Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 The Baltic
states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic
nations or simply the
Baltics (Estonian: Balti riigid, Baltimaad,
Latvian: Baltijas valstis, Lithuanian: Baltijos valstybės), is a
geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in
Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania. The term is not used in the context of cultural
areas, national identity or language.
The three countries cooperate on a regional level in several
intergovernmental organizations.
All three countries are members of the European Union,
NATO and the
Eurozone. They are classified as high-income economies by the World
Bank and maintain high Human Development Index.
also members of the OECD, while
Lithuania is a prospective candidate.
2.1 Northern Crusades
2.2 Baltic dominions of Swedish Empire
2.3 Baltic governates of Russian Empire
2.4 Newly independent countries East of the Baltic Sea
2.5 Soviet Occupation
4 Regional cooperation
5 Current leaders
7.1 Ethnic groups
9.1 General statistics
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
The term "Baltic" stems from the name of the
Baltic Sea – a hydronym
dating back to the 11th century (
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen mentioned Latin: Mare
Balticum) and earlier. Although there are several theories about its
origin, most ultimately trace it to Indo-European root *bhel meaning
white, fair. This meaning is retained in modern Baltic languages,
where baltas (in Lithuanian) and balts (in Latvian) mean "white".
However the modern names of the region and the sea, that originate
from this root, were not used in either of the two languages prior to
the 19th century.
Beginning in the
Middle Ages and through the present day, the Baltic
Sea appears on the maps described in
Germanic languages as German:
Ostsee, Danish: Østersøen, Dutch: Oostzee, Swedish: Östersjön,
etc. In English "Ost" is "East", and in fact, the
Baltic Sea mostly
lies to the east of Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. These names
were historically also used to refer to Baltic Dominions of Swedish
Empire (Swedish: Östersjöprovinserna) and
Baltic governorates of
Russian Empire (Russian: Остзейские губернии,
translit. Ostzejskie gubernii).
Endre Bojtár (1999) argues that it was around the 1840s when the
German gentry of the
Governorate of Livonia
Governorate of Livonia devised the term "Balts"
to mean themselves, the German upper classes of Livonia, excluding the
Latvian and Estonian lower classes. They spoke an exclusive dialect,
baltisch-deutsch, legally spoken by them alone. However the
Georg Nesselmann in the middle of the 19th century
substantiated the concept that Latvian, Lithuanian and Old Prussian
belong to the same branch of the Indo-European languages, which he
suggested to name as Baltic languages It was at this time when
"Baltic" also started to surpass "Ostsee" as the name for the region.
Officially its Russian equivalent "Прибалтийский" was
first used in 1859.
In the 13th century pagan and Eastern Orthodox Baltic and Finnic
peoples in the region became a target of the Northern Crusades.
In the aftermath of the Livonian crusade, a crusader state officially
named Terra Mariana, but also known as Livonia, was established in the
territory of modern
Latvia and Southern Estonia. It was divided into
four autonomous bishoprics and lands of the Livonian Brothers of the
Sword. After the Brothers of the Sword suffered defeat at the Battle
of Saule, the remaining Brothers were integrated into the Teutonic
Order as the autonomous Livonian Order. Northern
became a Danish dominion, but it was purchased by the Teutonic Order
in the mid-14th century. The majority of the crusaders and clergy were
German and remained influential in
Estonia and most of
the first half of the 20th century –
Baltic Germans formed the
backbone of the local gentry, and German served both as a lingua
franca and for record-keeping.
Lithuanians were also targeted by the crusaders, however they were
able to resist and formed the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania some time
before 1252. It allied with the Kingdom of Poland. After the Union of
Krewo in 1385 created a dynastic union between the two countries, they
became ever more closely integrated and finally merged into the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. After victory in the
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, the Polish–Lithuanian union
became a major political power in the region.
