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Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Army  ∟ K Force  ∟ S Force  ∟ Z Force Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Navy Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Air Force Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Rifles Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Ansar Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Police Special
Special
Guerrilla
Guerrilla
Forces  ∟ Gono Bahini  ∟ Mujib Bahini  ∟ Kader Bahini  ∟ Hemayet Bahini  ∟ Afsar Bahini Crack Platoon

Leaders M. A. G. Osmani, Commander-in-Chief M. A. Rab, Chief of Staff A K Khandker, Deputy Chief of Staff

Area of operations East Pakistan

Size 150,000

Part of Provisional Government of Bangladesh[2]

Became Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Armed Forces

Allies  India

Opponents  Pakistan

Battles and wars Battle of Gazipur, Battle of Goalhati, Battle of Garibpur, Battle of Dhalai, Battle of Rangamati, Battle of Kushtia, Battle of Daruin, Operation Barisal, Operation Jackpot

De facto ceremonial flag

War flag

v t e

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
resistance

Searchlight Jackpot Barisal Kamalpur Daruin Nakshi Border Outpost Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway Goalhati Dhalai Border Outpost Garibpur§ Gazipur§ Sylhet§ Kushtia Ghasipur Bogra§

Indian intervention

Cactus-Lilly Chengiz Khan Jackpot‡ PNS Ghazi Trident Python Atgram Basantar Boyra Chamb Dhalai Hilli‡ Longewala Sylhet‡ Meghna Heli Bridge Tangail Air War‡ Naval War

1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Genocide

Dhaka
Dhaka
University Shankharipara Jinjira Akhira Jathibhanga Demra Chuknagar Madhyapara Bakhrabad Burunga

Systematic events

Killing of intellectuals Rape Provisional Government Refugees in India Instrument of Surrender

§ indicates events in the internal resistance movement linked to the Indo-Pakistani War. ‡ indicates events in the Indo-Pakistani War linked to the internal resistance movement in Bangladesh.

The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
(Bengali: মুক্তি বাহিনী[3] translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces;[4] also known as the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan
East Pakistan
into Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971.[5] An earlier name Mukti Fauj was also used.[6] On 25 March 1971 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
issued a call to the people of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
to prepare themselves for an all-out struggle.[7] Later that evening resistance demonstrations began,[citation needed] and the military began a full-scale retaliation with Operation Searchlight, which continued through May 1971.[7] A formal military leadership of the resistance was created in April 1971 under the Provisional Government of Bangladesh. The military council was headed by General M. A. G. Osmani[8] and eleven sector commanders.[9] The Bangladesh Armed Forces
Bangladesh Armed Forces
were established on 4 April 1971. In addition to regular units, such as the East Bengal
East Bengal
Regiment and the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
also consisted of the civilian Gonobahini (People's Force).[10] The most prominent divisions of the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
were the Z Force led by Major Ziaur Rahman, the K Force led by Major Khaled Mosharraf
Khaled Mosharraf
and the S Force led by Major K M Shafiullah. Awami League
Awami League
student leaders formed militia units, including the Mujib Bahini, the Kader Bahini and Hemayet Bahini.[9] The Communist Party of Bangladesh, led by Comrade Moni Singh, and activists from the National Awami Party
National Awami Party
also operated several guerrilla battalions.[11] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
has been compared with the French Resistance[12] as both fought for liberation of their countries and the Viet Cong[13] as a popular resistance movement. Using guerrilla warfare tactics, it secured control over large parts of the Bengali countryside. It conducted successful "ambush and sabotage" campaigns,[14] and included the nascent Bangladesh Air Force
Bangladesh Air Force
and the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Navy. The Mukti Bahini received training and weapons from India,[15] where people in the eastern and northeastern states share a common Bengali ethnic and linguistic heritage with East Pakistan.[16] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
became part of the Bangladesh- India
India
Allied Forces.[17] It was instrumental in securing the Surrender of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the liberation of Dacca
Dacca
and other cities in December 1971.[17][18]

