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Auburn is a city in and the county seat of Androscoggin County, Maine, United States.[4] The population was 23,055 at the 2010 census. Auburn and Lewiston (directly across the Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
from each other) are known locally as the Twin Cities or Lewiston–Auburn
Lewiston–Auburn
(L–A).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike

2 Geography 3 Demographics

3.1 2010 census 3.2 2000 census

4 Government 5 Education 6 Media

6.1 Newspapers

7 Transportation

7.1 Roads 7.2 By air 7.3 Rail

8 Sites of interest 9 National Register of Historic Places 10 Notable people 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] The area was originally part of the Pejepscot Purchase, land bought in 1714 by an association of people from Boston and Portsmouth following the Treaty of Portsmouth, which brought peace between the Abenaki Indians and the settlers of present-day Maine. In 1736, however, the Massachusetts General Court
Massachusetts General Court
granted a large section of the land to veterans of the 1690 Battle of Quebec. Conflicting claims led to prolonged litigation; consequently, settlement was delayed until after the French and Indian Wars.[5] Auburn was first settled in 1786 as part of Bakerstown, renamed Poland when it was incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court
Massachusetts General Court
in 1795. It was then part of Minot, formed from parts of Poland and incorporated in 1802. Auburn would itself be formed from parts of Minot and incorporated on February 24, 1842. The name was apparently inspired by "Auburn", a village (real or fictitious) featured in the 1770 poem "The Deserted Village" by Oliver Goldsmith.[6] Originally part of Cumberland County, the town became county seat of Androscoggin County at its creation in 1854. By annexing land from towns around it, including part of Poland in 1852, Minot in 1873, and all of Danville (first called Pejepscot) in 1867, Auburn grew geographically into one of Maine's largest municipalities. Incorporated a city on February 12, 1868,[7] Auburn in 1917 would be the first city in the state to adopt a council-manager form of government.[5] Farms supplied grain and produce, but with construction of the bridge across the river to Lewiston in 1823, and especially after arrival of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad
Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad
from Portland in January 1848, the community developed into a mill town. Mills were built to operate by water power from falls on the Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
and Little Androscoggin River. In 1835, the factory system of shoe manufacture originated at Auburn. Other firms manufactured cotton and woolen textiles, carriages, iron goods, bricks and furniture. The population in 1860 was only about 4,000 but by 1890 it was about 12,000, when its shoe factories attracted many French Canadian
French Canadian
immigrants, many of whom arrived by train from Quebec.[8] Steady population growth continued to about 1960 when the population was about 24,500.[9] In Auburn, shoe manufacturing became the dominant industry by the late 19th century. The City
City
Seal, depicting a spindle with different types of shoes at each outside point, was designed when Auburn was positioning itself as the shoe manufacturing center of Maine
Maine
in the mid-19th century. In 1917 one factory in Auburn was producing 75 percent of the world's supply of white canvas shoes; however, after World War II
World War II
the shoe industry began to decline, and between 1957 and 1961 the largest manufacturers closed their factories.[9] The area became noted in 1985 due to the plane crash that took the life of Samantha Smith. Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike[edit] Main article: Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike In 1937, one of the largest labor disputes in Maine
Maine
history occurred in Lewiston and Auburn. The Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike lasted from March to June and at its peak involved 4,000 to 5,000 workers on strike. After workers attempted to march across the Androscoggin River from Lewiston to Auburn, Governor Lewis Barrows
Lewis Barrows
sent in the Maine
Maine
Army National Guard. Some labor leaders, CIO Secretary Powers Hapgood, were imprisoned for months after a Maine
Maine
Supreme Judicial Court judge issued an injunction seeking to end the strike.

