As of 2010
* English 74.1% * Spanish 19.5% * Navajo 1.9% * Other 4.5 %
LARGEST CITY Phoenix
LARGEST METRO Phoenix metropolitan area
AREA Ranked 6th
• TOTAL 113,990 sq mi (295,234 km2)
• WIDTH 310 miles (500 km)
• LENGTH 400 miles (645 km)
• % WATER 0.35
• LATITUDE 31° 20′ N to 37° N
• LONGITUDE 109° 03′ W to 114° 49′ W
POPULATION Ranked 14th
• TOTAL 6,931,071 (2016 est.)
• DENSITY 57/sq mi (22/km2) Ranked 33rd
• MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $52,248 (33rd)
• HIGHEST POINT Humphreys Peak 12,637 ft (3852 m)
• MEAN 4,100 ft (1250 m)
BEFORE STATEHOOD Arizona Territory
ADMISSION TO UNION February 14, 1912 (48th)
GOVERNOR Doug Ducey (R)
SECRETARY OF STATE Michele Reagan (R)
• UPPER HOUSE Senate
• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives
U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION 5 Republicans, 4 Democrats (list )
• MOST OF STATE Mountain : UTC -7 (no DST )
• NAVAJO NATION Mountain : UTC -7 /-6
ISO 3166 US-AZ
ABBREVIATIONS AZ , Ariz.
ARIZONA STATE SYMBOLS
_ The Flag of Arizona
The Seal of Arizona
AMPHIBIAN Arizona tree frog
BIRD Cactus wren
BUTTERFLY Two-tailed swallowtail
FISH Apache trout
FLOWER Saguaro cactus blossom
MAMMAL Ring-tailed cat
REPTILE Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake
TREE Palo verde
COLORS Blue, old gold
FIREARM Colt Single Action Army revolver
FOSSIL Petrified wood
MINERAL Fire agate
MOTTO Latin: Ditat Deus _ (God enriches)
ROCK Petrified wood
SHIP USS _Arizona_
SLOGAN _The Grand Canyon State_
SOIL Casa Grande
STATE ROUTE MARKER
Released in 2008
Saguaro cactus flowers and buds after a wet winter. This is Arizona's official state flower.
ARIZONA (/ɛərᵻˈzoʊnə, ærᵻ-/ (_ listen )) (Navajo : Hoozdo Hahoodzo_ ; O\'odham : _Alĭ ṣonak_ ) is a state in the southwestern region of the United States . It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix . Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico , Utah , Nevada , California , and Mexico , and one point in common with the southwestern corner of Colorado . Arizona's border with Mexico is 389 miles (626 km) long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California .
Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of _Alta California _ in New Spain , it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War , Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase .
Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir , and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau ; some mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains ); as well as large, deep canyons , with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff , Alpine , and Tucson . In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park , there are several national forests , national parks , and national monuments .
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes , including the Navajo Nation , the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations from voting until its state Supreme Court ruled in 1948 in favor of Native American plaintiffs.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography and geology
* 2.1 Earthquakes
* 3 Climate
* 4 History
* 4.1 20th century to present
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Race and ethnicity * 5.2 Languages * 5.3 Cities and towns * 5.4 Religion
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Employment * 6.2 Largest employers * 6.3 Taxation
* 7 Transportation
* 7.1 Highways
* 7.1.1 Interstate highways * 7.1.2 U.S. routes
* 7.2 Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus * 7.3 Aviation
* 8 Law and government
* 8.1 Capitol complex * 8.2 State legislative branch * 8.3 State executive branch * 8.4 State judicial branch * 8.5 Counties * 8.6 Federal representation * 8.7 Political culture * 8.8 Same-sex marriage
* 9 Education
* 10 Sports
* 10.1 College sports * 10.2 Baseball
* 11 Art and culture
* 11.1 Visual arts and museums * 11.2 Film * 11.3 Music
* 12 Miscellaneous topics
* 12.1 Notable people * 12.2 State symbols
* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, _Arizonac,_ derived from the O\'odham name _alĭ ṣonak_, meaning "small spring," which initially applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora . To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona". The area is still known as _alĭ ṣonak_ in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase _haritz ona_ ("the good oak"), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.
There is a misconception that the state's name originated from the Spanish term _Árida Zona_ ("Arid Zone").
GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
Main article: Geography of Arizona _ Köppen climate types of Arizona The Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado River . West Mitten at Monument Valley Blue Mesa at Petrified Forest National Park The Grand Canyon . San Francisco Peaks seen from Bellemont , Arizona Sonoran Desert at Saguaro National Park Cathedral Rock near Red Rock Crossing in Sedona See also lists of counties , islands , rivers , lakes , state parks , national parks , national forests , and volcanic craters ._
Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area , ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada . Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations.
Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus . This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism , followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence . Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests ).
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains and plateaus. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany. The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.
The Mogollon Rim , a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment , cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire , the worst fire in state history.
Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River . The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park —one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth 's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.
Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as " Meteor Crater ") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow . A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, and 570 feet (170 m) deep.
Arizona is one of two U.S. states that does not observe Daylight Saving Time (the other being Hawaii ). The exception is within the large Navajo Nation (which observes Daylight Saving Time), in the state's northeastern region.
Generally, Arizona is at low risk of earthquakes, except for the southwestern portion which is at moderate risk due to its proximity to Southern California. On the other hand, Northern Arizona is at moderate risk due to numerous faults in the area. The regions near and west of Phoenix have the lowest risk.
The earliest Arizona earthquakes were recorded at Fort Yuma , on the California side of the Colorado River . They were centered near the Imperial Valley, or Mexico , back in the 1800s. Residents in Douglas felt the 1887 Sonora earthquake with its epicenter 40 miles to the south in the Mexican state of Sonora . The first damaging earthquake known to be centered within Arizona occurred on January 25, 1906, also including a series of other earthquakes centered near Socorro, New Mexico . The shock was violent in Flagstaff.
In September 1910, a series of fifty-two earthquakes caused a construction crew near Flagstaff to leave the area. In 1912, the year Arizona achieved statehood, on August 18, an earthquake caused a 50-mile crack in the San Francisco Range . In early January 1935, the state experienced a series of earthquakes, in the Yuma area and near the Grand Canyon . Arizona experienced its largest earthquake in 1959, with a tremor of a magnitude 5.6. It was centered near Fredonia , in the state's northwest near the border with Utah . The tremor was felt across the border in Nevada and Utah.
Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.
About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90–120 °F (32–49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area. Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.
Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 feet. The swings can be as large as 83 °F (28 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.
Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm), which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer. The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor . Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C) have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning , thunderstorms , wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods , which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law . It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona.
Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts.
Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix ), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff ).
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona LOCATION JULY (°F) JULY (°C) DECEMBER (°F) DECEMBER (°C)
Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7
Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4
Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8
Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/–8
Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/–5
Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0
For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam , Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year.
The first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza , a Spanish Franciscan , in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri . The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola .
Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus (" Jesuits "), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora ) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded _presidios_ ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775.
When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of _Nueva California,_ ("New California"), also known as _Alta California _ ("Upper California"). Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area, with much deeper roots than later European-American migrants from the United States. Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwestern-most state.
During the Mexican–American War (1847-1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$ 15 million dollars in compensation (equivalent to $415,211,538.46 in 2016.) be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853 the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway. Arizona was administered as part of the larger Territory of New Mexico , established 1850, until southern New Mexico Territory seceded from the Union of the United States during the American Civil War and was set up as the Confederate Territory of Arizona on March 16, 1861. Geronimo (far right) and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers
Arizona was recognized as a Confederate Territory by presidential proclamation of Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862, and sent a delegate to the Confederate States Congress in Richmond . This is the first official use of the name "Arizona". Arizona supported the Confederate cause with men, horses, and supplies. Formed in 1862, Arizona Scout Companies fought with the Confederate States Army throughout the war. Arizona has the westernmost recorded engagement of the war, in the Battle of Picacho Pass .
The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory , consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C. , on February 24, 1863. These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.
Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma", and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory, when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona," and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley . It was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona.")
Brigham Young , patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah , sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa , Snowflake , Heber , Safford , and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe , Prescott , and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory . Children of Depression -era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937
20TH CENTURY TO PRESENT
During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, numerous Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa 's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Americans won the latter.
After U.S. soldiers were fired on by Mexican federal troops, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico . The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars , which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico.
Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted. Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center, April 23, 1943
Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression . But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).
