► Astrological ages
► Astrological data collectors
► Astrological organizations
► Astrological signs
► History of astrology
Star of Bethlehem
► Technical factors of astrology
► Astrological texts
Astrology by tradition
Astrology by type
Branches of astrology
The planets in astrology
Astrology and science
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of
celestial objects as a means for divining information about human
affairs and terrestrial events.
Astrology has been dated to
at least the 2nd millennium BCE, and has its roots in calendrical
systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial
cycles as signs of divine communications. Many cultures have
attached importance to astronomical events, and some – such as the
Indians, Chinese, and Maya – developed elaborate systems for
predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Western
astrology, one of the oldest astrological systems still in use, can
trace its roots to 19th–17th century
BCE Mesopotamia, from which it
spread to Ancient Greece, Rome, the
Arab world and eventually Central
and Western Europe. Contemporary
Western astrology is often associated
with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a
person's personality and predict significant events in their lives
based on the positions of celestial objects; the majority of
professional astrologers rely on such systems.:83
Throughout most of its history astrology was considered a scholarly
tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation
with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine. It was present
in political circles, and is mentioned in various works of literature,
Dante Alighieri and
Geoffrey Chaucer to William Shakespeare, Lope
de Vega and Calderón de la Barca. During the 20th century and
following the wide-scale adoption of the scientific method, astrology
has been challenged successfully on both theoretical:249; and
experimental grounds, and has been shown to have no scientific
validity or explanatory power.
Astrology thus lost its academic and
theoretical standing, and common belief in it has largely
declined. While polling studies have demonstrated that
approximately 25% of Americans, Canadians, and Britons say they
continue to believe that star and planet positions affect their
lives, astrology is now recognized as
2.1 Ancient world
2.1.1 Ancient objections
2.3 Greece and Rome
2.4 Medieval world
2.4.4 Medieval objections
Renaissance and Early Modern
2.6 Enlightenment period and onwards
3 Principles and practice
3.3 Chinese and East-Asian
4 Theological viewpoints
5 Scientific analysis and criticism
5.3 Lack of mechanisms and consistency
6 Cultural impact
6.1 Western politics and society
6.2 India and Japan
6.3 Literature and music
7 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Marcantonio Raimondi engraving, 15th century
The word astrology comes from the early
Latin word astrologia,
which derives from the Greek ἀστρολογία—from
ἄστρον astron ("star") and -λογία -logia, ("study
of"—"account of the stars"). Astrologia later passed into meaning
'star-divination' with astronomia used for the scientific term.
Main article: History of astrology
Zodiac Man a diagram of a human body and astrological symbols with
instructions explaining the importance of astrology from a medical
perspective. From a 15th-century Welsh manuscript
Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the
Indians, Chinese, and Maya developed elaborate systems for predicting
terrestrial events from celestial observations. In the West, astrology
most often consists of a system of horoscopes purporting to explain
aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their
life based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other celestial
objects at the time of their birth. The majority of professional
astrologers rely on such systems.:83
Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with
roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to
interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. A
form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia
Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou
dynasty (1046–256 BCE).
Hellenistic astrology after 332
Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria,
creating horoscopic astrology. Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia
allowed astrology to spread to
Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome,
astrology was associated with 'Chaldean wisdom'. After the conquest of
Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic
Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and
Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe and
translated into Latin. Major astronomers including Tycho Brahe,
Johannes Kepler and
Galileo practised as court astrologers.
Astrological references appear in literature in the works of poets
Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer, and of playwrights such
Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare.
Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly
tradition. It was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was
connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology,
and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, new scientific
concepts in astronomy and physics (such as heliocentrism and Newtonian
mechanics) called astrology into question.
Astrology thus lost its
academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has
See also: Babylonian astrology
Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the
sky.:2,3 Early evidence for humans making conscious attempts to
measure, record, and predict seasonal changes by reference to
astronomical cycles, appears as markings on bones and cave walls,
which show that lunar cycles were being noted as early as 25,000 years
ago.:81ff This was a first step towards recording the Moon's
influence upon tides and rivers, and towards organising a communal
calendar. Farmers addressed agricultural needs with increasing
knowledge of the constellations that appear in the different
seasons—and used the rising of particular star-groups to herald
annual floods or seasonal activities. By the 3rd millennium BCE,
civilisations had sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles, and may
have oriented temples in alignment with heliacal risings of the
Scattered evidence suggests that the oldest known astrological
references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. The Venus
tablet of Ammisaduqa thought to be compiled in
Babylon around 1700
BCE. A scroll documenting an early use of electional astrology is
doubtfully ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of Lagash
(c. 2144 – 2124 BCE). This describes how the gods revealed to him in
a dream the constellations that would be most favourable for the
planned construction of a temple. However, there is controversy
about whether these were genuinely recorded at the time or merely
ascribed to ancient rulers by posterity. The oldest undisputed
evidence of the use of astrology as an integrated system of knowledge
is therefore attributed to the records of the first dynasty of
Mesopotamia (1950–1651 BCE). This astrology had some parallels with
Hellenistic Greek (western) astrology, including the zodiac, a norming
point near 9 degrees in Aries, the trine aspect, planetary
exaltations, and the dodekatemoria (the twelve divisions of 30 degrees
each). The Babylonians viewed celestial events as possible signs
rather than as causes of physical events.
The system of
Chinese astrology was elaborated during the Zhou dynasty
(1046–256 BCE) and flourished during the
Han Dynasty (2nd century
BCE to 2nd century CE), during which all the familiar elements of
traditional Chinese culture – the Yin-Yang philosophy, theory of the
five elements, Heaven and Earth, Confucian morality – were brought
together to formalise the philosophical principles of Chinese medicine
and divination, astrology and alchemy.:3,4
The Roman orator
Cicero objected to astrology
Cicero stated the twins objection (that with close birth times,
personal outcomes can be very different), later developed by Saint
Augustine. He argued that since the other planets are much more
distant from the earth than the moon, they could have only very tiny
influence compared to the moon's. He also argued that if astrology
explains everything about a person's fate, then it wrongly ignores the
visible effect of inherited ability and parenting, changes in health
worked by medicine, or the effects of the weather on people.
Plotinus argued that since the fixed stars are much more distant than
the planets, it is laughable to imagine the planets' effect on mankind
should depend on their position with respect to the zodiac. He also
argues that the interpretation of the moon's conjunction with a planet
as good when the moon is full, but bad when the moon is waning, is
clearly wrong, as from the moon's point of view, half of her surface
is always in sunlight; and from the planet's point of view, waning
should be better, as then the planet sees some light from the moon,
but when the moon is full to us, it is dark, and therefore bad, on the
side facing the planet.
Favorinus argued that it was absurd to imagine that stars and planets
would affect human bodies in the same way as they affect the
tides, and equally absurd that small motions in the heavens cause
large changes in people's fates.