Contents

1 Organization 2 Background 3 Early resistance 4 July–November

4.1 July 4.2 August 4.3 September 4.4 October 4.5 November

5 Air operations 6 Naval operations 7 Organization 8 Equipment 9 Bangladesh- India
India
Allied Forces 10 Relations with India 11 International reactions 12 Honours 13 Women 14 Post-war

14.1 Indemnity

15 Criticism 16 Cultural legacy 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading

Organization[edit] The "Mukti Bahini" was divided into two groups; the "Niomito Bahini" – or "regular forces" – who came from the paramilitary, military and police forces of East Pakistan, and the Gonnobahini – or "people's forces" – who were civilians. These names were given and defined by the Government of Bangladesh. The Indians referred to the Niomito Bahini as "Mukti Fauj", and the Gonnobahini were called "freedom fighters".[19][20] Background[edit]

Flag of Bangladesh
Flag of Bangladesh
in 1971, used during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War.

East Pakistan
East Pakistan
campaigned against the usage of Urdu
Urdu
as the sole official language of Pakistan. The Awami League
Awami League
had won the majority in the 1970 Pakistan
Pakistan
election. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, as the leader of the Awami League, was prevented from forming a government.[21] Bengali was the only language in Pakistan
Pakistan
not written in the Persian-Arabic script. The administrative change that merged the administrative provinces of West Pakistan
Pakistan
into one "unit" caused great suspicion in East Pakistan.[22] Pakistan's unwillingness to give autonomy to East Bengal and Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism
are both cited as reasons for the separation.[23] The 1970 Bhola Cyclone
1970 Bhola Cyclone
had caused the death of 500,000 people while the infrastructure, transport and other services were severely damaged.The central government of Pakistan
Pakistan
was blamed for the slow response and misuse of funds.[24] It created resentment in the population of East Pakistan.[25] The resentment allowed Awami League to win 160 of the 162 parliamentary seats allocated to East Pakistan which made Awami League
Awami League
the majority party in the 300 seat parliament of Pakistan.[26][27] After 1971 elections, Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
hoped for a power sharing agreement between Mujib and Bhutto, though talks between them did not result in a solution. Mujib wanted full autonomy, Bhutto advised Yahya to break off talks. In March, General Yahya Khan suspended the National Assembly of Pakistan.[28] On 7 March 1971, Sheikh Mujib
Sheikh Mujib
made his now famous speech in Ramna Race course (Suhrawardy Udyan) where he declared "The struggle this time is for our freedom. The struggle this time is for our independence".[29] East Pakistan
East Pakistan
television broadcasters started broadcasting Rabindranath songs, a taboo in Pakistan, while reducing the air-time of shows from West Pakistan. Civilian interaction decreased with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army and they were increasingly seen as an occupying force, while local contractors stopped providing supplies to the Pakistan Army.[30] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army also tried to disarm and dismiss personnel of Bengali origin in the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles, the police and the regular army. The Bengali officers mutinied against the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army, and attacked officers from West Pakistan.[31] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army's crackdown on the civilian population had contributed to the revolt of East Pakistani soldiers. The East Pakistani soldiers moved to India and formed the main body of Mukti Bahini.[32] Sheikh Mujib
Sheikh Mujib
on 26 March 1971 declared the independence of Bangladesh, while Pakistan's president Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
declared Mujib a traitor during a national broadcast on the same day.[33][34] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army moved infantry and armoured units to East Pakistan
East Pakistan
in preparation for the coming conflicts.[35] Early resistance[edit]

Location of West Pakistani (marked green) and rebel Bangladeshi (marked red) military units in March 1971.

