Other authorities such as An account of the valley of Manipore by Col. McCullock , Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal by E. T. Dalton and the Linguistic Survey of India
India
by George Abraham Grierson mention that the language was in existence in Manipur
Manipur
before the 19th century. Dr. Grierson refers to the language as "Bishnupuriya Manipuri", while some other writers call it simply "Bishnupriya". In LSI the term Bishnupuriya is written wrong. Bishnupriya Manipuri never called themselves as Bishnupuriya or Mayang or Kalisha these names are given by Meitei after their dominant. Bishnupriya Manipuri has no relation with Bishnupur, Bankura, West Bengal.

A great majority of speakers of BPM fled from Manipur
Manipur
and took refuge in Assam, Tripura, Sylhet
Sylhet
and Cachar during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to internal conflicts among the princes of Manipur
Manipur
and due to Burmese attack. Consequently, it was difficult for the small number of Bishnupriyas who remained in Manipur
Manipur
to retain their language in the face of the impact of Meitei , although in 1891 Dr. G.A. Grierson found the existence of a considerable number of speakers in two or three villages near Bishnupur, locally known as Lamangdong. The language slowly started losing its ground in Manipur against a vast majority of Meiteis and is slowly facing its decay in Cachar and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
against a vast majority of Bengali-speakers. This language is still being spoken in Jiribam
Jiribam
(a sub-division of Manipur), Cachar (a district of Assam) and in some pockets in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Tripura.

SOURCE AND ORIGIN

The language is known to its speakers as Imar Thar (ইমার ঠার), meaning "Language of my Mother." They call themselves and their language Manipuri, and use the term Bishnupriya to distinguish them from other ethnic groups of Manipur. The term Bishnupriya is most probably derived from Bishnupur the exit town of the Manupuri Valley, along with the suffix -iya, meaning "people of Bishnupur".

The name of the language is a point of contention between the Indian states of Assam
Assam
and Manipur
Manipur
. In 1999, Chief Minister Wahengbam Nipamacha Singh of Manipur
Manipur
held that the Bishnupriya community was not part of the Manipuri community and objected to Assamese Chief Minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta referring to the language as "Bishnupriya Manipuri", saying that Meitei was a Tibeto-Burman language while Bishnupriya was an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
.

Orthodox Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriyas hold that the language was carried over to Manipur
Manipur
by some immigrants from Bishnupur , Mallabhum and Hastinapura
Hastinapura
just after the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
war. It is further said that these immigrants were led by Babhruvahana , the son of Chitrangada and Arjuna
Arjuna
, the third Pandava. Some scholars and history writers came to support the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
origin of Bishnupriya Manipuri from observation of the morphology , the vocables , and the phonology of the Bishnupriya Manipuri language. They hold that BPM is highly influenced by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Maharastri as well as Sauraseni Prakrits . Dr. K. P. Sinha , who has done considerable research on Bishnupriya Manipuri, disagrees with the theory and is of the opinion that the language was originated through Magadhi Prakrita. It is found from his observations that the language has retained dominant characteristics of Magadhi. According to Dr Sinha, pronouns and declensional and conjugational endings seem to be same as or closely related to those of Maithili
Maithili
, Oriya , Bengali and Assamese . These forms of Oriya, Bengali and Assamese are, on their parts, derived from Magadhi Apabhramsa coming from the Magadhi Prakrita.

However, the Bishnupriya Manipuri language is certainly not one of the Tibeto-Burman languages , but is closer to the Indo-Aryan group of languages with remarkable influence from Meitei both grammatically and phonetically. At a different stage of development of the language the Sauraseni, Maharashtri and Magadhi languages and the Tibeto-Burman languages exerted influence on it as well. So it was probably developed from Sanskrit, Sauraseni - Maharashtri Prakrit
Prakrit
and Magadhi Prakrita.The Sauraseni-Maharastri relation can be traced by observing some characteristics of pronouns. The Magadhi element is also remarkable, as the language retains many characteristics of Magadhi. It can further be noted that Bishnupriya Manipuri retains much of the old (15th century to 17th century A.D.) Meitei sound vocabulary, as the majority of speakers of the language left Manipur
Manipur
during the first part of the 19th century.

