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PARENTS Ashikaga Sadauji Uesugi Kiyoko

ASHIKAGA TAKAUJI (足利 尊氏, August 18, 1305 – June 7, 1358) was the founder and FIRST SHOGUN of the Ashikaga shogunate . His rule began in 1338, beginning the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
of Japan
Japan
, and ended with his death in 1358. He was a descendant of the samurai of the ( Minamoto
Minamoto
) Seiwa Genji line (meaning they were descendants of Emperor Seiwa ) who had settled in the Ashikaga area of Shimotsuke Province
Shimotsuke Province
, in present-day Tochigi Prefecture
Tochigi Prefecture
.

According to Zen
Zen
master and intellectual Musō Soseki
Musō Soseki
, who enjoyed his favor and collaborated with him, Takauji had three qualities. First, he kept his cool in battle and was not afraid of death. Second, he was merciful and tolerant. Third, he was very generous with those below him.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 Family * 3 Timeline of Shogunate * 4 Eras of Takauji\'s bakufu * 5 Literary references * 6 Honours * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Additional Reading

LIFE

His childhood name was Matagoro (又太郎). Takauji was a general of the Kamakura shogunate sent to Kyoto
Kyoto
in 1333 to put down the Genkō War which had started in 1331. After becoming increasingly disillusioned with the Kamakura shogunate over time, Takauji joined the banished Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
and Kusunoki Masashige
Kusunoki Masashige
, and seized Kyoto. Soon after, Nitta Yoshisada joined their cause, and laid siege to Kamakura . When the city fell to Nitta, the Shogunal regent , Hōjō Takatoki, and his clansmen committed suicide. This ended the Kamakura shogunate, as well as the Hōjō clan's power and influence. Go-Daigo was enthroned once more as emperor, reestablishing the primacy of the Imperial court in Kyoto
Kyoto
and starting the so-called Kenmu Restoration
Kenmu Restoration
. :15–21

However, shortly thereafter, the samurai clans became increasingly disillusioned with the reestablished imperial court, which sought to return to the social and political systems of the Heian period
Heian period
. Sensing their discontent, Takauji pleaded with the emperor to do something before rebellion would break out, however his warnings were ignored.

Hōjō Tokiyuki , son of Takatoki, took the opportunity to start the Nakasendai rebellion to try to reestablish the shogunate in Kamakura in 1335. Takauji put down the rebellion and took Kamakura for himself. Taking up the cause of his fellow samurai, he claimed the title of Sei-i Taishōgun and allotted land to his followers without permission from the court. Takauji announced his allegiance to the imperial court, but Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
sent Nitta Yoshisada to reclaim Kamakura. :37–39 Tomb of Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
at Tōji-in in Kyoto
Kyoto

Takauji defeated Yoshisada in the battles of Sanoyama and Mishima. This cleared the path for Takauji and Tadayoshi to march on to Kyoto. :39–41

He captured Kyoto
Kyoto
for a few days in Feb. 1336, only to be driven out and to Kyūshū
Kyūshū
by the arrival of forces under Prince Takanaga , Prince Norinaga , Kitabatake Akiie and Yūki Munehiro . :43

Takauji and his brother were forced to retreat to the west. Takauji then allied himself with the clans native to Kyūshū. After defeating the Kikuchi clan
Kikuchi clan
at Hakata Bay
Hakata Bay
in the Battle of Tatarahama (1336) , Takauji was "virtually master of Kyushu". :44–47

His brother advanced simultaneously by land and both reached the environs of present-day Kobe in July. :48–50

At the decisive Battle of Minatogawa
Battle of Minatogawa
in 1336, Takauji defeated Yoshisada again and killed Masashige, allowing him to seize Kyoto
Kyoto
for good. Emperor Kōmyō
Emperor Kōmyō
of the illegitimate Northern Court
Northern Court
(see below) was installed as emperor by Takauji in opposition to the exiled Southern Court, beginning the turbulent Northern and Southern Court period (Nanboku-chō), which saw two emperors fight each other and which would last for almost 60 more years.

