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Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
or Shī‘ah
Shī‘ah
Imāmī
Imāmī
Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Albanian: Tarikati Bektashi; Turkish: Bektaşi
Bektaşi
Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi
Alevi
Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli
from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.[1] The order, whose headquarters is in Tirana, Albania, is mainly found throughout Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Balkans, and was particularly strong in Albania, Bulgaria, and among Ottoman era
Ottoman era
Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
from the regions of Epirus, Crete
Crete
and Macedonia. However, the Bektashi order does not seem to have attracted quite as many adherents from among Bosnian Muslims, who tended to favor more mainstream Sunni orders such as the Naqshbandiyya and Qadiriyya. The order represents the official ideology of Bektashism
Bektashism
(Turkish: Bektaşilik).

  Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites
Kaysanites
and Twelver
Twelver
Shī‘ism

Alevism

Beliefs

Allah Quran Haqq–Muhammad–Ali Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh Muhammad-Ali Islamic prophet Zahir Batin Buyruks Tariqat Haqiqa Marifat Wahdat al-wujud Wahdat al-mawjud Baqaa Fana Haal Ihsan Kashf Nafs Keramat Al-Insān al-Kāmil Lataif Four Doors Manzil Nûr Sulook Yaqeen Devriye Poetry Cosmology Philosophy Psychology

Practices

Zakat Zeyārat Taqiyya Ashura Hıdırellez Nowruz Saya Mawlid Music Düşkünlük Meydanı Fasting Müsahiplik

The Twelve Imams

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Abidin al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim ar-Rida al-Taqi al-Naqi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Leadership

Dede Murshid Pir Rehber Babas Dergah Jem Cemevi

Crucial figures and influences

Khadija bint Khuwaylid Fatimah Khidr Salman the Persian Uwais al-Qarani Jābir ibn Hayyān Dhul-Nun al-Misri Bayazid Bastami Ibn al-Rawandi Mansur Al-Hallaj Nasir Khusraw Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani Yusuf Hamdani Khoja Akhmet Yassawi Abdul-Qadir Gilani Ahmed ar-Rifa'i Ibn Arabi Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar Ahi Evren Haji Bektash Veli Rumi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Zahed Gilani Sari Saltik Yunus Emre Safi-ad-din Ardabili Nāimī Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā Imadaddin Nasimi Shah Nimatullah Wali Shaykh Junayd Shaykh Haydar Ali
Ali
Mirza Safavi Ismail I Nur- Ali
Ali
Khalifa Kaygusuz Abdal Otman Baba Balım Sultan Gül Baba Fuzûlî Alians Demir Baba Teke Arabati Baba Teḱe Pir Sultan
Sultan
Abdal Kul Nesîmî Sheikh
Sheikh
Bedreddin Börklüce Mustafa Torlak Kemal

Alevi
Alevi
history

Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam Shia in Persia before Safavids Shiism
Shiism
in Persia after Safavids Umayyad Caliphate Abu Muslim Sunpadh Al-Muqanna Ishaq al-Turk Abbasid Caliphate Babak Khorramdin Maziar Kaykhusraw II Babai revolt Baba Ishak Celali rebellions Bayezid II Persecution of Alevis Nur Ali
Ali
Halife rebellion Şahkulu
Şahkulu
Rebellion Şahkulu Battle of Chaldiran Selim I Abaza rebellion Kuyucu Murad Pasha Auspicious Incident Mahmud II Koçgiri Rebellion Dersim Rebellion Seyid Riza Maraş Massacre Çorum Massacre Sivas Massacre Gazi Quarter riots

Related Muslim
Muslim
tariqah

Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qadiriyya Akbari Sufis Rifa'i Uwaisi Naqshbandi Mevlevi Order Zahediyeh Safaviyya Khalwati order Bayramiye Jelveti Babai Revolt Hurufism Nuqtavi Chepni people Bektashi Order Bektashism
Bektashism
and folk religion Jelali revolts Ni'matullāhī Arabati Baba Teḱe Javad Nurbakhsh Galibi Order

Other influential groups

Isma'ilism Nizari Alawites Druze Khurramites Qizilbash Bábism Bahá'í Faith Yazdanī Yarsanism Yazidi Yazidis in Armenia Sabians Ishikism Gnosticism Nabataeans Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Mazdak Zurvanism Mandaeism Manichaeism Shamanism Tengrism Panentheism

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Interior view of Arabati Baba Teḱe, Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia.

A vast majority of Janissary
Janissary
were followers of the Bektashi Sufi order.