Sextus Empiricus argued that it was
absurd to link human attributes with myths about the signs of the
Carneades argued that belief in fate denies free will and
morality; that people born at different times can all die in the same
accident or battle; and that contrary to uniform influences from the
stars, tribes and cultures are all different.
1484 copy of first page of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, translated into
Latin by Plato of Tivoli
In 525 BCE, Egypt was conquered by the Persians. The 1st century BCE
Dendera Zodiac shares two signs – the Balance and the
Scorpion – with Mesopotamian astrology.
With the occupation by
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, Egypt became
Hellenistic. The city of
Alexandria was founded by Alexander after the
conquest, becoming the place where
Babylonian astrology was mixed with
Egyptian Decanic astrology to create Horoscopic astrology. This
contained the Babylonian zodiac with its system of planetary
exaltations, the triplicities of the signs and the importance of
eclipses. It used the Egyptian concept of dividing the zodiac into
thirty-six decans of ten degrees each, with an emphasis on the rising
decan, and the Greek system of planetary Gods, sign rulership and four
elements. 2nd century
BCE texts predict positions of planets in
zodiac signs at the time of the rising of certain decans, particularly
Sothis. The astrologer and astronomer
Ptolemy lived in Alexandria.
Ptolemy's work the
Tetrabiblos formed the basis of Western astrology,
and, "...enjoyed almost the authority of a Bible among the
astrological writers of a thousand years or more."
Greece and Rome
The conquest of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great exposed the Greeks to
ideas from Syria, Babylon, Persia and central Asia. Around 280
BCE, Berossus, a priest of Bel from Babylon, moved to the Greek island
of Kos, teaching astrology and Babylonian culture. By the 1st
century BCE, there were two varieties of astrology, one using
horoscopes to describe the past, present and future; the other,
theurgic, emphasising the soul's ascent to the stars. Greek
influence played a crucial role in the transmission of astrological
theory to Rome.
The first definite reference to astrology in Rome comes from the
orator Cato, who in 160
BCE warned farm overseers against consulting
with Chaldeans, who were described as Babylonian
'star-gazers'. Among both Greeks and Romans, Babylonia (also known
as Chaldea) became so identified with astrology that 'Chaldean wisdom'
became synonymous with divination using planets and stars. The
2nd-century Roman poet and satirist
Juvenal complains about the
pervasive influence of Chaldeans, saying, "Still more trusted are the
Chaldaeans; every word uttered by the astrologer they will believe has
come from Hammon's fountain."
One of the first astrologers to bring Hermetic astrology to Rome was
Thrasyllus, astrologer to the emperor Tiberius, the first emperor
to have had a court astrologer, though his predecessor Augustus
had used astrology to help legitimise his Imperial rights.
The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are
early medieval compilations, notably the Bṛhat Parāśara
Sārāvalī by Kalyāṇavarma. The Horāshastra is
a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters
1–51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part
(chapters 52–71) to the later 8th century. The
dates to around 800 CE. English translations of these texts were
published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961,
Astrology in medieval Islam
Latin translation of Abū Maʿshar's De Magnis Coniunctionibus ('Of
the great conjunctions'), Venice, 1515
Astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars following the collapse
Alexandria to the Arabs in the 7th century, and the founding of the
Abbasid empire in the 8th. The second Abbasid caliph, Al Mansur
(754–775) founded the city of
Baghdad to act as a centre of
learning, and included in its design a library-translation centre
known as Bayt al-Hikma 'House of Wisdom', which continued to receive
development from his heirs and was to provide a major impetus for
Arabic-Persian translations of
Hellenistic astrological texts. The
early translators included Mashallah, who helped to elect the time for
the foundation of Baghdad, and Sahl ibn Bishr, (a.k.a. Zael),
whose texts were directly influential upon later European astrologers
Guido Bonatti in the 13th century, and
William Lilly in the
17th century. Knowledge of Arabic texts started to become imported
into Europe during the
Latin translations of the 12th century.
Dante Alighieri meets the
Emperor Justinian in the Sphere of Mercury,
in Canto 5 of the Paradiso
See also: Christian views on astrology
The first astrological book published in Europe was the Liber Planetis
et Mundi Climatibus ("Book of the Planets and Regions of the World"),
which appeared between 1010 and 1027 AD, and may have been authored by
Gerbert of Aurillac. Ptolemy's second century AD
Plato of Tivoli
Plato of Tivoli in 1138. The Dominican
Thomas Aquinas followed
Aristotle in proposing that the
stars ruled the imperfect 'sublunary' body, while attempting to
reconcile astrology with Christianity by stating that
God ruled the
soul. The thirteenth century mathematician
Campanus of Novara
Campanus of Novara is
said to have devised a system of astrological houses that divides the
prime vertical into 'houses' of equal 30° arcs, though the system
was used earlier in the East. The thirteenth century astronomer
Guido Bonatti wrote a textbook, the Liber Astronomicus, a copy of
Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England owned at the end of the fifteenth
In Paradiso, the final part of the Divine Comedy, the Italian poet
Dante Alighieri referred "in countless details" to the
astrological planets, though he adapted traditional astrology to suit
his Christian viewpoint, for example using astrological thinking
in his prophecies of the reform of Christendom.
The medieval theologian
Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville criticised the predictive
part of astrology
In the seventh century,
Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville argued in his Etymologiae
that astronomy described the movements of the heavens, while astrology
had two parts: one was scientific, describing the movements of the
sun, the moon and the stars, while the other, making predictions, was
theologically erroneous. In contrast,
John Gower in the
fourteenth century defined astrology as essentially limited to the
making of predictions. The influence of the stars was in turn
divided into natural astrology, with for example effects on tides and
the growth of plants, and judicial astrology, with supposedly
predictable effects on people. The fourteenth century sceptic
Nicole Oresme however included astronomy as a part of astrology in his
Livre de divinacions. Oresme argued that current approaches to
prediction of events such as plagues, wars, and weather were
inappropriate, but that such prediction was a valid field of inquiry.
However, he attacked the use of astrology to choose the timing of
actions (so-called interrogation and election) as wholly false, and
rejected the determination of human action by the stars on grounds of
free will. The friar Laurens Pignon (c. 1368–1449)
similarly rejected all forms of divination and determinism, including
by the stars, in his 1411 Contre les Devineurs. This was in
opposition to the tradition carried by the Arab astronomer Albumasar
(787-886) whose Introductorium in Astronomiam and De Magnis
Coniunctionibus argued the view that both individual actions and
larger scale history are determined by the stars.
Renaissance and Early Modern
Astrologer Casting a Horoscope' from Robert Fludd's Utriusque
Cosmi Historia, 1617
Renaissance scholars commonly practised astrology. Gerolamo Cardano
cast the horoscope of king Edward VI of England, while
John Dee was
the personal astrologer to queen Elizabeth I of England. Catherine de
Michael Nostradamus in 1566 to verify the prediction of
the death of her husband, king
Henry II of France
Henry II of France made by her
astrologer Lucus Gauricus. Major astronomers who practised as court
Tycho Brahe in the royal court of Denmark,
Johannes Kepler to the Habsburgs,
Galileo Galilei to the Medici, and
Giordano Bruno who was burnt at the stake for heresy in Rome in
1600. The distinction between astrology and astronomy was not
entirely clear. Advances in astronomy were often motivated by the
desire to improve the accuracy of astrology.
