Bodos • Deuris • Dimasas • Karbis • Koch Rajbongshis •
Misíngs • Rabhas • Tea tribes
People of Assam
Kirtans - Namghars
Poitabhat • Jolpan
Narikol'or Laru • Til'or Laru
Cultural Development of Kamarupa
Assam Sahitya Sabha
Oxomiya Bhaxa Unnati Xadhini Xobha
Asam Sahitya Sabha
Asam Sahitya Sabha Award • Kamal Kumari Foundation Award •
Krishnakanta Handique Award
Music and performing arts
Joymoti - the first motion picture
This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support,
you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing
conjuncts instead of Indic text.
This article contains the
Asamiya / Assamese alphabet. Without proper
rendering support, you may see errors in display.
Assamese (/ˌæsəˈmiːz/) or Asamiya is an Eastern
Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where
it is an official language. It is the easternmost indigenous
Indo-European language; it is spoken by over 15 million native
speakers, and serves as a lingua franca in the region. It is
also spoken in parts of
Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian
states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based
Creole language is widely used in
Nagaland and parts of Assam.
Nefamese is an Assamese-based pidgin used
in Arunachal Pradesh. Small pockets of Assamese speakers can be found
in Bangladesh. The Indo-Aryan dialects of
North Bengal and northwest
Bangladesh are linguistically closer to Assamese, have cultural and
literary affinities with Bengali. In the past, it was the court
language of the
Ahom kingdom from the 17th century.
The origin of
Assamese language is not clear. Some believe that it
Kamarupi Prakrit used in the ancient
However it is believed that along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan
languages, Assamese evolved at least before 7th century CE from
the middle Indo-Aryan Magadhi Prakrit, which developed from dialects
similar to, but in some ways more archaic than Vedic Sanskrit. Its
sister languages include Maithili, Odia, Chittagonian, Sylheti,
Angika, Binshnupriya, Rohingya and Chakma. It is written in the
Assamese script, an abugida system, from left to right, with a large
number of typographic ligatures.
2 Geographical distribution
2.1 Official status
3.2 Alveolar stops
3.3 Voiceless velar fricative
3.4 Velar nasal
4 Writing system
5 Morphology and grammar
5.1 Negativization process
6.1 Regional dialects
6.2 Non-regional dialects
8 Sample text
9 See also
12 External links
Silver coin issued during the reign of
Rudra Singha with Assamese
One of the consonants of Assamese script.
Assamese originated in Old Indo-Aryan dialects, though the exact
nature of its origin and growth is not clear yet. It is generally
believed that Assamese (Assam) and the
Kamatapuri lects (Cooch Bihar
and Assam) derive from the Kamarupi dialect of Eastern Magadhi
Prakrit by keeping to the north of the Ganges; though some
authors contest a close connection of Assamese with Magadhi
Indo-Aryan language in
Kamarupa had differentiated by
the 7th-century, before it did in Bengal or Orissa. These changes
were likely due to non-Indo-Aryan speakers adopting the
language. The evidence of this language (Kamarupi Prakrit)
is found in the Prakritisms of the
Kamarupa inscriptions. The
earliest forms of Assamese in literature are found in the
ninth-century Buddhist verses called
[saɹzɔpɔd]), and in 12-14th century works of Ramai Pundit (Sunya
Puran), Boru Chandidas (Krishna Kirtan), Sukur Mamud (Gopichandrar
Gan), Durllava Mullik (Gobindachandrar Git) and Bhavani Das
(Mainamatir Gan). In these works, Assamese features coexist with
features from other Modern Indian Languages.
A fully distinguished literary form (poetry) appeared first in the
fourteenth century—in the courts of the
Kamata kingdom and in the
courts of an eastern Kachari king where
Madhav Kandali translated the
Ramayana into the Assamese (Saptakanda Ramayana). From the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries, songs – Borgeets, dramas – Ankiya Naat
and the first prose writings (by Bhattadeva) were composed. The
literary language, based on the western dialects of
Assam moved to the
court of the
Ahom kingdom in the seventeenth century, where it
became the state language. This period saw the widespread development
of standardized prose infused with colloquial forms in Buranjis.