On 25 March, martial law was declared, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
was arrested and Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
started in East Pakistan. Foreign journalists were expelled and the Awami League
Awami League
was banned. Members of the Awami league, the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles, the East Bengal
East Bengal
Regiment and others thought to be disloyal to Pakistan
Pakistan
were attacked by the Pakistan
Pakistan
army. The survivors[citation needed] of the attack would form the backbone[citation needed] of the Mukti Bahini.[36] When the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army started the military crackdown on the Bengali population, they did not expect prolonged resistance.[37] Five battalions of the East Bengal Regiment
East Bengal Regiment
mutinied and initiated the war for liberation of Bangladesh.[38] On 27 March, Major Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
declared Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan
Pakistan
and fought his way out of Chittagong
Chittagong
City with his unit of Bengali soldiers.[30] The East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles and the East Pakistan
Pakistan
Police suffered heavy casualties[quantify] while challenging the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army in Dhaka, where West Pakistani forces began the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide with the massacre at Dhaka
Dhaka
University. Civilians took control of arms depots in various cities and began resisting Pakistani forces with the acquired weapons supply. Chittagong experienced heavy fighting between rebel Bengali military units and Pakistani forces. The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence
Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence
was broadcast from Kalurghat Radio Station in Chittagong
Chittagong
by Major Rahman on behalf of Sheikh Rahman.[36] Bengali forces took control of numerous districts in the initial months of the war, including Brahmanbaria, Faridpur, Barisal, Mymensingh, Comilla
Comilla
and Kushtia
Kushtia
among others. With the support of the local population, many towns remained under the control of Bengali forces until April and May 1971. Notable engagements during this period included the Battle of Kamalpur, the Battle of Daruin
Battle of Daruin
and the Battle of Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway
Battle of Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway
in the Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts.[39] On 18 April, the Deputy High Commission of Pakistan
Pakistan
in Kolkata defected and hoisted the flag of Bangladesh.[40] On 17 April, the Mujibnagar Government
Mujibnagar Government
was formed.[41] During May, Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
asked General Yahya Khan to hand over power in West Pakistan
Pakistan
to his party. Khan refused on the grounds that doing so would support the view of Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
and the Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Provisional Government of Bangladesh
that East Pakistan
East Pakistan
was a colony of West Pakistan. Tensions were raised when Bhutto told his followers that "by November [he] would either be in power or in jail".[42] On 9 June, Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
members hijacked a car and launched a grenade attack on Dhaka
Dhaka
Intercontinental Hotel, the office of the Pro-Junta Morning Post and the house of Golam Azam.[43] July–November[edit] July[edit]

Italian howitzers used by the Mujib Battery;[44] now preserved at the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Military Museum.