Ephemerides with complex astrological calculations, and almanacs
interpreting celestial events for use in medicine and for choosing
times to plant crops, were popular in Elizabethan England. In
1597, the English mathematician and physician Thomas Hood made a set
of paper instruments that used revolving overlays to help students
work out relationships between fixed stars or constellations, the
midheaven, and the twelve astrological houses. Hood's instruments
also illustrated, for pedagogical purposes, the supposed relationships
between the signs of the zodiac, the planets, and the parts of the
human body adherents believed were governed by the planets and
signs. While Hood's presentation was innovative, his
astrological information was largely standard and was taken from
Gerard Mercator's astrological disc made in 1551, or a source used by
English astrology had reached its zenith by the 17th century.
Astrologers were theorists, researchers, and social engineers, as well
as providing individual advice to everyone from monarchs downwards.
Among other things, astrologers could advise on the best time to take
a journey or harvest a crop, diagnose and prescribe for physical or
mental illnesses, and predict natural disasters. This underpinned a
system in which everything—people, the world, the universe—was
understood to be interconnected, and astrology co-existed happily with
religion, magic and science.
Enlightenment period and onwards
During the Enlightenment, intellectual sympathy for astrology fell
away, leaving only a popular following supported by cheap
almanacs. One English almanac compiler, Richard Saunders, followed
the spirit of the age by printing a derisive Discourse on the
Invalidity of Astrology, while in France Pierre Bayle's Dictionnaire
of 1697 stated that the subject was puerile. The Anglo-Irish
Jonathan Swift ridiculed the Whig political astrologer John
Astrology saw a popular revival starting in the 19th century, as part
of a general revival of spiritualism and—later, New Age
philosophy,:239–249 and through the influence of mass media such
as newspaper horoscopes.:259–263 Early in the 20th century the
Carl Jung developed some concepts concerning
astrology, which led to the development of psychological
Principles and practice
Advocates have defined astrology as a symbolic language, an art form,
a science, and a method of divination. Though most cultural
astrology systems share common roots in ancient philosophies that
influenced each other, many use methods that differ from those in the
West. These include
Hindu astrology (also known as "Indian astrology"
and in modern times referred to as "Vedic astrology") and Chinese
astrology, both of which have influenced the world's cultural history.
Western astrology is a form of divination based on the construction of
a horoscope for an exact moment, such as a person's birth. It uses
the tropical zodiac, which is aligned to the equinoctial points.
Western astrology is founded on the movements and relative positions
of celestial bodies such as the Sun, Moon and planets, which are
analysed by their movement through signs of the zodiac (twelve spatial
divisions of the ecliptic) and by their aspects (based on geometric
angles) relative to one another. They are also considered by their
placement in houses (twelve spatial divisions of the sky).
Astrology's modern representation in western popular media is usually
reduced to sun sign astrology, which considers only the zodiac sign of
the Sun at an individual's date of birth, and represents only 1/12 of
the total chart.
The horoscope visually expresses the set of relationships for the time
and place of the chosen event. These relationships are between the
seven 'planets', signifying tendencies such as war and love; the
twelve signs of the zodiac; and the twelve houses. Each planet is in a
particular sign and a particular house at the chosen time, when
observed from the chosen place, creating two kinds of
relationship. A third kind is the aspect of each planet to every
other planet, where for example two planets 120° apart (in 'trine')
are in a harmonious relationship, but two planets 90° apart
('square') are in a conflicted relationship. Together these
relationships and their interpretations supposedly form "...the
language of the heavens speaking to learned men."
Along with tarot divination, astrology is one of the core studies of
Western esotericism, and as such has influenced systems of magical
belief not only among Western esotericists and Hermeticists, but also
belief systems such as
Wicca that have borrowed from or been
influenced by the Western esoteric tradition.
Tanya Luhrmann has said
that "all magicians know something about astrology," and refers to a
table of correspondences in Starhawk's The Spiral Dance, organised by
planet, as an example of the astrological lore studied by
Main article: Hindu astrology
Page from an Indian astrological treatise, c. 1750
The earliest Vedic text on astronomy is the
Vedanga Jyotisha; Vedic
thought later came to include astrology as well.
Hindu natal astrology originated with
Hellenistic astrology by the 3rd
century BCE,:361 though incorporating the Hindu lunar
mansions. The names of the signs (e.g. Greek 'Krios' for Aries,
Hindi 'Kriya'), the planets (e.g. Greek 'Helios' for Sun, astrological
Hindi 'Heli'), and astrological terms (e.g. Greek 'apoklima' and
'sunaphe' for declination and planetary conjunction, Hindi 'apoklima'
and 'sunapha' respectively) in Varaha Mihira's texts are considered
conclusive evidence of a Greek origin for Hindu astrology. The
Indian techniques may also have been augmented with some of the
Chinese and East-Asian
Further information: Chinese zodiac
Chinese astrology has a close relation with
Chinese philosophy (theory
of the three harmonies: heaven, earth and man) and uses concepts such
as yin and yang, the Five phases, the 10 Celestial stems, the 12
Earthly Branches, and shichen (時辰 a form of timekeeping used for
religious purposes). The early use of
Chinese astrology was mainly
confined to political astrology, the observation of unusual phenomena,
identification of portents and the selection of auspicious days for
events and decisions.:22,85,176
The constellations of the
Zodiac of western
Asia and Europe were not
used; instead the sky is divided into Three Enclosures (三垣 sān
Twenty-Eight Mansions (二十八宿 èrshíbā xiù) in
twelve Ci (十二次). The
Chinese zodiac of twelve animal signs
is said to represent twelve different types of personality. It is
based on cycles of years, lunar months, and two-hour periods of the
day (the shichen). The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of
the Rat, and the cycle proceeds through 11 other animals signs: the
Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog,
and Pig. Complex systems of predicting fate and destiny based on
one's birthday, birth season, and birth hours, such as ziping and Zi
Wei Dou Shu (simplified Chinese: 紫微斗数; traditional Chinese:
紫微斗數; pinyin: zǐwēidǒushù) are still used regularly in
modern-day Chinese astrology. They do not rely on direct observations
of the stars.
Korean zodiac is identical to the Chinese one. The Vietnamese
zodiac is almost identical to
Chinese zodiac except the second animal
is the Water Buffalo instead of the Ox, and the fourth animal is the
Cat instead of the Rabbit. The Japanese have since 1873 celebrated the
beginning of the new year on 1 January as per the Gregorian calendar.
The Thai zodiac begins, not at Chinese New Year, but either on the
first day of fifth month in the Thai lunar calendar, or during the
Songkran festival (now celebrated every 13–15 April), depending on
the purpose of the use.
