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BAGAN (Burmese : ပုဂံ; MLCTS : pu.gam, IPA: ; formerly PAGAN) is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar
Myanmar
. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the city was the capital of the Pagan Kingdom , the first kingdom that unified the regions that would later constitute modern Myanmar. During the kingdom's height between the 11th and 13th centuries, over 10,000 Buddhist temples, pagodas and monasteries were constructed in the Bagan
Bagan
plains alone, of which the remains of over 2,200 temples and pagodas still survive to the present day.

The BAGAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ZONE is a main attraction for the country\'s nascent tourism industry . It is seen by many as equal in attraction to Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
in Cambodia.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 9th to 13th centuries * 2.2 14th to 19th centuries * 2.3 20th century to present

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Cityscape

* 4.1 Architecture

* 4.1.1 Stupas * 4.1.2 Hollow temples * 4.1.3 Innovations

* 4.2 Notable cultural sites * 4.3 Museums

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Air * 5.2 Rail * 5.3 Buses and cars * 5.4 Boat

* 6 Economy * 7 Demographics * 8 Administration * 9 Sister cities * 10 Gallery * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Bagan
Bagan
is the present-day standard Burmese pronunciation of the Burmese word Pugan (ပုဂံ), derived from Old Burmese Pukam (ပုကမ်). Its classical Pali
Pali
name is Arimaddana-pura (အရိမဒ္ဒနာပူရ, lit. "the City that Tramples on Enemies"). Its other names in Pali
Pali
are in reference to its extreme dry zone climate: Tattadesa (တတ္တဒေသ, "parched land"), and Tampadipa (တမ္ပဒီပ, "bronzed country"). The Burmese chronicles also report other classical names of Thiri Pyissaya (သီရိပစ္စယာ) and Tampawaddy (တမ္ပဝတီ).

HISTORY

9TH TO 13TH CENTURIES

Main articles: Early Pagan Kingdom and Pagan Kingdom Bagan's prosperous economy built over 10,000 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Pagan Empire c. 1210

According to the Burmese chronicles , Bagan
Bagan
was founded in the second century AD , and fortified in 849 AD by King Pyinbya , 34th successor of the founder of early Bagan. Mainstream scholarship however holds that Bagan
Bagan
was founded in the mid-to-late 9th century by the Mranma (Burmans), who had recently entered the Irrawaddy valley from the Nanzhao Kingdom . It was among several competing Pyu city-states
Pyu city-states
until the late 10th century when the Burman settlement grew in authority and grandeur.

From 1044 to 1287, Bagan
Bagan
was the capital as well as the political, economic and cultural nerve center of the Pagan Empire . Over the course of 250 years, Bagan's rulers and their wealthy subjects constructed over 10,000 religious monuments (approximately 1000 stupas, 10,000 small temples and 3000 monasteries) in an area of 104 square kilometres (40 sq mi) in the Bagan
Bagan
plains. The prosperous city grew in size and grandeur, and became a cosmopolitan center for religious and secular studies, specializing in Pali
Pali
scholarship in grammar and philosophical-psychological (abhidhamma ) studies as well as works in a variety of languages on prosody , phonology , grammar, astrology , alchemy , medicine, and legal studies. The city attracted monks and students from as far as India
India
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Khmer Empire .

The culture of Bagan
Bagan
was dominated by religion. The religion of Bagan was fluid, syncretic and by later standards, unorthodox. It was largely a continuation of religious trends in the Pyu era where Theravada Buddhism co-existed with Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
, Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
, various Hindu (Saivite , and Vaishana ) schools as well as native animist (nat ) traditions. While the royal patronage of Theravada Buddhism since the mid-11th century had enabled the Buddhist school to gradually gain primacy, other traditions continued to thrive throughout the Pagan period to degrees later unseen.