Arizona was the site of German POW camps during World War II and Japanese-American internment camps. Because of wartime fears of Japanese invasion of the West Coast, the government authorized the removal of all Japanese-American residents from western Washington, western Oregon, all of California, and western Arizona. From 1942 to 1945, they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses in the process. The camps were abolished after World War II.
The Phoenix-area German POW site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo . A Japanese-American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon , just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County .
Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School , one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.
Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin , of the Mojave- Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation , brought a legal suit, _Harrison and Austin v. Laveen ,_ to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.
Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning , which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the _ Arizona Blue Book_ (published by the Arizona Secretary of State 's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter.
In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These were special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens; they attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast . Sun City , established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley , south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the U.S. and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds .
In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office. In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley . Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.
Three ships named USS _Arizona_ have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS _Arizona_ (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.
Main article: Demographics of Arizona A population density map of Arizona.
EST. 2015 6,828,065
Sources: 1910–2010 2015 estimate Note that early censuses may not include Native Americans in Arizona
Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century. The 1860 census reported the population of " Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white". Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply. As of 2011, 61.3% of Arizona's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.
The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada ). As of January 2012, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.3 million.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.
Metropolitan Phoenix (4.3 million) and Tucson (1 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.
RACE AND ETHNICITY
In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 16.2% Hispanic, 5.6% Native American, and 74.5% non-Hispanic white. In 2010, the racial makeup of the state was:
* 73.0% White * 4.6% Native American and Alaska Native * 4.1% Black or African American * 2.8% Asian * 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander * 11.9% from some other race * 3.4% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population. Non-Hispanic whites formed 57.8% of the total population.
Arizona racial breakdown of population RACIAL COMPOSITION 1970 1990 2000 2010
White 90.6% 80.8% 75.5% 73.0%
Native 5.4% 5.5% 5.0% 4.6%
Black 3.0% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1%
Asian 0.5% 1.5% 1.8% 2.8%
Other race 0.5% 9.1% 11.6% 11.9%
Two or more races – – 2.9% 3.4%
Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2009, were:
* Mexican (27.4%); * German (16.0%); * Irish (10.8%); * English (10.1%); * Italian (4.6%).
TOP 10 NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN ARIZONA LANGUAGE Percentage of population (as of 2010)
Chinese (including Mandarin ) 0.39%
Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona ) 0.27%
As of 2010, 72.90% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language , while 20.80% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish , 1.48% (85,602) Navajo , 0.39% (22,592) German , 0.39% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin ), 0.33% (19,015) Tagalog , 0.30% (17,603) Vietnamese , 0.27% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona ), and French was spoken as a main language by 0.26% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27.10% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.
Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as over 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo , and 10,403 people reported Apache , as a language spoken at home in 2005. Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.
CITIES AND TOWNS
View of suburban development in Scottsdale , 2006 Art Deco doors, Cochise County Courthouse, Bisbee, AZ See also: List of localities in Arizona , List of cities in Arizona (by population) , and List of Arizona counties
Phoenix , located in Maricopa County , is the capital and the largest city in Arizona. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (the third largest city in Arizona), Chandler (the fourth largest city in Arizona), Glendale , Peoria , Buckeye , Sun City , Sun City West , Fountain Hills , Surprise , Gilbert , El Mirage , Avondale , Tempe , Tolleson and Scottsdale , with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.3 million. It has an average July high temperature of 106 °F (41 °C), one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal.
Tucson , with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. It is located in Pima County , approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix. Tucson was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona . Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C). Saguaro National Park , just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains , is the locale of the largest collection of Saguaro cacti in the world.
The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood , Camp Verde and numerous other towns spread out over the 8,123 square miles (21,000 km2) of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns forms the third largest metropolitan area in the state. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).
Yuma is center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County , it is near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C).) The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.
Flagstaff , in Coconino County , is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks , the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contain Humphreys Peak , the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park , Sedona , and Oak Creek Canyon . Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east-west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University .
Lake Havasu City , in Mohave County , known as "Arizona's playground," was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge , relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963. It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.
* v * t * e
Largest cities or towns in Arizona Source:
RANK NAME COUNTY POP.
Tucson 1 Phoenix Maricopa 1,445,632
2 Tucson Pima 520,116
3 Mesa Maricopa 439,041
4 Chandler Maricopa 236,123
5 Glendale Maricopa 226,721
6 Scottsdale Maricopa 217,385
7 Gilbert Maricopa 208,453
8 Tempe Maricopa 161,719
9 Peoria Maricopa 154,065
10 Surprise Maricopa 117,517
The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac , founded in 1700.