Besides other honors, Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
had given Takauji the title of Chinjufu Shogun
Shogun
, or Commander-in-chief of the Defense of the North, and the courtly title of the Fourth Rank, Junior Grade. His buddhist name was TOJIINDEN NIYAMA MYOGI DAI KOJI CHOJUJI-DONO (等持院殿仁山妙義大居士長寿寺殿).

FAMILY

* Father: Ashikaga Sadauji (1273-1331) * Mother: Uesugi Kiyoko (1270-1343)

* Siblings:

* Half-siblings: Ashikaga Takayoshi (1297-1317)

* Natural Siblings:

* Ashikaga Maagoro * Ashikaga Tadayoshi

* Wife: Akahashi Toshi (1306-1365)

* Concubines:

* Kako no Tsubone * Echizen no Tsubone

* Children:

* Ashikaga Tadafuyu (1327-1387) adopted by Ashikaga Tadayoshi by Echizen * Ashikaga Takewakamaru (d.1333) by Kako * Ashikaga Yoshiakira by Toshi * Ashikaga Motouji by Toshi * Tazuo by Toshi * Yoriko (d.1353) by Toshi * Seiomaru (1338-1345)

TIMELINE OF SHOGUNATE

Significant events which shaped the period during which Takauji was shogun are:

* 1338 – Takauji appointed shogun. * 1349 – Go-Murakami flees to A'no; Ashikaga Tadayoshi and Kō no Moronao quarrel; Ashikaga Motouji , son of Takauji, appointed Kamakura Kanrei * 1350 – Tadayoshi, excluded from administration, turns priest; Tadayoshi's adopted son, Ashikaga Tadafuyu is wrongly repudiated as a rebel. * 1351–1358 – Struggle for Kyoto. * 1351 – Tadayoshi joins Southern Court
Southern Court
, southern army takes Kyoto; truce, Takauji returns to Kyoto; Tadayoshi and Takauji reconciled; Kō no Moronao and Kō no Moroyasu are exiled. * 1352 – Tadayoshi dies, Southern army recaptures Kyoto; Nitta Yoshimune captures Kamakura; Ashikaga forces recapture Kamakura and Kyoto; Tadafuyu joins Southern Court; Yamana Tokiuji joins Tadafuyu. * 1353 – Kyoto
Kyoto
retaken by Southern forces under Yamana Tokiuji; retaken by Ashikaga forces. * 1354 – Takauji flees with Go-Kōgon ; Kitabatake Chikafusa
Kitabatake Chikafusa
dies.

* 1355 – Kyoto
Kyoto
taken by Southern army; Kyoto
Kyoto
retaken by Ashikaga forces. * 1358 – Takauji dies.

Takauji's son Ashikaga Yoshiakira succeeded him as shogun after his death. His grandson Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
united the Northern and Southern courts in 1392.

ERAS OF TAKAUJI\'S BAKUFU

Because of the anomalous situation, which he had himself created and which saw two Emperors reign simultaneously, one in Yoshino and one in Kyoto, the years in which Takauji was shogun as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
are identified in Japanese historical records by two different series of Japanese era names (nengō), that following the datation used by the legitimate Southern Court
Southern Court
and that formulated by the pretender Northern Court
Northern Court
.

* ERAS AS RECKONED BY THE SOUTHERN COURT (DECLARED LEGITIMATE BY A MEIJI ERA DECREE BECAUSE IN POSSESSION AT THE TIME OF THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL REGALIA ):

* Engen (1336–1340) * Kōkoku (1340–1346) * Shōhei
Shōhei
(1346–1370)

* ERAS AS RECKONED BY THE PRETENDER NORTHERN COURT (DECLARED ILLEGITIMATE BY A MEIJI ERA DECREE BECAUSE NOT IN POSSESSION AT THE TIME OF THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL REGALIA):

* Ryakuō (1338–1342) * Kōei (1342–1345) * Jōwa (1345–1350) * Kan'ō or Kannō (1350–1352) * Bunna (1352–1356) * Enbun (1356–1361)

LITERARY REFERENCES

The story of Ashikaga Takauji, Emperor Go-Daigo, Nitta Yoshisada, and Kusunoki Masashige
Kusunoki Masashige
from the Genko rebellion to the establishment of the Northern and Southern Courts is detailed in the 40 volume Muromachi period
Muromachi period
epic Taiheiki .

