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v t e

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

This article contains the Asamiya
Asamiya
/ Assamese alphabet. Without proper rendering support, you may see errors in display.

Assamese (/ˌæsəˈmiːz/)[8] or Asamiya[9][10][11] is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language. It is the easternmost indigenous Indo-European language; it is spoken by over 15 million native speakers,[12] and serves as a lingua franca in the region.[13] It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language
Creole language
is widely used in Nagaland
Nagaland
and parts of Assam. Nefamese is an Assamese-based pidgin used in Arunachal Pradesh. Small pockets of Assamese speakers can be found in Bangladesh. The Indo-Aryan dialects of North Bengal
North Bengal
and northwest Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are linguistically closer to Assamese, have cultural and literary affinities with Bengali.[14] In the past, it was the court language of the Ahom kingdom
Ahom kingdom
from the 17th century. The origin of Assamese language
Assamese language
is not clear. Some believe that it originated from Kamarupi Prakrit
Kamarupi Prakrit
used in the ancient Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom. However it is believed that along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Assamese evolved at least before 7th century CE[15] from the middle Indo-Aryan Magadhi Prakrit, which developed from dialects similar to, but in some ways more archaic than Vedic Sanskrit.[16] Its sister languages include Maithili, Odia, Chittagonian, Sylheti, Angika, Binshnupriya, Rohingya and Chakma. It is written in the Assamese script, an abugida system, from left to right, with a large number of typographic ligatures.

Contents

1 History 2 Geographical distribution

2.1 Official status

3 Phonology

3.1 Consonant
Consonant
clusters 3.2 Alveolar stops 3.3 Voiceless velar fricative 3.4 Velar nasal 3.5 Vowel
Vowel
inventory

4 Writing system 5 Morphology and grammar

5.1 Negativization process 5.2 Classifiers 5.3 Nominalization

6 Dialects

6.1 Regional dialects 6.2 Non-regional dialects

7 Literature 8 Sample text 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Silver coin issued during the reign of Rudra Singha
Rudra Singha
with Assamese inscriptions.

Rô One of the consonants of Assamese script.

Assamese originated in Old Indo-Aryan dialects, though the exact nature of its origin and growth is not clear yet.[17] It is generally believed that Assamese (Assam) and the Kamatapuri lects
Kamatapuri lects
(Cooch Bihar and Assam) derive from the Kamarupi dialect of Eastern Magadhi Prakrit[18] by keeping to the north of the Ganges;[19] though some authors contest a close connection of Assamese with Magadhi Prakrit.[20] The Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
in Kamarupa
Kamarupa
had differentiated by the 7th-century, before it did in Bengal or Orissa.[21] These changes were likely due to non-Indo-Aryan speakers adopting the language.[22][23][24] The evidence of this language (Kamarupi Prakrit) is found in the Prakritisms of the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
inscriptions.[25][26] The earliest forms of Assamese in literature are found in the ninth-century Buddhist verses called Charyapada
Charyapada
(চৰ্যাপদ [saɹzɔpɔd]), and in 12-14th century works of Ramai Pundit (Sunya Puran), Boru Chandidas (Krishna Kirtan), Sukur Mamud (Gopichandrar Gan), Durllava Mullik (Gobindachandrar Git) and Bhavani Das (Mainamatir Gan). In these works, Assamese features coexist with features from other Modern Indian Languages. A fully distinguished literary form (poetry) appeared first in the fourteenth century—in the courts of the Kamata kingdom
Kamata kingdom
and in the courts of an eastern Kachari king where Madhav Kandali translated the Ramayana into the Assamese (Saptakanda Ramayana). From the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, songs – Borgeets, dramas – Ankiya Naat and the first prose writings (by Bhattadeva) were composed. The literary language, based on the western dialects of Assam
Assam
moved to the court of the Ahom kingdom
Ahom kingdom
in the seventeenth century,[27] where it became the state language. This period saw the widespread development of standardized prose infused with colloquial forms in Buranjis. According to Goswami (2003), this included "the colloquial prose of religious biographies, the archaic prose of magical charms, the conventional prose of utilitarian literature on medicine, astrology, arithmetic, dance and music, and above all the standardized prose of the Buranjis.[28] The literary language, having become infused with the eastern idiom, became the standard literary form in the nineteenth century, when the British adopted it for state purposes. As the political and commercial center shifted to Guwahati after the mid-twentieth century, the literary form moved away from the eastern variety to take its current form. Geographical distribution[edit] Assamese is native to Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
consisting of western and eastern Assam. It is also spoken in states of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Nagaland. Presence of Assamese script
Assamese script
can be found in Rakhine state of present Myanmar. Pashupati temple in Nepal also have inscription in Assamese showing its influence and prosperity in the past. There are also significant Assamese-speaking communities in Australia,[29] Dubai,[30] the United Kingdom,[31] Canada and the United States.[32] Official status[edit] Assamese is the official language of Assam, and one of the 23 official languages recognised by the Republic of India. The Assam
Assam
Secretariat functions in Assamese.[33] Phonology[edit] The Assamese phonemic inventory consists of eight vowels, ten diphthongs, and twenty-three consonants (including two semivowels).[34]