Main Street c. 1912

Old mill c. 1910

Court Street c. 1912

High Street in 1907

Geography[edit] Auburn is located at 44°5′N 70°14′W / 44.083°N 70.233°W / 44.083; -70.233 (44.089, −70.241).[10] According to the United States Census
Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 65.74 square miles (170.27 km2), of which 59.33 square miles (153.66 km2) is land and 6.41 square miles (16.60 km2) is water.[1] Auburn is drained by the Little Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
and Androscoggin River. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 2,840

1860 4,022

41.6%

1870 6,169

53.4%

1880 9,555

54.9%

1890 11,250

17.7%

1900 12,951

15.1%

1910 15,064

16.3%

1920 16,985

12.8%

1930 18,571

9.3%

1940 19,817

6.7%

1950 23,134

16.7%

1960 24,449

5.7%

1970 24,151

−1.2%

1980 23,128

−4.2%

1990 24,039

3.9%

2000 23,203

−3.5%

2010 23,055

−0.6%

Est. 2016 22,948 [3] −0.5%

sources:[11][12]

Auburn is one of two principal cities of and included in the Lewiston-Auburn, Maine
Maine
metropolitan New England city and town area
New England city and town area
and the Lewiston-Auburn, Maine
Maine
Metropolitan Statistical Area (which is part of the Portland-Lewiston-South Portland, Maine
Maine
combined statistical area). 2010 census[edit] As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 23,055 people, 9,974 households, and 5,818 families residing in the city. The population density was 388.6 inhabitants per square mile (150.0/km2). There were 11,016 housing units at an average density of 185.7 per square mile (71.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 93.7% White, 2.5% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 9,974 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.7% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 39.9 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 27.9% were from 45 to 64; and 15.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. 2000 census[edit] As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 23,203 people, 9,764 households, and 5,907 families residing in the city. The population density was 388.1 people per square mile (149.9/km²). There were 10,608 housing units at an average density of 177.4 per square mile (68.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.04% White, 0.59% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 9,764 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a six households in the city was $35,652, and the median income for a family was $44,012. Males had a median income of $32,088 versus $22,349 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,942. About 9.0% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Voter registration

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of November 2012[14]

Party Total Voters Percentage

Unenrolled 6,169 39.89%

Democratic 5,014 32.42%

Republican 3,596 23.25%

Green Independent 684 4.42%

Total 15,463 100%

Government[edit] Auburn is in the Maine's 2nd US Congressional District, Maine
Maine
Senate District 15, and Maine
Maine
House of Representatives Districts 68, 69, and 70. Auburn is divided up into five wards. The city's governing body is a City
City
Council, consisting of a mayor and 7 councilmembers (one from each of the five wards, and two elected at large). The mayor is elected at large. Auburn's current Mayor is Jason J. Levesque. The last mayor was Jonathan LaBonte. He was the youngest mayor in the city's history.[15] John Jenkins is a former mayor and state senator from Auburn.[16] Education[edit] Public primary and secondary education is provided by the Auburn School Department, including Edward Little High School. In addition, there are the following schools in the city:

St. Dominic Regional High School, a catholic high school Central Maine
Maine
Community College, community college

Media[edit] Newspapers[edit]

The Sun Journal prints a daily newspaper in four different editions statewide. The Sun Journal was the recipient of the 2008 New England Daily Newspaper of the Year and the 2009 Maine
Maine
Press Association Newspaper of the Year.

Transportation[edit] Roads[edit]

Interstate 95 US Route 202 State Route 11 State Route 4 State Route 121 State Route 136 State Route 122

By air[edit] Auburn is the home of the Auburn-Lewiston Municipal Airport, located off Hotel Road. Rail[edit] Two freight railroads pass through the city. Pan Am Railways(formerly Springfield Terminal Railway and Maine
Maine
Central Railroad) is the primary rail connection for the city. Pan Am's main line from Rotterdam Junction, New York to Northern Maine
Maine
Junction, Maine
Maine
closely parallels US Route 202 through much of Auburn. The St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad's main line from Portland to Montreal also runs through the southwestern section of the city, passing near the Auburn/Lewiston Municipal Airport; at Lewiston Junction, a branch leased from the Lewiston and Auburn Railroad
Lewiston and Auburn Railroad
runs northwest through Auburn. The branch formerly crossed the Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
into Lewiston. Sites of interest[edit]

