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The Arbëreshë (Albanian pronunciation: [ar'bəreʃ], Albanian: Arbëreshët e Italisë or Shqiptrarët e Italisë), also known as Albanians
Albanians
of Italy
Italy
or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnic and linguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the region of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Molise
Molise
and Sicily.[5] They are the descendants of mostly Tosk Albanian
Tosk Albanian
refugees, who fled from Albania
Albania
between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries in consequence of the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans. During the Middle Ages, the Arbëreshë settled in Southern Italy
Italy
in several waves of migration, following the establishment of the Kingdom of Albania, the death of the Albanian national hero Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu and the gradual conquest of Albania
Albania
and the Byzantine Empire by the Ottomans. Their culture is determined by the main features that are found in language, religion, traditions, customs, art and gastronomy, still zealously preserved, with the awareness of belonging to a specific ethnic group. Over the centuries, the Arbëreshë have managed to maintain and develop their identities, thanks to their cultural value exercised mainly by the two religious communities of the Byzantine Rite based in Calabria, the Corsini College in 1732 then Corsini Adriano College of San Benedetto Ullano
San Benedetto Ullano
in 1794 and the Arbëreshë Seminary of Palermo
Palermo
in 1735, which was then transferred to Piana degli Albanesi in 1945.[6] Nowadays, most of the fifty Arbëreshë communities are adherents to the Italo-Albanian Church, an Eastern Catholic Church. They belong to two eparchies, the Lungro, for the Arbëreshë of Continental Italy, the Piana degli Albanesi, for the Arbëreshë of Sicily, and the Monastery of Grottaferrata, whose Basilian monks
Basilian monks
come largely from the Albanian settlements of Italy. The church is the most important organization for the maintenance of the characteristic religious, ethnic, linguistic and traditional identity of the Arbëreshë community. The Arbëreshë speak Arbëresh, an old variant of Albanian spoken in Southern Albania
Albania
that is known as Tosk
Tosk
Albanian. The language is of particular interest to students of the modern Albanian language
Albanian language
as it represents the sounds, grammar and vocabulary of pre-Ottoman Albania. In Italy, the Arbëreshë language
Arbëreshë language
is protected by law number 482/99, concerning the protection of the historic linguistic minorities.[7] The Arbëreshë are scattered throughout southern Italy
Italy
and Sicily
Sicily
and in small numbers also in other parts of Italy. They are in great numbers in North and Latin America, especially in the USA, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Canada. It is estimated that the Albanians
Albanians
of Italy
Italy
are about 100,000 (400,000 considering those outside the community and origin moved from Italy) and constitute one of the oldest and largest minorities in Italy. The Italo- Albanians
Albanians
they identify in the paper Italians
Italians
the adoption, but original Albanians
Albanians
in spirit and identity.[8] When speaking about their "nation", Arbëresh use the term Arbëria, a loose geographical term for the scattered villages in southern Italy
Italy
which use Arbëresh language. They are proud of their Albanian ethnicity, identity and culture,[9] but also identify themselves as Italian nationals, since they have lived in Italy
Italy
for hundreds of years.[8] Today, in the light of historical events, the secular continuity of the Albanian presence in Italy
Italy
is an aspect of exceptionality in the history of the peoples. Since 2017, with the subscription of the Republic of Albania
Albania
and Kosovo, an official application for inclusion of the Arbëresh people has been submitted to the UNESCO
UNESCO
List as a living human and social immaterial patrimony of humanity.[10][11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ethnonym 1.2 Early migrations 1.3 Later migrations