Vowels

Front Central Back

IPA ROM Script IPA ROM Script IPA ROM Script

Close i i ই/ঈ

u u উ/ঊ

Near-close

ʊ/o ú/o' ও

Close-mid e é এ’

o ó অ’

Open-mid ɛ e এ

ɔ o অ

Open

a a আ

Diphthongs

a i u

ɔ

ɔi

a

ai au

i

iu

u ua ui

e

ei eu

o

oi ou

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Dorsal Glottal

IPA ROM Script IPA ROM Script IPA ROM Script IPA ROM Script

Nasal m m ম n n ন/ণ ŋ ng ঙ/ং

Stop voiceless p p প t t ত/ট k k ক

aspirated pʰ ph ফ tʰ th থ/ঠ kʰ kh খ

voiced b b ব d d দ/ড ɡ g গ

murmured bʱ bh ভ dʱ dh ধ/ঢ ɡʱ gh ঘ

Fricative voiceless

s s চ/ছ x x শ/ষ/স ɦ h হ

voiced

z z জ/ঝ/য

Approximant central w w ৱ ɹ r ৰ j y য়/্য (য)

lateral

l l ল

Consonant
Consonant
clusters[edit] Main article: Assamese consonant clusters Consonant
Consonant
clusters in Assamese include thirty three pure consonant letters in the Assamese alphabet. Each letter represents a single sound with an inherent vowel, the short vowel /ɔ/. The first twenty-five consonants letters are called "sparxa barna"[pronunciation?]. These "sparxa barnas" are again divided into five "bargs". Therefore, these twenty-five letters are also called "bargia barna".[clarification needed][verification needed] Alveolar stops[edit] The Assamese phoneme inventory is unique in the Indic group of languages in its lack of a dental-retroflex distinction among the coronal stops.[35] Historically, the dental and retroflex series merged into alveolar stops. This makes Assamese resemble non-Indic languages of Northeast India
India
(such as Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages).[36] The only other language to have fronted retroflex stops into alveolars is the closely related eastern dialects of Bengali (although a contrast with dental stops remains in those dialects). Note that /r/ is normally realized as [ɹ] or as a retroflex approximant. Voiceless velar fricative[edit] Assamese and Sylheti are unusual among Eastern Indo-Aryan languages for the presence of the /x/ (which, phonetically, varies between velar ([x]) and a uvular ([χ]) pronunciations, depending on the speaker and speech register), historically the MIA sibilant has lenited to /x/ and /h/ (non-initially).[37] The derivation of the velar fricative from the coronal sibilant /s/ is evident in the name of the language in Assamese; some Assamese prefer to write ⟨Oxomiya⟩ or ⟨Ôxômiya⟩ instead of ⟨Asomiya⟩ or ⟨Asamiya⟩ to reflect the sound change.[38] The voiceless velar fricative is absent in the West Goalpariya dialects[39] though it is found in lesser extent in East Goalpariya and Kamrupi,[40] otherwise used extensively further east. The change of /s/ to /h/ and then to /x/; all these have been attributed to Tibeto-Burman influence by Dr. Chatterjee.[41] Velar nasal[edit] Assamese, Odia and Bengali, in contrast to other Indo-Aryan languages, use the velar nasal (the English ng in sing) extensively. In many languages, while the velar nasal is commonly restricted to preceding velar sounds, in Assamese it can occur intervocalically.[34] This is another feature it shares with other languages of Northeast India, though in Assamese the velar nasal never occurs word-initially.[42] Vowel
Vowel