As of the year 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 410,263 members reported and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregations ) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).
Religious affiliation in Arizona (2014) AFFILIATION % OF ARIZONA POPULATION
Christian 67 67
Protestant 39 39
Evangelical Protestant 26 26
Mainline Protestant 12 12
Black church 1 1
Catholic 21 21
Mormon 5 5
Jehovah\'s Witnesses 1 1
Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5
Other Christian 0.5 0.5
Unaffiliated 27 27
Nothing in particular 19 19
Agnostic 4 4
Atheist 3 3
Non-Christian faiths 6 6
Jewish 2 2
Muslim 1 1
Buddhist 1 1
Hindu 1 1
Other non-Christian faiths 0.5 0.5
Don't know/refused answer 0.5 0.5
TOTAL 100 100
The 2011 total gross state product was $259 billion. This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland , Finland , and New Zealand . The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.
The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see _ Copper mining in Arizona _), cotton, cattle, citrus , and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.
The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with over 39,000 employees (2016). As of March 2016 , the state's unemployment rate was 5.4%.
The top employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2014, excludes agriculture):
SECTOR EMPLOYEES (THOUSANDS)
Trade, transportation, and utilities 488.6
Education and health services 392.1
Professional and business services 384.2
Leisure and hospitality 286.4
Financial activities 193.2
Other services 88.2
Mining and logging 13.7
According to _ The Arizona Republic _, the largest private employers in the state as of 2016 were:
RANK COMPANY EMPLOYEES INDUSTRY
1 Banner Health 39,781 Health care
2 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 34,856 Discount retailer
3 Kroger Co. 16,856 Grocery stores
4 McDonald\'s Corp. 15,781 Food service
6 Albertsons Inc. 14,490 Grocery stores , retail drugstores
8 HonorHealth 10,600 Health care
Home Depot Inc. 10,000 Retail home improvement
13 Raytheon Co. 9,600 Defense (missile manufacturing)
14 JP Morgan Chase & Co. 9,500 Financial services
15 Bashas\' Supermarkets 8,525 Grocery stores
16 Target Corp. 8,241 Discount retailer
17 Freeport-McMoRan Copper however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.
The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel ) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.
All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.
SINGLE TAX RATE JOINT TAX RATE
0 – $10,000 2.590% 0 – $20,000 2.590%
$10,000 – $25,000 2.880% $20,001 – $50,000 2.880%
$25,000 – $50,000 3.360% $50,001 – $100,000 3.360%
$50,000 – $150,001 4.240% $100,000 – $300,001 4.240%
$150,001 + 4.540% $300,001 + 4.540%
I-8 I-10 Future I-11 I-15 I‑17 I‑19 I-40
US 60 US 64 US 70 US 89 US 91 US 93 US 95 US 160 US 163 US 180 US 191
Main interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north-south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east-west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101 , which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system .
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, AMTRAK, AND INTERCITY BUS
The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide. A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley
A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail , was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe.
In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar , launched in July 2014.
Amtrak _ Southwest Chief _ route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow , Flagstaff , Williams and Kingman . The _ Texas Eagle _ and _ Sunset Limited _ routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson , Maricopa , Yuma and Benson . Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the discontinuation of the _Desert Wind _, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa.
See also: List of airports in Arizona
Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.
Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
Main article: Government of Arizona See also: Arizona Constitution , United States congressional delegations from Arizona , List of Arizona Governors , Political party strength in Arizona , and Arizona Revised Statutes
The Arizona State Capitol , Phoenix
The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix . The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.
The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.
The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza , named after Wesley Bolin , a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS _Arizona_ (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor ) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments .
STATE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska ) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives . Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.
Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns _sine die_ (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.
The current majority party is the Republican Party , which has held power in both houses since 1993.
Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.
The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.
STATE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
STATE OF ARIZONA ELECTED OFFICIALS
GOVERNOR Doug Ducey (R)
SECRETARY OF STATE Michele Reagan (R)
ATTORNEY GENERAL Mark Brnovich (R)
STATE TREASURER Jeff DeWit (R)
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION Diane Douglas (R)
STATE MINE INSPECTOR Joe Hart (R)
Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor , who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor's mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The current governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey (R).