2 Distribution 3 Language

3.1 Literature

3.1.1 Early Arbëreshë literature 3.1.2 Romantic poets of 19th century 3.1.3 Contemporary literature

3.2 Protection of language

4 Culture

4.1 Traditions and Folklore 4.2 Costume 4.3 Cuisine 4.4 Religion

5 Notable Arbëreshë people

5.1 History and Politics 5.2 Science and Academia 5.3 Business and Civil Society 5.4 Entertainment 5.5 Sports

6 Video 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 External links 10 References

History[edit] Ethnonym[edit] Main article: Names of the Albanians
Albanians
and Albania In the Middle Ages, the native Albanians
Albanians
in the area of Albania
Albania
called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë.[12][13] In the sixteenth century, the toponym Shqipëria and the demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh respectively. Nowadays, only the Albanians
Albanians
in Italy, whose ancestors immigrated from the Middle Ages, are called Arbëresh and the language Arbërisht. The term Arbëreshë is also used for calling themselves by the Arvanites
Arvanites
in Greece. Early migrations[edit]

Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
led 2,500 Albanian soldiers into the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
in 1458[14]

The Battle of Torvioll
Battle of Torvioll
in 1444 was the first confrontation between Skanderbeg's Albanians
Albanians
and the Ottoman Turks

The Arbëreshë, between the 11th and 14th centuries, moved in small groups towards central and southern Albania
Albania
and the north and south of Greece
Greece
(Thessaly, Corinth, Peloponnesus, Attica) where they founded colonies. Their military skill made them favorite mercenaries of the Franks, Catalans, Italians
Italians
and Byzantines. The invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
by the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century forced many Arbëreshë to emigrate from Albania
Albania
and Epirus to the south of Italy. There were several waves of migrations. Indeed, in 1448, the King of Naples
Naples
Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso V of Aragon
appealed to Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
in suppressing a revolt at Naples. Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
sent a force under the leadership of Demetrio Reres, and his two sons. Following a request of Albanian soldiers, King Alfonso granted land to them and they were settled in twelve villages in the mountainous area called Catanzaro
Catanzaro
in 1448. A year later the sons of Demetrio, George and Basil along with other Albanians
Albanians
were settled in four villages in the region of Sicily.[15] In 1459, the son of Alfonso, king Ferdinand I of Naples
Naples
again requested the help of Skanderbeg. This time, the legendary leader himself came to Italy
Italy
with his troops ruled by one of his general Luca Baffa, to end a French-supported insurrection. Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
was appointed as the leader of the combined Neapolitan-Albanian army and, after victories in two decisive battles, the Albanian soldiers effectively defended Naples. This time they were rewarded with land east of Taranto in Apulia, populating 15 other villages.[16] After the death of Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
in 1468, the organized Albanian resistance against the Ottomans came to an end. Like much of the Balkans, Albania
Albania
became subject to the invading Turks. Many of its people under the rule of Luca Baffa and Marco Becci fled to the neighboring countries and settled in a few villages in Calabria. From the time of Skanderbeg's death until 1480 there were constant migrations of Albanians
Albanians
to the Italian coast. Throughout the 16th century, these migrations continued and other Albanian villages were formed on Italian soil.[17] The new immigrants often took up work as mercenaries hired by the Italian armies. Another wave of emigration, between 1500 and 1534, relates to Arbëreshë from central Greece. Employed as mercenaries by Venice, they had to evacuate the colonies of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
with the assistance of the troops of Charles V, as the Turks had invaded that region. Charles V established these troops in Italy
Italy
of the South to reinforce defense against the threat of Turkish invasion. Established in insular villages (which enabled them to maintain their culture until the 20th century), Arbëreshë were, traditionally, soldiers for the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
and the Republic of Venice, from the Wars of Religion to the Napoleonic invasion. Later migrations[edit] The wave of migration from southern Italy
Italy
to the Americas
Americas
in 1900–1910 and 1920–1940 depopulated approximately half of the Arbëreshë villages, and subjected the population to the risk of cultural disappearance, despite the beginning of a cultural and artistic revival in the 19th century. Since the end of communism in Albania
Albania
in 1990, there has been a wave of immigration into Arbëreshë villages by Albanians.[citation needed]

Ethnographic map: 1859 depicting the Albanian population in green

Albanian ethno-linguistic territories

Distribution[edit]