HONOURS

* Junior First Rank (9 July 1358; posthumous)

SEE ALSO

Media related to Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
at Wikimedia Commons

* Southern Court
Southern Court
* Northern Court
Northern Court

REFERENCES

* ^ His name had originally been written with the characters 高氏,but he later received from Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
the right to use those 尊氏, under which he would become famous. According to Sansom (1977:87), in contemporary chronicles he is rarely called with his name, but referred to as Ō-gosho (大御所, Great shogun) or Dainagon
Dainagon
(Great Councillor). * ^ "Ashikaga Takauji" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Inc. , 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 625. * ^ A B "Ashikaga Takauji". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC
OCLC
56431036 . Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-06-03. * ^ A B C Matsuo (1997:105) * ^ A B C D E F G Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0804705259 . * ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0026205408 . * ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 290., p. 290, at Google Books
Google Books
* ^ A B C D E F G H Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: the Tokushi Yoron, p. 329. * ^ Historiographical Institute: "Ashikaga Tadafuyu\'s Call to Arms," Dai Nihon shi-ryō, VI, xiv, 43. * ^ Titsingh, p. 304., p. 304, at Google Books
Google Books
* ^ Titsingh, pp. 290–304., p. 290, at Google Books
Google Books

ADDITIONAL READING

* Ackroyd, Joyce I. (1982) Lessons from History: the Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851 ; OCLC 7574544 * Matsuo, Kenji. (1997). 中世都市鎌倉をく: 源頼朝から上杉謙信まで (Chūsei toshi Kamakura o aruku: Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo kara Uesugi Kenshin made). Tokyo: Chūkō Shinsho. ISBN 9784121013927 ; OCLC
OCLC
38970710 * Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran ; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC
OCLC
585069

KENMU RESTORATION Shogun
Shogun
: Ashikaga Takauji 1338–1358 Succeeded by Ashikaga Yoshiakira

* v * t * e

Ashikaga family tree

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TAKAUJI (1) 1305–1338–1358

YOSHIAKIRA (2) 1330–1358-1367–1368

YOSHIMITSU (3) 1358–1367-1395–1408

YOSHIMOCHI (4) 1386–1395-1423–1428

YOSHIKAZU (5) 1407–1423–1425

YOSHINORI (6) 1394–1428–1441

YOSHIKATSU (7) 1433–1442–1443 Masatomo 1435–1491

YOSHIMASA (8) 1435–1449-1474–1490

YOSHIMI 1439–1491

YOSHIZUMI (11) 1478–1493-1508–1513

YOSHIHISA (9) 1465–1474–1489

YOSHITANE (10) 1465–1490-1493+1508-1521–1522

YOSHIHARU (12) 1510–1521-1545–1550

YOSHITSUNA 1509–1573

YOSHITERU (13) 1535–1545–1565 YOSHIAKI (15) 1537–1568-1573–1597

YOSHIHIDE (14) 1538–1564–1568

NOTES:

* ^ A B C D Yoshimasa's successors were Yoshihisa (son), Yoshitane (first adopted son) and Yoshizumi (second adopted son) * ^ The broken lines indicate adoptions within the shogunal clan

* v * t * e

Chronology, dates and paternity of the Ashikaga shoguns

Name ------------------------- Lived ------------------------- Reigned ------------------------- Son of -------------------------

1ST Takauji 1305–1358 1338–1358 Sadauji

2ND Yoshiakira 1330–1368 1358–1367 Takauji

3RD Yoshimitsu 1358–1408 1367–1395 Yoshiak