DIALECTS

Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriya Manipuri have two dialects, namely Rajar Gang ("King's village") and Madai Gang ("Queen's village"). Unlike the dialects of other tribes, these dialects of Bishnupriya are not confined to distinct geographical areas; they rather exist side by side in the same localities. In Manipur, however, these two dialects were confined to well-defined territories. From the viewpoint of phonetics, Madai Gang is more akin to Assamese and Meitei, whereas Rajar Gang is more akin to Bengali. In vocabulary Madai Gang is more influenced by Meitei while Rajar Gang is more akin to Bengali and Assamese. The morphological differences between the two dialects are negligible.

VOCABULARY

Like other Indic languages, the core vocabulary of Bishnupriya Manipuri is made up of tadbhava words (i.e. words inherited over time from older Indic languages, including Sanskrit, including many historical changes in grammar and pronunciation), although thousands of tatsama words (i.e. words that were re-borrowed directly from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
with little phonetic or grammatical change) augment the vocabulary greatly. In addition, many other words were borrowed from languages spoken in the region either natively or as a colonial language, including Meitei, English, and Perso-Arabic.

* Inherited/native Indic words (tadbhava): 10,000 (Of these, 2,000 are only found in Bishnupriya Manipuri, and have not been inherited by other Indic languages) * Words re-borrowed from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(tatsama): 10,000 * Words re-borrowed from Sanskrit, partially modified (ardhatatsama ): 1,500 * Words borrowed from other indigenous non-Indic languages (desi ): 1,5 * Words borrowed from Perso-Arabic: 2,000 * Words borrowed from English: 700 * Hybrid words: 1,000 * Words of obscure origin: 1,300

CONNECTION WITH ASSAMESE AND BENGALI LANGUAGES

Although there are numerous dissimilarities between Bengali /Assamese and BPM, Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, a recognised Bengali phonetician, listed the BPM language to be a dialect of Bengali, whereas Dr. Maheswer Neog and Dr. Banikanta Kakti claimed it as a dialect of Assamese. Their assumptions later caused contradiction about the origin of Bishnupriya Manipuri language. But the assumptions were proven incorrect by scientific research and observation of morphology, vocabulary and phonology of BPM.

SCRIPT

The orthodox Bishnupriyas claim that they have their own script, that is, the Devanagari
Devanagari
script, which was used to write in the Bishnupriya language in its early years.

However, on introduction of modern education during the British period through the Bengali language the Bishnupriya Manipuri writers began to use the Purvanagari i.e. Bengali script . This alphabet has consonant letters with dependent vowel signs (matras) as well as independent vowel letters. Punctuation marks and numerals are also used. Bishnupriya Manipuri is written from left to right and top to bottom, in the same manner as in English. Some of the consonants can combine with one another to make orthographic clusters (named conjuncts).

* VOWEL SIGNS: া ি ী ু ূ ৃ ে ৈ ো ৌ * OTHER DIACRITICS: ৼ ং ঃ ঁ * INDEPENDENT VOWELS: অ আ ই ঈ উ ঊ এ ঐ ও ঔ * CONSONANTS: ক খ গ ঘ ঙ ছ জ ঝ ঞ ট ঠ ড ঢ ণ ত থ দ ধ ন প ফ ব ম য র ল শ ষ স হ ড় ঢ় য় ৱ * NUMBERS: ০ ১ ২ ৩ ৪ ৫ ৬ ৭ ৮ ৯

SPEAKERS

DISTRIBUTION

In Manipur
Manipur
the language is still spoken in the Jiribam
Jiribam
sub-division. A large number of Bishnupriya Manipuri people settled in Assam
Assam
ages ago, particularly in the districts of Cachar , Karimganj , Dullabcherra , Patherkandi and Hailakandi . These people are counted as one of the major groups of people in the Cachar and Karimganj districts. In Tripura, the Bishnupriya Manipuri population localities may be divided into a Dharmanagar sub-area, a Kailasahar sub-area, a Kamalpur sub-area and a West Tripura
Tripura
sub-area. In Meghalaya
Meghalaya
, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Mizoram
Mizoram
, there is a scattered Bishnupriya Manipuri population.

Outside of India, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has the largest Bishnupriya Manipuri population. The main localities are Sylhet, Moulbivazar, Habiganj and the Sunamganj district. As per records, there were also a considerable number of the Bishnupriyas Manipuris living in local cities like Mymensingh, Rangamati of the Chittagong Hill Tracts and also at Tezgaon, Manipuri-para in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh.