In addition to the spiritual teachings of Haji Bektash Veli, the Bektashi order was later significantly influenced during its formative period by the Hurufis (in the early 15th century), the Qalandariyya stream of Sufism, and to varying degrees the Shia beliefs circulating in Anatolia
Anatolia
during the 14th to 16th centuries. The mystical practices and rituals of the Bektashi order were systematized and structured by Balım Sultan
Balım Sultan
in the 16th century after which many of the order's distinct practices and beliefs took shape.

The founder of the Bektashi Sufi
Sufi
order Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli
(Ḥājjī Baktāsh Walī), a murid of Malamati-Qalandari Sheikh
Sheikh
Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar, who introduced the Ahmad Yasavi's doctrine of " Four Doors
Four Doors
and Forty Stending" into his tariqah.[citation needed]

A large number of academics consider Bektashism
Bektashism
to have fused a number of Shia and Sufi
Sufi
concepts, although the order contains rituals and doctrines that are distinct. Throughout its history Bektashis have always had wide appeal and influence among both the Ottoman intellectual elite as well as the peasantry.

Contents

1 Beliefs 2 History

2.1 Arabati Baba Teḱe
Arabati Baba Teḱe
controversy

3 Poetry and literature 4 Humour 5 Development of the Bektashi faith 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Beliefs[edit]

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  Part of a series on

Shia Islam

Beliefs and practices

Monotheism Holy Books Prophethood Succession to Muhammad Imamate Angels Judgment Day Mourning of Muharram Intercession Clergy The Four Companions Arba'een
Arba'een
Pilgrimage

Holy days

Ashura Arba'een Mawlid Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha Eid al-Ghadeer

History

The verse of purification Two things Mubahala Khumm Fatimah's house First Fitna Second Fitna Battle of Karbala

Branches of Shi‘i Islam

Zaydi Shia Imami Shia

Twelvers

Ja'faris Batinis

Alevism Bektashism

Ghulat

Alawites Hurufism

Qizilbash

Ismāʿīlīs

Nizaris Taiyabi-Musta‘līs

Dawoodi Sulaymani Alavi

Batiniyya

Druze

Pamiris

Extinct sects

Ahl al-Kisa

Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Hussein

Holy women

Fatimah Khadija bint Khuwaylid Umm Salama Zaynab bint Ali Umm Kulthum bint Ali Umm ul-Banin Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Hasan Sukayna bint Husayn Rubab Shahrbanu Fātimah bint Mūsā Hakimah Khātūn Narjis Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim

Shia Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main articles: Mystical, Islam, Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Sharia, Tariqa, Haqiqa, Marifa, Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, and The Twelve Imams The Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
is a Sufi
Sufi
order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide—called a baba in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia" (religious law), "Tariqah" (the spiritual path), "Marifa" (true knowledge), "Haqiqah" (truth). Bektashism
Bektashism
places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being" that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. This has often been labeled as pantheism, although it is a concept closer to panentheism. Bektashism
Bektashism
is also heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked reverence of Ali, The Twelve Imams, and the ritual commemoration of Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala. The old Persian holiday of Nowruz
Nowruz
is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday. In keeping with the central belief of Wahdat-ul-Wujood
Wahdat-ul-Wujood
the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Bektashi do not consider this a form of trinity. There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal (muhabbet) and yearly confession of sins to a baba (magfirat-i zunub مغفرة الذنوب). Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Quran
Quran
and the prophetic practice (Sunnah). They have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis generally revere Sufi
Sufi
mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them. Bektashis hold that the Quran
Quran
has two levels of meaning: an outer (zahir ظاهر) and an inner (batin باطن). They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity (This view can also be found in Ismailism—see Batiniyya). Bektashism
Bektashism
is also initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality. First level members are called aşıks عاشق. They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are nevertheless drawn to it. Following initiation (called nasip) one becomes a mühip محب. After some time as a mühip, one can take further vows and become a dervish. The next level above dervish is that of baba. The baba (lit. father) is considered to be the head of a tekke and qualified to give spiritual guidance (irshad إرشاد). Above the baba is the rank of halife-baba (or dede, grandfather). Traditionally there were twelve of these, the most senior being the dedebaba (great-grandfather). The dedebaba was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi (The Saint's Home) which was located in the shrine of Hajji
Hajji
Bektash Wali
Wali
in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş
Hacıbektaş
(aka Solucakarahüyük), known as Hajibektash complex. History[edit] Main articles: Otman Baba, Arabati Baba Teḱe, Demir Baba Teke, Alians, Baba Rexheb, Ali
Ali
Pasha of Tepelena, and Naim Frashëri The Bektashi order was widespread in the Ottoman Empire, their lodges being scattered throughout Anatolia
Anatolia
as well as many parts of particularly the southern Balkans
Balkans
(especially Albania, Bulgaria, Epirus, and both Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
and Greek Macedonia) and also in the imperial city of Constantinople. The order had close ties with the Janissary
Janissary
corps, the elite infantry corp of the Ottoman Army, and therefore also became mainly associated with Anatolian and Balkan Muslims of Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
convert origin, mainly Albanians
Albanians
and northern Greeks
Greeks
(although most leading Bektashi babas were of southern Albanian origin).[2] With the abolition of Janissaries, the Bektashi order was banned throughout the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
in 1826. This decision was supported by the Sunni religious elite as well as the leaders of other, more orthodox, Sufi
Sufi
orders. Bektashi tekkes were closed and their dervishes were exiled. Bektashis slowly regained freedom with the coming of the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
era. After the foundation of republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
banned all Sufi
Sufi
orders and shut down the lodges in 1925. Consequently, the Bektashi leadership moved to Albania
Albania
and established their headquarters in the city of Tirana. Among the most famous followers of Bektashi Sufism
Sufism
in the 19th century Balkans
Balkans
were Ali
Ali
Pasha[3][4][5][6][7][8] and Naim Frashëri. Despite the negative effect of this ban on Bektashi culture, most Bektashis in Turkey
Turkey
have been generally supportive of secularism to this day, since these reforms have relatively relaxed the religious intolerance that had historically been shown against them by the official Sunni establishment. In the Balkans
Balkans
the Bektashi order had a considerable impact on the Islamization of many areas, primarily Albania
Albania
and Bulgaria, as well as parts of Macedonia, particularly among Ottoman-era Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
from western Greek Macedonia such as the Vallahades. By the 18th century Bektashism
Bektashism
began to gain a considerable hold over the population of southern Albania
Albania
and northwestern Greece ( Epirus
Epirus
and western Greek Macedonia). Following the ban on Sufi
Sufi
orders in the Republic of Turkey, the Bektashi community's headquarters was moved from Hacıbektaş
Hacıbektaş
in central Anatolia, to Tirana, Albania. In Albania
Albania
the Bektashi community declared its separation from the Sunni community and they were perceived ever after as a distinct Islamic sect rather than a branch of Sunni Islam. Bektashism
Bektashism
continued to flourish until the Second World War. After the communists took power in 1945, several babas and dervishes were executed and a gradual constriction of Bektashi influence began. Ultimately, in 1967 all tekkes were shut down when Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
banned all religious practice. When this ban was rescinded in 1990 the Bektashism
Bektashism
reestablished itself, although there were few left with any real knowledge of the spiritual path. Nevertheless, many "tekkes" (lodges) operate today in Albania. The most recent head of the order in Albania
Albania
was Hajji
Hajji
Reshat Bardhi Dedebaba (1935–2011) and the main tekke has been reopened in Tirana. In June 2011 Baba Edmond Brahimaj was chosen as the head of the Bektashi order by a council of Albanian babas. Today sympathy for the order is generally widespread in Albania
Albania
where approximately 20% of Muslims identify themselves as having some connection to Bektashism. There are also important Bektashi communities among the Albanian communities of Macedonia and Kosovo, the most important being the Harabati Baba Tekke in the city of Tetovo, which was until recently under the guidance of Baba Tahir Emini (1941–2006). Following the death of Baba Tahir Emini, the dedelik of Tirana
Tirana
appointed Baba Edmond Brahimaj (Baba Mondi), formerly head of the Turan Tekke of Korçë, to oversee the Harabati baba tekke. A splinter branch of the order has recently sprung up in the town of Kičevo
Kičevo
which has ties to the Turkish Bektashi community under Haydar Ercan Dede rather than Tirana. A smaller Bektashi tekke, the Dikmen Baba Tekkesi, is in operation in the Turkish-speaking town of Kanatlarci, Macedonia that also has stronger ties with Turkey's Bektashis. In Kosovo
Kosovo
the relatively small Bektashi community has a tekke in the town of Đakovica
Đakovica
(Gjakovë) and is under the leadership of Baba Mumin Lama and it recognizes the leadership of Tirana. In Bulgaria, the türbes of Kıdlemi Baba, Ak Yazılı Baba, Demir Baba and Otman Baba
Otman Baba
function as heterodox Islamic pilgrimage sites and before 1842 were the centers of Bektashi tekkes.[9] Bektashis continue to be active in Turkey
Turkey
and their semi-clandestine organizations can be found in Istanbul, Ankara
Ankara
and Izmir. There are currently two rival claimants to the dedebaba in Turkey: Mustafa Eke and Haydar Ercan. A large functioning Bektashi tekke was also established in the United States in 1954 by Baba Rexheb. This tekke is found in the Detroit suburb of Taylor and the tomb (türbe) of Baba Rexheb
Baba Rexheb
continues to draw pilgrims of all faiths. According to a 2005 estimate made by Baba Reshat, there are over 7 million Bektashis worldwide.[10] Arabati Baba Teḱe
Arabati Baba Teḱe
controversy[edit] In 2002 a group of armed members of the Islamic Community of Macedonia (ICM), the legally recognized organization which claims to represent all Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia, invaded the Arabati Baba Teḱe in an attempt to reclaim the tekke as a mosque, although the facility has never functioned as such. Subsequently, the Bektashi community of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
has sued the Macedonian government for failing to restore the tekke to the Bektashi community, pursuant to a law passed in the early 1990s returning properties previously nationalized under the Yugoslav government. The law, however, deals with restitution to private citizens, rather than religious communities.[11] The ICM claim to the tekke is based upon their contention to represent all Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia; and indeed, they are one of two Muslim
Muslim
organizations recognized by the government, both Sunni. The Bektashi community filed for recognition as a separate religious community with the Macedonian government in 1993, but the Macedonian government has refused to recognize them.[11] Poetry and literature[edit] Poetry plays an important role in the transmission of Bektashi spirituality. Several important Ottoman-era poets were Bektashis, and Yunus Emre, the most acclaimed poet of the Turkish language, is generally recognized as a subscriber to the Bektashi order. A poem from Bektashi poet Balım Sultan
Balım Sultan
(died 922 AH/1516 ):