See also: Christian views on astrology, Jewish views on astrology, and
Muslim views on astrology
St. Augustine (354–430) believed that the determinism of astrology
conflicted with the Christian doctrines of man's free will and
God not being the cause of evil, but he also
grounded his opposition philosophically, citing the failure of
astrology to explain twins who behave differently although conceived
at the same moment and born at approximately the same time.
Some of the practices of astrology were contested on theological
grounds by medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) and Avicenna. They said that
the methods of astrologers conflicted with orthodox religious views of
Islamic scholars, by suggesting that the Will of
God can be known and
predicted in advance. For example, Avicenna's 'Refutation against
astrology', Risāla fī ibṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm, argues against
the practice of astrology while supporting the principle that planets
may act as agents of divine causation.
Avicenna considered that the
movement of the planets influenced life on earth in a deterministic
way, but argued against the possibility of determining the exact
influence of the stars. Essentially,
Avicenna did not deny the
core dogma of astrology, but denied our ability to understand it to
the extent that precise and fatalistic predictions could be made from
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya
Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350), in his Miftah Dar
al-SaCadah, also used physical arguments in astronomy to question the
practice of judicial astrology. He recognised that the stars are
much larger than the planets, and argued:
And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this
distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why
is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body,
Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and
al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending
— Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya
Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church maintains that divination,
including predictive astrology, is incompatible with modern Catholic
beliefs such as free will:
All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or
demons, conjuring up the dead or other practices falsely supposed to
"unveil" the future. Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading,
interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and
recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history,
and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to
conciliate hidden powers. They contradict the honor, respect, and
loving fear that we owe to
— Catechism of the Catholic Church
Scientific analysis and criticism
Astrology and science
Popper proposed falsifiability as something that distinguishes science
from non-science, using astrology as the example of an idea that has
not dealt with falsification during experiment
The scientific community rejects astrology as having no explanatory
power for describing the universe, and considers it a
pseudoscience.:1350 Scientific testing of astrology has
been conducted, and no evidence has been found to support any of the
premises or purported effects outlined in astrological
traditions.:424; There is no proposed mechanism of
action by which the positions and motions of stars and planets could
affect people and events on Earth that does not contradict well
understood, basic aspects of biology and physics.:249; Those who
continue to have faith in astrology have been characterised as doing
so "...in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis
for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the
Confirmation bias is a form of cognitive bias, a psychological factor
that contributes to belief in
Astrology believers tend to selectively remember predictions that turn
out to be true, and do not remember those that turn out false.
Another, separate, form of confirmation bias also plays a role, where
believers often fail to distinguish between messages that demonstrate
special ability and those that do not.:180–181 Thus there are
two distinct forms of confirmation bias that are under study with
respect to astrological belief.:180–181
Under the criterion of falsifiability, first proposed by the
philosopher of science Karl Popper, astrology is a pseudoscience.
Popper regarded astrology as "pseudo-empirical" in that "it appeals to
observation and experiment," but "nevertheless does not come up to
scientific standards.":44 In contrast to scientific disciplines,
astrology has not responded to falsification through
In contrast to Popper, the philosopher
Thomas Kuhn argued that it was
not lack of falsifiability that makes astrology unscientific, but
rather that the process and concepts of astrology are
non-empirical.:401 Kuhn thought that, though astrologers had,
historically, made predictions that categorically failed, this in
itself does not make astrology unscientific, nor do attempts by
astrologers to explain away failures by claiming that creating a
horoscope is very difficult. Rather, in Kuhn's eyes, astrology is not
science because it was always more akin to medieval medicine;
astrologers followed a sequence of rules and guidelines for a
seemingly necessary field with known shortcomings, but they did no
research because the fields are not amenable to research,:8 and
so "they had no puzzles to solve and therefore no science to
practise.":401;:8 While an astronomer could correct for
failure, an astrologer could not. An astrologer could only explain
away failure but could not revise the astrological hypothesis in a
meaningful way. As such, to Kuhn, even if the stars could influence
the path of humans through life astrology is not scientific.:8
Paul Thagard asserts that astrology cannot be regarded
as falsified in this sense until it has been replaced with a
successor. In the case of predicting behaviour, psychology is the
alternative.:228 To Thagard a further criterion of demarcation of
science from pseudoscience is that the state-of-the-art must progress
and that the community of researchers should be attempting to compare
the current theory to alternatives, and not be "selective in
considering confirmations and disconfirmations.":227–228
Progress is defined here as explaining new phenomena and solving
existing problems, yet astrology has failed to progress having only
changed little in nearly 2000 years.:228:549 To Thagard,
astrologers are acting as though engaged in normal science believing
that the foundations of astrology were well established despite the
"many unsolved problems," and in the face of better alternative
theories (psychology). For these reasons Thagard views astrology as
For the philosopher Edward W. James, astrology is irrational not
because of the numerous problems with mechanisms and falsification due
to experiments, but because an analysis of the astrological literature
shows that it is infused with fallacious logic and poor
What if throughout astrological writings we meet little appreciation
of coherence, blatant insensitivity to evidence, no sense of a
hierarchy of reasons, slight command over the contextual force of
critieria, stubborn unwillingness to pursue an argument where it
leads, stark naivete concerning the effiacacy of explanation and so
on? In that case, I think, we are perfectly justified in rejecting
astrology as irrational. ...
Astrology simply fails to meet the
multifarious demands of legitimate reasoning."
— Edward W. James:34
Astrology has not demonstrated its effectiveness in controlled studies
and has no scientific validity.:85; Where it has made
falsifiable predictions under controlled conditions, they have been
falsified.:424 One famous experiment included 28 astrologers who
were asked to match over a hundred natal charts to psychological
profiles generated by the
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
questionnaire. The double-blind experimental protocol used
in this study was agreed upon by a group of physicists and a group of
astrologers nominated by the National Council for Geocosmic
Research, who advised the experimenters, helped ensure that the test
was fair:420;:117 and helped draw the central proposition of
natal astrology to be tested.:419 They also chose 26 out of the 28
astrologers for the tests (two more volunteered afterwards).:420
The study, published in Nature in 1985, found that predictions based
on natal astrology were no better than chance, and that the testing
"...clearly refutes the astrological hypothesis."
In 1955, the astrologer and psychologist Michel Gauquelin stated that
though he had failed to find evidence that supported indicators like
zodiacal signs and planetary aspects in astrology, he did find
positive correlations between the diurnal positions of some planets
and success in professions that astrology traditionally associates
with those planets. The best-known of Gauquelin's findings
is based on the positions of Mars in the natal charts of successful
athletes and became known as the Mars effect.:213 A study
conducted by seven French scientists attempted to replicate the claim,
but found no statistical evidence.:213–214 They attributed the
effect to selective bias on Gauquelin's part, accusing him of
attempting to persuade them to add or delete names from their
Geoffrey Dean has suggested that the effect may be caused by
self-reporting of birth dates by parents rather than any issue with
the study by Gauquelin. The suggestion is that a small subset of the
parents may have had changed birth times to be consistent with better
astrological charts for a related profession. The number of births
under astrologically undesirable conditions was also lower, indicating
that parents choose dates and times to suit their beliefs. The sample
group was taken from a time where belief in astrology was more common.