The regions of Italy
Italy
where there is an Albanian minority

Barile
Barile
(Barilli) in Basilicata

ta (Çifti) in Calabria

Greci (Katundi) in Campania

Ururi
Ururi
(Ruri) in Molise

Casalvecchio (or Kazallveqi), in Apulia

Piana degli Albanesi
Piana degli Albanesi
(Hora e Arbëreshëvet) in Sicilia

The Arbëresh villages contains two or three names, an Italian one as well as one or two native Arbëresh names by which villagers know the place. The Arbëreshë communities are divided into numerous ethnic islands corresponding to different areas of southern Italy. However, some places have already lost their original characteristics and the language, and others have totally disappeared. Today, Italy
Italy
has 50 communities of Arbëreshë origin and culture, 41 municipalities and 9 villages, spread across seven regions of southern Italy, forming a population of about 100,000.[1][2] Some cultural islands survive in the metropolitan areas of Milan, Chieri, Turin, Rome, Naples, Bari, Cosenza, Crotone
Crotone
and Palermo. In the rest of the world, following the migrations of the twentieth century to countries such as Germany, Canada, Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay
Uruguay
and the United States, there are strong communities that keep Arbëreshë traditions alive. The full list of the Arbëresh Communities in Italy
Italy
is:[18]

Abruzzo

Province of Pescara

Villa Badessa (frazione of Rosciano): Badhesa

Molise

Province of Campobasso

Campomarino: Këmarini Montecilfone: Munxhufuni Portocannone: Portkanuni Ururi: Rùri

Campania

Province of Avellino

Greci: Katundi

Apulia

Province of Foggia

Casalvecchio di Puglia: Kazallveqi Chieuti: Qefti

Provincia di Taranto

San Marzano di San Giuseppe: Shën Marcani

Basilicata

Province of Potenza

Barile: Barilli Ginestra: Zhura Maschito: Mashqiti Rionero in Vulture:[19] A-Rionero San Costantino Albanese: Shën Kostandini Arbëresh San Paolo Albanese: Shën Pali Arbëresh

Calabria

Province of Catanzaro

Andali: Andalli Caraffa di Catanzaro: Garafa Marcedusa: Marçëdhuza Vena di Maida (frazione of Maida): Vina

Province of Cosenza

Acquaformosa: Firmoza Cantinella (frazione of Corigliano Calabro): Kantinela Cerzeto
Cerzeto
(in the commune of Cerzeto): Qana Castroregio: Kastërnexhi Cavallerizzo (frazione of Cerzeto): Kajverici Civita: Çifti Eianina (frazione of Frascineto): Purçìll Falconara Albanese: Fullkunara Farneta (frazione of Castroregio): Farneta Firmo: Ferma Frascineto: Frasnita Lungro: Ungra Macchia Albanese (frazione of San Demetrio Corone): Maqi Marri (frazione of San Benedetto Ullano): Allimarri Mongrassano: Mungrasana Plataci: Pllatëni San Basile: Shën Vasili San Benedetto Ullano: Shën Benedhiti Santa Caterina Albanese: Picilia San Cosmo Albanese
San Cosmo Albanese
Strihàri San Demetrio Corone: Shën Mitri San Giorgio Albanese: Mbuzati San Giacomo di Cerzeto
Cerzeto
(frazione of Cerzeto): Shën Japku San Martino di Finita: Shën Mërtiri Santa Sofia d'Epiro: Shën Sofia Spezzano Albanese: Spixana Vaccarizzo Albanese: Vakarici

Province of Crotone

Carfizzi: Karfici Pallagorio: Puhëriu San Nicola dell'Alto
San Nicola dell'Alto
Shën Kolli

Sicilia

Province of Palermo

Contessa Entellina: Kundisa Piana degli Albanesi: Hora e Arbëreshëvet Santa Cristina Gela: Sëndahstina

Language[edit] Main articles: Albanian language
Albanian language
and Arbëresh language

Arbërisht language classification

Arbëresh derives from the Tosk
Tosk
dialect spoken in southern Albania, and is spoken in Southern Italy
Italy
in the regions of Calabria, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata, Campania, Abruzzi, and Sicily. All dialects of Arbëresh are closely related to each other but are not entirely mutually intelligible.