The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
divided the war zone into eleven sectors. The war strategy included a huge guerrilla force operating inside Bangladesh that targeted Pakistani installations through raids, ambushes and sabotaging West Pakistani-controlled shipping ports, power plants, industries, railways and warehouses. The wide dispersion of West Pakistani forces allowed Bengali guerrillas to target smaller groups of enemy soldiers. Groups ranging in size from five to ten guerrillas were assigned specific missions. Bridges, culverts, fuel depots and ships were destroyed to decrease the mobility of the Pakistan Army.[45] However, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
failed in its Monsoon
Monsoon
Offensive after Pakistani reinforcements successfully countered Bengali engagements. Attacks on border outposts in Sylhet, Comilla
Comilla
and Mymensingh
Mymensingh
had limited success. The training period slowed the momentum of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces, which began to pick up after August.[46] After the monsoon, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
became more effective while the Indian army created a number of bases inside East Pakistan for the Mukti Bahini.[47] The railways in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
were almost completely shut down due to the Mukti Bahini's sabotage. The provincial capital, Dhaka, had become a ghost town with gun-fire and explosions heard throughout the day.[48] August[edit] [relevant? – discuss] After a visit to East Pakistan
East Pakistan
refugee camps in India
India
in August 1971, US Senator Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
believed that Pakistan
Pakistan
was committing a genocide.[49] Golam Azam
Golam Azam
called for Pakistan
Pakistan
to attack India
India
and to annexe Assam
Assam
in retaliation for India
India
providing help to the Mukti Bahini.[49] Azam accused India
India
of shelling East Pakistani border areas on a daily basis. Oxfam
Oxfam
predicted the deaths of over one hundred thousand children in refugee camps and that more could die from food shortages in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
because of the conflict.[49] September[edit] Regular Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
battalions were formed in September 1971,[50] increasing the effectiveness of the Mukti Bahini. Sabotage
Sabotage
and ambush missions continued to be carried out, demoralising the Pakistan army.[51] October[edit] In October, conventional Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces mounted various successful offensives, capturing 90 of the 300 border outposts. The Mukti Bahini intensified guerrilla attacks inside Bangladesh
Bangladesh
while Pakistan increased reprisals on Bengali civilians,[52] though the movement of Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
into, out of, and inside East Pakistan
East Pakistan
became easier and more common.[53] November[edit] In November, Indian involvement increased, with the Indian artillery and Indian Air force
Indian Air force
providing direct cover for the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
in some offensives.[54] Attacks on infrastructure and the increase in the reach of the provisional government weakened the control of the Pakistan
Pakistan
government.[55] Air operations[edit] The Bangladesh Air Force
Bangladesh Air Force
(BAF) was established on 28 September 1971 under the command of Air Commodore
Air Commodore
A. K. Khandker. It initially operated from a jungle airstrip near Dimapur
Dimapur
in Nagaland, India. When taking over liberated territories, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces gained control of World War II
World War II
airstrips in Lalmonirhat, Shalutikar, Sylhet and Comilla
Comilla
in November and December. The BAF launched "Kilo Flights" under the command of Squadron Leader Sultan Mahmud on 3 December 1971. Sorties by Otter DHC-3 aircraft destroyed Pakistani fuel supplies in Narayanganj
Narayanganj
and Chittagong
Chittagong
where targets included the Burmah Oil Refinery, numerous ships and oil depots.[56] Naval operations[edit] The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
naval forces took shape in July. Operation Jackpot
Operation Jackpot
was launched by the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces on 15 August 1971. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Navy commandos sunk vessels of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy in Mongla, Chittagong, Chandpur and Narayanganj.[57][58][59][60] The operation was a major propaganda success for Bangladeshi forces, as it exposed to the international community the fragile hold of the West Pakistani occupation.[61] The Bangladesh Navy
Bangladesh Navy
commandos targeted patrol craft and ships carrying ammunition and commodities. With Indian aid, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
acquired two vessels, the Padma and Palash, which were retrofitted into gunboats with mine-laying capabilities. The boat crews extensively mined the Passur River in the Sundarbans, reducing the ability of Pakistani forces to operate from the Port of Mongla
Port of Mongla
but were mistakenly bombed by Indian Air Force troops that resulted in the loss of both vessels and some of the lives of the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
and Indian personnel on board.[62] The developing Bangladesh Navy
Bangladesh Navy
carried out attacks on ships and used sea mines to prevent supply ships from docking in East Pakistani ports. Frogmen
Frogmen
were deployed to damage and sabotage ships.[63] Organization[edit] See also: List of sectors in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
propaganda posters