inventory[edit] Eastern Indic languages like Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti, and Odia do not have a vowel length distinction, but have a wide set of back rounded vowels. In the case of Assamese, there are four back rounded vowels that contrast phonemically, as demonstrated by the minimal set: কলা kôla [kɔla] ('deaf'), ক'লা kola [kola] ('black'), কোলা kûla [kʊla] ('lap'), and কুলা kula [kula] ('winnowing fan'). The near-close near-back rounded vowel /ʊ/ is unique in this branch of the language family. But in lower Assam, ও is pronounced same as অ' (o') which is also correct. কোলা kola [ko'la] মোৰ mor [mo'r] Writing system[edit] Modern Assamese uses the Assamese script, and in the medieval times the script came in three varieties: Bamuniya, Garhgaya and Kaitheli or Lakhari, which developed from the Kamarupi script. It very closely resembles the Mithilakshar
Mithilakshar
script of the Maithili language, as well as the Bengali script.[43] There is a strong literary tradition from early times. Examples can be seen in edicts, land grants and copper plates of medieval kings. Assam
Assam
had its own system of writing on the bark of the saanchi tree in which religious texts and chronicles were written. The present-day spellings in Assamese are not necessarily phonetic. Hemkosh (হেমকোষ [ɦɛmkʊx]), the second Assamese dictionary, introduced spellings based on Sanskrit, which are now the standard. Morphology and grammar[edit] The Assamese language
Assamese language
has the following characteristic morphological features:[44]

Gender and number are not grammatically marked. There is lexical distinction of gender in the third person pronoun. Transitive verbs are distinguished from intransitive. The agentive case is overtly marked as distinct from the accusative. Kinship nouns are inflected for personal pronominal possession. Adverbs can be derived from the verb roots. A passive construction may be employed idiomatically.

Negativization process[edit] Verbs in Assamese are negativized by adding /n/ before the verb, with /n/ picking up the initial vowel of the verb. For example:[45]

/na laɡe/ 'do(es) not want' (1st, 2nd and 3rd persons) /ni likʰu/ 'will not write' (1st person) /nukutu/ 'will not nibble' (1st person) /nɛlɛkʰɛ/ 'does not count' (3rd person) /nɔkɔɹɔ/ 'do not do' (2nd person)

Classifiers[edit] Assamese has a huge collection of classifiers, which are used extensively for different kinds of objects, acquired from Sino-Tibetan languages.[46] A few examples of the most extensive and elaborate use of classifiers given below:

"zɔn" is used to signify a person, male with some amount of respect

E.g., manuh-zɔn – "the man"

"zɔni" (female) is used after a noun or pronoun to indicate human beings

E.g., manuh-zɔni – "the woman"

"zƆni" is also used to express the non-human feminine

E.g., sɔɹai zɔni – "the bird", Pɔɹuwa-zɔni – "the ant"

"zɔna" and "gɔɹaki" are used to express high respect for both man and woman

E.g., kobi-zɔna – "the poet", goxai-zɔna – "the goddess", rastrapati-gɔɹaki – "the president", tirutā-gɔɹaki – "the woman"

"tʊ" has three forms: tʊ, ta, ti

(a) tu: is used to specify something, although someone, e.g., lɔɹa-tʊ – "the particular boy" (impolite) (b) ta: is used only after numerals, e.g., eta, duta, tinita – "one, two, three" (c) ti: is the diminutive form, e.g., kesua-ti – "the infant, besides expressing more affection or attachment to