According to Goswami (2003), this included "the colloquial prose of
religious biographies, the archaic prose of magical charms, the
conventional prose of utilitarian literature on medicine, astrology,
arithmetic, dance and music, and above all the standardized prose of
the Buranjis. The literary language, having become infused with
the eastern idiom, became the standard literary form in the nineteenth
century, when the British adopted it for state purposes. As the
political and commercial center shifted to Guwahati after the
mid-twentieth century, the literary form moved away from the eastern
variety to take its current form.
Assamese is native to
Brahmaputra Valley consisting of western and
eastern Assam. It is also spoken in states of
Arunachal Pradesh and
Nagaland. Presence of
Assamese script can be found in Rakhine state of
present Myanmar. Pashupati temple in Nepal also have inscription in
Assamese showing its influence and prosperity in the past. There are
also significant Assamese-speaking communities in Australia,
Dubai, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.
Assamese is the official language of Assam, and one of the 23 official
languages recognised by the Republic of India. The
functions in Assamese.
The Assamese phonemic inventory consists of eight vowels, ten
diphthongs, and twenty-three consonants (including two
Main article: Assamese consonant clusters
Consonant clusters in Assamese include thirty three pure consonant
letters in the Assamese alphabet. Each letter represents a single
sound with an inherent vowel, the short vowel /ɔ/.
The first twenty-five consonants letters are called "sparxa
barna"[pronunciation?]. These "sparxa barnas" are again divided into
five "bargs". Therefore, these twenty-five letters are also called
"bargia barna".[clarification needed][verification needed]
The Assamese phoneme inventory is unique in the Indic group of
languages in its lack of a dental-retroflex distinction among the
coronal stops. Historically, the dental and retroflex series
merged into alveolar stops. This makes Assamese resemble non-Indic
languages of Northeast
India (such as Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan
languages). The only other language to have fronted retroflex
stops into alveolars is the closely related eastern dialects of
Bengali (although a contrast with dental stops remains in those
dialects). Note that /r/ is normally realized as [ɹ] or as a
Voiceless velar fricative
Assamese and Sylheti are unusual among Eastern Indo-Aryan languages
for the presence of the /x/ (which, phonetically, varies between velar
([x]) and a uvular ([χ]) pronunciations, depending on the speaker and
speech register), historically the MIA sibilant has lenited to /x/ and
/h/ (non-initially). The derivation of the velar fricative from
the coronal sibilant /s/ is evident in the name of the language in
Assamese; some Assamese prefer to write ⟨Oxomiya⟩ or
⟨Ôxômiya⟩ instead of ⟨Asomiya⟩ or ⟨Asamiya⟩ to reflect
the sound change. The voiceless velar fricative is absent in the
West Goalpariya dialects though it is found in lesser extent in
East Goalpariya and Kamrupi, otherwise used extensively further
east. The change of /s/ to /h/ and then to /x/; all these have been
attributed to Tibeto-Burman influence by Dr. Chatterjee.
Assamese, Odia and Bengali, in contrast to other Indo-Aryan languages,
use the velar nasal (the English ng in sing) extensively. In many
languages, while the velar nasal is commonly restricted to preceding
velar sounds, in Assamese it can occur intervocalically. This is
another feature it shares with other languages of Northeast India,
though in Assamese the velar nasal never occurs word-initially.
Eastern Indic languages like Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti, and Odia do
not have a vowel length distinction, but have a wide set of back
rounded vowels. In the case of Assamese, there are four back rounded
vowels that contrast phonemically, as demonstrated by the minimal set:
কলা kôla [kɔla] ('deaf'), ক'লা kola [kola] ('black'),
কোলা kûla [kʊla] ('lap'), and কুলা kula [kula]
('winnowing fan'). The near-close near-back rounded vowel /ʊ/ is
unique in this branch of the language family. But in lower Assam, ও
is pronounced same as অ' (o') which is also correct. কোলা
kola [ko'la] মোৰ mor [mo'r]
Modern Assamese uses the Assamese script, and in the medieval times
the script came in three varieties: Bamuniya, Garhgaya and Kaitheli or
Lakhari, which developed from the Kamarupi script. It very closely
Mithilakshar script of the Maithili language, as well as
the Bengali script. There is a strong literary tradition from
early times. Examples can be seen in edicts, land grants and copper
plates of medieval kings.