Bilingual signs in Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily

Road signs bilingual, in Italian and Albanian in Piana degli Albanesi

The Arbëresh language
Arbëresh language
retains many archaisms of medieval Albanian from the pre-Ottoman invasion of Albania
Albania
in the 15th century. It also retains some Greek language
Greek language
elements, including vocabulary and pronunciation. It has also preserved some conservative features that were lost in mainstream Albanian Tosk. For example, it has preserved certain syllable-initial consonant clusters which have been simplified in Standard Albanian (cf. Arbërisht gluhë /ˈɡluxə/ ('language/tongue'), vs. Standard Albanian gjuhë /ˈɟuhə/). It sounds more archaic than Standard Albanian, but is close enough that it is written using the same Albanian alphabet
Albanian alphabet
as Standard Albanian. A Shqiptar
Shqiptar
(Albanian) listening to or reading Arbërisht is similar to a modern English speaker listening to or reading Shakespearean
Shakespearean
English. The Arbëresh language
Arbëresh language
is of particular interest to students of the modern Albanian language
Albanian language
as it represents the sounds, grammar, and vocabulary of pre-Ottoman Albania. Arbërisht was commonly called 'Albanese' (Albanian in the Italian language) in Italy
Italy
until the 1990s. Until recently, Arbërisht speakers had only very imprecise notions about how related or unrelated their language was to Albanian. Until the 1980s Arbërisht was exclusively a spoken language, except for its written form used in the Italo-Albanian Church, and Arbëreshë people
Arbëreshë people
had no practical affiliation with the Standard Albanian language
Albanian language
used in Albania, as they did not use this form in writing or in media. When a large number of immigrants from Albania
Albania
began to enter Italy
Italy
in the 1990s and came into contact with local Arbëreshë communities, the differences and similarities were for the first time made known. There are mixed feelings towards the "new Albanians".[20] Since the 1980s, some efforts have been organized to preserve the cultural and linguistic heritage of the language. Arbërisht has been under a slow decline in recent decades, but is currently experiencing a revival in many villages in Italy. Figures such as Giuseppe Schirò Di Maggio have done much work on school books and other language learning tools in the language, producing two books 'Udha e Mbarë' and 'Udhëtimi', both used in schools in the village of Piana degli Albanesi. There is no official political, administrative or cultural structure which represents the Arbëresh community. Arbërësh is not one of the group of minority languages that enjoy the special protection of the State under Article 6 of the Italian Constitution. At the regional level, however, Arbërisht is accorded some degree of official recognition in the autonomy statutes of Calabria, Basilicata
Basilicata
and Molise.

In the case of Calabria, the region is to provide for recognition of the historical culture and artistic heritage of the populations of Arbëresh origin and to promote the teaching of the two languages in the places where they are spoken. Article 5 of the autonomy statute of Basilicata
Basilicata
lays down that the regional authorities "shall promote renewed appreciation of the originality of the linguistic and cultural heritage of the local communities". Finally, the autonomy statute of the Molise
Molise
region stipulates that the region "shall be the guardian of the linguistic and historical heritage and of the popular traditions of the ethnic communities existing in its territory and, by agreement with the interested municipalities, shall promote renewed appreciation of them".

In certain communes the local authorities support cultural and linguistic activities promoted by the Arbëresh communities and have agreed to the erection of bilingual road signs.[21] There are associations that try to protect the culture, particularly in the Province of Cosenza. The Arbëresh language
Arbëresh language
is used in some private radios and publications. The fundamental laws of the areas of Molise, Basilicata
Basilicata
and Calabria
Calabria
make reference to the Arbëresh language
Arbëresh language
and culture. Nevertheless, the increase in training in the use of the written language has given some hope for the continuity of this culture. Literature[edit]