Former Governor Jan Brewer assumed office after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate . Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state.
Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State , State Treasurer , State Attorney General , Superintendent of Public Instruction , State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission . All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to 4 terms ).
Arizona is one of seven states that do not have a specified lieutenant governor . The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. The line of succession also includes the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have risen to Arizona's governorship through these means.
STATE JUDICIAL BRANCH
The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona. The court currently consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated _en banc _. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).
The Arizona Court of Appeals , further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.
Each county of Arizona has a superior court , the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.
Arizona is divided into political jurisdictions designated as _counties _. As of 1983 there were 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2).
COUNTY NAME COUNTY SEAT YEAR FOUNDED 2010 POPULATION PERCENT OF TOTAL AREA (SQ. MI.) PERCENT OF TOTAL
Apache St. Johns 1879 71,518 1.12 % 11,218 9.84 %
Cochise Bisbee 1881 131,346 2.05 % 6,219 5.46 %
Coconino Flagstaff 1891 134,421 2.10 % 18,661 16.37 %
Gila Globe 1881 53,597 0.84 % 4,796 4.21 %
Graham Safford 1881 37,220 0.58 % 4,641 4.07 %
Greenlee Clifton 1909 8,437 0.13 % 1,848 1.62 %
La Paz Parker 1983 20,489 0.32 % 4,513 3.96 %
Maricopa Phoenix 1871 3,817,117 59.72 % 9,224 8.09 %
Mohave Kingman 1864 200,186 3.13 % 13,470 11.82 %
Navajo Holbrook 1895 107,449 1.68 % 9,959 8.74 %
Pima Tucson 1864 980,263 15.34 % 9,189 8.06 %
Pinal Florence 1875 375,770 5.88 % 5,374 4.71 %
Santa Cruz Nogales 1899 47,420 0.74 % 1,238 1.09 %
Yavapai Prescott 1864 211,033 3.30 % 8,128 7.13 %
Yuma Yuma 1864 195,751 3.06 % 5,519 4.84 %
As of the start of the 115th Congress , Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O\'Halleran (D-1), Martha McSally (R-2), Raul Grijalva (D-3), Paul Gosar (R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert (R-6), Ruben Gallego (D-7), Trent Franks (R-8), and Kyrsten Sinema (D-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010 .
Presidential elections results YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC
2016 49.15% _1,240,656_ 45.35% _1,144,709_
2012 53.65% _1,233,654_ 44.59% _1,025,232_
2008 53.60% _1,230,111_ 45.12% _1,034,707_
2004 54.87% _1,104,294_ 44.40% _893,524_
2000 50.95% _781,652_ 44.67% _685,341_
1996 44.29% _622,073_ 46.52% _653,288_
1992 38.47% _572,086_ 36.52% 543,050
1988 59.95% _702,541_ 38.74% _454,029_
1984 66.42% _681,416_ 32.54% _333,854_
1980 60.61% _529,688_ 28.24% _246,843_
1976 56.37% _418,642_ 39.80% _295,602_
1972 61.64% _402,812_ 30.38% _198,540_
1968 54.78% _266,721_ 35.02% _170,514_
1964 50.45% _242,535_ 49.45% _237,753_
1960 55.52% _221,241_ 44.36% _176,781_
VOTER REGISTRATION AND PARTY ENROLLMENT AS OF OCTOBER 28, 2016
PARTY NUMBER OF VOTERS PERCENTAGE
Republican 1,239,614 34.54%
Independent 1,219,297 33.98%
Democratic 1,091,323 30.41%
Libertarian Party 31,358 0.87%
Green Party 6,894 0.19%
TOTAL 3,588,466 100%
From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party . During this time period, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, with the only exceptions being the elections of 1920 , 1924 and 1928 —all three of which were national Republican landslides.
In 1924 Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship." This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court, following a suit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation . The landmark case is _Harrison and Austin v. Laveen ._ After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County, they filed suit against the registrar. The National Congress of American Indians , the Department of Justice , the Department of the Interior , and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed _amicus curiae_ (friends of the court) briefs in the case. The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population. That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court. These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.
Since the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952, the majority of state voters have favored Republicans in presidential elections. Arizona voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992, with Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan winning the state by particularly large margins. During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once.
