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BALLARI (pronounced ) is a district in Karnataka
Karnataka
state, India
India
.

Historical sites, farm land and rich minerals characterize Ballari district. It is also the home of the former capital of the famous Vijayanagara Empire , Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site . Recently making headlines with mining industry, Ballari, the district's capital, is known as Steel City and Gani Nadu (City of Mining) .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Administration * 4 Assembly and Parliament constituencies * 5 Economy * 6 Industries * 7 Mining industry * 8 Demographics * 9 Tourism * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Bellary
Bellary

Earlier Ballari district was part of Rayalseema , a region in today's state Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
. During the period of the British Raj , Ballari District was part of Madras Presidency . The area was severely affected by the Great Famine of 1876–78 . After Indian independence , when the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines, Ballari became part of the Hyderabad- Karnataka
Karnataka
region of the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
.

GEOGRAPHY

Ballari district is spread from southwest to northeast and is situated on the eastern side of Karnataka
Karnataka
state. The district is 15° 30’ and 15°50’ north latitude and 75° 40’ and 77° 11’ east longitude. The geographical area is 8447 km².

This district is bounded by Raichur District on the north, Koppal District on the west, Chitradurga District and Davanagere District on the south, and Anantapur District
Anantapur District
and Kurnool District
Kurnool District
of Andhra Pradesh on the east.

The normal rainfall is 639 mm.

ADMINISTRATION

Ballari comes under the administrative control of Gulbarga
Gulbarga
division and development jurisdiction of H.K.D.B, Gulbarga.

It has 2 revenue sub divisions, Ballari subdivision and Hosapete subdivision, which in all have seven taluks. The Ballari subdivision has 3 taluks, while there are four taluks in Hosapete subdivision. There are 27 hoblies , one Corporation, one City Municipal Council, two town municipality, six town panchayats, 542 revenue villages, and 436 thandas/habitations.

According to the 2011 census Bellary
Bellary
district has a population of 2,532,383, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait
Kuwait
or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 168th in India
India
(out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 300 inhabitants per square kilometre (780/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.92%. Bellary
Bellary
has a sex ratio of 978 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67.85%. Location of the Bellary
Bellary
district with respect to the other Districts in Karnataka
Karnataka

ASSEMBLY AND PARLIAMENT CONSTITUENCIES

The district consists of one Indian Parliament constituency and nine Karnataka
Karnataka
Legislative Assembly constituencies. These are 88. Hadagali (SC), 89. Hagaribommanahalli (SC), 90. Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
(GEN), 91. Kampli (ST), 92. Siruguppa (ST), 93. Ballari (ST), 94. Ballari City (GEN), 95. Sandur (ST), and 96. Kudligi (ST). Out of these, the Assembly constituency of Siruguppa is part of the Parliament constituency of Koppal.

ECONOMY

The major occupation of this district is agriculture and 75% of its total labour force is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. The important crops grown are cotton , jowar , groundnuts , rice , sunflowers and cereals . The net irrigated area is 37% of the net area sown.

As of 1998, the main source of irrigation is Tungabhadra Dam. The canal network accounts for 64% of the district's irrigated area. Important rivers are Tungabhadra, Hagari and Chikkahagari. The western taluks of the district have been plagued by low rainfall for successive years. However, during the current and preceding years, heavy rains have created havoc in the district leaving many in the lurch.

INDUSTRIES

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Bellary
Bellary
district is rich in natural resources which need to be tapped to a great extent for overall development of the district. This district is endowed with rich mineral resources. It has both metallic and non-metallic minerals. The metallic minerals include iron ore, manganese ore, redoxide , gold , copper and lead . The non-metallic minerals include andalusite , asbestos , corundum , clay , dolomite , limestone , limekankan , moulding sand , quartz , soap stone , granite and red ochre . The metallic minerals are abundant is only three talukas, Sanduru , Hosapete and Bellary
Bellary
in the order of mining activity intensity. The annual production of Iron
Iron
ore is anywhere between 2.75 and 4.5 million tonnes, and manganese ore between 0.13 million tonnes to 0.30 million tonnes (1991). Bellary
Bellary
presently is the second fastest growing city in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
after Bengaluru. The real estate prices have already started to shoot as more and more industries are finding their way into this city. Bellary
Bellary
to its credit has the second largest single rock mountain in the world.