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Main article: Albanian literature Early Arbëreshë literature[edit] The first work of Italo- Albanian literature
Albanian literature
was that of Sicilian archpriest Luca Matranga (1567–1619). The book was titled "E mbsuama e krështerë" (Christian Doctrine) and it was a simple religious translation in Arbëresh language, aiming at bringing Christianity closer to his people is Southern Italy. While during the 17th century there were no Arbëresh writers, in the 18th century there was Giulio Variboba (1724–1788) known in Albanian as Jul Variboba, is regarded by many Albanians
Albanians
as the first genuine poet in all of Albanian literature.[22] Born in San Giorgio Albanese
San Giorgio Albanese
(Mbuzati) and educated in Corsini Seminary in San Benedetto Ullano, after many polemics with local priest he went to exile in Rome
Rome
in 1761 and there he published in 1762 his long lyric poem "Ghiella e Shën Mëriis Virghiër" (The life of Virgin Mary). The poem has been written entirely in dialect of San Giorgio and has about 4717 lines. Variboba is considered unique in Albanian literature
Albanian literature
for his poetic sensitivities and the variety of rhythmic expression. Another known artistic figure of that time was Nicola Chetta (1740–1803) known in Albanian as Nikollë Keta. As a poet he wrote verses both in Albanian and Greek language
Greek language
and he has also composed the first Albanian sonnet in 1777. Being a poet, lexicographer, linguist, historian, theologian and rector of Greek seminary, his variety and universality of work distinguish him from other writers of the period.[23] The most prominent figure among Arbëresh writers and the foremost figure of the Albanian nationalist movement in nineteenth century Italy
Italy
was that of Girolamo de Rada known in Albanian as Jeronim De Rada. Born the son of a parish priest of Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
in Macchia Albanese (Alb. Maqi) in the mountains of Cosenza, De Rada attended the college of Saint Adrian in San Demetrio Corone. In October 1834, in accordance with his father's wishes, he registered at the Faculty of Law of the University of Naples, but the main focus of his interests remained folklore and literature. It was in Naples
Naples
in 1836 that De Rada published the first edition of his best-known Albanian-language poem, the "Songs of Milosao", under the Italian title Poesie albanesi del secolo XV. Canti di Milosao, figlio del despota di Scutari (Albanian poetry from the 15th century. Songs of Milosao, son of the despot of Shkodra). His second work, Canti storici albanesi di Serafina Thopia, moglie del principe Nicola Ducagino, Naples
Naples
1839 (Albanian historical songs of Serafina Thopia, wife of prince Nicholas Dukagjini), was seized by the Bourbon authorities because of De Rada's alleged affiliation with conspiratorial groups during the Italian Risorgimento. The work was republished under the title Canti di Serafina Thopia, principessa di Zadrina nel secolo XV, Naples
Naples
1843 (Songs of Serafina Thopia, princess of Zadrina in the 15th century) and in later years in a third version as Specchio di umano transito, vita di Serafina Thopia, Principessa di Ducagino, Naples
Naples
1897 (Mirror of human transience, life of Serafina Thopia, princess of Dukagjin). His Italian-language historical tragedy I Numidi, Naples
Naples
1846 (The Numidians), elaborated half a century later as Sofonisba, dramma storico, Naples
Naples
1892 (Sofonisba, historical drama), enjoyed only modest public response. In the revolutionary year 1848, De Rada founded the newspaperL'Albanese d'Italia (The Albanian of Italy) which included articles in Albanian. This bilingual "political, moral and literary journal" with a final circulation of 3,200 copies was the first Albanian-language periodical anywhere. De Rada was the harbinger and first audible voice of the Romantic movement in Albanian literature, a movement which, inspired by his unfailing energy on behalf of national awakening among Albanians
Albanians
in Italy
Italy
and in the Balkans, was to evolve into the romantic nationalism characteristic of the Rilindja
Rilindja
period in Albania. His journalistic, literary and political activities were instrumental not only in fostering an awareness for the Arbëresh minority in Italy
Italy
but also in laying the foundations for an Albanian national literature. The most popular of his literary works is the above-mentioned Canti di Milosao (Songs of Milosao), known in Albanian as Këngët e Milosaos, a long romantic ballad portraying the love of Milosao, a fictitious young nobleman in fifteenth-century Shkodra
Shkodra
(Scutari), who has returned home from Thessalonica. Here, at the village fountain, he encounters and falls in love with Rina, the daughter of the shepherd Kollogre. The difference in social standing between the lovers long impedes their union until an earthquake destroys both the city and all semblance of class distinction. After their marriage abroad, a child is born. But the period of marital bliss does not last long. Milosao's son and wife soon die, and he himself, wounded in battle, perishes on a riverbank within sight of Shkodra. Romantic poets of 19th century[edit]

