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Banyumasan, colloquially known as Basa Ngapak, is a dialect of Javanese spoken mainly in three areas of Java that is the Banyumasan, located in westernmost Central Java Province and surrounding the Slamet mountain and Serayu River; a neighboring area inside West Java Province; and northern region of Banten Province. This area includes Majenang, Cilacap, Gombong, Kebumen, Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Purwokerto, Bumiayu, Slawi, Pemalang, Tegal, and Brebes regencies.

Contents

1 History 2 Vocabulary 3 Politeness 4 Dialects and sub-dialects 5 See also 6 External links

History[edit] Scholars divide the development of Javanese language into four different stages:

9th–13th century, known as Old Javanese 13th–16th century developed to Middle Javanese 16th–20th century developed to New Javanese 20th century: Modern Javanese.

The phases above were influenced by the emergence of empires in Java. In Javanese cultural history, empires yielded some distinct grades of language, each grade representing the social grade of the speakers (mainly nobles and populaces). Those grades of language are not of significant influence to Banyumasan people. In the Banyumasan region, high grades are usually used only when speaking to a stranger assumed to come from the eastern area of Java i.e. Yogyakarta / Surakarta etc., or on certain occasions. Surakartan and Yogyakartan style are usually considered the standard Javanese language. Vocabulary[edit] Banyumasan has a lot of differences compared to standard Javanese, mainly in phonology, pronunciation and vocabulary. This happened due to cultural or character distinction and widely current usage of Old Javanese vocabulary. Another distinction is that the pronunciation of the vowels is not as complicated. Vocabulary distinction basically found in:

Same word and phonetic but different meaning Same word and meaning but different phonetic Same phonetic and meaning but different pronunciation (changed on consonant or vowel).

Banyumasan Language Standard Javanese English

ageh ayo come on

ambring sepi quiet

batir kanca friend

bangkong kodok frog

bengel mumet dizzy

bodhol rusak broken

brug → Dutch loanwords kreteg bridge

bringsang sumuk hot

gering kuru thin

clebek kopi coffee

londhog alon slow

druni medhit stingy

dhonge/dhongane kudune should be

egin isih still

gableg duwe have

getul tekan arrive

gigal tiba fall

gili dalan road

gujih rewel fussy

jagong lungguh sit

kiye iki this

kuwe iku that

letek asin salty

maen apik good

maregi nyebeli badly

Politeness[edit] Javanese speech varies depending on social context, yielding three distinct styles, or registers. Each style employs its own vocabulary, grammatical rules and even prosody. This is not unique to Javanese; neighbouring Austronesian languages as well as East Asian languages such as Korean, Japanese and Thai share similar constructions. In Javanese these styles are called:

Ngoko is informal speech, used between friends and close relatives. It is also used by persons of higher status to persons of lower status, such as elders to younger people or bosses to subordinates. Madya is the intermediary form between ngoko and krama. An example of the context where one would use madya is an interaction between strangers on the street, where one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal. Krama is the polite and formal style. It is used between persons of the same status who do not wish to be informal. It is also the official style for public speeches, announcements, etc.

In Banyumasan region, Madya and Krama styles are rarely used, usually towards a stranger who is assumed to come from the eastern area of Java (wetanan) such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta etc. or on certain occasions, an eastern style of language (basa wetanan) named bandhekan (from gandhek). Dialects and sub-dialects[edit] There are 3 main dialects of Banyumasan language: North area (Tegalan), South area (Banyumasan), and Banten. The Tegalan dialect is spoken in northern areas of Banyumasan: Tanjung, Ketanggungan, Larangan, Brebes, Slawi, Moga, Pemalang, Surodadi, and Tegal. The Banyumasan dialect is spoken in southern areas: Bumiayu, Karang Pucung, Cilacap, Nusakambangan Island, Kroya, Ajibarang, Wangon, Purwokerto, Purbalingga, Bobotsari, Banjarnegara, Purwareja, Kebumen, and Gombong. The Banten dialect is spoken in north Banten. In addition, there are several sub-dialects spoken in Banyumasan, such as Bumiayu sub-dialect, Dayeuhluhur sub-dialect, and Ayah sub-dialect. See also[edit]

Javanese script Java (island) Hans Ras Banyumasan people

External links[edit]

Basa Banyumasan edition of, the free encyclopedia

Javanese writing system

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Languages of Indonesia

Sunda-Sulawesi languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Indonesian

Bahasa Binan Slang

Malay

Anambas/Natuna Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak

Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese

Baduy Bantenese

Javanese

Javanese

Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese

Celebic

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

Lampungic

Komering Lampung

Northwest Sumatran

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Bornean languages

Barito

Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau

Kayan–Murik

Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai

Land Dayak

Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus

North Bornean

Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah

Mainstream

Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut

Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol

Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung

Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan

Philippine languages

Central Philippine

Tausug

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa

Minahasan

Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan

Sangiric

Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud

Central-Eastern languages

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Central Maluku

Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan

Flores–Lembata

Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata

Halmahera- Cenderawasih

Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar

Kei-Tanimbar

Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Sumba–Flores

Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa

Timor–Babar

Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar

Western Oceanic

Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna

Other

Kowiai

Papuan languages

Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Ayamaru Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Karon Dori Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mantion Mawes Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom

Other languages

Creoles and Pidgins

Malay-based creoles

Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay

Other creoles and pidgins

Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese

Sinitic languages

Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien

Medan Riau

Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew

Afro-Asiatic languages

Modern Standard Arabic

Dravidian languages

Tamil

Germanic languages

English Dutch (historical)

Sign languages

Indonesian Sign L

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