İstivayı özler gözüm, (My eye seeks out repose,) Seb'al-mesânîdir yüzüm, (my face is the 'oft repeated seven (i.e. the Sura
Sura
Al-Fatiha),) Ene'l-Hakk'ı söyler sözüm, (My words proclaim "I am the Truth",) Miracımız dardır bizim, (Our ascension is (by means of) the scaffold,) Haber aldık muhkemattan, (We have become aware through the "firm letters",) Geçmeyiz zâttan sıfattan, (We will not abandon essence or attributes,) Balım nihan söyler Hakk'tan, (Balım speaks arcanely of God) İrşâdımız sırdır bizim. (Our teaching is a mystery.[12])

Humour[edit] The telling of jokes and humorous tales is an important part of Bektashi culture and teaching. Frequently these poke fun at conventional religious views by counterpoising the Bektashi dervish as an iconoclastic figure. For example:

A Bektashi was praying in the mosque. While those around him were praying "May God
God
grant me faith," he muttered "May God
God
grant me plenty of wine." The imam heard him and asked angrily why instead of asking for faith like everyone else, he was asking God
God
for something sinful. The Bektashi replied, "Well, everyone asks for what they don't have."

A Bektashi was a passenger in a rowing boat travelling from Eminönü to Üsküdar in Istanbul. When a storm blew up, the boatman tried to reassure him by saying "Fear not— God
God
is great!" the Bektashi replied, "Yes, God
God
is great, but the boat is small."

An imam was preaching about the evils of alcohol and asked "If you put a pail of water and a pail of rakı in front of a donkey, which one will he drink from?" A Bektashi in the congregation immediately answered. "The water!" "Indeed," said the imam, "and why is that?" "Because he's an ass."[13]

Development of the Bektashi faith[edit] Main articles: Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi, Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar, Bektaşi, Hajji
Hajji
Bektash, Kaygusuz Abdal, Balım Sultan, Nesîmî, Pir Sultan, Hurufiyya, and Tariqat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malāmat’īyyah

 

Polytheism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Islam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddhism

 

 

Hinduism

 

Tengriism

 

 

 

Kharijites

 

 

 

 

Shiʿism

 

 

 

Tasawwuf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunni[14]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animism

 

Shaman’īyyah

 

Totemism

 

 

Batin’īyyah

 

 

Shiʿa

 

 

Ghulat

 

 

 

 

Hanafi

 

 

Maliki

 

 

Shafi'i

 

 

Hanbali

 

Ẓāhirī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qālandar’īyyah

 