The Pagan Empire collapsed in 1287 due to repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301). Recent research shows that Mongol armies may not have reached Bagan
Bagan
itself, and that even if they did, the damage they inflicted was probably minimal. However, the damage had already been done. The city, once home to some 50,000 to 200,000 people, had been reduced to a small town, never to regain its preeminence. The city formally ceased to be the capital of Burma in December 1297 when the Myinsaing Kingdom became the new power in Upper Burma.

14TH TO 19TH CENTURIES

A hot-air balloon flying over a pagoda in Bagan
Bagan

Bagan
Bagan
survived into the 15th century as a human settlement, and as a pilgrimage destination throughout the imperial period. A smaller number of "new and impressive" religious monuments still went up to the mid-15th century but afterward, new temple constructions slowed to a trickle with fewer than 200 temples built between the 15th and 20th centuries. The old capital remained a pilgrimage destination but pilgrimage was focused only on "a score or so" most prominent temples out of the thousands such as the Ananda , the Shwezigon , the Sulamani , the Htilominlo , the Dhammayazika , and a few other temples along an ancient road. The rest—thousands of less famous, out-of-the-way temples—fell into disrepair, and most did not survive the test of time.

For the few dozen temples that were regularly patronized, the continued patronage meant regular upkeep as well as architectural additions donated by the devotees. Many temples were repainted with new frescoes on top of their original Pagan era ones, or fitted with new Buddha statutes. Then came a series of state-sponsored "systematic" renovations in the Konbaung period (1752–1885), which by and large were not true to the original designs—some finished with "a rude plastered surface, scratched without taste, art or result". The interiors of some temples were also whitewashed, such as the Thatbyinnyu and the Ananda. Many painted inscriptions and even murals were added in this period.

20TH CENTURY TO PRESENT

The original Bupaya seen here in 1868 was completely destroyed by the 1975 earthquake. A new pagoda in the original shape, but gilded, has been rebuilt.

Bagan, located in an active earthquake zone, had suffered from many earthquakes over the ages, with over 400 recorded earthquakes between 1904 and 1975. A major earthquake occurred on 8 July 1975, reaching 8 MM in Bagan
Bagan
and Myinkaba , and 7 MM in Nyaung-U . The quake damaged many temples, in many cases, such as the Bupaya , severely and irreparably. Today, 2229 temples and pagodas remain.

Many of these damaged pagodas underwent restorations in the 1990s by the military government , which sought to make Bagan
Bagan
an international tourist destination. However, the restoration efforts instead drew widespread condemnation from art historians and preservationists worldwide. Critics are aghast that the restorations paid little attention to original architectural styles, and used modern materials, and that the government has also established a golf course , a paved highway, and built a 61-meter (200-foot) watchtower. Although the government believed that the ancient capital's hundreds of (unrestored) temples and large corpus of stone inscriptions were more than sufficient to win the designation of UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, the city has not been so designated, allegedly mainly on account of the restorations.

Bagan
Bagan
today is a main tourist destination in the country's nascent tourism industry, which has long been the target of various boycott campaigns. The majority of over 300,000 international tourists to the country in 2011 are believed to have also visited Bagan. Several Burmese publications note that the city's small tourism infrastructure will have to expand rapidly even to meet a modest pickup in tourism in the following years.

On 24 August 2016, a major earthquake hit central Burma and again did major damage in Bagan; this time almost 400 temples were destroyed. The Sulamani and Myauk Guni (North Guni) were severely damaged. The Bagan
Bagan
Archaeological Department has started a survey and reconstruction effort with the help of UNESCO
UNESCO
experts. Visitors are prohibited from entering 33 damaged temples.

GEOGRAPHY

Map of the Bagan
Bagan
area showing the locations of the temples, hotels and transportation hubs

The BAGAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ZONE, defined as the 13 x 8 km area centred around Old Bagan, consisting of Nyaung U in the north and New Bagan
Bagan
in the south, lies in the vast expanse of plains in Upper Burma on the bend of the Irrawaddy river . It is located 290 kilometres (180 mi) south-west of Mandalay
Mandalay
and 700 kilometres (430 mi) north of Yangon
Yangon
. Its coordinates are 21°10' North and 94°52' East.