Assam had its own system of writing on the
bark of the saanchi tree in which religious texts and chronicles were
written. The present-day spellings in Assamese are not necessarily
Hemkosh (হেমকোষ [ɦɛmkʊx]), the second
Assamese dictionary, introduced spellings based on Sanskrit, which are
now the standard.
Morphology and grammar
Assamese language has the following characteristic morphological
Gender and number are not grammatically marked.
There is lexical distinction of gender in the third person pronoun.
Transitive verbs are distinguished from intransitive.
The agentive case is overtly marked as distinct from the accusative.
Kinship nouns are inflected for personal pronominal possession.
Adverbs can be derived from the verb roots.
A passive construction may be employed idiomatically.
Verbs in Assamese are negativized by adding /n/ before the verb, with
/n/ picking up the initial vowel of the verb. For example:
/na laɡe/ 'do(es) not want' (1st, 2nd and 3rd persons)
/ni likʰu/ 'will not write' (1st person)
/nukutu/ 'will not nibble' (1st person)
/nɛlɛkʰɛ/ 'does not count' (3rd person)
/nɔkɔɹɔ/ 'do not do' (2nd person)
Assamese has a huge collection of classifiers, which are used
extensively for different kinds of objects, acquired from Sino-Tibetan
languages. A few examples of the most extensive and elaborate use
of classifiers given below:
"zɔn" is used to signify a person, male with some amount of respect
E.g., manuh-zɔn – "the man"
"zɔni" (female) is used after a noun or pronoun to indicate human
E.g., manuh-zɔni – "the woman"
"zƆni" is also used to express the non-human feminine
E.g., sɔɹai zɔni – "the bird", Pɔɹuwa-zɔni – "the ant"
"zɔna" and "gɔɹaki" are used to express high respect for both man
E.g., kobi-zɔna – "the poet", goxai-zɔna – "the goddess",
rastrapati-gɔɹaki – "the president", tirutā-gɔɹaki – "the
"tʊ" has three forms: tʊ, ta, ti
(a) tu: is used to specify something, although someone, e.g.,
lɔɹa-tʊ – "the particular boy" (impolite)
(b) ta: is used only after numerals, e.g., eta, duta, tinita – "one,
(c) ti: is the diminutive form, e.g., kesua-ti – "the infant,
besides expressing more affection or attachment to
"kɔsa", "mɔtʰa" and "taɹ" are used for things in bunches
E.g., sabi-kɔsa - "the bunch of key", saul-mɔtʰa – "a handful of
rice", suli-taɹi or suli kɔsa – "the bunch of hair"
dal, dali, are used after nouns to indicate something long but round
E.g., bah-dal - "the bamboo", katʰ-dal – "the piece of wood",
bah-dali – "the piece of bamboo"
manuh-zɔn (the man - honorific)
females (women as well as animals)
manuh-zɔni (the woman), sɔrai-zɔni (the bird)
kobi-zɔna (the poet), gʊxai-zɔna (the god/goddess)
males and females (honorific)
manuh-ɡɔɹaki (the woman), rastrɔpɔti-gɔɹaki (the president)
inanimate objects or males of animals and men (impolite)
manuh-tʊ (the man - diminutive), gɔɹu-tʊ (the cow)
inanimate objects or infants
kesua-ti (the baby)
for counting numerals
e-ta (count one), du-ta (count two)
flat square or rectangular objects, big or small, long or short
terrain like rivers and mountains
group of people, cattle; also for rain; cyclone
objects that are thin, flat, wide or narrow.
objects that are solid
bundles of objects
smaller bundles of objects
with earthen lamp or old style kerosene lamp used in Assam
objects like trees and shrubs
paper and leaf-like objects
uncountable mass nouns and pronouns
inanimate flexible/stiff or oblong objects; humans (pejorative)
In Assamese, classifiers are generally used in the numeral +
classifier + noun (e.g. /ezɔn manuh/ 'one man') or the noun + numeral
+ classifier (e.g. /manuh ezɔn/ 'one man') forms.