MINING INDUSTRY

Ballari district has 25% of India's Iron
Iron
ore reserves. Till 1994 handful of mining companies operated here including state owned NMDC. Later Govt issued mining licenses to many private operators. Mining Industry boomed with surge in Iron
Iron
Ore prices due to demand from emerging China. Mining license allocation policy from Central govt was based on Political Nepotism rather than merit. Flawed mining policy lead to widespread illegal mining . Since year 2000 money from illegal money flowed into electoral politics of Karnataka
Karnataka
State. This led to emergence of powerful REDDY BROTHERS to state politics. Reddy brothers fueled money from illegal mining into politics, there by King Makers of Karnataka
Karnataka
State politics. Ombudsman report on mining in Karnataka state found that the promoters of privately owned mining companies in the Bellary
Bellary
region paid off politicians, and then joined politics themselves, rising to positions in the Karnataka
Karnataka
state government. These mining businessmen-turned-politicians exerted so much influence over the local officials that the Indian media began describing Bellary
Bellary
as a "new republic".

Despite the availability of minerals in large quantities, this district is considered to be an industrially backward district. There are 23 units of large and medium scale industries in this district with an investment of Rs.447.76 crores employing around 9,222 persons At present it occupies ninth place in the state. SATHAVAHANA ISPAT LTD. is the first Pig Iron
Iron
plant set up in the region to utilize the abundant iron ore reserves available, Kirloskar was the next to follow with their Pig Iron
Iron
plant. However, with the commissioning of JINDAL VIJAYANAGAR STEEL Limited at Hosapete, the industry scenario of this district underwent sea changes. It is understood that MUKAND STEELS and KALYANI STEELS have started industries in this area. The inflow of investment into these industries would be around Rs.30,000 Crores. The district will therefore come under heavy pressure on basic infrastructure such as power, communication, health, education and police stations which again invite heavy investment to create the needed infrastructure. Urgent action is needed to pool the resources under various sectors such as District Sector, State sector, Border Area Development, HKDB etc., and prepare a perspective plan to the emerging challenges. It has already drawn the attention of social scientists economists, administrators and other related functionaries to think over the possible positive and negative impact in this area. The ruthless and illegal mining of iron ore in the district has caused envoirnmental damage and also wide ranging social and economical impact.

DEMOGRAPHICS

According to the 2011 census Bellary
Bellary
district has a population of 2,532,383, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait
Kuwait
or the US state of Nevada
Nevada
. This gives it a ranking of 168th in India
India
(out of a total of 640 ). The district has a population density of 300 inhabitants per square kilometre (780/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.92%. Bellary
Bellary
has a sex ratio of 978 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67.85%.

TOURISM

* 311 km from Bangalore
Bangalore
is Bellary
Bellary
Fort , a historic fort. * 353 km from Bangalore
Bangalore
and 74 km from Bellary
Bellary
is Hampi
Hampi
, known for the ruins of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
. * 300 km from Bangalore
Bangalore
and 60 km from Bellary
Bellary
is Bommghatta , known for its Hindu
Hindu
temple which hosts the deity Hanuman
Hanuman
as Hulikunteraya. * 300 km from Bangalore
Bangalore
and 85 km from Bellary
Bellary
is Timmalapura
Timmalapura
, known for its temple to Sri Krishna
Sri Krishna
.

REFERENCES

* ^ " Bellary
Bellary
Karnataka
Karnataka
state report_2012.pdf" (PDF). mospi.nic.in. 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2016. * ^ India