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Contemporary literature[edit]

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Protection of language[edit]

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Culture[edit] Traditions and Folklore[edit]

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Costume[edit]

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Cuisine[edit] See also: Arbëreshë cuisine The Arbëreshë cuisine
Arbëreshë cuisine
is composed of the cuisines of Albania
Albania
and Italy. The style of cooking and the food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Albanian origins to a mixed cuisine of Sicilian and Calabrian influences. These traditional dishes are Piana degli Albanesi
Piana degli Albanesi
(Palermo, Sicily):

Strangujët – A form of Gnocchi
Gnocchi
called Strangujtë made with flour by hand, flavoured with tomato sauce (lënk) and basil. Traditionally this dish was consumed by families seated around a floor level table of wood (zbrilla) on 14 September, the 'Festa e Kryqit Shejt' (Exaltation of the Cross). Grurët – Boiled wheat dish flavored with olive oil, known as cuccìa in the Sicilian language. The tradition is to eat it on Festa e Sënda Lluçisë. Variations are the use of sweetened milk or ricotta with flakes of chocolate, orange peel and almonds. Kanojët – Cannoli, the universally famous Pianotto sweet dish. Its culinary secret is waffle (shkorça) of flour, wine, lard and salt and filled with sweetened ricotta, and lastly sprinkled with sieved chocolate. Bukë – Arbëresh bread (bukë) is prepared with local hard grain flour and manufactured to a round and mostly leavened shape with natural methods. It is cooked in antique firewood furnaces (Tandoor). It is eaten warm flavored with olive oil (vaj i ullirit) and dusted with cheese or with fresh ricotta. Panaret – Arbëresh Easter bread shaped either into a circle or into two large braids and sprinkled with sesame seeds. It is adorned with red Easter eggs. The Easter eggs are dyed deep red to represent the blood of Christ, the eggs also represent new life and springtime. It is traditionally eaten during the Resurrection Meal. After 40 days of fasting, as per the Byzantine Catholic
Byzantine Catholic
tradition, the Easter feast has to begin slowly, with a light meal after the midnight liturgy on Saturday night. The fast is generally broken with Panaret. Loshkat and Petullat – Sweetened spherical or crushed shaped fried leavened dough. Eaten on the eve of E Mart e Madh Carnival. Të plotit – A sweet cake in various shaped with fig marmalade filling, one of the oldest Arbëresh dishes. Milanisë – Traditionally eaten on the Festa e Shën Zefit and Good Friday, is a pasta dish made with a sauce (lënk) of wild fennel paste, sardines and pine nuts. Udhose and Gjizë – Homemade cheese and ricotta normally dried outdoors. Likëngë – Pork sausages flavored with salt, pepper and seed of Fennel
Fennel
(farë mbrai). Llapsana – Forest Brussel sprout (llapsana) fried with garlic and oil. Dorëzët – Very thin home-made semolina spaghetti, cooked in milk and eaten on Ascension Day. Groshët – Soup made of fava beans, chickpeas and haricot beans. Verdhët – During Easter a kind of pie is prepared with eggs, lamb, ricotta, sheep cheese and (previously boiled) leaf stalks of Scolymus hispanicus; in some villages, the young aerial parts of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare pipentum) are used instead.