Most verbs can be converted into nouns by the addition of the suffix
/ɔn/. For example, /kʰa/ ('to eat') can be converted to /kʰaɔn/
Asamiya literary history
Asamiya language authors
Writers • Dramatists & Playwrights • Poets
Books – Buranjis – Poetry
Institution & Awards
Assam Sahitya Sabha
Assam Valley Literary Award
Kamal Kumari National Award
The language has quite a few regional variations. Banikanta Kakati
identified two broad dialects which he named (1) Eastern and (2)
Western dialects, of which the eastern dialect is homogeneous, and
prevalent to the east of Guwahati, and the western dialect is
heterogeneous. However, recent linguistic studies have identified four
dialect groups listed below from east to west:
Eastern group in and around Sivasagar District, i.e., the regions of
the former undivided Sivasagar district, areas of the present day
Jorhat and Sivasagar
Central group in Nagaon, Sonitpur,
Morigaon districts and adjoining
Kamrupi group primarily in the Kamrup region, Darrang, Barpeta
Goalpariya group in the Goalpara region
Assamese does not have caste- or occupation-based dialects. In the
nineteenth century, the Eastern dialect became the standard dialect
because it witnessed more literary activity and it was more uniform
from east of Guwahati to Sadiya, whereas the western dialects were
more heterogeneous. Since the nineteenth century, the center of
literary activity (as well as of politics and commerce) has shifted to
Guwahati; as a result, the standard dialect has evolved considerably
away from the largely rural Eastern dialects and has become more urban
and acquired western dialectal elements. Most literary activity
takes place in this dialect, and is often called the likhito-bhaxa,
though regional dialects are often used in novels and other creative
In addition to the regional variants, sub-regional, community-based
dialects are also prevalent, namely:
Standard dialect influenced by surrounding centers.
Bhakatiya dialect highly polite, sattra-based dialect with a different
set of nominals, pronominals and verbal forms, as well as a preference
for euphemism; indirect and passive expressions. Some of these
features are used in the standard dialect on very formal occasions.
The fisherman community has a dialect that is used in the central and
The astrologer community of
Darrang district has a dialect called thar
that is coded and secretive. The ratikhowa and bhitarpanthiya
secretive cult-based Vaisnava groups too have their own dialects.
The Muslim community have their own dialectal preference, with their
own kinship, custom and religious terms, with those in east Assam
having distinct phonetic features.
The urban adolescent and youth communities (for example, Guwahati)
have exotic, hybrid and local slangs.
Ethnic speech communities that use Assamese as a second language,
often use dialects that are influenced heavily by the pronunciation,
intonation, stress, vocabulary and syntax of their respective first
languages (Mising Eastern Assamese, Bodo Central Kamrupi, Rabha
Eastern Goalpariya etc.). Two independent pidgins/creoles,
associated with the Assamese language, are
Nagamese (used by Naga
Nefamese (used in Arunachal Pradesh).
Main article: Assamese literature
There is a growing and strong body of literature in this language. The
first characteristics of this language are seen in the Charyapadas
composed in between the eighth and twelfth centuries. The first
examples emerged in writings of court poets in the fourteenth century,
the finest example of which is Madhav Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana.
The popular ballad in the form of Ojapali is also regarded as
well-crafted. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw a
Vaishnavite literature, leading up to the emergence of
modern forms of literature in the late nineteenth century.
The following is a sample text in Assamese of the Article 1 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
Assamese in Assamese alphabet
ধাৰা ১: সকলো মানুহে
স্বাধীনভাৱে সমান মৰ্যদা
আৰু অধিকাৰে জন্মগ্ৰহণ কৰে
। সিহঁতৰ বিবেক আৰু বুদ্ধি
আছে আৰু সিহঁতে পৰস্পৰ
ভ্ৰাতৃত্বৰে আচৰণ কৰিব
Assamese in phonetic Romanization 1
Dhara êk: Xôkôlû manuhê sadhinbhawê xôman môrzôda aru
ôdhikarê zônmôgrôhôn kôrê. Xihôtôr bibêk aru buddhi asê
aru xihôtê pôrôspôr bhratrittôrê asôrôn kôribô lagê.
Assamese in phonetic Romanization 2
Dhara ek: Xokolú manuhe sadhibhawe xoman morzoda aru odhikare
zonmogrohon kore. Xihotor bibek aru buddhi ase aru xihote porospor
bhratrittore asoron koribo lage.