Baltic dominions of Swedish Empire
Main article: Dominium maris baltici
Swedish Empire in the Baltic
Livonia was attacked by the
Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia and the Livonian
war broke out, lasting until 1583. The rulers of different regions
Livonia sought to ally with foreign powers, which resulted in
Polish–Lithuanian, Swedish and Danish involvement. As a result, by
1561 the Livonian confederation had ceased to exist and its lands in
Latvia and Southern
Estonia became the Duchy of
Semigallia and the Duchy of Livonia, which were vassals to the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Osel island came under Danish rule
Estonia became the Swedish Duchy of Estonia. In the
aftermath of later conflicts of the 17th century, much of the Duchy of
Livonia and Osel also came under Swedish control as Swedish Livonia.
These newly acquired Swedish territories, as well as Ingria and
Kexholm (now the western part of the
Leningrad Oblast of Russia),
became known as the Baltic Dominions. Parts of the Duchy of Livonia
that remained in the Commonwealth became Inflanty Voivodeship, which
contributed to the modern
Latgale region of Eastern
culturally distinct from the rest of
Latvia as the German nobility
lost its influence and the region remained Catholic just like
Poland-Lithuania, while the rest of
Latvia (and also Estonia) became
Baltic governates of Russian Empire
Territorial changes in 1709–1721. Note that
Sweden and annexed by
Russia in this period.
At the beginning of the 18th century the
Swedish Empire was attacked
by a coalition of several European powers in the Great Northern War.
Among these powers was Russia, seeking to restore its access to the
Baltic Sea. During the course of the war it conquered all of the
Swedish provinces on the Eastern Baltic coast. This acquisition was
legalized by the
Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad in which the Baltic Dominions were
ceded to Russia. The treaty also granted the
Livonia the rights to self-government, maintaining
their financial system, existing customs border,
and the German language; this special position in the Russian Empire
was reconfirmed by all Russian Tsars from
Peter the Great
Peter the Great to Alexander
II. Initially these were two governorates named after the largest
Riga and Reval (now Tallinn). After the Partitions of Poland
which took place in the last quarter of the 18th century, the third
Ostsee governorate was created, as the
Courland Governorate (presently
a part of Latvia). This toponym stems from the Curonians, one of the
Baltic indigenous tribes. Following the annexation of
two other governates were renamed to the
Governorate of Livland
Governorate of Livland and
the Governorate of Estland.
In the late 19th century, nationalist sentiment grew in
Estonia and in
Latvia morphing into an aspiration to national statehood after the
1905 Russian Revolution.
Newly independent countries East of the Baltic Sea
After the First World War the term "Baltic states" came to refer to
countries by the Baltic sea that had gained independence from Russia
in its aftermath. As such it included not only former Baltic
governorates, but also Latgale,
Lithuania and Finland. As World
War I came to a close,
Lithuania declared independence and Latvia
formed a provisional government.
Estonia had already obtained autonomy
Russia in 1917, but was subsequently occupied by the
German Empire; they fought an independence war against Soviet Russia
Baltic nobility before gaining true independence from 1920 to
Lithuanians followed a similar process, until the
Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence and
Lithuanian Wars of Independence
Lithuanian Wars of Independence were
extinguished in 1920.
Interwar period these countries were sometimes referred to
as limitrophe states between the two World Wars, from the French,
indicating their collectively forming a rim along Bolshevik Russia's,
later the Soviet Union's, western border. They were also part of what
Clemenceau considered a strategic cordon sanitaire, the entire
Finland in the north to Romania in the south, standing
Europe and potential Bolshevik territorial
World War II
World War II Estonia,
Lithuania each experienced
an authoritarian head of state who had come to power after a bloodless
Antanas Smetona in
Lithuania (December 1926), Konstantin Päts
Estonia (March 1934), and
Kārlis Ulmanis in
Latvia (May 1934).
Some note that the events in
Lithuania differed from its two more
northerly neighbors, with Smetona having different motivations as well
as securing power 8 years before any such events in
Latvia or Estonia
took place. Despite considerable political turmoil in
Finland no such
events took place there.