M. A. G. Osmani, a Bengali veteran of the British Raj forces in World War II and the Pakistan
Pakistan
army, established the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Armed Forces on 4 April 1971. The Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Provisional Government of Bangladesh
placed all Bangladeshi forces under the command of Osmani, who was appointed as the defence minister with the rank of Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
as a four star general. Osmani designated the composition of the Mukti Bahini into several divisions. It included the regular armed forces which covered the Army, Navy and Air Forces; as well as special brigades including the Z Force. Paramilitary forces, including the East Pakistan
Pakistan
Rifles and police, were designated as the Niyomito Bahini (Regular Forces). They were divided between forward battalions and sector troops. Another civilian force was raised and known as the Gonobahini (People's Forces) consisting of lightly trained civilian brigades under military command; the Gonobahini also consisted of battalions created by political activists from the pro-Western Awami League, the pro-Chinese and socialist National Awami Party, led by Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, and the pro-Soviet Communist Party of East Pakistan.[45] The guerrilla movement was composed of three wings: well-armed Action Groups which took part in frontal attacks; military intelligence units; and guerrilla bases. The first conference of sector commanders was held during July 1971, starting on 11 July and ending 17 July. Prominent sector commanders included defector officers from the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces, including Major Ziaur Rahman, Major Khaled Mosharraf, Major K M Shafiullah, Captain A. N. M. Nuruzzaman, Major Chitta Ranjan Dutta, Wing Commander M Khademul Bashar, Major Nazmul Huq, Major Quazi Nuruzzaman, Major Abu Osman Chowdhury, Major Abul Manzoor, Major M. A. Jalil, Major Abu Taher
Abu Taher
and Squadron Leader M. Hamidullah Khan.[64] The Mujib Bahini was led by Awami League
Awami League
youth leaders Sheikh Fazlul Huq Moni, Tofael Ahmed and Abdur Razzak. An Australian war veteran, William A. S. Ouderland, organised guerrilla warfare in Dacca
Dacca
and provided vital intelligence to the Bangladesh Forces. He was awarded the Bir Protik for his actions by the government of Bangladesh.[65][66] Left-wing politicians Kader Siddique, Hemayet Uddin and Moni Singh created several guerrilla units. Kader Siddique
Kader Siddique
operated in the Tangail District.[67] Hemayet was a former soldier in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
and his Bahini was raised almost entirely on local supplies.[68] Moni Singh was a communist leader in East Pakistan.[69][self-published source?] The Independent Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Radio Station was one of the cultural wings of the Mukti Bahini. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation movement released five prominent propaganda posters which promoted the independence struggle – irrespective of religious affiliations and gender. One of the posters famously portrayed Pakistan's military ruler, Yahya Khan, as a demon. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
operated field hospitals, wireless stations, training camps and prisons.[70][self-published source?] Equipment[edit] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
benefited from the early control of Pakistani arms depots, which were overtaken by Bengali forces during March and April 1971. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
purchased large quantities of military-grade equipment through the arms market in Calcutta, including Italian howitzers, Alouette III helicopters, "Dakota" DC-3 aircraft and "Otter" DHC-3 fighter planes. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
also received a limited supply of equipment from the Indian military, as New Delhi allowed the Bangladeshi forces to operate an independent weapons supply through Calcutta
Calcutta
Port.[71] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
used Sten Guns, Lee–Enfield rifles and Indian-made hand grenades.[72] Bangladesh- India
India
Allied Forces[edit]

Pakistan's Lt. Gen. A. A. K. Niazi
A. A. K. Niazi
signing the Pakistani Instrument of Surrender in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 December 1971, in the presence of India's Lt. Gen. Aurora. Standing behind them are various officers from India's Army, Navy and Air Force.