"kɔsa", "mɔtʰa" and "taɹ" are used for things in bunches

E.g., sabi-kɔsa - "the bunch of key", saul-mɔtʰa – "a handful of rice", suli-taɹi or suli kɔsa – "the bunch of hair"

dal, dali, are used after nouns to indicate something long but round and solid

E.g., bah-dal - "the bamboo", katʰ-dal – "the piece of wood", bah-dali – "the piece of bamboo"

Assamese Classifiers

Classifier Referent Examples

/zɔn/ males (adult) manuh-zɔn (the man - honorific)

/zɔni/ females (women as well as animals) manuh-zɔni (the woman), sɔrai-zɔni (the bird)

/zɔna/ honorific kobi-zɔna (the poet), gʊxai-zɔna (the god/goddess)

/ɡoɹaki/ males and females (honorific) manuh-ɡɔɹaki (the woman), rastrɔpɔti-gɔɹaki (the president)

/tu/ inanimate objects or males of animals and men (impolite) manuh-tʊ (the man - diminutive), gɔɹu-tʊ (the cow)

/ti/ inanimate objects or infants kesua-ti (the baby)

/ta/ for counting numerals e-ta (count one), du-ta (count two)

/kʰɔn/ flat square or rectangular objects, big or small, long or short

/kʰɔni/ terrain like rivers and mountains

/tʰupi/ small objects

/zak/ group of people, cattle; also for rain; cyclone

/sati/ breeze

/pat/ objects that are thin, flat, wide or narrow.

/pahi/ flowers

/sɔta/ objects that are solid

/kɔsa/ mass nouns

/mɔtʰa/ bundles of objects

/mutʰi/ smaller bundles of objects

/taɹ/ broomlike objects

/ɡɔs/ wick-like objects

/ɡɔsi/ with earthen lamp or old style kerosene lamp used in Assam

/zupa/ objects like trees and shrubs

/kʰila/ paper and leaf-like objects

/kʰini/ uncountable mass nouns and pronouns

/dal/ inanimate flexible/stiff or oblong objects; humans (pejorative)

In Assamese, classifiers are generally used in the numeral + classifier + noun (e.g. /ezɔn manuh/ 'one man') or the noun + numeral + classifier (e.g. /manuh ezɔn/ 'one man') forms. Nominalization[edit] Most verbs can be converted into nouns by the addition of the suffix /ɔn/. For example, /kʰa/ ('to eat') can be converted to /kʰaɔn/ ('good eating').[47] Dialects[edit]

Assamese literature

Asamiya
Asamiya
literature (By category) Asamiya

Asamiya
Asamiya
literary history

History of Asamiya
Asamiya
literature

Asamiya
Asamiya
language authors

List of Asamiya
Asamiya
writers

Asamiya
Asamiya
Writers

Writers • Dramatists & Playwrights • Poets

Forms

Books – Buranjis – Poetry

Institution & Awards

Assam
Assam
Sahitya Sabha Assam
Assam
Ratna Assam
Assam
Valley Literary Award Kamal Kumari National Award

Related Portals Literature Portal Assam
Assam
Portal

v t e

Regional dialects[edit] The language has quite a few regional variations. Banikanta Kakati identified two broad dialects which he named (1) Eastern and (2) Western dialects,[48] of which the eastern dialect is homogeneous, and prevalent to the east of Guwahati, and the western dialect is heterogeneous. However, recent linguistic studies have identified four dialect groups listed below from east to west:[34]

Eastern group in and around Sivasagar District, i.e., the regions of the former undivided Sivasagar district, areas of the present day Golaghat, Jorhat
Jorhat
and Sivasagar Central group in Nagaon, Sonitpur, Morigaon
Morigaon
districts and adjoining areas Kamrupi group primarily in the Kamrup region, Darrang, Barpeta (Barpetia). Goalpariya group in the Goalpara region