Finland did however get embroiled in a bloody
civil war, something that did not happen in the Baltics. Some
controversy surrounds the Baltic authoritarian régimes – due to the
general stability and rapid economic growth of the period (even if
brief), some commenters avoid the label "authoritarian"; others,
however, condemn such an "apologetic" attitude, for example in later
assessments of Kārlis Ulmanis.
Map of present-day Baltic states
In accordance with a secret protocol within the Molotov–Ribbentrop
Pact of 1939 that divided
Europe into German and Soviet spheres of
influence, the Soviet Army entered eastern
Poland in September 1939,
and then coerced Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania into mutual assistance
treaties which granted them the right to establish military bases in
these. In June 1940, the
Red Army occupied all of the territory of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and the
Red Army installed new,
pro-Soviet governments in all three countries. Following rigged
elections, in which only pro-communist candidates were allowed to run,
the newly "elected" parliaments of the three countries formally
applied to "join" the
Soviet Union in August 1940 and were
incorporated into it as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, the
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist
Repressions, executions and mass deportations followed after that in
the Baltics. Deportations were used as a part of the Soviet
Union's attempts, along with instituting the Russian Language as the
only working language and other such tactics, at sovietization of its
occupied territories. More than 200,000 people were deported by the
Soviet government from the Baltic in 1940–1953 to remote,
inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union. In addition, at least 75,000
were sent to Gulag. 10% of the entire adult Baltic population was
deported or sent to labor camps. (See June deportation, Soviet
deportations from Estonia,
Sovietization of the Baltic states)
The Soviet control of the
Baltic states was interrupted by Nazi German
invasion of this region in 1941. Initially, many Estonians, Latvians,
Lithuanians considered the
Germans as liberators from the Soviet
Union. The Baltic countries hoped for the restoration of independence,
but instead the
Germans established civil administration, known as the
Reichskommissariat Ostland. During the occupation the
out discrimination, mass deportations and mass killings generating
Baltic resistance movements. The German occupation lasted until late
1944 (in Courland, until early 1945), when the countries were
reoccupied by the
Red Army and Soviet rule was re-established, with
the passive agreement of the
United States and Britain (see Yalta
Conference and Potsdam Agreement).
The forced collectivisation of agriculture began in 1947, and was
completed after the mass deportation in March 1949 (see Operation
Priboi). Private farms were confiscated, and farmers were made to join
the collective farms. In all three countries, Baltic partisans, known
colloquially as the Forest Brothers, Latvian national partisans, and
Lithuanian partisans, waged unsuccessful guerrilla warfare against the
Soviet occupation for the next eight years in a bid to regain their
nations' independence. Although the armed resistance was defeated, the
population remained anti-Soviet.
Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25%
of the population of the
Baltic states participated
Estonia were considered to be under Soviet
occupation by the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, NATO,
and many other countries and international organizations. During
Cold War period
Latvia maintained legations in
Washington, DC, while
Estonia had a mission in New York. Each was
staffed, initially by diplomats from the last governments before USSR
In the late 1980s a massive campaign of civil resistance against
Soviet rule, known as the Singing Revolution, began. On 23 August
1989, the Baltic Way, a two-million-strong human chain, stretched for
600 km from
Tallinn to Vilnius. In the wake of this campaign
Gorbachev's government had privately concluded that the departure of
the Baltic republics had become "inevitable". This process
contributed to the dissolution of the
Soviet Union setting a precedent
for the other Soviet republics to secede from the USSR. Soviet Union
recognized the independence of three
Baltic states on 6 September
1991. There was a subsequent withdrawal of troops from the region
(starting from Lithuania) in August 1993. The last Russian troops were
withdrawn from there in August 1994. Skrunda-1, the last Russian
military radar in the Baltics, officially suspended operations in
The Baltic countries are located in Northern Europe, and because each
has access to the sea, it is able to interact with many European
countries. All three countries are parliamentary democracies, which
have unicameral parliaments that are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms –
Riigikogu in Estonia,
Latvia and Seimas
in Lithuania. In
Latvia and Estonia, the president is elected by
Lithuania has a semi-presidential system where the
president is elected by popular vote. All are parts of the European
Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Each of the three countries has declared itself to be the restoration
of the sovereign nation that had existed from 1918 to 1940,
emphasizing their contention that Soviet domination over the Baltic
nations during the
Cold War period had been an illegal occupation and
The same legal interpretation is shared by the United States, the
United Kingdom, and all other Western democracies,
who held the forcible incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Soviet Union to be illegal. At least formally, the Western
democracies never considered the three
Baltic states to be constituent
parts of the Soviet Union.