The launch of Operation Chengiz Khan by West Pakistan
Pakistan
on North India finally drew India
India
into the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
conflict and a joint command structure was established between the Bangladeshi and Indian forces. Three corps of the Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
were supported by three brigades of the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
and the Bengali guerrilla army. The Mukti Bahini and its supporters guided the Indian army and provided them with information about Pakistani troop movements.[73] The Indian and Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
greatly outnumbered the three Pakistani army divisions of East Pakistan. The Battle of Sylhet, the Battle of Garibpur, the Battle of Boyra, the Battle of Hilli and the Battle of Kushtia were major joint engagements for the Bangladeshi and Indian forces, who swiftly captured surrounding land by selectively engaging or bypassing heavily defended strongholds. For example, the Meghna Heli Bridge airlifted Bangladeshi and Indian forces from Brahmanbaria
Brahmanbaria
to Narsingdi over Pakistani defences in Ashuganj. The cities of Jessore, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Kushtia, Noakhali
Noakhali
and Maulvi Bazar
Maulvi Bazar
quickly fell to the Mukti Bahini-Indian joint forces. In Dhaka, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army and its supporting militias began the mass murder of Bengali intellectuals and professionals in a final attempt to eliminate the Bengali intelligentsia. Both the Mukti-Bahini-Indian forces, the Pakistani Army and its allies were accused of looting, rape and violence on the civilian population belonging to their respective opponents.[74] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
liberated most of the Dhaka
Dhaka
District by mid-December. In Western Pakistan, Indian forces advanced deep into Pakistani territory as the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
was subjected to a naval blockade by the Indian Navy. Pakistani generals surrendered to the Mukti Bahini-Indian forces in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 December 1971.[75] Relations with India[edit] Ten million Bengali refugees fled into neighbouring India
India
because of famine and ravages of the Pakistan
Pakistan
army,[15] where the regions of West Bengal, Tripura and the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
shared strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links with East Pakistan. The war sparked an unprecedented level of unity in the Bengali-speaking world. There was strong support for Bengalis and Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
from the Indian media and public.[76] India
India
feared that if the movement for Bangladesh
Bangladesh
came to be dominated by communists then it would adversely affect its own fight with the left-wing Naxalites. It also did not want the millions of refugees to be permanently stranded in India.[76] Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, authorised diplomatic, economic and military support to the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces in April 1971.[39] The Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Provisional Government of Bangladesh
established its secretariat in exile in Calcutta. The Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
provided substantial training and the use of its bases for the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation guerrillas operated training camps in the Indian states of Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and West Bengal.[77][78] Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
were allowed by India
India
to cross the border at will.[79] Some Mukti Bahini, especially those who served in the security services of Pakistan, were suspicious of Indian involvement and wished to minimise its role. They also resented the formation of the Mujib Bahini by India
India
which was composed of Sheikh Mujib-loyalists but was not under the command of Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
or the provisional government of Bangladesh.[5] On 6 December 1971, India
India
officially recognised Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as an independent country only hours after Bhutan did the same.[80] International reactions[edit] The genocide by Pakistani forces caused widespread international outrage against West Pakistan.[81] In the United States, Democratic senator Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
led a chorus of strong domestic criticism against the Nixon administration
Nixon administration
for ignoring the genocide of Bengalis in East Pakistan.[82][83] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
enjoyed significant international public support. The Bangladeshi provisional government considered setting up an "International Brigade" with European and North American students.[71] French Minister of Cultural Affairs André Malraux
André Malraux
vowed to fight on the battlefield alongside the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces.[84] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
threw its weight behind the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces and India
India
after being convinced of Pakistan's unwillingness for a political solution.[71] Separately, US efforts to woo China through Pakistan
Pakistan
led to India
India
signing a friendship treaty with Moscow in August 1971. India
India
increased support to Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
after the signing of the treaty.[85] For India, the treaty was an important insurance policy against a possible Chinese intervention on the side of Pakistan. China had fought a brief war with India
India
in 1962. Both the US and China, however, ultimately failed to mobilise adequate support for Pakistan.[77][78] Honours[edit] Bir Sreshtho
Bir Sreshtho
(The Most Valiant Hero) is the highest military honour in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and was awarded to seven Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
fighters. They were Ruhul Amin, Mohiuddin Jahangir, Mostafa Kamal, Hamidur Rahman, Munshi Abdur Rouf, Nur Mohammad Sheikh and Matiur Rahman.[86] The other three gallantry awards in decreasing order of importance are Bir Uttom, Bir Bikrom and Bir Protik.[87] Women[edit] Women had served in the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
trained several female battalions for guerrilla warfare. Taramon Bibi is one of the two female wars heroes of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War. Captain Sitara Begum is noted for setting up field hospitals for injured Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
fighters.[88] Professor Nazma Shaheen, University of Dhaka, and her sister were female members in the Mukti Bahini.[89] Post-war[edit]

Aparajeyo Bangla
Aparajeyo Bangla
(Invincible Bengal) was finished on 16 December 1978 by Syed Abdullah Khalid at University of Dhaka
Dhaka
Campus, is a Monument to Mukti Bahini.[90]