Non-regional dialects[edit] Assamese does not have caste- or occupation-based dialects.[49] In the nineteenth century, the Eastern dialect became the standard dialect because it witnessed more literary activity and it was more uniform from east of Guwahati to Sadiya,[50] whereas the western dialects were more heterogeneous.[51] Since the nineteenth century, the center of literary activity (as well as of politics and commerce) has shifted to Guwahati; as a result, the standard dialect has evolved considerably away from the largely rural Eastern dialects and has become more urban and acquired western dialectal elements.[52] Most literary activity takes place in this dialect, and is often called the likhito-bhaxa, though regional dialects are often used in novels and other creative works. In addition to the regional variants, sub-regional, community-based dialects are also prevalent, namely:

Standard dialect influenced by surrounding centers. Bhakatiya dialect highly polite, sattra-based dialect with a different set of nominals, pronominals and verbal forms, as well as a preference for euphemism; indirect and passive expressions.[53] Some of these features are used in the standard dialect on very formal occasions. The fisherman community has a dialect that is used in the central and eastern region. The astrologer community of Darrang
Darrang
district has a dialect called thar that is coded and secretive. The ratikhowa and bhitarpanthiya secretive cult-based Vaisnava groups too have their own dialects.[54] The Muslim community have their own dialectal preference, with their own kinship, custom and religious terms, with those in east Assam having distinct phonetic features.[52] The urban adolescent and youth communities (for example, Guwahati) have exotic, hybrid and local slangs.[52] Ethnic speech communities that use Assamese as a second language, often use dialects that are influenced heavily by the pronunciation, intonation, stress, vocabulary and syntax of their respective first languages (Mising Eastern Assamese, Bodo Central Kamrupi, Rabha Eastern Goalpariya etc.).[54] Two independent pidgins/creoles, associated with the Assamese language, are Nagamese (used by Naga groups) and Nefamese (used in Arunachal Pradesh).[55]

Literature[edit] Main article: Assamese literature There is a growing and strong body of literature in this language. The first characteristics of this language are seen in the Charyapadas composed in between the eighth and twelfth centuries. The first examples emerged in writings of court poets in the fourteenth century, the finest example of which is Madhav Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana. The popular ballad in the form of Ojapali is also regarded as well-crafted. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw a flourishing of Vaishnavite
Vaishnavite
literature, leading up to the emergence of modern forms of literature in the late nineteenth century. Sample text[edit] The following is a sample text in Assamese of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Assamese in Assamese alphabet

ধাৰা ১: সকলো মানুহে স্বাধীনভাৱে সমান মৰ্যদা আৰু অধিকাৰে জন্মগ্ৰহণ কৰে । সিহঁতৰ বিবেক আৰু বুদ্ধি আছে আৰু সিহঁতে পৰস্পৰ ভ্ৰাতৃত্বৰে আচৰণ কৰিব লাগে ।

Assamese in phonetic Romanization 1

Dhara êk: Xôkôlû manuhê sadhinbhawê xôman môrzôda aru ôdhikarê zônmôgrôhôn kôrê. Xihôtôr bibêk aru buddhi asê aru xihôtê pôrôspôr bhratrittôrê asôrôn kôribô lagê.

Assamese in phonetic Romanization 2

Dhara ek: Xokolú manuhe sadhibhawe xoman morzoda aru odhikare zonmogrohon kore. Xihotor bibek aru buddhi ase aru xihote porospor bhratrittore asoron koribo lage.

Assamese in the International Phonetic Alphabet

/dʱaɹa ɛk xɔkɔlʊ manuɦɛ sadʱinbʱaβɛ xɔman mɔɹzɔda aɹu ɔdʱikaɹɛ zɔnmɔgɹɔɦɔn kɔɹɛ xiɦɔtɔɹ bibɛk aɹu buddʱi asɛ aɹu xiɦɔtɛ pɔɹɔspɔɹ bʱɹatɹitːɔɹɛ asɔɹɔn kɔɹibɔ lagɛ/

Gloss

Clause 1: all human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.