Australia was a brief exception to this
support of Baltic independence: In 1974, the Labor government of
Australia did recognize Soviet dominion, but this decision was
reversed by the next Australian Parliament.
Baltic states had restored their independence, integration
Europe became a major strategic goal. In 2002, the Baltic
nations applied for membership in
NATO and the EU. All three became
NATO members on 29 March 2004, and accessed to the EU on 1 May 2004.
Baltic states are currently the only former-Soviet states that
have joined either organization.
During the Baltic struggle for independence 1989–1992, a personal
friendship developed between the (at that time unrecognized) Baltic
ministers of foreign affairs and the Nordic ministers of foreign
affairs. This friendship led to the creation of the Council of the
Baltic Sea States in 1992, and the
EuroFaculty in 1993.
Between 1994 and 2004, the BAFTA free trade agreement was established
to help prepare the countries for their accession to the EU, rather
than out of the Baltic states' desire to trade among themselves. The
Baltic countries were more interested in gaining access to the rest of
the European market.
Currently, the governments of the
Baltic states cooperate in multiple
ways, including cooperation among presidents, parliament speakers,
heads of government, and foreign ministers. On 8 November 1991, the
Baltic Assembly, which includes 15 to 20 MPs from each parliament, was
established to facilitate inter-parliamentary cooperation.The Baltic
Council of Ministers was established on 13 June 1994 to facilitate
intergovernmental cooperation. Since 2003, there is coordination
between the two organizations.
Compared with other regional groupings in Europe, such as Nordic
council or Visegrad Four, Baltic cooperation is rather limited.
Possible explanations include the short history of restored
sovereignty and fear of losing it again, along with an orientation
Nordic countries and Baltic-Nordic cooperation in The
Estonia especially has attempted to construct a
Nordic identity for itself and denounced Baltic identity, despite
still seeking to preserve close relationship with other countries in
President of Estonia
President of Latvia
President of Lithuania
Prime Minister of Estonia
Prime Minister of Latvia
Prime Minister of Lithuania
Main article: Baltic Tiger
State budget revenues per capita for 2016 in Estonia,
Tallink is the largest passenger shipping company in the Baltic sea
region in Northern Europe.
All three countries are members of the European Union, and the
Eurozone. They are classified as high-income economies by the World
Bank and maintain high Human Development Index.
also members of the OECD, while
Lithuania is a prospective candidate.
Estonia adopted the euro in January 2011,
Latvia in January 2014, and
Lithuania in January 2015.
St. Olaf's church in Tallinn, Estonia
Language branches in Northern Europe
North Germanic (Iceland and Scandinavia)
Finnic (Finland, Estonia)
Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)
Estonians are Finnic people, together with the neighboring Finns. The
Latvians and Lithuanians, linguistically and culturally related to
each other, are descended from the Balts, an Indo-European people and
culture. The peoples comprising the
Baltic states have together
inhabited the eastern coast of the
Baltic Sea for millennia, although
not always peacefully in ancient times, over which period their
populations, Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian have remained
remarkably stable within the approximate territorial boundaries of the
current Baltic states. While separate peoples with their own customs
and traditions, historical factors have introduced cultural
commonalities across and differences within them.