In Burma
Burma
the Bishnupriya Manipuri areas are probably Mandalay, Amarpura etc. And in case of the United States of America, Canada, Germany, Middle East and Austria, there are a considerable number of Bishnupriya Manipuris settled there.

STATISTICS

* 295,000 in Assam
Assam
* 121,000 in Tripura
Tripura
, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
, Nagaland and Mizoram
Mizoram
* 1,457 in Manipur
Manipur
( Imphal
Imphal
, Bishnupur , Ningthoukhong ) * 5,000 in Manipur
Manipur
( Jiribam
Jiribam
Subdivision) * 5,000 in New Delhi, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Sikkim and other Indian states * 40,000 in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* 2,000 outside of South Asia: in Burma
Burma
, US, UK, Canada, Australia, Philippines, Middle-East, etc.

LITERATURE

ANCIENT LITERATURE

A good stock of folk literatures of Bishnupriya Manipuri, which are older in origin, are handed down to this day through oral tradition . The ancient literature of Bishnupriya Manipuri is represented by folk stories, folk-songs, folk-poems, rhymes and proverbs. A rain-invoking song called Boron-dahanir Ela (বরন ডাহানির এলা, 1450–1600 A.D. ) and a song relating to the conjugal life of Madai and Soralel known as Madai Soralel Ela (মাদই সরারেলর এলা, 1500–1600 ) are sometimes considered the most important. The language of the songs are archaic and are replete with words of Tibeto-Burman origin. These two songs are very important for the study of the cultural and linguistic history of Bishnupriya Manipuri. Besides these, there are songs which are sung by women who work in the fields. Proverbs form another important part of BPM folk literature.

MODERN LITERATURE

The Bishnupriya Manipuris have established the apex literary organisation of the community Nikhil Bishnupriya Manipuri Sahitya Parishad (1955), Bishnupriya Manipuri Sahitya Sabha, Bishnupriya Manipuri Sahitya Singlup, Pouri, Manipuri Theatre and many other organisations to encourage literary activities among the people. Serious literary culture of the BPM language began during the 2nd quarter of 20th century. In fact, the history of Manipuri literature began in 1925 with the literary magazine Jagaran (জাগরন) edited by Falguni Singha who was a Bishnupriya Social worker; this magazine published articles both in Bishnupriya and Meitei. The Manipuris of Surma valley formed their first formal association, Surma Valley Manipuri Society (later called Surma Valley Manipuri Association) in 1934. The members included the Meiteis, the Bishnupriyas and the Pangals (Manipuri Muslims). From 1933 a number of journals, e.g. Manipuri (1933), Mekhali (1938) and Kshatryajyoti (1944), fostered nationalism as well literary and cultural activities.A branch of modern BPM poetic literature, namely Vaishnava Padavali , based on Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophy, deserves special mention.

BISHNUPRIYA MANIPURI

There is a in Bishnupriya Manipuri with more than 23,000 articles as of August 2009. This makes it currently the language with the most articles in the Bengali script .

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal * Languages portal

BISHNUPRIYA EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

* Bishnupriya Manipuri Society * List of Bishnupriya Manipuri poets

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Bishnupriya". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "Mayang, one of the languages spoken in the polyglot state of Manipur, may, however, be classed as a dialect of this language." – Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol I, 1907 * ^ "They (Mayangs) amongst themselves speak their own language, which is a dialact of Hindee" – An Account of the Valley of Manipore by McCullock, 1849. * ^ "The present population of Manipur
Manipur
includes a tribe called Meiun who speak a language of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
derivation. They are now in a servile condition performing the duties of grass-cutters to their conquerors." – Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal by T.T. Dalton, 1872, page 48,49. * ^ Grierson, George A. (1903). Linguistic Survey of India
India
. Volume V, Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. Eastern group. Specimens of the Bengali and Assamese languages. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 419. A tribe known as Mayang speaks a mongrel form of Assamese known by the same name… They are also known as Bishnupuriya Manipuris or Kalisa Manipuris * ^ Supplement 'Mayang', Linguistic Survey of India, 1891. Compiled by Sir G. A. Grierson, Vol V, page 419 * ^ E-pao.net * ^ Bishnupriyas almost form a separate cast and are said to be the descendants of 120 Hindu families of different castes, who were broughtinto valley by Garib Nowaz in the later part of the 18th century to teach the indigenous of the valley the customs of Hindus. * ^ Prakash, Col Ved (2007). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. 2. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 597–598. ISBN 9788126907045 . * ^ Singha, Jagat Mohan & Singha, Birendra. The Bishnupriya Manipuris & Their Language. Silchar
Silchar
, 1976. * ^ Dr. K. P. Sinha, An Etymological Dictionary of Bishnupriya Manipuri, Silchar, 1982. * ^ Tribals and their Culture in Manipur
Manipur
and Nagaland by G. K. Ghose, p. 167. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. * ^ http://lakhipuronline.blogspot.com/2009/07/mahasabha-census-indicates-416-lakh.html * ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/partb.htm * ^ Cultural Heritage of North-East India/ Bidhan Singha,1999 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. * ^ "Rain Invoking Songs". manipuri.itgo.com. * ^ "Madoi Soralel Songs". manipuri.itgo.com.