Translation

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also[edit]

Indo-Aryan languages Languages of India Languages with official status in India List of Indian languages by total speakers List of languages by number of native speakers Kamrupi litterateurs

Notes[edit]

^ "2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International". SIL International. 2016.  ^ "The Indo-Aryan languages, Routledge Language Family Series, vol. 2, London and New York: Routledge" (PDF). George Cardona and Dhanesh Jain. 2003.  ^ "Assamese". lisindia.net.  ^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ https://www.omniglot.com/writing/nagamese.php ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Assamese". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Meet the Axomiya Sikhs". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 24 March 2013.  ^ "Assamese - definition of Assamese in English from the Oxford dictionary". Retrieved 2 March 2016.  ^ "2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International". SIL International. 2016.  ^ " Consonant
Consonant
Germination and Compensatory Lengthening in Asamiya dialects: Contemporary standard and Central Assam" (PDF). Dipankar Moral - Gauhati University.  ^ "International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language. Goa, 25 - 27 November, 2002 - DEURI and TIWA: Endangered languages in the Brahmaputra valley" (PDF). Dipankar Moral, Gauhati University. November 2002.  ^ "Statement". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012.  ^ "Axomiya is the major language spoken in Assam, and serves almost as a lingua franca among the different speech communities in the whole area." (Goswami 2003:394) ^ "...Rajbangsi dialect of the Rangpur District (Bangladesh), and the adjacent Indian Districts of Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar, has been classed with Bengali because its speakers identify with the Bengali culture and literary language, although it is linguistically closer to Assamese." (Masica 1993, p. 25) ^ Sen, Sukumar (1975), Grammatical sketches of Indian languages with comparative vocabulary and texts, Volume 1, P 31 ^ "...the MIA languages are not younger than ('classical') Sanskrit. And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray the fact that they are not direct descendants of Rigvedic Sanskrit, the main basis of 'Classical' Sanskrit; rather they descend from dialects which, despite many similarities, were different from Rigvedic and in some regards even more archaic." (Oberlies 2007:163) ^ "Axomiya has historically originated in Old Indo-Aryan dialects, but the exact nature of its origin and growth is not very clear as yet." (Goswami 2003:394) ^ (Kakati 1941, p. 6) ^ Goswami, Golockchandra (1982), Structure of Assamese, Page 3 ^ There is evidence that the Prakrit of the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom differed enough from the Magadhi Prakrit to be identified as either a parallel Kamrupi Prakrit
Kamrupi Prakrit
or at least an eastern variety of the Magadha Prakrit (Sharma 1990:0.24–0.28) ^ "It is curious to find that according to (Hiuen Tsang) the language of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
'differed a little' from that of mid-India. Hiuen Tsang is silent about the language of Pundra-vardhana or Karna-Suvarna; it can be presumed that the language of these tracts were identical with that of Magadha." (Chatterji 1926, p. 78) ^ "Perhaps this 'differing a little' of the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
speech refers to those modifications of Aryan sounds which now characterise Assamese as well as North- and East-Bengali dialects." (Chatterji 1926, pp. 78–89) ^ "When [the Tibeto-Burman speakers] adopted that language they also enriched it with their vocabularies, expressions, affixes etc." (Saikia 1997, p. 4) ^ Moral 1997, pp. 43-53. ^ "... (it shows) that in Ancient Assam
Assam
there were three languages viz. (1) Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as the official language and the language of the learned few, (2) Non-Aryan tribal languages of the Austric and Tibeto-Burman families, and (3) a local variety of Prakrit (ie a MIA) wherefrom, in course of time, the modern Assamese language
Assamese language
as a MIL, emerged." (Sharma 1978, pp. xxiv-xxviii) ^ Medhi 1988, pp. 67–63. ^ Guha 1983, p. 9. ^ Goswami 2003, p. 434. ^ "Assamese Association – of Australia (ACT & NSW)".  ^ "Welcome to the Website of "Axom Xomaj",Dubai, UAE ( Assam
Assam
Society of Dubai, UAE)!".  ^ "Constitution".  ^ "AANA - AANA Overview".  ^ "Secretariat Administration Department". assam.gov.in.  ^ a b c Assamese, Resource Centre for Indian Language Technology Solutions, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. ^ "Assamese, alone among NIA languages except for Romany, has also lost the characteristic IA dental/retroflex contrast (although it is retained in spelling), reducing the number of articulations, with the loss also of /c/, to three." (Masica 1993, p. 95) ^ Moral 1997, p. 45. ^ The word "hare", for example: śaśka (OIA) > χɔhā (hare). (Masica 1993, p. 206) ^ Whereas most fricatives become sibilants in Eastern Goalpariya (sukh, santi, asa in Eastern Goalpariya; xukh, xanti, axa in western Kamrupi) (Dutta 1995, p. 286); some use of the fricative is seen as in the word xi (for both "he" and "she") (Dutta 1995, p. 287) and xap khar (the snake) (Dutta 1995, p. 288). The /x/ is completely absent in Western Goalpariya (Dutta 1995, p. 290) ^ B Datta (1982), Linguistic situation in north-east India, the distinctive h sound of Assamese is absent in the West Goalpariya dialect ^ Goswami, Upendranath (1970), A Study on Kamrupi, p.xiii /x/ does not occur finally in Kamrupi. But in St. Coll. it occurs. In non-initial positions O.I.A sibilants became /kʰ/ and also /h/ whereas in St. Coll. they become /x/. ^ Chatterjee, Suniti Kumar, Kirata Jana Krti, p. 54. ^ Moral 1997, p. 46. ^ Bara 1981, p. ?. ^ Kommaluri, Subramanian & Sagar K 2005. ^ Moral 1997, p. 47. ^ Moral 1997, pp. 49-51. ^ Moral 1997, p. 48. ^ "Assamese may be divided dialectically into Eastern and Western Assamese" (Kakati 1941, p. 16) ^ (Goswami 2003:403) ^ Kakati 1941, p. 14-16. ^ Goswami 2003, p. 436. ^ a b c (Dutta 2003, p. 106) ^ Goswami 2003, pp. 439-440. ^ a b (Dutta 2003, p. 107) ^ (Dutta 2003, pp. 108–109)