The population of the Baltic countries belong to different Christian
denominations, a reflection of historical circumstances. Both Western
and Eastern Christianity had been introduced by the end of the first
millennium. The current divide between
Lutheranism to the north and
Catholicism to the south is the remnant of Swedish and Polish
hegemony, respectively, with Orthodox Christianity remaining the
dominant faith among Russian and other East Slavic minorities.
Lutheran Church, Riga, Latvia
Baltic states have historically been in many different spheres of
influence, from Danish over Swedish and Polish–Lithuanian, to German
(Hansa and Holy Roman Empire), and before independence in the Russian
sphere of influence.
Baltic states have a considerable Slavic minority: In Latvia:
34.5% (including 26.7% Russian, 3.3% Belarusian, 2.2% Ukrainian, and
2.2% Polish), In Estonia: 28.8%. In Lithuania: 13.8% (including 6.5%
Polish and 5.3% Russian).
Soviet Union conducted a policy of
Russification by encouraging
Russians and other Russian-speaking ethnic groups of the Soviet Union
to settle in the Baltic Republics. Today, ethnic Russian immigrants
from the former
Soviet Union and their descendants make up a sizable
minority in the Baltic states, particularly in
one-quarter of the total population and close to one-half in the
capital Riga) and
Estonia (one-quarter of the population).
Because the three
Baltic states had been occupied by Soviet Union
later than other territories (hence, e.g., the higher living
standard), there was a strong feeling of national identity (often
labeled "bourgeois nationalism" by Soviets) and popular resentment
towards the imposed Soviet rule in the three countries, in combination
with Soviet cultural policy, which employed superficial
multiculturalism (in order for the
Soviet Union to appear as a
multinational union based on free will of peoples) in limits allowed
by the Communist "internationalist" (but in effect pro-Russification)
ideology and under tight control of the Communist Party (those of the
Baltic nationals who crossed the line were called "bourgeois
nationalists" and repressed). This let Estonians,
Lithuanians preserve a high degree of Europe-oriented national
identity. In Soviet times this made them appear as the "West" of
Soviet Union in the cultural and political sense, thus as close to
emigration a Russian could get without leaving the Soviet Union.
The languages of Baltic nations belong to two distinct language
families. The Latvian and Lithuanian languages belong to the
Indo-European language family and are the only extant members of the
Baltic language group (or more specifically, Eastern Baltic subgroup
Estonian language is a Finnic language, together with the
Catholic Church of All Saints, Vilnius, Lithuania
Apart from the indigenous languages, German was the dominant language
Latvia in academics, professional life, and upper
society from the 13th century until World War I. Polish served a
similar function in Lithuania. Numerous Swedish loanwords have made it
into the Estonian language; it was under the Swedish rule that schools
were established and education propagated in the 17th century. Swedish
remains spoken in Estonia, particularly the
Estonian Swedish dialect
Estonian Swedes of northern
Estonia and the islands (though
many fled to
Sweden as the
Soviet Union invaded and re-occupied
Estonia in 1944). There is also significant proficiency in Finnish in
Estonia owing to its closeness to the native Estonian and also the
widespread practice of listening to Finnish broadcasts during the
Soviet era. Russian also achieved significant usage particularly in
Russian was the most commonly studied foreign language at all levels
of schooling during the Soviet era. Despite schooling available and
administration conducted in local languages, Russian settlers were
neither encouraged nor motivated to learn the official local
languages, so knowledge of Russian became a practical necessity in
daily life. Even to this day, the majority of the population of the
Baltic states profess to be proficient in Russian, especially those
who lived during Soviet rule. Meanwhile, the minority of Russian
origin generally do not speak the national language. The question of
their assimilation is a major factor in social and diplomatic
Basketball is a notable sport across the Baltic states. Teams from the
three countries compete in the respective national championships and
Basketball League. The Lithuanian teams have been the
strongest, with the
BC Žalgiris winning the 1999 FIBA Euroleague.
Lithuania men's national basketball team has won the
three occasions and has claimed third place at the 2010 World Cup and
three Olympic tournaments. Meanwhile, the
Latvia men's national
basketball team won the 1935 Eurobasket and finished second in 1939,
but has performed poorly since the 1990s.