 

Wafā’īyyah

 

Qāddāh’īyyah

 

 

Ismā‘īl’īyyah

 

 

Ithnā‘āshar’īyyah

 

 

Zu al-Nūn

 

 

Ibn Adham

 

Ash-Shādhilī

 

 

Abu al-Najib

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ishaq’īyyah[15]

 

Nezār’īyyah

 

Ismā‘īl’i`Shi'a

 

 

Zaid’īyyah

 

 

Saba’īyyah

 

 

 

 

 

Bastāmī

 

 

Shādhilī’yyah

 

 

Suhraward’īyyah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bābā’īyyah[15]

 

Sābbāh’īyyah

 

Mustā‘līyyah

 

 

Da‘ī al-kabīr

 

 

Seveners

 

 

Qarmatians

 

 

 

 

 

Kharaqānī

 

 

Abu Hafs Umar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yassaw’īyyah Tariqa

 

 

Alamut
Alamut
State

 

 

Turkestan
Turkestan
Alevism

 

Nāsir Khusraw

 

 

The Twelve Imams[16]

 

Kaysān’īyyah

 

 

Sahl al-Tūstārī

 

 

Arslan Baba

 

 

Yusūf Hamadānī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatolian Alevism

 

 

 

Alāvids

 

Dā’ī Kabīr al-Nāṣir li’l-Haqq

 

 

Sāfav’īyyah Tariqa

 

Būʿmūslim’īyyah

 

 

Mansur Al-Hallaj

 

 

Ahmed-i Yassawi

 

Abd’ūl`Khaliq Gajadwani

 

 

Abd’ūl`Qadir Gilani

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Haydār’īyyah Tariqa

 

 

Sāfavids

 

Shāh Ismāʿīl

 

Shaykh Haydar

 

Twelver`Shi'a

 

Ishaq al-Turk’īyyah

 

Fażlu l-Lāh Astar`Ābādī

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nāqshband’īyyah Tariqa

 

 

Qādir’īyyah Tariqa

 

 

Sheikh’ūl`Akbar Ibn ʿArabī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sāfav’īyyah-Kızılbaş

 

Bābak’īyyah

 

Khurrām’īyyah

 

Mukannaʿīyyah

 

Sunbādh’īyyah

 

 

 

 

Hurūf’īyyah[17] Tariqa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zāhed’īyyah Tariqa

 

Akbar’īyyah Sūfīsm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hājjı Bektsh

 

 

Qizilbash[18]

 

Kul Nesîmî

 

Pir Sultan

 

Gül Baba

 

Balım Sultan

 

Nāsīmī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khālwat’īyyah

 

Wāhdat’ūl`Wūjood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yunus Emre

 

Abdal
Abdal
Mūsā

 

Kaygusuz Abdal

 

Baktāsh’īyyah tariqa

 

Baktāshi folk religion[19]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bāyrām’īyyah Tariqa

 

Hacı Bayram-ı Veli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gallery[edit]

Arabati Baba Tekke, in Tetovo

Tomb of Gül Baba
Gül Baba
in Buda
Buda
part of Budapest, Hungary

Bektashi Tekke

Kutuklu Baba Tekke in Greece.

Bektashi tekke on the Kuz-Baba Hill in Vlorë, Albania

Demir Baba Teke
Demir Baba Teke
near Sveshtari, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(16th century)

Calligraphic
Calligraphic
hat in Alevi-Bektashism

World Headquarters of the Bektashi Community in Tirana, Albania

Bektashi Islamic calligraphy

See also[edit]

Part of a series on Shia Islam Twelvers

The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad Fatimah

The Twelve Imams

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim ar-Ridha al-Taqi al-Naqi al-Askari al-Mahdi

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Monotheism Justice Prophethood Imamate Judgement Day

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Pilgrimage Intercession

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Groups

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Bektashism
and folk religion Malamatiyya–Qalandariyya

Hurufism–Bektashism Rifa'i–Galibi

Scholarship

Law Marja' (list) Hawza Ayatollah (list) Allamah   Hujjat al-Islam Ijtihad

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Related topics

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Twelver
Shi'ism

Related portals

Shia Islam Ashura

v t e

Ashurkhana Bayramiyya Cem Evi Imambargah Jem (Alevism) Khalwatiyya Khalwatkhana Kızılbaş Mejlis Musallah Mawlawiyyah Naqshbandiyyah Qadiriyya Qizilbash-Alevi Sema Tekkes Zahediyya Zawiyya