Lake Auburn
Lake Auburn
in 1911

Androscoggin Historical Society & Museum—artifacts of local history, Civil War memorabilia, farming tools and a bird collection Auburn Fire Department Museum—a collection of antique fire equipment from the city Festival Plaza, completed in 2002—public park and performance space along the Androscoggin River. Two public water sculptures designed by artist Ross Miller operate seasonally – the Falls Fountain, that references the Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
and Native American legends of being able to hide behind the falls; and the Shoe Fountain, a series of cast bronze shoes recalling the early shoe manufacturing history of the area. A map of the Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
is cast into the plaza with colored concrete. Good Shepherd Food Bank distributes food to agencies across the state from its main warehouse in Auburn Hamster Point—Majestic river side gardens Knight House Museum (1796) – the oldest frame house downtown, with a pre-1835 handwork shoe shop

National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Androscoggin County
Androscoggin County
Buildings c. 1912

Auburn Public Library c. 1910

A. A. Garcelon House
A. A. Garcelon House
(1890) Androscoggin County
Androscoggin County
Courthouse and Jail (1857) Auburn Public Library (1903) Barker Mill
Barker Mill
(1873) Charles A. Jordan House
Charles A. Jordan House
(1880) Charles L. Cushman House
Charles L. Cushman House
(1889) Edward Little House
Edward Little House
(1827) Engine House (1879) First Universalist Church (1876) Frank L. Dingley House
Frank L. Dingley House
(1867) Free Baptist Church Gay-Munroe House
Gay-Munroe House
(1878) Holman Day House
Holman Day House
(1895) Horace Munroe House
Horace Munroe House
(1899) Horatio G. Foss House
Horatio G. Foss House
(1914) Lamoreau Site Main Street Historic District Roak Block
Roak Block
(1871) William A. Robinson House
William A. Robinson House
(1874) William Briggs Homestead
William Briggs Homestead
(1797)

Notable people[edit]

Corner of Court and Main streets c. 1908

Tony Atlas, wrestler John Bower, skier Lenny Breau, jazz guitarist Alonzo Conant, Judge Auburn Municipal Court (1946–1958) Aaron S. Daggett, last surviving Civil War general T. A. D. Fessenden, U.S. Congressman Sara Mae Stinchfield Hawk, speech pathologist John Jenkins, mayor Edward Little, philanthropist, educator Robert Luce, U.S. Congressman Cynthia McFadden, correspondent for ABC News Dana T. Merrill, United States Army brigadier general Elmer Drew Merrill, botanist George Perkins Merrill, geologist Julie M. J. Parisien, skier Deborah Simpson, state legislator Billy Silverman, referee Charles Small, center fielder with the Boston Red Sox Olympia Snowe, U.S. Senator and U.S. Congresswoman Peter T. Snowe, Maine
Maine
state legislator

References[edit]

^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-23.  ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-23.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.  ^ a b Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England. Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 36–38.  ^ Yates, Edgar A.P. (Jun 13, 1928). "Some Maine
Maine
town names". The Lewiston Daily Sun. p. 4. Retrieved 17 October 2015.  ^ The Genealogist's Address Book, p. 188 ^ "Historical Sketch of Auburn, Maine". Retrieved 8 March 2016.  ^ a b Auburn Historical Highlights Archived September 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2011. , accessed December, 2007. ^ Auburn city, Maine
Maine
– Population Finder – American FactFinder ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of November 6, 2012" (PDF). Maine
Maine
Bureau of Corporations. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013.  ^ " City
City
of Auburn, Maine
Maine
- City
City
Council". Retrieved 8 March 2016.  ^ Jenkins explains Blaine House bid Lewiston Sun Journal, September 8, 2010

External links[edit]

Franco-Americans portal

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Auburn, Maine.