Lithuania hosted the
Eurobasket in 1939 and 2011, whereas
Latvia was one of the hosts in
2015. The historic Lithuanian basketball team
Kauno Žalgiris won the
Euroleague in 1999. However, the
Latvia women's national basketball
team finished fourth at the 2007 Eurobasket.
Ice hockey is also popular in Latvia. Dinamo
Riga is the country's
strongest hockey club, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League. The
2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships were held in Latvia.
Association football is popular in the Baltic states, but have claimed
poor results in international competitions. They have played in the
Baltic Cup since 1928.
Estonian and Soviet chess grandmaster
Paul Keres was among the world's
top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s. He narrowly missed a
chance at a World Chess Championship match on five occasions. Estonian
Markko Märtin was successful in the
World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship in the
early 2000, where he got five wins and 18 podiums, as well as a third
place in the 2004 standings.
Latvian tennis player
Jeļena Ostapenko won the 2017 French Open,
another Latvian tennis player
Ernests Gulbis was a semifinalist at the
2010 Rome Masters and 2014 French Open.
Forests cover over half the landmass of Estonia
Devonian sandstone cliffs in Gauja National Park, Latvia's largest and
oldest national park
Winter landscape of Lithuania
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All three are Unitary republics, joined the
European Union on 1 May
2004, share EET/EEST time zone schedules and euro currency.
Coat of arms
-until 13th century
-24 February 1918
-restored 20 August 1991
-Until 13th century
-18 November 1918
-restored 21 August 1991
-Until 18th century
-16 February 1918
-restored 11 March 1990
45,339 km2 = 17,505 sq mi
64,589 km2 = 24,938 sq mi
65,300 km2 = 25,212 sq mi
175,228 km2 = 67,656 sq mi
29/km2 = 75/sq mi
31/km2 = 79/sq mi
44/km2 = 115/sq mi
35/km2 = 92/sq mi
Water area %
GDP (nominal) total (2017)
GDP (nominal) per capita (2017)
GDP (PPP) total (2017)
GDP (PPP) per capita (2017)
Gini Index (2012)
0.865 (Very High)
0.830 (Very High)
0.848 (Very High)
Largest cities in Baltic states
Statistics Estonia, Statistics
Latvia and Statistics Lithuania
estimates for 1 October 2015
Balts, Baltic Finns,
Baltic Germans and Baltic Russians
Baltic Free Trade Area
List of cities in the
Baltic states by population
United Baltic Duchy
Occupation of the Baltic states
Soviet deportations from Estonia
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^ "Baltic states – Soviet Republics". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
^ Nikolas K. Gvosdev; Christopher Marsh (2013). Russian Foreign
Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. CQ Press. p. 217.
^ a b c d
^ GINI index (
World Bank estimate)
Bojtár, Endre (1999). Forward to the Past – A Cultural History
of the Baltic People. Budapest: Central European University Press.
Bousfield, Jonathan (2004). Baltic States. Rough Guides.
Clerc, Louis; Glover, Nikolas; Jordan, Paul, eds. Histories of Public
Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries:
Representing the Periphery (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2015). 348 pp. ISBN
978- 90-04-30548-9. for an online book review see online review
D'Amato, Giuseppe (2004). Travel to the Baltic Hansa – The
European Union and its enlargement to the East (Book in Italian:
Viaggio nell’Hansa baltica – L’Unione europea e
l’allargamento ad Est). Milano: Greco&Greco editori.
Hiden, John; Patrick Salmon (1991). The Baltic Nations and Europe:
Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania in the Twentieth Century. London:
Longman. ISBN 0-582-08246-3.
Hiden, John; Vahur Made; David J. Smith (2008). The Baltic Question
during the Cold War. London: Routledge.
Jacobsson, Bengt (2009). The
European Union and the Baltic States:
Changing forms of governance. London: Routledge.
Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. London:
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-01940-9.