CLIMATE

Bagan
Bagan
lies in the middle of the "dry zone" of Burma, the region roughly between Shwebo in the north and Pyay
Pyay
in the south. Unlike the coastal regions of the country, which receive annual monsoon rainfalls exceeding 2500 mm , the dry zone gets little precipitation as it is sheltered from the rain by the Rakhine Yoma mountain range in the west.

Available online climate sources report Bagan
Bagan
climate quite differently.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BAGAN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 32 (90) 35 (95) 36 (97) 37 (99) 33 (91) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32.4 (90.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 18 (64) 19 (66) 22 (72) 24 (75) 25 (77) 25 (77) 24 (75) 24 (75) 24 (75) 24 (75) 22 (72) 19 (66) 22.5 (72.4)

Source: www.holidaycheck.com

CLIMATE DATA FOR BAGAN

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 25 (77) 27 (81) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 27 (81) 26 (79) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (79) 25 (77) 26.8 (80.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 13 (55) 13 (55) 15 (59) 18 (64) 20 (68) 19 (66) 18 (64) 18 (64) 18 (64) 17 (63) 16 (61) 13 (55) 16.5 (61.5)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24 (0.94) 18 (0.71) 18 (0.71) 18 (0.71) 27 (1.06) 18 (0.71) 8 (0.31) 0 (0) 131 (5.15)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1 3 1 3 7 6 7 10 8 8 3 2 59

Source: www.weatheronline.com

CITYSCAPE

Panorama of Bagan
Bagan
as seen from the Minyeingon Temple: The Thatbyinnyu on the left and the Dhammayangyi in the distance on the right Bagan
Bagan
Plains with the Dhammayangyi on the left Bagan
Bagan
Plains with the Irrawaddy in the background Bagan Plains, as seen from across the Irrawaddy river.

ARCHITECTURE

Bagan
Bagan
stands out for not only the sheer number of religious edifices of Myanmar
Myanmar
but also the magnificent architecture of the buildings, and their contribution to Burmese temple design. The artistry of the architecture of pagodas in Bagan
Bagan
prove the achievement of Myanmar craftsmen in handicrafts. The Bagan
Bagan
temple falls into one of two broad categories: the stupa -style solid temple and the gu-style (ဂူ) hollow temple.

Stupas

Evolution of the Burmese stupa Bawbawgyi Pagoda
Pagoda
(7th century Sri Ksetra ) Bupaya (pre-11th century) The Lawkananda (pre-11th century) The Shwezigon (11th century) The Dhammayazika (12th century) The Mingalazedi (13th century) Ceremonial umbrellas at a Bagan
Bagan
temple

A stupa, also called a pagoda, is a massive structure, typically with a relic chamber inside. The Bagan
Bagan
stupas or pagodas evolved from earlier Pyu designs, which in turn were based on the stupa designs of the Andhra region, particularly Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda in present-day south-eastern India, and to a smaller extent to Ceylon
Ceylon
. The Bagan-era stupas in turn were the prototypes for later Burmese stupas in terms of symbolism, form and design, building techniques and even materials.

Originally, an Indian/Ceylonese stupa had a hemispheric body ( Pali
Pali
: anda, "the egg") on which a rectangular box surrounded by a stone balustrade (harmika) was set. Extending up from the top of the stupa was a shaft supporting several ceremonial umbrellas. The stupa is a representation of the Buddhist cosmos : its shape symbolizes Mount Meru while the umbrella mounted on the brickwork represents the world's axis. The brickwork pediment was often covered in stucco and decorated in relief. Pairs or series of ogres as guardian figures ('bilu') were a favourite theme in the Bagan
Bagan
period.