FURTHER READING

* Vasatatvar Ruprekha/ Dr. K. P. Sinha, Silchar, 1977 * Manipuri jaatisotta bitorko: ekti niropekkho paath /Ashim Kumar Singha, Sylhet,2001 * G. K. Ghose / Tribals and Their Culture in Manipur
Manipur
and Nagaland, 1982 * Raj Mohan Nath / The Background of Assamese Culture, 2nd edn, 1978 * Sir G. A. Grierson / Linguistic Survey of India, Vol-5,1903 * Dr. K. P. Sinha / An Etymological Dictionary of Bishnupriya Manipuri, 1982 * Dr. M. Kirti Singh / Religious developments in Manipur
Manipur
in the 18th and 19th centuuy, Imphal, 1980 * Singha, Jagat Mohan & Singha, Birendra / The Bishnupriya Manipuris ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

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Bangladesh

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

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SEMIOFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* English

INDO-EUROPEAN

* Assamese * Bengali * Bihari * Bishnupriya * Chakma * Chittagonian * Pali
Pali
* Rangpuri * Rohingya * Sadri * Sylheti * Hajong

SINO-TIBETAN

* Shö * A\'Tong * Bawm * Sak * Kukish * Falam * Garo * Haka * Khumi * Koch * Kokborok * Megam * Meitei Manipuri * Mizo * Mru * Pangkhu * Rakhine * Marma * Riang * Tanchangya * Tippera * Usoi

AUSTROASIATIC

* Khasi * Koda * Mundari * Pnar * Santali * War-Jaintia

DRAVIDIAN

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* v * t * e

Languages of Northeast India
India

Arunachal Pradesh

SAL

* Deori * Nocte * Singpho * Tangsa * Tutsa * Wancho

TANI

* Adi * Apatani * Bori * Gallong * Nishi * Tangam * Yano

OTHER

* Assamese * Hajong * Karbi * Milang * Nefamese * Puimei

ASSAM

INDO-ARYAN

* Assamese‎ * Bengali * Bishnupriya Manipuri * Haflong Hindi

SINO-TIBETAN

KUKISH

* Amri * Bawm * Biete * Chiru * Gangte * Hmar * Hrangkhol * Karbi * Khelma * Paite * Ranglong * Saihriem * Vaiphei

SAL

* Bodo * Deori * Dimasa * Garo * Kachari * Koch * Kokborok * Moran * Nocte * Rabha * Singpho * Tangsa * Tiwa * Tutsa * Wancho

TANI

* Adi * Bangni-Tagin * Bokar * Hill Miri * Mishing * Na * Nishi

ZEME

* Inpui * Khoirao * Maram * Zeme

OTHER

* Hajong * Meithei

TAI-KADAI

* Ahom * Khamti * Khamyang * Tai Aiton * Tai Phake * Turung

MANIPUR

KUKISH

NORTHERN

* Anal * Biete * Chiru * Chothe * Gangte * Hrangkhol * Kom * Lamkang * Moyon * Paite * Purum * Ralte * Simte * Thadou * Vaiphei * Zou

OTHER

* Hmar * Khelma * Mizo * Monsang * Sorbung * Tarao

ZEME

* Inpui * Khoirao * Maram * Puimei * Zeme

OTHER

* Chairel * Maring * Meithei * Sopvoma * Tangkhul

MEGHALAYA

KUKISH

* Amri * Biete * Gangte * Karbi * Khelma * Mizo * Vaiphei

KHASIC

* Khasi * Lyngngam * Pnar * War

OTHER

* Atong * Garo * Hajong * Koch

MIZORAM

* Biete * Falam * Hakha Chin * Hmar * Khelma * Kokborok * Mara * Mizo * Nga La * Ranglong * Paite * Ralte * Tedim * Zyphe