Gauquelin had failed to find the
Mars effect in more recent
populations, where a nurse or doctor recorded the birth
Dean, a scientist and former astrologer, and psychologist Ivan Kelly
conducted a large scale scientific test that involved more than one
hundred cognitive, behavioural, physical, and other variables—but
found no support for astrology. Furthermore, a meta-analysis
pooled 40 studies that involved 700 astrologers and over 1,000 birth
charts. Ten of the tests—which involved 300 participants—had the
astrologers pick the correct chart interpretation out of a number of
others that were not the astrologically correct chart interpretation
(usually three to five others). When date and other obvious clues were
removed, no significant results suggested there was any preferred
Lack of mechanisms and consistency
Testing the validity of astrology can be difficult, because there is
no consensus amongst astrologers as to what astrology is or what it
can predict.:83 Most professional astrologers are paid to predict
the future or describe a person's personality and life, but most
horoscopes only make vague untestable statements that can apply to
Many astrologers claim that astrology is scientific, while some
have proposed conventional causal agents such as electromagnetism and
gravity. Scientists reject these mechanisms as implausible
since, for example, the magnetic field, when measured from earth, of a
large but distant planet such as Jupiter is far smaller than that
produced by ordinary household appliances.
Western astrology has taken the earth's axial precession (also called
precession of the equinoxes) into account since Ptolemy's Almagest, so
the 'first point of Aries', the start of the astrological year,
continually moves against the background of the stars. The
tropical zodiac has no connection to the stars, and as long as no
claims are made that the constellations themselves are in the
associated sign, astrologers avoid the concept that precession
seemingly moves the constellations. Charpak and Broch, noting
this, referred to astrology based on the tropical zodiac as being
"...empty boxes that have nothing to do with anything and are devoid
of any consistency or correspondence with the stars." Sole use of
the tropical zodiac is inconsistent with references made, by the same
astrologers, to the Age of Aquarius, which depends on when the vernal
point enters the constellation of Aquarius.
Astrologers usually have only a small knowledge of astronomy, and
often do not take into account basic principles—such as the
precession of the equinoxes, which changes the position of the sun
with time. They commented on the example of Élizabeth Teissier, who
claimed that, "The sun ends up in the same place in the sky on the
same date each year," as the basis for claims that two people with the
same birthday, but a number of years apart, should be under the same
planetary influence. Charpak and Broch noted that, "There is a
difference of about twenty-two thousand miles between Earth's location
on any specific date in two successive years," and that thus they
should not be under the same influence according to astrology. Over a
40 years period there would be a difference greater than 780,000
Mars, the Bringer of War
Mars, performed by the US Air Force Band
Venus, the Bringer of Peace
Venus, performed by the US Air Force Band
Mercury, the Winged Messenger
Mercury, performed by the US Air Force Band
Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity
Jupiter, performed by the US Air Force Band
Uranus, the Magician
Uranus, performed by the US Air Force Band
Problems playing these files? See media help.
Western politics and society
In the West, political leaders have sometimes consulted astrologers.
For example, the British intelligence agency
MI5 employed Louis de
Wohl as an astrologer after claims surfaced that
Adolf Hitler used
astrology to time his actions. The War Office was "...interested to
know what Hitler's own astrologers would be telling him from week to
week." In fact, de Wohl's predictions were so inaccurate that he
was soon labelled a "complete charlatan," and later evidence showed
that Hitler considered astrology "complete nonsense." After John
Hinckley's attempted assassination of US President Ronald Reagan,
Nancy Reagan commissioned astrologer
Joan Quigley to act as
the secret White House astrologer. However, Quigley's role ended in
1988 when it became public through the memoirs of former chief of
staff, Donald Regan.
There was a boom in interest in astrology in the late 1960s. The
Marcello Truzzi described three levels of involvement of
"Astrology-believers" to account for its revived popularity in the
face of scientific discrediting. He found that most
astrology-believers did not claim it was a scientific explanation with
predictive power. Instead, those superficially involved, knowing "next
to nothing" about astrology's 'mechanics', read newspaper astrology
columns, and could benefit from "tension-management of anxieties" and
"a cognitive belief-system that transcends science." Those at the
second level usually had their horoscopes cast and sought advice and
predictions. They were much younger than those at the first level, and
could benefit from knowledge of the language of astrology and the
resulting ability to belong to a coherent and exclusive group. Those
at the third level were highly involved and usually cast horoscopes
Astrology provided this small minority of
astrology-believers with a "meaningful view of their universe and
[gave] them an understanding of their place in it."[b] This third
group took astrology seriously, possibly as a sacred canopy, whereas
the other two groups took it playfully and irreverently.
In 1953, the sociologist
Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno conducted a study of the
astrology column of a Los Angeles newspaper as part of a project
examining mass culture in capitalist society.:326 Adorno believed
that popular astrology, as a device, invariably leads to statements
that encouraged conformity—and that astrologers who go against
conformity, by discouraging performance at work etc., risk losing
their jobs.:327 Adorno concluded that astrology is a large-scale
manifestation of systematic irrationalism, where individuals are
subtly led—through flattery and vague generalisations—to believe
that the author of the column is addressing them directly. Adorno
drew a parallel with the phrase opium of the people, by Karl Marx, by
commenting, "occultism is the metaphysic of the dopes.":329
A 2005 Gallup poll and a 2009 survey by the Pew Research Center
reported that 25% of US adults believe in astrology.
According to data released in the National
Science Foundation's 2014
Science and Engineering Indicators study, "Fewer Americans rejected
astrology in 2012 than in recent years." The NSF study noted that
in 2012, "slightly more than half of Americans said that astrology was
'not at all scientific,' whereas nearly two-thirds gave this response
in 2010. The comparable percentage has not been this low since
India and Japan
Birth (in blue) and death (in red) rates of
Japan since 1950, with the
sudden drop in births during hinoeuma year (1966)
In India, there is a long-established and widespread belief in
astrology. It is commonly used for daily life, particularly in matters
concerning marriage and career, and makes extensive use of electional,
horary and karmic astrology. Indian politics have also been
influenced by astrology. It is still considered a branch of the
Vedanga. In 2001, Indian scientists and politicians debated
and critiqued a proposal to use state money to fund research into
astrology, resulting in permission for Indian universities to
offer courses in Vedic astrology.
On February 2011, the
Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's
standing in India when it dismissed a case that challenged its status
as a science.