The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
was succeeded by the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Armed Forces, the Bangladesh Rifles
Bangladesh Rifles
and the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Police. Civilian fighters were provided with numerous privileges, including reservations in government jobs and universities.[91][92] The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Freedom Fighters Assembly was formed to represent former guerrillas. Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
ministry is responsible for looking after the welfare of Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
members.[93] The widespread availability of arms created serious law and order concerns for the Bangladesh government after the war. A few militia units are alleged to have taken part in reprisal attacks against the Urdu-speaking population following the Pakistani surrender.[94] Indemnity[edit] On 28 February 1973 the government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
enacted the National Liberation Struggle (Indemnity) Order to provide indemnity "to those persons in respect of acts done in connection with the national liberation struggle, the maintenance or restoration of order" which was to be enforced retrospectively from 26 March 1972.[94] Criticism[edit] The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
has been accused of killing and raping Bihari citizens of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
who supported the Pakistan
Pakistan
army. After the Liberation War of Bangladesh
Liberation War of Bangladesh
ended, many people who had been denied repatriation to Pakistan
Pakistan
were forcefully relocated to refugee camps, were referred to as Stranded Pakistanis and denied citizenship of Bangladesh.[95] Cultural legacy[edit]

The National Martyrs' Memorial
National Martyrs' Memorial
in Bangladesh

See also: Artistic depictions of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
has been the subject of numerous artwork, literature, films and television productions. See also[edit]

Timeline of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

References[edit]

^ https://books.google.com/books?id=dQ_lAAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false ^

Lal, PC, My Years with the IAF, Lancer Publishers LLC, p. 168, ISBN 978-1-935501-75-6  Oakley, Don. "East pakistan's unheeded agony". The Daily Star. The Nevada Daily Mail. Retrieved 10 January 2016.  "Mujibnagar: History's first Bengali government". The Opinion Pages. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 

^ Jahan, Rounaq (February 1973). " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
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Further reading[edit]

Ahmed, Helal Uddin (2012). "Mukti Bahini". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An Army, its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. Pittsburgh, PA: RoseDog Books. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3. 

v t e

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

Ministry of Liberation War Affairs

Origins of the Bengali Revolution

Philosophy

Bengali renaissance Muslim nationalism in South Asia Two-nation theory Bengali nationalism Bengal Studies Bangamata Joy Bangla

Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement

Partition of Bengal (1905) Eastern Bengal and Assam All- India
India
Muslim League Indian independence movement Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement Lahore Resolution United Bengal Muslim National Guard Direct Action Day Noakhali
Noakhali
riots Partition of India Partition of Bengal (1947)

East Pakistan

Dominion of Pakistan East Bengal Pakistan
Pakistan
Muslim League Objectives Resolution All Pakistan
Pakistan
Awami Muslim League Awami League United Front Bengali Language Movement One Unit East Pakistan Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
of 1956 1958 Pakistani coup d'état Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
of 1962

Bengali self-determination

Swadhin Bangal Biplobi Parishad Six point movement Agartala Conspiracy Case 1969 uprising in East Pakistan 1970 Bhola cyclone Pakistani general election, 1970

Declaration of war

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's speech of 7 March Rodionov message Admiral Ahsan Mission Operation Searchlight Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence

Combatants Campaigns Theaters Battles Events Massacres

Combatants

Bangladesh

Provisional Government of Bangladesh Mukti Bahini Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Army

K Force S Force Z Force

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Navy Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Air Force Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Rifles Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Ansar Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Police Special
Special
Guerrilla
Guerrilla
Forces

Gono Bahini Mujib Bahini Kader Bahini Afsar Bahini Hemayet Bahini

Crack Platoon

Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines

Jamaat-e-Islami Central Peace Committee Razakars Al-Badr Al-Shams

Indian allies

Parliament of India Indian Armed Forces Mitro Bahini
Mitro Bahini
(Indo- Bangla allied forces)

Campaigns and theaters

Pakistan
Pakistan
Eastern Command Operation Searchlight Operation Barisal Cable 1971 Sectors in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Military plans of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Eastern Command (India) Bangladesh
Bangladesh
War timeline Meghna Heli Bridge Operation Jackpot Operation Python Operation Trident Pakistan
Pakistan
Army order of battle, December 1971 Mitro Bahini
Mitro Bahini
Order of Battle December 1971 Sinking of PNS Ghazi East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Air Operations, 1971s Operation Chengiz Khan Operation Cactus-Lilly