Assamese in the International Phonetic Alphabet
/dʱaɹa ɛk xɔkɔlʊ manuɦɛ sadʱinbʱaβɛ xɔman mɔɹzɔda
aɹu ɔdʱikaɹɛ zɔnmɔgɹɔɦɔn kɔɹɛ xiɦɔtɔɹ bibɛk aɹu
buddʱi asɛ aɹu xiɦɔtɛ pɔɹɔspɔɹ bʱɹatɹitːɔɹɛ
asɔɹɔn kɔɹibɔ lagɛ/
Clause 1: all human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken
birth-take do. their reason and intelligence exist; therefore
everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken
conduct do should.
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they
should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Languages of India
Languages with official status in India
List of Indian languages by total speakers
List of languages by number of native speakers
^ "2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition.
Dallas, Texas: SIL International". SIL International. 2016.
^ "The Indo-Aryan languages, Routledge Language Family Series, vol. 2,
London and New York: Routledge" (PDF). George Cardona and Dhanesh
^ "Assamese". lisindia.net.
^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest
Languages in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
^ "Meet the Axomiya Sikhs". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 24 March
^ "Assamese - definition of Assamese in English from the Oxford
dictionary". Retrieved 2 March 2016.
^ "2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition.
Dallas, Texas: SIL International". SIL International. 2016.
Consonant Germination and Compensatory Lengthening in Asamiya
dialects: Contemporary standard and Central Assam" (PDF). Dipankar
Moral - Gauhati University.
^ "International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language. Goa,
25 - 27 November, 2002 - DEURI and TIWA: Endangered languages in the
Brahmaputra valley" (PDF). Dipankar Moral, Gauhati University.
^ "Statement". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6
^ "Axomiya is the major language spoken in Assam, and serves almost as
a lingua franca among the different speech communities in the whole
area." (Goswami 2003:394)
^ "...Rajbangsi dialect of the Rangpur District (Bangladesh), and the
adjacent Indian Districts of Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar, has been
classed with Bengali because its speakers identify with the Bengali
culture and literary language, although it is linguistically closer to
Assamese." (Masica 1993, p. 25)
^ Sen, Sukumar (1975), Grammatical sketches of Indian languages with
comparative vocabulary and texts, Volume 1, P 31
^ "...the MIA languages are not younger than ('classical') Sanskrit.
And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray
the fact that they are not direct descendants of Rigvedic Sanskrit,
the main basis of 'Classical' Sanskrit; rather they descend from
dialects which, despite many similarities, were different from
Rigvedic and in some regards even more archaic." (Oberlies 2007:163)
^ "Axomiya has historically originated in Old Indo-Aryan dialects, but
the exact nature of its origin and growth is not very clear as yet."
^ (Kakati 1941, p. 6)
^ Goswami, Golockchandra (1982), Structure of Assamese, Page 3
^ There is evidence that the Prakrit of the
Kamarupa kingdom differed
enough from the
Magadhi Prakrit to be identified as either a parallel
Kamrupi Prakrit or at least an eastern variety of the Magadha Prakrit
^ "It is curious to find that according to (Hiuen Tsang) the language
Kamarupa 'differed a little' from that of mid-India. Hiuen Tsang is
silent about the language of Pundra-vardhana or Karna-Suvarna; it can
be presumed that the language of these tracts were identical with that
of Magadha." (Chatterji 1926, p. 78)
^ "Perhaps this 'differing a little' of the
Kamarupa speech refers to
those modifications of Aryan sounds which now characterise Assamese as
well as North- and East-Bengali dialects." (Chatterji 1926,
^ "When [the Tibeto-Burman speakers] adopted that language they also
enriched it with their vocabularies, expressions, affixes etc."
(Saikia 1997, p. 4)
^ Moral 1997, pp. 43-53.
^ "... (it shows) that in Ancient
Assam there were three languages
Sanskrit as the official language and the language of the
learned few, (2) Non-Aryan tribal languages of the Austric and
Tibeto-Burman families, and (3) a local variety of Prakrit (ie a MIA)
wherefrom, in course of time, the modern
Assamese language as a MIL,
emerged." (Sharma 1978, pp. xxiv-xxviii)
^ Medhi 1988, pp. 67–63.