In Japan, strong belief in astrology has led to dramatic changes in
the fertility rate and the number of abortions in the years of Fire
Horse. Adherents believe that women born in hinoeuma years are
unmarriageable and bring bad luck to their father or husband. In 1966,
the number of babies born in
Japan dropped by over 25% as parents
tried to avoid the stigma of having a daughter born in the hinoeuma
Literature and music
Title page of John Lyly's astrological play, The Woman in the Moon,
The fourteenth-century English poets
John Gower and Geoffrey Chaucer
both referred to astrology in their works, including Gower's Confessio
Amantis and Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer commented
explicitly on astrology in his Treatise on the Astrolabe,
demonstrating personal knowledge of one area, judicial astrology, with
an account of how to find the ascendant or rising sign.
In the fifteenth century, references to astrology, such as with
similes, became "a matter of course" in English literature.
In the sixteenth century, John Lyly's 1597 play, The Woman in the
Moon, is wholly motivated by astrology, while Christopher Marlowe
makes astrological references in his plays Doctor Faustus and
Tamburlaine (both c. 1590), and
Sir Philip Sidney
Sir Philip Sidney refers to
astrology at least four times in his romance The Countess of
Pembroke's Arcadia (c. 1580).
Edmund Spenser uses astrology both
decoratively and causally in his poetry, revealing "...unmistakably an
abiding interest in the art, an interest shared by a large number of
his contemporaries." George Chapman's play, Byron's Conspiracy
(1608), similarly uses astrology as a causal mechanism in the
drama. William Shakespeare's attitude towards astrology is
unclear, with contradictory references in plays including King Lear,
Antony and Cleopatra, and Richard II. Shakespeare was familiar
with astrology and made use of his knowledge of astrology in nearly
every play he wrote, assuming a basic familiarity with the
subject in his commercial audience. Outside theatre, the
physician and mystic
Robert Fludd practised astrology, as did the
quack doctor Simon Forman. In Elizabethan England, "The usual
feeling about astrology ... [was] that it is the most useful of
Title page of Calderón de la Barca's Astrologo Fingido, Madrid, 1641
In seventeenth century Spain, Lope de Vega, with a detailed knowledge
of astronomy, wrote plays that ridicule astrology. In his pastoral
romance La Arcadia (1598), it leads to absurdity; in his novela Guzman
el Bravo (1624), he concludes that the stars were made for man, not
man for the stars. Calderón de la Barca wrote the 1641 comedy
Astrologo Fingido (The Pretended Astrologer); the plot was borrowed by
the French playwright
Thomas Corneille for his 1651 comedy Feint
The most famous piece of music influenced by astrology is the
orchestral suite The Planets. Written by the British composer Gustav
Holst (1874–1934), and first performed in 1918, the framework of The
Planets is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets.
Each of the seven movements of the suite is based upon a different
planet, though the movements are not in the order of the planets from
the Sun. The composer
Colin Matthews wrote an eighth movement entitled
Pluto, the Renewer, first performed in 2000. In 1937, another
British composer, Constant Lambert, wrote a ballet on astrological
themes, called Horoscope. In 1974, the New Zealand composer Edwin
Carr wrote The Twelve Signs: An Astrological Entertainment for
orchestra without strings.
Camille Paglia acknowledges astrology
as an influence on her work of literary criticism Sexual Personae
Astrology features strongly in Eleanor Catton's The Luminaries,
recipient of the 2013 Man Booker Prize.
List of astrological traditions, types, and systems
List of topics characterised as pseudoscience
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items"... " Those 10 items were extrasensory perception
(ESP), that houses can be haunted, ghosts/that spirits of dead people
can come back in certain places/situations, telepathy/communication
between minds without using traditional senses, clairvoyance/the power
of the mind to know the past and predict the future, astrology/that
the position of the stars and planets can affect people's lives, that
people can communicate mentally with someone who has died, witches,
reincarnation/the rebirth of the soul in a new body after death, and
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personality and general intelligence: A large-scale study".
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doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.017. To optimise the chances of finding
even remote relationships between date of birth and individual
differences in personality and intelligence we further applied two
different strategies. The first one was based on the common
chronological concept of time (e.g. month of birth and season of
birth). The second strategy was based on the (pseudo-scientific)
concept of astrology (e.g. Sun Signs, The Elements, and astrological
gender), as discussed in the book Astrology:
Science or superstition?
by Eysenck and Nias (1982).
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^ "astrology, n.".
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been subseq. introduced for the 'art' or practical application of
astronomy to mundane affairs, and thus gradually limited by 17th cent.
to the reputed influences of the stars, unknown to science. Not in
^ Campion, Nicholas (2009). History of western astrology. Volume II,
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"children of the planets" (in each sphere the pilgrim meets souls
whose lives reflected the dominant influence of that planet) and that
in countless details the imagery of the Paradiso is derived from the
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^ Hone, Margaret (1978). The Modern Text-Book of Astrology. Romford:
L. N. Fowler. pp. 21–89. ISBN 0-85243-357-3.
^ Riske, Kris (2007). Llewellyn's Complete Book of Astrology.
Minnesota, USA: Llewellyn Publications. pp. 5–6; 27.
^ a b Kremer, Richard (1990). "Horoscopes and History. by J. D. North;
A History of Western Astrology. by S. J. Tester". Speculum. 65 (1):
206–209. doi:10.2307/2864524. JSTOR 2864524.
^ Pelletier, Robert; Cataldo, Leonard (1984). Be Your Own Astrologer.
Pan. pp. 57–60.
^ Fenton, Sasha (1991). Rising Signs. Aquarian Press.
^ Luhrmann, Tanya (1991). Persuasions of the witch's craft: ritual
magic in contemporary England. Harvard University Press.
pp. 147–151. ISBN 0-674-66324-1.
^ Subbarayappa, B. V. (14 September 1989). "Indian astronomy: An
historical perspective". In Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.;
Vishveshwara, C. V. Cosmic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 25–40. ISBN 978-0-521-34354-1. In the Vedic literature
Jyotis[h]a, which connotes 'astronomy' and later began to encompass
astrology, was one of the most important subjects of study... The
earliest Vedic astronomical text has the title, Vedanga
^ Pingree, David (18 December 1978). "Indian Astronomy". Proceedings
of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society.
122 (6): 361–364. JSTOR 986451.
^ Pingree, David (2001). "From
Alexandria to Baghdād to Byzantium.
The Transmission of Astrology". International Journal of the Classical
Tradition. 8 (1): 3–37. doi:10.1007/bf02700227.
^ Werner, Karel (1993). "The Circle of Stars: An Introduction to
Astrology by Valerie J. Roebuck. Review". Bulletin of the
School of Oriental and African Studies. 56: 645–646.
doi:10.1017/s0041977x00008326. JSTOR 620756.
^ Burgess, James (October 1893). "Notes on Hindu
Astronomy and the
History of Our Knowledge of It". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
of Great Britain and Ireland: 717–761. JSTOR 25197168.
^ Pingree, David (June 1963). "
Astrology in India and
Iran". Isis. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History
Science Society. 54 (2): 229–246. doi:10.1086/349703.