References[edit]

Bara, Mahendra (1981), The Evolution of the Assamese Script, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha  Dutta, Birendranath (1995). A Study of the Folk Culture of the Goalpara Region of Assam. Guwahati, Assam: University Publication Department, Gauhati University.  Dutta, Birendranath (2003). "Non-Standard Forms of Assamese: Their Socio-cultural Role". In Miri, Mrinal. Linguistic Situation In North-East India
India
(2nd ed.). Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. pp. 101–110.  Goswami, G. C.; Tamuli, Jyotiprakash (2003), "Asamiya", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 391–443  Guha, Amalendu (December 1983), "The Ahom Political System: An Enquiry into the State Formation Process in Medieval Assam
Assam
(1228-1714)", Social Scientist, 11 (12): 3–34, doi:10.2307/3516963, JSTOR 3516963  Kataki, Banikanta (1941), Assamese: Its Formation and Development, Gauhati, Assam: Government of Assam  Kommaluri, Vijayanand; Subramanian, R.; Sagar K, Anand (2005), "Issues in Morphological Analysis of North-East Indian Languages", Language in India, 5  Masica, Colin P (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 4 February 2013.  Medhi, Kaliram (1988), Assamese Grammar and the Origin of Assamese Language, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam  Moral, Dipankar (1997), "North-East India
India
as a Linguistic Area" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 27: 43–53  Oberlies, Thomas (2007), "Chapter Five: Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli", in Cardona, George; Jain, Danesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9  Sharma, M. M. (1990), "Language and Literature", in Borthakur, H. K., The Comprehensive History of Assam: Ancient Period, I, Guwahati, Assam: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 263–284 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has an entry for Assamese phrasebook.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Assamese language.