Major battles

Battle of Daruin Battle of Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway Battle of Goalhati Battle of Dhalai Outpost Battle of Dhalai Battle of Ajmiriganj Battle of Garibpur Battle of Hilli Battle of Longewala Battle of Basantar Battle of Kushtia Battle of Boyra Battle of Atgram

Other events

Blood Telegram 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide 1971 killing of Bengali intellectuals Rape during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Refugees in India Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra Shadhin Bangla Football Team The Concert for Bangladesh

Album Film

List of Massacres

1971 Dhaka
Dhaka
University massacre Shankharipara massacre Shankharibazar massacre Ramna massacre Sutrapur massacre Jinjira massacre Akhira massacre Jathibhanga massacre Demra massacre Chuknagar massacre Madhyapara massacre Bakhrabad massacre Burunga massacre more

Related conflicts

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Indo-Pakistani Naval War of 1971

Leaders

Bangladesh

Military

M. A. G. Osmani Ziaur Rahman Khaled Mosharraf K M Shafiullah Shafaat Jamil A. K. Khandker Muhammad Hamidullah Khan Matiur Rahman

Civilian

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Syed Nazrul Islam Tajuddin Ahmad AHM Qamaruzzaman Muhammad Hamidullah Khan Dhirendranath Datta Quazi Nuruzzaman Chitta Ranjan Dutta Muhammad Mansur Ali Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad M. A. Hannan Abu Sayeed Chowdhury

Pakistan

Military

Yahya Khan Tikka Khan S.M. Ahsan A.K. Niazi Yaqub Ali Khan Mohammad Shariff Rao Farman Ali A.O. Mitha Khadim Hussain Mitty Masud Ahmad Zamir Inamul Haque Siddique Salik K.M. Arif

Civilian

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Dr. Abdul Motaleb Malik Nurul Amin Shah Azizur Rahman Ghulam Azam Motiur Rahman Nizami J.A. Rahim Tridev Roy

India

Military

Indian Army Sam Manekshaw Jagjit Singh Aurora Hari Chand Dewan Nilakanta Krishnan J. F. R. Jacob Om Prakash Malhotra Sagat Singh Inderjit Singh Gill Shabeg Singh K. Sankaran Nair Hoshiar Singh

Civilian

Indira Gandhi V. V. Giri Gopal Swarup Pathak Rameshwar Kao Swaran Singh Jagjivan Ram Dilip Mahalanabis

Aftermath

Pakistani Instrument of Surrender International recognition of Bangladesh Simla Agreement Delhi Agreement Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh Hamoodur Rahman Commission

War Report

1971 Prisoners of War Investigation Bangladesh– India
India
relations

Indira-Mujib Treaty 2001 Indo-Bangla skirmishes

Bangladesh– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations

2013 Pakistan
Pakistan
Embassy siege 2015 Expulsion of Pakistani diplomats from Dhaka

Related topics Categories

Commemoration

Monuments and memorials

National Martyrs’ Memorial Martyred Intellectuals Memorial Swadhinata Stambha Liberation War Memorial Trust Liberation War Museum Bangladesh Police
Bangladesh Police
Liberation War Museum Aparajeyo Bangla Shabash Bangladesh

Anniversaries

Bengali Genocide Remembrance Day Independence Day (Bangladesh) Armed Forces Day (Bangladesh) Martyred Intellectuals Day Victory day of Bangladesh Vijay Diwas (India)

Decorations and depictions

Muktijuddho e-Archive Artistic depictions Awards and decorations

Trials

2013 Shahbag protests Movement demanding trial of war criminals (Bangladesh) International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh) War Crimes Fact Finding Committee

Categories

Liberation War Genocide Aftermath Films Causes and prelude Battles Peoples Military personnel

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberat

.