^ F. Richard Stephenson, "Chinese Roots of Modern Astronomy", New
Scientist, 26 June 1980. See also 二十八宿的形成与演变
^ Theodora Lau, The Handbook of Chinese Horoscopes, pp 2–8,
30–5, 60–4, 88–94, 118–24, 148–53, 178–84, 208–13,
238–44, 270–78, 306–12, 338–44, Souvenir Press, New York, 2005
^ Selin, Helaine, ed. (1997). "
Astrology in China". Encyclopaedia of
the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western
Cultures. Springer. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
ทำนายทายทัก ('The transition to the new
astrological dates Thailand. Changing zodiac astrology horoscope
prediction')". Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. (in
^ Veenstra, J.R. (1997). Magic and
Divination at the Courts of
Burgundy and France: Text and Context of Laurens Pignon's "Contre les
Devineurs" (1411). Brill. pp. 184–185.
^ a b Hess, Peter M.J.; Allen, Paul L. (2007).
Catholicism and science
(1st ed.). Westport: Greenwood. p. 11.
^ Saliba, George (1994b). A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary
Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. New York University Press.
pp. 60, 67–69. ISBN 0-8147-8023-7.
^ Catarina Belo, Catarina Carriço Marques de Moura Belo, Chance and
Avicenna and Averroës, p. 228. Brill, 2007.
^ George Saliba, Avicenna: 'viii. Mathematics and Physical Sciences'.
Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, 2011, available at
^ a b Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A
Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological
Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society.
91 (1): 96–103. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445.
^ editor, Peter M.J. Stravinskas, (1998). Our Sunday visitor's
Catholic encyclopedia (Rev. ed.). Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor
Pub. p. 111. ISBN 0-87973-669-0.
Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church - Part 3". Retrieved 8 July
^ Culver, Roger B.; Ianna, Philip A. (1988).
Astrology True or False?:
A Scientific Evaluation. Prometheus Books.
^ McGrew, John H.; McFall, Richard M. (1990). "A Scientific Inquiry
Into the Validity of Astrology" (PDF). Journal of Scientific
Exploration. 4 (1). pp. 75–83.
^ "Objections to Astrology: A Statement by 186 Leading Scientists".
The Humanist, September/October 1975. Archived from the original on 18
March 2009. ; The Humanist, volume 36, no.5 (1976); Bok, Bart J.;
Lawrence E. Jerome; Paul Kurtz (1982). "Objections to Astrology: A
Statement by 186 Leading Scientists". In Patrick Grim. Philosophy of
Science and the Occult. Albany: State University of New York Press.
pp. 14–18. ISBN 0-87395-572-2.
^ Allum, Nick (13 December 2010). "What Makes Some People Think
Astrology Is Scientific?".
Science Communication. 33 (3): 341–366.
CiteSeerX 10.1.1.598.6954 . doi:10.1177/1075547010389819. This
underlies the Barnum effect. Named after the 19th-century showman
Phileas T. Barnum—whose circus provided "a little something for
everyone"—it refers to the idea that people believe a statement
about their personality that is vague or trivial if they think it
derives from some systematic procedure tailored especially for them
(Dickson & Kelly, 1985; Furnham & Schofield, 1987; Rogers
& Soule, 2009; Wyman & Vyse, 2008). For example, the more
birth detail is used in an astrological prediction or horoscope, the
more credulous people tend to be (Furnham, 1991). However,
confirmation bias means that people do not tend to pay attention to
other information that might disconfirm the credibility of the
^ a b c Nickerson, Raymond S. Nickerson (1998). "Confirmation Bias: A
Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises". Review of General Psychology.
2. 2 (2): 175–220. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.93.4839 .
^ a b Eysenck, H.J.; Nias, D.K.B. (1984). Astrology:
Superstition?. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
^ Gonzalez (1990). Jean-Paul Caverni; Jean-Marc Fabre, Michel, eds.
Cognitive biases. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
^ Stephen Thornton, Edward N. Zalta (older edition). "Karl Popper".
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. CS1 maint: Uses authors
^ Popper, Karl (2004). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of
Scientific Knowledge (Reprinted ed.). London: Routledge.
The relevant piece is also published in Schick Jr, Theodore (2000).
Readings in the Philosophy of Science: From Positivism to
Postmodernism. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Pub. pp. 33–39.
^ Cogan, Robert (1998). Critical Thinking: Step by Step. Lanham, Md.:
University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-1067-6.
^ a b Wright, Peter (1975). "
Seventeenth-Century England". Social Studies of Science. 5: 399–422.
^ a b c Kuhn, Thomas (1970). Imre Lakatos; Alan Musgrave, eds.
Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of
Science [held at Bedford College, Regent's Park, London, from July
11th to 17th 1965] (Reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-09623-5.
^ a b Hurley, Patrick (2005). A concise introduction to logic (9th
ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-58505-1.
^ a b James, Edward W. (1982). Patrick Grim, ed. Philosophy of science
and the occult. Albany: State University of New York Press.
^ Muller, Richard (2010). "Web site of Richard A. Muller, Professor in
the Department of
Physics at the University of California at
Berkeley,". Retrieved 2 August 2011. My former student Shawn
Carlson published in Nature magazine the definitive scientific test of
Maddox, Sir John (1995). "John Maddox, editor of the science journal
Nature, commenting on Carlson's test". Archived from the original on
12 September 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2011. "... a
perfectly convincing and lasting demonstration."
^ a b c Smith, Jonathan C. (2010).
Pseudoscience and Extraordinary
Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. Malden, MA:
Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8123-5.
^ Pont, Graham (2004). "Philosophy and
Science of Music in Ancient
Greece". Nexus Network Journal. 6 (1): 17–29.
^ Gauquelin, Michel (1955). L'influence des astres: étude critique et
expérimentale. Paris: Éditions du Dauphin.
^ a b Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary: A
Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous
Delusions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-27242-6.
^ Benski, Claude; et al. (1995). The "Mars Effect: A French Test of
over 1,000 Sports Champions. with a commentary by Jan Willem Nienhuys.
Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-988-7.
^ Matthews, Robert (17 August 2003). "Astrologers fail to predict
proof they are wrong". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 13 July
^ a b Dean G.; Kelly, I. W. (2003). "Is
Astrology Relevant to
Consciousness and Psi?". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10 (6–7):
^ a b c Chris, French (7 February 2012). "Astrologers and other
inhabitants of parallel universes". 7 February 2012. London: The
Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
^ editor, Michael Shermer, (2002). The Skeptic encyclopedia of
pseudoscience. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 241.
^ Tester, 1999. Page 161.
^ a b c Charpak, Georges; Holland, Henri Broch (2004). Debunked!: ESP,
telekinesis, and other pseudoscience. translated by Bart K. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 6, 7.
^ "The Strange Story Of Britain's "State Seer"". The Sydney Morning
Herald. 30 August 1952. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (4 March 2008). "
Star turn: astrologer who
became SOE's secret weapon against Hitler". London: The Guardian.
Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ Regan, Donald T. (1988). For the record: from Wall Street to
Washington (first ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Quigley, Joan (1990). What does Joan say? : my seven years as
White House astrologer to Nancy and Ronald Reagan. Secaucus, NJ: Birch
Lane Press. ISBN 1-55972-032-8.