Lane, Thomas; Artis Pabriks; Aldis Purs; David J. Smith (2013). The
Baltic States: Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania. Routledge.
Lehti, Marko; David J. Smith, eds. (2003). Post-
Cold War Identity
Politics – Northern and Baltic Experiences. London/Portland:
Frank Cass Publishers. ISBN 0-7146-8351-5.
Lieven, Anatol (1993). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University
Press. ISBN 0-300-05552-8.
O'Connor, Kevin (2006). Culture and Customs of the Baltic States.
Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33125-1.
O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The History of the Baltic States. Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32355-3.
Plakans, Andrejs (2011). A Concise History of the Baltic States.
Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Graham (ed.) (1994). The Baltic States: The National
Self-determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. New York: St.
Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12060-5. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
Palmer, Alan. The Baltic: A new history of the region and its people
(New York: Overlook Press, 2006; published In London with the title
Northern shores: a history of the
Baltic Sea and its peoples (John
Šleivyte, Janina (2010). Russia's European Agenda and the Baltic
States. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55400-8.
Vilkauskaite, Dovile O. "From Empire to Independence: The Curious Case
of the Baltic States 1917-1922." (thesis, University of Connecticut,
2013). online; Bibliography pp 70 – 75.
Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann; Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia,
Lithuania (3rd ed.). London: Lonely Planet.
International peer-reviewed journals, media and book series dedicated
Baltic region include:
On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral
Imagination in the
Baltics (book series)
Journal of Baltic Studies, journal of the Association for the
Advancement of Baltic Studies (AABS)
Lituanus, journal dedicated to Lithuanian and Baltic art, history,
language, literature and related cultural topics
The Baltic Course, International Internet Magazine. Analysis and
background information on Baltic markets
Baltic Reports, English-language daily news website that covers all
three Baltic states
The Baltic Review, the independent newspaper from the Baltics
The Baltic Times, independent weekly newspaper that covers latest
political, economic, business, and cultural events in Estonia, Latvia
Baltics Today, news about The Baltics
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baltic states.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baltic states.
Baltic Sea Information Centre
vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on
the Nordic and Baltic countries
Official statistics of the Baltic states:
United Baltic Duchy
Soviet Union (1940)
by Nazi Germany
Soviet Union (1944)
June deportation (1941)
Operation Priboi (1949)
Under Soviet rule (1944-91)
Air Surveillance Network
Baltic Cup (football)
Baltic Chain Tour
Countries bordering the Baltic Sea
Laureates of the Polar Music Prize
Paul McCartney / the
Baltic states (1992)
Dizzy Gillespie /
Witold Lutosławski (1993)
Quincy Jones /
Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1994)
Elton John /
Mstislav Rostropovich (1995)
Joni Mitchell /
Pierre Boulez (1996)
Bruce Springsteen /
Eric Ericson (1997)
Ray Charles /
Ravi Shankar (1998)
Stevie Wonder /
Iannis Xenakis (1999)
Bob Dylan /
Isaac Stern (2000)
Burt Bacharach /
Robert Moog /
Karlheinz Stockhausen (2001)
Miriam Makeba /
Sofia Gubaidulina (2002)
Keith Jarrett (2003)
B.B. King /
György Ligeti (2004)
Gilberto Gil /
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (2005)
Led Zeppelin /
Valery Gergiev (2006)
Sonny Rollins /
Steve Reich (2007)
Pink Floyd /
Renée Fleming (2008)
Peter Gabriel /
José Antonio Abreu
José Antonio Abreu /
El Sistema (2009)
Ennio Morricone (2010)
Kronos Quartet /
Patti Smith (2011)
Paul Simon /
Yo-Yo Ma (2012)
Youssou N'Dour /
Kaija Saariaho (2013)
Chuck Berry /
Peter Sellars (2014)
Emmylou Harris /
Evelyn Glennie (2015)
Max Martin /
Cecilia Bartoli (2016)
Wayne Shorter (2017)
Afghanistan National Institute of Music (2018)
European Union portal