Assamese edition of, the free encyclopedia

Axamiyaa Bhaaxaar Moulik Bisar by Mr Devananda Bharali (PDF) Tonkori (Affinities of the Ainu language of Japan with Assamese and some other languages) by Dr Satyakam Phukan Roots and Strings of the Assamese language, article by Dr Satyakam Phukan Candrakānta abhidhāna : Asamiyi sabdara butpatti aru udaharanere Asamiya-Ingraji dui bhashara artha thaka abhidhana. second ed. Guwahati : Guwahati Bisbabidyalaya, 1962. A Dictionary in Assamese and English (1867) First Assamese dictionary by Miles Bronson from (books.google.com) Assamese computing resources at TDIL Assamese proverbs, published 1896

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Languages of Northeast India

Arunachal Pradesh

Sal

Deori Nocte Singpho Tangsa Tutsa Wancho

Tani

Adi Apatani Bori Gallong Nishi Tangam Yano

Other

Assamese Hajong Karbi Milang Nefamese Puimei

Assam

Indo-Aryan

Assamese‎ Bengali Bishnupriya Manipuri Haflong Hindi

Sino-Tibetan

Kukish

Amri Bawm Biete Chiru Gangte Hmar Hrangkhol Karbi Khelma Paite Ranglong Saihriem Vaiphei

Sal

Bodo Deori Dimasa Garo Kachari Koch Kokborok Moran Nocte Rabha Singpho Tangsa Tiwa Tutsa Wancho

Tani

Adi Bangni-Tagin Bokar Hill Miri Mishing Na Nishi

Zeme

Inpui Khoirao Maram Zeme

Other

Hajong Meithei

Tai-Kadai

Ahom Khamti Khamyang Tai Aiton Tai Phake Turung

Manipur

Kukish

Northern

Anal Biete Chiru Chothe Gangte Hrangkhol Kom Lamkang Moyon Paite Purum Ralte Simte Thadou Vaiphei Zou

Other

Hmar Khelma Mizo Monsang Sorbung Tarao

Zeme

Inpui Khoirao Maram Puimei Zeme

Other

Chairel Maring Meithei Sopvoma Tangkhul

Meghalaya

Kukish

Amri Biete Gangte Karbi Khelma Mizo Vaiphei

Khasic

Khasi Lyngngam Pnar War

Other

Atong Garo Hajong Koch

Mizoram

Biete Falam Hakha Chin Hmar Khelma Kokborok Mara Mizo Nga La Ranglong Paite Ralte Tedim Zyphe

Nagaland

Sino- Tibetan

Angami- Pochuri

Angami Chokri Kheza Moyon Ntenyi Pochuri Rengma Sema Sopvoma

Ao

Lotha Mongsen Ao Sangtam Yimchungrü

Sal

Chang Dimasa Khiamniungan Konyak Lamkang Nocte Phom Wancho

Zeme

Inpui Mzieme Puiron Zeme

Other

Chiru Chothe Khelma Makury Tangkhul

Other

Assamese Nagamese Creole

Sikkim

Gurung Lepcha‎ Limbu‎ Magar Nepali Newar‎ Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar‎ Tamang Yakkha Yolmo

Tripura

Indo-Aryan

Bengali Bishnupriya Manipuri

Sino-Tibetan

Bawm Darlong Koch Kokborok Meithei Mizo Paite Ralte Ranglong Tangkhul Thadou Vaiphei Zeme

v t e

Languages of Bangladesh

Official language

Bengali

Semiofficial language

English

Indo-European

Assamese Bengali Bihari Bishnupriya Chakma Chittagonian Rangpuri Rohingya Sadri Sylheti Hajong

Sino-Tibetan

Shö A'Tong Bawm Sak Kukish Falam Garo Haka Khumi Koch Kokborok Megam Meitei (Manipuri) Mizo Mru Pangkhu Rakhine Marma Riang Tanchangya Tippera Usoi

Austroasiatic

Khasi Koda Mundari Pnar Santali War-Jaintia

Dravidian

Kurukh Sauria Paharia

Authority control

GND: 42530

.