Gorney, Cynthia (11 May 1988). "The Reagan Chart Watch; Astrologer
Joan Quigley, Eye on the Cosmos". The Washington Post. The Washington
Post. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
^ a b Truzzi, Marcello (1972). "The
Occult Revival as Popular Culture:
Some Random Observations on the Old and the Nouveau Witch". The
Sociological Quarterly. 13 (1): 16–36.
doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1972.tb02101.x. JSTOR 4105818.
^ a b c Cary J. Nederman & James Wray Goulding (Winter 1981).
"Popular Occultism and Critical Social Theory: Exploring Some Themes
in Adorno's Critique of
Astrology and the Occult". Sociological
Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno (Spring 1974). "The Stars Down to Earth: The Los
Astrology Column". Telos. 1974 (19): 13–90.
^ Moore, David W. (16 June 2005). "Three in Four Americans Believe in
^ "Eastern or
New Age Beliefs, 'Evil Eye'". Many Americans Mix
Multiple Faiths. Pew Research Center's
Religion & Public Life
Project. 9 December 2009.
^ a b "
Science and Engineering Indicators: Chapter 7.
Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding". National Science
Foundation. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
^ Kaufman, Michael T. (23 December 1998). "BV Raman Dies". New York
Times, 23 December 1998. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
^ Dipankar Das. "Fame and Fortune". Retrieved 2 August 2016.
^ "Soothsayers offer heavenly help". BBC News. 2 September 1999.
Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ "In countries such as India, where only a small intellectual elite
has been trained in Western physics, astrology manages to retain here
and there its position among the sciences."
David Pingree and Robert
Astrology In India;
Astrology in modern times".
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008
^ Mohan Rao, Female foeticide: where do we go? Indian Journal of
Medical Ethics October–December 2001 9(4) 
Astrology vs Indian Science". BBC. 31 May 2001.
^ "Guidelines for Setting up Departments of Vedic
Universities Under the Purview of University Grants Commission".
Government of India, Department of Education. Archived from the
original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. There is an urgent
need to rejuvenate the science of Vedic
Astrology in India, to allow
this scientific knowledge to reach to the society at large and to
provide opportunities to get this important science even exported to
Astrology is a science: Bombay HC', The Times of India, 3 February
^ Japanese childrearing: two generations of scholarship. 1996.
Retrieved 22 July 2012.
^ The Political Economy of Japan: Cultural and social dynamics. 1992.
Retrieved 22 July 2012.
^ a b Wedel, Theodore Otto (2003) . "9:
Astrology in Gower and
Chaucer". Mediæval Attitude Toward Astrology, Particularly in
England. Kessinger. pp. 131–156. The literary interest in
astrology, which had been on the increase in England throughout the
fourteenth century, culminated in the works of Gower and Chaucer.
Although references to astrology were already frequent in the romances
of the fourteenth century, these still retained the signs of being
foreign importations. It was only in the fifteenth century that
astrological similes and embellishments became a matter of course in
the literature of England.
Such innovations, one must confess, were due far more to Chaucer than
to Gower. Gower, too, saw artistic possibilities in the new
astrological learning, and promptly used these in his retelling of the
Alexander legend—but he confined himself, for the most part, to a
bald rehearsal of facts and theories. It is, accordingly, as a part of
the long encyclopaedia of natural science that he inserted into his
Confessio Amantis, and in certain didactic passages of the Vox
Clamantis and the Mirour de l'Omme, that
Astrology figures most
largely in his works ... Gower's sources on the subject of
astrology ... were Albumasar's Introductorium in Astronomiam, the
Pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum Secretorum, Brunetto Latini's Trésor,
and the Speculum Astronomiae ascribed to Albert the Great.
^ Wood, 1970. pp.12–21
^ a b c d De Lacy, Hugh (October 1934). "
Astrology in the Poetry of
Edmund Spenser". The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 33
(4): 520–543. JSTOR 27703949.
^ a b c d e f Camden Carroll, Jr. (April 1933). "
Shakespeare's Day". Isis. 19 (1): 26–73. doi:10.1086/346721.
^ Halstead, Frank G. (July 1939). "The Attitude of
Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega toward
Astrology and Astronomy". Hispanic Review. 7 (3): 205–219.
doi:10.2307/470235. JSTOR 470235.
^ Steiner, Arpad (August 1926). "Calderon's Astrologo Fingido in
France". Modern Philology. 24 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1086/387623.
^ Campion, Nicholas.:A History of Western Astrology: Volume II: The
Medieval and Modern Worlds. (Continuum Books, 2009) pp. 244–245
^ Adams, Noah (10 September 2006). "'Pluto the Renewer' is no swan
song". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved 13 June 2013.
^ Vaughan, David (2004). "Frederick Ashton and His Ballets 1938".
Ashton Archive. Archived from the original on 14 May 2005. Retrieved 2
August 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "The Twelve Signs: An Astrological Entertainment". Centre for New
Zealand Music. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
^ Paglia, Camille. Sex, Art, and American Culture: Essays. Penguin
Books, 1992, p. 114.
^ Catton, Eleanor. "
Eleanor Catton on how she wrote The Luminaries".
The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
Barton, Tamsyn (1994). Ancient Astrology. Routledge.
Campion, Nicholas (1982). An Introduction to the History of Astrology.
Holden, James Herschel (2006). A History of Horoscopic
ed.). AFA. ISBN 0-86690-463-8.
Kay, Richard (1994). Dante's Christian Astrology. Middle Ages Series.
University of Pennsylvania Press.
Long, A.A. (2005). "6: Astrology: arguments pro and contra". In
Barnes, Jonathan; Brunschwig, J.
Science and Speculation. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 165–191.
Parker, Derek; Parker, Julia (1983). A history of astrology. Deutsch.
Robbins, Frank E., ed. (1940).
Ptolemy Tetrabiblos. Harvard University
Press (Loeb Classical Library). ISBN 0-674-99479-5.
Tester, S. J. (1999). A History of Western Astrology. Boydell &
Veenstra, J.R. (1997). Magic and
Divination at the Courts of Burgundy
and France: Text and Context of Laurens Pignon's "Contre les
Devineurs" (1411). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10925-4.
Wedel, Theodore Otto (1920). The Medieval Attitude Toward Astrology:
Particularly in England. Yale University Press.
Wood, Chauncey (1970). Chaucer and the Country of the Stars: Poetical
Uses of Astrological Imagery. Princeton University Press.
Forer, Bertram R. (January 1949). "The
Fallacy of Personal Validation:
A Classroom Demonstration of Gullibility". The Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology. 44 (1): 118–123. doi:10.1037/h0059240.
Osborn, M. (2002). Time and the Astrolabe in The Canterbury Tales.
University of Oklahoma Press.
Thorndike, Lynn (1955). "The True Place of
Astrology in the History of
Science". Isis. 46 (3): 273. doi:10.1086/348412.
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