Religion[edit] The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, particular church sui iuris, includes three ecclesiastical jurisdictions: the Eparchy
Eparchy
of Lungro degli Italo-Albanesi for the Albanians
Albanians
of South Italy
Italy
based in Lungro (CS); the Eparchy
Eparchy
of Piana degli Albanesi
Piana degli Albanesi
for Albanians
Albanians
of Insular Italy
Italy
based in Piana degli Albanesi
Piana degli Albanesi
(PA); the Territorial Abbacy of Santa Maria of Grottaferrata, with Basilian monks
Basilian monks
(O.S.B.I.) come from the Italo-Albanian communities, located in the only abbey and abbey church in Grottaferrata (RM). The Italo-Albanian Church constituting Byzantine oasis in the Latin West, is secularly inclined to ecumenism between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. It was the only reality, the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
until the twentieth century, of Eastern spirituality in Italy. There are institutions and religious congregations of the Byzantine rite in the territory of the Italo-Albanian Church: the Basilian Order of Grottaferrata, the Collegine Sisters of Sacra Famiglia, Piccole operaie dei Sacri Cuori and the congregation of the Basilian Sisters Daughters of Saint Macrina.

The Cathedral of Lungro of the Albanians
Albanians
of South Italy 

The Cathedral of Piana degli Albanesi
Piana degli Albanesi
of the Albanians
Albanians
of Insular Italy 

The Territorial Abbacy of Santa Maria of Grottaferrata
Territorial Abbacy of Santa Maria of Grottaferrata
with Basilian monks from the Italo-Albanian communities 

Notable Arbëreshë people[edit]

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History and Politics[edit]

Francesco Crispi
Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901), Italy's Prime Minister from 1887 until 1891, among the main protagonists of the Italian Risorgimento. Giorgio Basta
Giorgio Basta
(1544–1607), general of Holy Roman Empire. Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
(1891–1937), philosopher, writer, politician and political theorist – founding member and leader of the Communist Party of Italy. Giuseppe Salvatore Bellusci (1888–1972), politician. Nicola Barbato
Nicola Barbato
(1856–1923), doctor and politician, among the founders of the movement of the Fasci Siciliani
Fasci Siciliani
Workers. Joseph J. DioGuardi
Joseph J. DioGuardi
(1940), former US Congressman. Stefano Rodotà
Stefano Rodotà
(1933), politician. Victor Hugo Schiro (1904–1992), two-term mayor (July 17, 1961 – May 2, 1970) of New Orleans, Louisiana. Terenzio Tocci (1880–1945), politician. Sal Albanese (1949), politician.

Science and Academia[edit]

Girolamo de Rada, author and important figure of the Albanian National Awakening Giulio Variboba (1725–1788), poet. Giuseppe Serembe (1844–1901), lyric poet. Carmine Abate (1954), novelist and short story writer. Domenico Bellizzi (1918–1989), a.k.a. Vorea Ujko, priest and poet. Mario Bellizzi (1957), poet. Bernardo Bilotta (1843–1918), priest, poet and folklorist Demetrio Camarda (1821–1882), Byzantine rite
Byzantine rite
priest, Albanian language scholar, historian and philologist. Nicola Chetta (1741–1803), Byzantine rite
Byzantine rite
priest, ethnographic, writer and poet. Giuseppe Crispi (1781–1859), priest and philologist, one of the major figures of the Arbëresh community of Sicily
Sicily
of his time. Giuseppe Schirò
Giuseppe Schirò
(1865–1927), poet, linguist, publicist, folklorist and Albanian patriot, among the most representative figures of the Arbëreshë literature of the 19th century. Gabriele Dara
Gabriele Dara
(1826–1885), politician and poet, regarded as one of the early writers of the Albanian National Awakening. Giuseppe Schirò Di Maggio (1944), poet, journalist, essayist, playwright and writer, among the most influential and prolific exponents of contemporary Arbëreshë literature. Eleuterio Francesco Fortino (1938–2010), priest of the Italo-Albanian Church in Calabria
Calabria
and writer of the Bizantine and Albanian culture. Angelo Masci (1758–1821), writer. Luca Matranga (1560–1619), Byzantine rite
Byzantine rite
priest, one of the first writers in Albanian language. Francesco Antonio Santori (1819–1894), writer, playwright and poet of the Albanian National Awakening. Laura Mersini-Houghton
Laura Mersini-Houghton
(1969), American cosmologist Andrea Shundi
Andrea Shundi
(1934), American agronomist Ferruccio Baffa Trasci
Ferruccio Baffa Trasci
(1590–1656), bishop, theologian and philosopher. Tom Perrotta
Tom Perrotta
(1961), American novelist and screenwriter.