NAGALAND

Sino- Tibetan

Angami- Pochuri

* Angami * Chokri * Kheza * Moyon * Ntenyi * Pochuri * Rengma * Sema * Sopvoma

AO

* Lotha * Mongsen Ao * Sangtam * Yimchungrü

SAL

* Chang * Dimasa * Khiamniungan * Konyak * Lamkang * Nocte * Phom * Wancho

ZEME

* Inpui * Mzieme * Puiron * Zeme

OTHER

* Chiru * Chothe * Khelma * Makury * Tangkhul

OTHER

* Assamese * Nagamese Creole

SIKKIM

* Gurung * Lepcha‎ * Limbu‎ * Magar * Nepali * Newar‎ * Sherpa * Sikkimese * Sunwar‎ * Tamang * Yakkha * Yolmo

TRIPURA

INDO-ARYAN

* Bengali * Bishnupriya Manipuri

SINO-TIBETAN

* Bawm * Darlong * Koch * Kokborok * Meithei * Mizo * Paite * Ralte * Ranglong * Tangkhul * Thadou * Vaiphei * Zeme

* v * t * e

Indo-Iranian languages

INDO-ARYAN (INDIC)

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

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Sanskrit

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MIDDLE

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* Elu
Elu
* Gāndhārī * Paisaci * Pāli * Prakrit
Prakrit

MODERN

CENTRAL

HINDI

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URDU

* Dakhini
Dakhini
* Hyderabadi Urdu
Urdu
* Rekhta (early form)

OTHERS

* Danwar * Parya

EASTERN

BENGALI–ASSAMESE

* Assamese * Bengali * Bishnupriya Manipuri * Chakma * Chittagonian * Hajong * Kayort * Kharia Thar * Nahari * Rajbanshi * Rohingya * Sylheti

BIHARI

* Angika * Vajjika * Magahi * Maithili
Maithili
* Majhi * Sadri

ODIA

* Halbi * Odia

OTHERS

* Mal Paharia

NORTHERN

* Garhwali * Kumaoni

* Nepali

* Palpa

North western

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SOUTHERN

MARATHI–KONKANI

* Konkani * Marathi

INSULAR

* Maldivian * Sinhala

WESTERN

BHIL

* Bhili * Gamit

RAJASTHANI

* Bagri * Goaria * Gojri * Jaipuri * Malvi * Marwari * Mewari * Dhatki (sociolect)

OTHERS

* Domari * Gujarati * Kalto * Khandeshi * Parkari Koli * Romani * Saurashtra

OTHERS

DARDIC

* Dameli * Domaaki * Gawar-Bati * Kalami * Kalash * Kashmiri * Khowar * Kohistani * Nangalami * Palula * Pashayi * Shina * Shumashti * Torwali * Ushoji

IRANIAN

OLD / MIDDLE

OLD

WESTERN

* Old Persian * Median

EASTERN

* Avestan * Old Scythian

MIDDLE

WESTERN

* Middle Persian
Middle Persian
* Parthian

EASTERN

* Bactrian * Khwarezmian

* Ossetic

* Jassic

* Sakan (Sacian) * Scythian * Sogdian

MODERN

NORTH

* Old Azari * Balochi * Central Iran * Zoroastrian Dari * Fars * Gilaki * Gorani

* Kurdic

* Sorani * Kurmanji * Southern group

* Mazandarani * Semnani * Taleshi * Deilami * Tati * Zazaki

EASTERN

PAMIR

* Ishkashimi * Sanglechi * Wakhi * Munji * Yidgha * Vanji * Yazghulami * Shughni * Roshani * Khufi * Bartangi * Sarikoli

OTHERS

* Ossetian

* Digor * Iron

* Pashto

* Central Pashto * Northern Pashto * Southern Pashto * Wanetsi

* Yaghnobi * Ormuri * Parachi

WESTERN

SOUTH

* Persian

* Caucasian Tat * Dari * Tajik

* Luri

* Feyli * Bakhtiari * Laki * Kumzari

* Larestani * Bashkardi

OTHER INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

NURISTANI

KAMKATA-VIRI

* Kamviri * Kata-vari * Mumviri

OTHERS

* Askunu * Kalasha-ala * Kamkata-viri * Tregami * Vasi-vari

Italics indicate extinct languages .

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