The original Indic design was gradually modified first by the Pyu , and then by Burmans at Bagan
Bagan
where the stupa gradually developed a longer, cylindrical form. The earliest Bagan
Bagan
stupas such as the Bupaya (c. 9th century) were the direct descendants of the Pyu style at Sri Ksetra . By the 11th century, the stupa had developed into a more bell-shaped form in which the parasols morphed into a series of increasingly smaller rings placed on one top of the other, rising to a point. On top the rings, the new design replaced the harmika with a lotus bud. The lotus bud design then evolved into the "banana bud", which forms the extended apex of most Burmese pagodas. Three or four rectangular terraces served as the base for a pagoda, often with a gallery of terra-cotta tiles depicting Buddhist jataka stories. The Shwezigon Pagoda
Pagoda
and the Shwesandaw Pagoda
Pagoda
are the earliest examples of this type. Examples of the trend toward a more bell-shaped design gradually gained primacy as seen in the Dhammayazika Pagoda
Pagoda
(late 12th century) and the Mingalazedi Pagoda
Pagoda
(late 13th century).

Hollow Temples

"One-face"-style Gawdawpalin Temple (left) and "four-face" Dhammayangyi Temple

In contrast to the stupas, the hollow gu-style temple is a structure used for meditation, devotional worship of the Buddha and other Buddhist rituals. The gu temples come in two basic styles: "one-face" design and "four-face" design—essentially one main entrance and four main entrances. Other styles such as five-face and hybrids also exist. The one-face style grew out of 2nd century Beikthano , and the four-face out of 7th century Sri Ksetra. The temples, whose main features were the pointed arches and the vaulted chamber, became larger and grander in the Bagan
Bagan
period.

Innovations

Although the Burmese temple designs evolved from Indic, Pyu (and possibly Mon) styles, the techniques of vaulting seem to have developed in Bagan
Bagan
itself. The earliest vaulted temples in Bagan
Bagan
date to the 11th century, while the vaulting did not become widespread in India
India
until the late 12th century. The masonry of the buildings shows "an astonishing degree of perfection", where many of the immense structures survived the 1975 earthquake more or less intact. (Unfortunately, the vaulting techniques of the Bagan
Bagan
era were lost in the later periods. Only much smaller gu style temples were built after Bagan. In the 18th century, for example, King Bodawpaya attempted to build the Mingun Pagoda
Pagoda
, in the form of spacious vaulted chambered temple but failed as craftsmen and masons of the later era had lost the knowledge of vaulting and keystone arching to reproduce the spacious interior space of the Bagan
Bagan
hollow temples. )

Another architectural innovation originated in Bagan
Bagan
is the Buddhist temple with a pentagonal floor plan. This design grew out of hybrid (between one-face and four-face designs) designs. The idea was to include the veneration of the Maitreya Buddha , the future and fifth Buddha of this era, in addition to the four who had already appeared. The Dhammayazika and the Ngamyethna Pagoda
Pagoda
are examples of the pentagonal design.

NOTABLE CULTURAL SITES

Bagan
Bagan
at dawn Bagan
Bagan
at sunrise

NAME PICTURE BUILT SPONSOR(S) NOTES

Ananda Temple
Ananda Temple

1105 King Kyansittha One of the most famous temples in Bagan

Bupaya Pagoda
Pagoda

c. 850 King Pyusawhti In Pyu style; original 9th century pagoda destroyed by the 1975 earthquake; completely rebuilt, now gilded

Dhammayangyi Temple

1167–1170 King Narathu Largest of all temples in Bagan

Dhammayazika Pagoda
Pagoda

1196–1198 King Sithu II

Gawdawpalin Temple

c. 1211–1235 King Sithu II and King Htilominlo

Gubyaukgyi Temple (Wetkyi-in)

Early 13th Century King Kyansittha

Gubyaukgyi Temple (Myinkaba)

1113 Prince Yazakumar

Htilominlo Temple

1218 King Htilominlo Three stories and 46 meters tall

Lawkananda Pagoda
Pagoda

c. 1044–1077 King Anawrahta

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

c. 1218 King Htilominlo Smaller replica of the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
in Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya

Manuha Temple

1067 King Manuha
Manuha

Mingalazedi Pagoda
Pagoda

1268–1274 King Narathihapate

Minyeingon Temple

Myazedi inscription

1112 Prince Yazakumar "Rosetta Stone of Burma" with inscriptions in four languages: Pyu, Old Mon, Old Burmese and Pali

Nanpaya Temple

c. 1160–1170

Hindu temple in Mon style; believed to be either Manuha's old residence or built on the site

Nathlaung Kyaung Temple

c. 1044–1077

Hindu temple

Payathonzu Temple

c. 1200

in Mahayana and Tantric -styles

Seinnyet Nyima Pagaoda and Seinnyet Ama Pagoda
Pagoda

c. 11th century

Shwegugyi Temple

1131 King Sithu I Sithu I was assassinated here; known for its arched windows

Shwesandaw Pagoda
Pagoda

c. 1070 King Anawrahta

Shwezigon Pagoda
Pagoda

1102 King Anawrahta and King Kyansittha

Sulamani Temple
Sulamani Temple

1183 King Sithu II

Tharabha Gate

c. 1020 King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu
Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu
and King Kyiso The only remaining part of the old walls; radiocarbon dated to c. 1020

Thatbyinnyu Temple
Thatbyinnyu Temple

c. 1150 Sithu I At 61 meters, the tallest temple in Bagan

Tuywindaung Pagoda
Pagoda

Anawrahta

MUSEUMS

Old palace site in Old Bagan. A new completely conjectural palace has been reconstructed since 2003.

* The Bagan
Bagan
Archaeological Museum: The only museum in the Bagan Archaeological Zone, itself a field museum a millennium old. The three-story museum houses a number of rare Bagan
Bagan
period objects including the original Myazedi inscriptions , the Rosetta stone
Rosetta stone
of Burma. * Anawrahta's Palace: It was rebuilt in 2003 based on the extant foundations at the old palace site. But the palace above the foundation is completely conjectural.

TRANSPORT

Nyaung U Airport is the gateway to the Bagan
Bagan
region

Bagan
Bagan
is accessible by air, rail, bus, car and river boat.

AIR

Most international tourists fly to the city. The Nyaung U Airport is the gateway to the Bagan
Bagan
region. Several domestic airlines have regular flights to Yangon
Yangon
, which take about 80 minutes to cover the 600 kilometres. Flights to Mandalay
Mandalay
take approximately 30 minutes and to Heho about 40 minutes. The airport is located on the outskirts of Nyaung U and it takes about 20 minutes by taxi to reach Bagan.

RAIL

The city is on a spur from the Yangon- Mandalay
Mandalay
rail line. Myanmar Railways operates a daily overnight train service each way between Yangon
Yangon
and Bagan
Bagan
(Train Nos 61 & 62), which takes at least 18 hours. The trains have a sleeper car and also 1st Class and Ordinary Class seating. Between Mandalay
Mandalay
and Bagan
Bagan
there are two daily services each way (Train Nos 117,118,119 "> Workers at a lacquerware factory

Bagan's economy is based mainly on tourism . Because of boycotts against the previous military government, the Bagan
Bagan
region's tourism infrastructure is still quite modest by international standards. The city has a few international standard hotels and many family-run guesthouses. Bagan
Bagan
is also the center of Burmese lacquerware industry, which to a large degree depends on tourist demand. Much of the lacquerware is destined for souvenir shops in Yangon, and to the world markets. Moreover, the lacquerware-making process itself has become a tourist draw.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The population of Bagan
Bagan
in its heyday is estimated anywhere between 50,000 to 200,000 people. Until the advent of tourism industry in the 1990s, only a few villagers lived in Old Bagan. The rise of tourism has attracted a sizable population to the area. Because Old Bagan
Bagan
is now off limits to permanent dwellings, much of the population reside in either New Bagan, south of Old Bagan, or Nyaung-U, north of Old Bagan. The majority of native residents are Bamar
Bamar
.

ADMINISTRATION

The Bagan
Bagan
archaeological zone is part of Nyaung-U District , Mandalay Region .