City
City
of Auburn, Maine Auburn Public Library Androscoggin County
Androscoggin County
Chamber of Commerce Androscoggin Historical Society (and links) Museum L-A – The Story of Work and Community in Lewiston-Auburn Auburn School Department

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Androscoggin County, Maine, United States

County seat: Auburn

Cities

Auburn Lewiston

Towns

Durham Greene Leeds Lisbon Livermore Falls Livermore Mechanic Falls Minot Poland Sabattus Turner Wales

CDPs

Lisbon Falls Livermore Falls Mechanic Falls

Other villages

East Livermore East Poland North Turner West Minot West Poland

v t e

Cities of Maine

Portland Lewiston Bangor South Portland Auburn Biddeford Sanford Augusta Saco Westbrook Waterville Presque Isle Brewer Bath Caribou Old Town Ellsworth Rockland Belfast Gardiner Calais Hallowell Eastport

v t e

 State of Maine

Augusta (capital)

Topics

Index Geography Government Governors History Islands Images People Tourist attractions Congressional districts

Society

Culture Demographics Economy Education Party strength

Regions

Down East Highlands Kennebec Valley Lake Country Mid Coast North Woods Penobscot Bay Southern Coast Western Mountains

Counties

Androscoggin Aroostook Cumberland Franklin Hancock Kennebec Knox Lincoln Oxford Penobscot Piscataquis Sagadahoc Somerset Waldo Washington York

Cities

Auburn Augusta Bangor Bath Belfast Biddeford Brewer Calais Caribou Eastport Ellsworth Gardiner Hallowell Lewiston Old Town Portland Presque Isle Rockland Saco Sanford South Portland Waterville Westbrook

Largest towns

Bridgton Brunswick Cape Elizabeth Falmouth Gorham Kennebunk Kittery Lisbon Old Orchard Beach Orono Sanford Scarborough Skowhegan Standish Topsham Wells Windham Winslow York

v t e

Androscoggin River
Androscoggin River
watershed

Tributaries

Alder River Bear River Cathance River Chickwolnepy Stream Clear Stream Concord River Cupsuptic River Dead Cambridge River Dead Diamond River Dead River (ME) Dead River (NH) Dead River (Sabattus) East Branch Cupsuptic River East Branch Dead Diamond River East Branch Nezinscot River East Branch Pleasant River East Branch Swift River Ellis River First East Branch Magalloway River Kennebago River Little Androscoggin River Little Dead Diamond River Little East Branch Cupsuptic River Little Magalloway River Little River Magalloway River Middle Branch Dead Diamond River Middle Branch Little Magalloway River Mollidgewock Brook Moose Brook Moose River Muddy River Nezinscot River Peabody River Pleasant River Rangeley River Rapid River Rattle River Sabattus River Sanborn River Second East Branch Magalloway River South Branch Little Dead Diamond River South Branch Sunday River Sunday River Swift Cambridge River Swift Diamond River Swift River Third East Branch Magalloway River Webb River West Branch Dead Diamond River West Branch Ellis River West Branch Little Dead Diamond River West Branch Little Magalloway River West Branch Magalloway River West Branch Nezinscot River West Branch Peabody River West Branch Pleasant River West Branch Swift River Wild River

Lakes

Akers Pond Androscoggin Lake Lake Auburn Aziscohos Lake Echo Lake Greenough Pond Kennebago Lake Mooselookmeguntic Lake Parker Pond Parmachenee Lake Pontook Reservoir Range Ponds Rangeley Lake Richardson Lakes Sabattus Pond Success Pond Thompson Lake Tripp Pond Umbagog Lake Webb Lake

Towns

Albany Andover Auburn Berlin Bethel Bowdoin Brunswick Buckfield Byron Cambridge Canton Carthage Chesterville Dixfield Dummer Durham Errol Fayette Gilead Gorham Greene Greenwood Hanover Hartford Hebron Jay Leeds Lewiston Lisbon Livermore Livermore Falls Mechanic Falls Mexico Minot Monmouth Mount Vernon Newry Norway Otisfield Oxford Paris Peru Pittsburg Poland Randolph Rangeley Readfield Roxbury Rumford Sabattus Shelburne Sumner Topsham Turner Upton Vienna Wales Wayne Weld Wentworth's Location West Paris Woodstock

Landmarks

Brown Company Maine
Maine
Central Railroad Old Speck Mountain Range Ponds State Park Rumford Mill St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railro

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