^ Guha 1983, p. 9.
^ Goswami 2003, p. 434.
^ "Assamese Association – of Australia (ACT & NSW)".
^ "Welcome to the Website of "Axom Xomaj",Dubai, UAE (
Assam Society of
^ "AANA - AANA Overview".
^ "Secretariat Administration Department". assam.gov.in.
^ a b c Assamese, Resource Centre for Indian Language Technology
Solutions, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.
^ "Assamese, alone among NIA languages except for Romany, has also
lost the characteristic IA dental/retroflex contrast (although it is
retained in spelling), reducing the number of articulations, with the
loss also of /c/, to three." (Masica 1993, p. 95)
^ Moral 1997, p. 45.
^ The word "hare", for example: śaśka (OIA) > χɔhā (hare).
(Masica 1993, p. 206)
^ Whereas most fricatives become sibilants in Eastern Goalpariya
(sukh, santi, asa in Eastern Goalpariya; xukh, xanti, axa in western
Kamrupi) (Dutta 1995, p. 286); some use of the fricative is seen
as in the word xi (for both "he" and "she") (Dutta 1995, p. 287)
and xap khar (the snake) (Dutta 1995, p. 288). The /x/ is
completely absent in Western Goalpariya (Dutta 1995, p. 290)
^ B Datta (1982), Linguistic situation in north-east India, the
distinctive h sound of Assamese is absent in the West Goalpariya
^ Goswami, Upendranath (1970), A Study on Kamrupi, p.xiii /x/ does not
occur finally in Kamrupi. But in St. Coll. it occurs. In non-initial
positions O.I.A sibilants became /kʰ/ and also /h/ whereas in St.
Coll. they become /x/.
^ Chatterjee, Suniti Kumar, Kirata Jana Krti, p. 54.
^ Moral 1997, p. 46.
^ Bara 1981, p. ?.
^ Kommaluri, Subramanian & Sagar K 2005.
^ Moral 1997, p. 47.
^ Moral 1997, pp. 49-51.
^ Moral 1997, p. 48.
^ "Assamese may be divided dialectically into Eastern and Western
Assamese" (Kakati 1941, p. 16)
^ (Goswami 2003:403)
^ Kakati 1941, p. 14-16.
^ Goswami 2003, p. 436.
^ a b c (Dutta 2003, p. 106)
^ Goswami 2003, pp. 439-440.
^ a b (Dutta 2003, p. 107)
^ (Dutta 2003, pp. 108–109)
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into the State Formation Process in Medieval
Social Scientist, 11 (12): 3–34, doi:10.2307/3516963,
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Language, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam
Moral, Dipankar (1997), "North-East
India as a Linguistic Area" (PDF),
Mon-Khmer Studies, 27: 43–53
Oberlies, Thomas (2007), "Chapter Five: Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli", in
Cardona, George; Jain, Danesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge,
Sharma, M. M. (1990), "Language and Literature", in Borthakur, H. K.,
The Comprehensive History of Assam: Ancient Period, I, Guwahati,
Assam: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 263–284
Wikivoyage has an entry for Assamese phrasebook.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Assamese language.
Assamese edition of, the free encyclopedia
Axamiyaa Bhaaxaar Moulik Bisar by Mr Devananda Bharali (PDF)
Tonkori (Affinities of the Ainu language of Japan with Assamese and
some other languages) by Dr Satyakam Phukan
Roots and Strings of the Assamese language, article by Dr Satyakam
Candrakānta abhidhāna : Asamiyi sabdara butpatti aru
udaharanere Asamiya-Ingraji dui bhashara artha thaka abhidhana. second
ed. Guwahati : Guwahati Bisbabidyalaya, 1962.
A Dictionary in Assamese and English (1867) First Assamese dictionary
by Miles Bronson from (books.google.com)
Assamese computing resources at TDIL
Assamese proverbs, published 1896
Modern Indo-Aryan languages
list of languages
Andaman Creole Hindi
See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani
languages; Iranian languages
Languages of India
8th schedule to the
Constitution of India
Over 1 million
100,000 – 1 million
Languages of Northeast India
Languages of Bangladesh