SISTER CITIES

* Luang Prabang , Laos
Laos
* Siem Reap
Siem Reap
, Cambodia
Cambodia

GALLERY

*

Bagan
Bagan
Plains *

Bagan
Bagan
Plains *

As seen from the Nanmyint Viewing Tower *

Aerial views from a hot air balloon *

Bagan
Bagan
Plains at sunset *

The Ananda *

The Gawdawpalin *

The Dhammayangyi *

The Shwezigon *

Doorway to a temple *

One of the main four Buddha statutes inside the Ananda *

A hallway inside the Ananda *

Inside the Htilominlo *

Frescoes inside the Sulamani *

Frescoes inside a temple *

Buddha statutes inside the Dhammayangyi *

Inside the Manuha Temple

NOTES

* ^ http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21578171-why-investors-still-need-proceed-caution-promiseand-pitfalls Business: The promise—and the pitfalls * ^ Than Tun 1964: 117–118 * ^ Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 139–141 * ^ Harvey 1925: 18 * ^ Lieberman 2003: 90–91 * ^ A B C Stadtner 2011: 216 * ^ A B Lieberman 2003: 115–116 * ^ Lieberman 2003: 119–120 * ^ Htin Aung 1967: 74 * ^ Than Tun 1959: 119–120 * ^ Aung-Thwin 1985: 196–197 * ^ Stadtner 2011: 217 * ^ Unesco 1976: ix * ^ Ishizawa and Kono 1989: 114 * ^ Köllner, Bruns 1998: 117 * ^ A B Unesco 1996 * ^ Tourtellot 2004 * ^ "Weather for Bagan". www.holidaycheck.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2012-02-19. * ^ "Weather for Bagan". http://www.worldweatheronline.com. Retrieved 2014-04-13. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ Aung-Thwin 2005: 26–31 * ^ A B Aung-Thwin 2005: 233–235 * ^ A B C D Köllner, Bruns 1998: 118–120 * ^ Tettoni, authors, John Falconer ... ; photographer, Luca Invernizzi (2000). Burmese design & architecture. Hong Kong: Periplus. p. 152. ISBN 9625938826 . * ^ Aung-Thwin 2005: 210–213 * ^ Aung-Thwin 2005: 224–225 * ^ Aung-Thwin 2005: 38 * ^ Ministry of Culture * ^ Bagan
Bagan
flight information * ^ Yangon
Yangon
to Bagan
Bagan
train information * ^ Mandalay
Mandalay
to Bagan
Bagan
train information * ^ Bagan
Bagan
bus information * ^ Harvey 1925: 78 * ^ Köllner, Bruns 1998: 115 * ^ A B Pan Eiswe Star and Soe Than Linn 2010

REFERENCES

* Aung-Thwin, Michael (1985). Pagan: The Origins of Modern Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-0960-2 . * Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2886-8 . * Ministry of Culture, Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
(2009). "Royal Palaces in Myanmar". Ministry of Culture. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2012-02-19. * Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. * Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. * Ishizawa, Yoshiaki; Yasushi Kono (1989). Study on Pagan: research report. Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University. p. 239. * Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. * Köllner, Helmut; Axel Bruns (1998). Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma) (illustrated ed.). Hunter Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 978-3-88618-415-6 . * Lieberman , Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7 . * Pan Eiswe Star; Soe Than Linn (2010-02-10). "Archaeologists to assist with Cambodia
Cambodia
excavations". The Myanmar
Myanmar
Times. 26 (509). * Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar
Myanmar
.

* Rao, V.K. (2013). "The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations". Ancient Asia. 4: 7. doi :10.5334/aa.12310 . * Rao, Vinay Kumar. “Buddhist Art of Pagan, 2 Vols.” Published by Agam Kala Publications, New Delhi, 2011. ISBN 978-81-7320-116-5 . * Rao, Vinay Kumar (2013). "The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations". Ancient Asia. 4: 7. doi :10.5334/aa.12310 . * Stadtner, Donald M. (2011). Sacred Sites of Burma: Myth and Folklore in an Evolving Spiritual Real