Democrat Lyndon Johnson , in 1964 , lost the state by less than 5,000 votes to Arizona Senator and native Barry Goldwater . (This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.) Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996 , when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992 ). Since then, the majority of the state has continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins.
Since the late 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats," or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections. Two of the last five governors have been Democrats.
Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa and Pima —home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.
Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.
In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.
Arizona rejected a same-sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples. In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102 , an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.
In 2010, Arizona passed SB 1070 , called the toughest illegal immigration legislation in the nation. A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of the law.
The United States Supreme Court heard arguments March 18, 2013, regarding the validity of the Arizona law, which requires individuals to show documents proving U.S. citizenship in order to register to vote in national elections.
A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found that 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure. Arizona Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56.2%–43%. It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.
On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced that his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102. On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage.
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education ) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.
Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.
Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott and Prescott College are Arizona's only non-profit four-year private colleges.
Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges . These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.
PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN ARIZONA
* Arizona State University , (Sun Devils ) Tempe/Phoenix/Mesa * Northern Arizona University , (Lumberjacks ) Flagstaff/Yuma/Prescott * University of Arizona , (Wildcats ) Tucson/Sierra Vista, M.D. college in downtown Phoenix and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma/Maricopa
PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN ARIZONA
* American Indian College * Apollo College * Argosy University * Arizona Christian University * Art Center College of Design * Art Institute of Tucson * Art Institute of Phoenix * A.T. Still University * Brookline College * Brown Mackie College * Collins College * Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University * Grand Canyon University * International Baptist College
* Midwestern University * Northcentral University * Ottawa University * University of Phoenix * Penn Foster College * Phoenix School of Law * Prescott College * Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine * Thunderbird School of Global Management * University of Advancing Technology * Western Governors University * Western International University
* Arizona Western College * Central Arizona College * Cochise College * Coconino Community College * Diné College * Eastern Arizona College * Chandler-Gilbert Community College * Estrella Mountain Community College * GateWay Community College * Glendale Community College
* Maricopa County Community College District * Mesa Community College * Mohave Community College * Northland Pioneer College * Paradise Valley Community College * Phoenix College * Pima Community College * Rio Salado Community College * Scottsdale Community College * South Mountain Community College * Yavapai College
Main article: Sports in Arizona
Professional sports teams in Arizona include:
CLUB SPORT LEAGUE CHAMPIONSHIPS
Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour , most notably the Phoenix Open , held at the TPC of Scottsdale , and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana .
Auto racing is another sport known in the state. Phoenix International Raceway in Avondale is home to NASCAR race weekends twice a year. Firebird International Raceway near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events.
College sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats belong to the Pac-12 Conference while the Northern Arizona Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference and the Grand Canyon Antelopes compete for in the Western Athletic Conference . The rivalry between Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA . The Territorial Cup , first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football, is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools.
Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games . The Fiesta Bowl , originally held at Sun Devil Stadium , is now held at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale . The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff (CFP). University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games . A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park .
Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training , as it is the site of the Cactus League . Spring training was first started in Arizona in 1947, when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went onto purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946. He decided to train the Cleveland Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus the Cactus League was born.
On March 9, 1995, Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League.
Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, one National League Championship pennant, and the 2001 World Series .
ART AND CULTURE
VISUAL ARTS AND MUSEUMS
See also: List of museums in Arizona
Phoenix Art Museum , located on the historic Central Avenue corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest's largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography ; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.
Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The Heard Museum , also located in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls , and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.
Sedona , Jerome , and Tubac are known as a budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.
Several major Hollywood films, such as _ Billy Jack _, _U Turn _, _ Waiting to Exhale _, _ Just One of the Guys _, _Can\'t Buy Me Love _, _Bill "> Standin\' on the Corner Park and mural in Winslow, Arizona
"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay . Arizona is mentioned by the hit song " Take It Easy ", written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey and performed by the Eagles . Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California grass." "Carefree Highway ", released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot , takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix.
Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms , Chronic Future , Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers , Jimmy Eat World , Caroline\'s Spine , and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA , The Feederz , Sun City Girls , The Meat Puppets , The Maine , The Summer Set , and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer .
Arizona also has many singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona . Chester Bennington , the lead vocalist of Linkin Park , and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix . One of Arizona's better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper , who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan , the lead singer of the bands Tool , A Perfect Circle , and Puscifer , calls the town of Cornville his current home.
Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins , folk singer Katie Lee , Fleetwood Mac 's Stevie Nicks , CeCe Peniston , Rex Allen , 2007 _American Idol _ winner Jordin Sparks , and Linda Ronstadt .
Arizona is also known for its heavy metal scene, which is centered in and around Phoenix. In the early to mid-1990s, it included bands such as Job for a Cowboy , Knights of the Abyss , Greeley Estates , Eyes Set To Kill , blessthefall , The Word Alive , The Dead Rabbitts , and Abigail Williams . The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth lived in Phoenix for about a decade. Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov and Dead Canyon.
American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona. The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.
Main article: List of people from Arizona
Some notable Arizonans involved in politics and government include:
* Former Arizona Governor Jan Brewer * Former Surgeon General of the United States Richard Carmona * Former United States Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters * Former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O\'Connor * Former Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist * Former U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini * Former Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio * Former Graham County Sheriff Richard Mack * National Education Association President Dennis Van Roekel * Junior Republican Senator Jon Kyl , former Senate Minority Whip . * Presidential candidate (2000, 2008) and Senior Republican Senator John McCain * Presidential candidate (1964) and former U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater * Former Governor, Secretary of the Interior, and Presidential candidate (1988) Bruce Babbitt * Presidential candidate (1976) and former Arizona congressman Mo Udall and his brother Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall * Former U.S. Senator Carl Hayden * Former United States Solicitor General Rex E. Lee . * Former Governor and Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama Administration Janet Napolitano * Former State Senator Jack Taylor also served as mayor of Mesa and was for one two-year term a member of the Arizona House of Representatives.
Arizona notables in culture and the arts include:
* Labor leader and civil rights pioneer Cesar Estrada Chavez was from San Luis, near Yuma * Actress Emma Stone is from Scottsdale * Actress Gail Edwards resides in Sedona * Author Zane Grey * Architect Frank Lloyd Wright * Disc sports ( Frisbee ) pioneer Ken Westerfield currently lives in Bisbee * Film director Steven Spielberg was raised in Phoenix and attended Arcadia High School * Actor David Spade was raised in Scottsdale and graduated from Arizona State University * Actress Lynda Carter , star of _Wonder Woman _, is from Phoenix and attended Arizona State University * Horse owner and trainer Bob Baffert . * Musicians Chester Bennington of Linkin Park (Phoenix), Alice Cooper (Phoenix), Stevie Nicks of Fleetwood Mac (Phoenix), (Jerome), Linda Ronstadt (Tucson), Michelle Branch (Sedona), Nate Ruess of Fun. (Glendale) * Musicians in the bands Meat Puppets (Phoenix/Tempe), Authority Zero (Mesa), Gin Blossoms (Tempe), Chronic Future (Scottsdale), Jimmy Eat World (Mesa), The Format (Glendale), Stellar Kart (Phoenix), Malignus Youth (Sierra Vista), and Job for a Cowboy (Glendale). * Poet Jim Simmerman of Flagstaff * Frederick Sommer , an artist/photographer, moved to Tucson in 1931 and lived in Prescott from 1935 to 1999 * Rancher and political insider John G.F. Speiden – Jay Six Ranch * Author Diana Gabaldon mostly known for Outlander was born in and resides in Arizona * Musician Zella Day is originally from Pinetop, Arizona
* Arizona state amphibian: Arizona treefrog (Hyla eximia_) * Arizona state bird: cactus wren (_Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus_) * Arizona state butterfly: two-tailed swallowtail (_Papilio multicaudata_) * Arizona state colors: federal blue and old gold * Arizona state fish: Apache trout (_Oncorhynchus apache_) * Arizona state flag: Flag of the State of Arizona * Arizona state flower: saguaro blossom (_Carnegiea gigantea_) * Arizona state fossil: petrified wood * Arizona state gemstone: turquoise * Arizona state mammal: ring-tailed cat (_Bassariscus astutus_) * Arizona state motto: _ Ditat Deus _ (Latin God enriches) * Arizona state neckwear: bolo tie * Arizona state reptile: Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake (_Crotalus willardi_) * Arizona state seal: Great Seal of the State of Arizona * Arizona state slogan: Grand Canyon State * Arizona state songs: " Arizona March Song" (by Margaret Rowe Clifford) and "Arizona" (by Rex Allen, Jr.) * Arizona state tree: palo verde (_Parkinsonia_) * Arizona state gun: Colt Single Action Army revolver
* Arizona portal