Notes[edit]

^ "Bektāšīya". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 1989-12-15. Retrieved 2016-07-14.  ^ Nicolle, David; pg 29 ^ Miranda Vickers (1999), The Albanians: A Modern History, London: I.B. Tauris, p. 22, ISBN 9781441645005, Around that time, Ali
Ali
was converted to Bektashism
Bektashism
by Baba Shemin of Kruja...  ^ H.T.Norris (2006), Popular Sufism
Sufism
in Eastern Europe: Sufi Brotherhoods and the Dialogue with Christianity and 'Heterodoxy' (Routledge Sufi), Routledge Sufi
Sufi
series (20), Routledge, p. 79, ISBN 9780203961223, OCLC 85481562, ...and the tomb of Ali himself. Its headstone was capped by the crown (taj) of the Bektashi order.  ^ Robert Elsie (2004), Historical Dictionary of Albania, European historical dictionaries (42), Scarecrow Press, p. 40, ISBN 9780810848726, OCLC 52347600, Most of the Southern Albania
Albania
and Epirus
Epirus
converted to Bektashism, initially under the influence of Ali
Ali
Pasha Tepelena, "the Lion of Janina", who was himself a follower of the order.  ^ Vassilis Nitsiakos, On the Border: Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries along the Albanian-Greek Frontier (Balkan Border Crossings- Contributions to Balkan Ethnography), Balkan border crossings (1), Berlin: Lit, p. 216, ISBN 9783643107930, OCLC 705271971, Bektashism
Bektashism
was widespread during the reign of Ali Pasha, a Bektashi himself,...  ^ Gerlachlus Duijzings (2010), Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 82, ISBN 9780231120982, OCLC 43513230, The most illustrious among them was Ali
Ali
Pasha (1740-1822), who exploited the organisation and religious doctrine...  ^ Stavro Skendi (1980), Balkan Cultural Studies, East European monographs (72), Boulder, p. 161, ISBN 9780914710660, OCLC 7058414, The great expandion of Bektashism
Bektashism
in southern Albania
Albania
took place during the time of Ali
Ali
Pasha Tepelena, who is believed to have been a Bektashi himself  ^ Lewis, Stephen (2001). "The Ottoman Architectural Patrimony in Bulgaria". EJOS. Utrecht. 30 (IV). ISSN 0928-6802.  ^ Norman H. Gershman (2008). Besa: Muslims who Saved Jews in World War II (illustrated ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780815609346.  ^ a b Muslims of Macedonia ^ Algar, Hamid. The Hurufi
Hurufi
Influence on Bektashism: Bektachiyya, Estudés sur l'ordre mystique des Bektachis et les groupes relevant de Hadji Bektach. Istambul: Les Éditions Isis. pp. 39–53.  ^ [1] Hacıbektaş
Hacıbektaş
Web ^ Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madhhab events in Turkish history, (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, 271 pages, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940. (in Turkish) ^ a b Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar XII yüzyılda Anadolu'da Babâîler İsyânı - Babai Revolt
Babai Revolt
in Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Twelfth Century, pages 83-89, Istanbul, 1980. (in Turkish) ^ "Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
of the Foundation of the Presidency of Religious Affairs," Volume 4, pages 373-374, Istanbul, 1991. ^ Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madhhab events in Turkish history – Two crucial front in Anatolian Shiism: The fundamental Islamic theology
Islamic theology
of the Hurufiyya madhhab, (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, page 198, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940. (in Turkish) ^ According to Turkish scholar, researcher, author and tariqa expert Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, "Qizilbashs" ("Red-Heads") of the 16th century - a religious and political movement in Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
- were nothing but "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites". Source: Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005. ^ According to the famous Alevism
Alevism
expert Ahmet Yaşar Ocak, "Bektashiyyah" was nothing but the reemergence of Shamanism
Shamanism
in Turkish societies under the polishment of Islam. (Source: Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar XII yüzyılda Anadolu'da Babâîler İsyânı - Babai Revolt
Babai Revolt
in Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Twelfth Century, pages 83-89, Istanbul, 1980. (in Turkish))

References[edit]

Nicolle, David; UK (1995). The Janissaries (5th). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-413-X. Muhammed Seyfeddin Ibn Zulfikari Derviş Ali; Bektaşi
Bektaşi
İkrar Ayini, Kalan Publishing, Translated from Ottoman Turkish by Mahir Ünsal Eriş, Ankara, 2007 Turkish

External links[edit]

The Bektashi order of Sufis The Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
of Dervishes

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