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* ^ _A_ _B_ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived December 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . "Table 17. Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990". (PDF) * ^ Population of Arizona: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts * ^ 2010 Census Data * ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. " Arizona – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2007–2009". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved December 28, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Arizona". Modern Language Association . Retrieved October 15, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ 2005 American Community Survey. Retrieved from the data of the MLA, July 13, 2010 * ^ Arizona has most Indian language speakers. upi.com Accessed December 12, 2011. * ^ _Phoenix Business Journal,_ September 2, 2011, page 4 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 23, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2015. * ^ "Home Colleges at Lake Havasu". Havasu.asu.edu. Retrieved September 9, 2016. * ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- Place, 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 2, 2012. * ^ "LDS Facts and Statistics USA-Arizona". _ Mormon Newsroom_. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State membership Report". www.Thearda.com. Retrieved November 7, 2013. * ^ "Facts and Statistics USA-Arizona". _lds.org_. Retrieved April 30, 2012. * ^ "Adults in Arizona – Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. Retrieved September 9, 2016. * ^ "News Release" (PDF). Retrieved December 28, 2011. * ^ " Arizona Economy at a Glance". Bls.gov. 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Archived October 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Voter Registration Statistics" (PDF). Arizona Secretary of State Elections Bureau. Retrieved November 7, 2016. * ^ " Arizona stands alone against marriage ban – Queer Lesbian Gay News". Gay.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2010. * ^ Ban on gay unions solidly supported in most of Arizona Archived November 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Archibold, Randal C. (April 23, 2010). " Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration". _The New York Times_. Retrieved December 28, 2011. * ^ "High court to weigh Arizona voter registration case". Reuters. March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013. * ^ AZ pro-civil unions, remembers Goldwater fondly * ^ College Navigator – Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education * ^ College Navigator – Four-Year Schools in Arizona National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education * ^ 2002 Legislature – HB 2710, which later became ARS 15-1444 * ^ "AZ Private Postsecondary Institutions". Azhighered.org. Retrieved September 9, 2016. * ^ Knauer, Tom (November 22, 2006). "What is the Territorial Cup?". The Wildcat Online. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2007. * ^ _Official 2007 NCAA Division I Football Records Book_ (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008. * ^ http://www.azcentral.com/community/mesa/articles/2009/07/13/20090713mr-buckhorn0715ASF.html * ^ _Crawdaddy_ (April 1975). Missing or empty title= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "Mary Peters". http://ntl.bts.gov/. Retrieved September 9, 2013. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ "Sandra Day O\'Connor". .law.cornell.edu. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "William Rehnquist". Directory of Federal Judges. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Dennis DeConcini". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Dennis Van Roekel". National Education Association. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Jon Kyl". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "John McCain". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Barry Goldwater". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Bruce Babbitt". The Washington Post Company. December 15, 1999. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Rex E. Lee". _Deseret News_. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Janet Napolitano". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved September 9, 2013. * ^ "Jerald Jackson Taylor". apnewsarchive.com. April 3, 1995. Retrieved July 31, 2015. * ^ Carter, Julie Meka. " Apache Trout Recovery: A Wildlife Success Story". _Wildlife & Conservation_. Arizona Game and Fish Department. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013. * ^ Kids\' Page – Arizona State Songs * ^ " Arizona Gets an Official State Gun – And It\'s Manufactured in Connecticut". Retrieved April 15, 2017.
* Bayless, Betsy, 1998, _ Arizona Blue Book, 1997–1998._ Phoenix, Arizona. * McIntyre, Allan J., 2008, _The Tohono O\'odham and Pimeria Alta._ Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5633-8 ). * Miller, Tom (editor), 1986, _Arizona: The Land and the People._ University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-1004-7 ). * Officer, James E., 1987, _Hispanic Arizona, 1536–1856._ University of Arizona Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-0981-2 ). * Thomas, David M. (editor), 2003, _ Arizona Legislative Manual._ In _Arizona_ Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16, 2006. * Trimble, Marshall, 1998, _Arizona, A Cavalcade of History._ Treasure Chest Publications, Tucson, Arizona. (ISBN 978-0-918080-43-1 ). * Woosley, Anne I., 2008, _Early Tucson._ Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5646-8 ).
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