Business and Civil Society[edit]

Enrico Cuccia (1907–2000), banker, founder of Mediobanca
Mediobanca
and important figure in Italian post-war industrial reconstruction. James J. Schiro (1946–2014), American business man. Sotir Ferrara
Sotir Ferrara
(1937), bishop of the Italo-Albanian Church of Eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi. Luigi Giura (1795–1865), engineer and architect. Ercole Lupinacci (1933), bishop of the Italo-Albanian Church of Eparchy
Eparchy
of Lungro.

Entertainment[edit]

Regis Philbin
Regis Philbin
(1931), American media personality and occasional actor and singer Joe Lala
Joe Lala
(1947–2014), American rock percussionist and actor Tito Schipa
Tito Schipa
(1888–1965), tenor Cecilia Bolocco
Cecilia Bolocco
(1965), Miss Chile, model and television hostess Diana Bolocco
Diana Bolocco
(1977), Chilean television hostess Claudia Conserva (1974), Chilean television hostess Graciela Alfano
Graciela Alfano
(1952), Argentine artist, model, actress and vedette

Sports[edit]

Jaren Sina (1994), American basketball player Edon Molla
Edon Molla
(1994), American basketball player Andy Varipapa (1891–1984), professional trick bowler Antonio Candreva
Antonio Candreva
(1988), Italian footballer Tatiana Búa
Tatiana Búa
(1990), Argentine tennis player Giuseppe Bellusci
Giuseppe Bellusci
(1989), Italian footballer

Video[edit]

Documentary in Italian on Orthodox-Byzantine Epiphany in the village of Piana degli Albanesi:Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Gallery[edit]

Iconostasis in a church in Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily

Statue of Albanian hero Gjergji Kastrioti in Civita, Calabria

Table bilingual in Civita

Bilingual sign in Albanian and Italian in Maschito, Basilicata

Priest of the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
in Contessa Entellina, Sicily

Arbëresh craft-workshop in Piana degli Albanesi

Albanian folk group of Katundi, in Campania

Traditional costume Arbëreshe of San Martino di Finita
San Martino di Finita
in Calabria

Albanian Dance of Civita

Typical Arbëreshë female costumes of San Basile
San Basile
in Calabria

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arbëreshë.

Culture of Albania Albanians
Albanians
in Italy Languages of Italy Arvanites Stradioti

External links[edit]

"Shared language, diverging genetic histories: high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variability in Calabrian and Sicilian Arbereshe". European Journal of Human Genetics.  Arbëreshë at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Albanian, Arbëreshë in Ethnologue Languages of the World Jemi.it the Arbëresh web portal managed by the Eparchy
Eparchy
of Lungro Arbitalia Shtëpia e Arbëreshëvet të Italisë / The Home of Albanians
Albanians
in Italy Dhëndurët e Arbërit – Si zogu pa fole, Dhëndurët e Arbërit – Si të pashë të parën herë, Dhëndurët e Arbërit – Një ditë u ndodha at the YouTube

References[edit]

^ a b Fiorenzo Toso (2006). Baldini & Castoldi, ed. Lingue d'Europa. La pluralità linguistica dei Paesi europei fra passato e presente. Roma. p. 90. Retrieved July 6, 2015.  ^ a b P. Bruni, ed. (2004). Arbëreshë: cultura e civiltà di un popolo.  ^ "Ethnologue: Albanian, Arbëreshë". Retrieved October 29, 2014.  ^ "Currently there are about fifty Albanian-speaking centres in Italy, with a population estimated to be around 100,000, though there are no precise figures for the actual numbers of Italo-Albanians. The most recent precise figure is given in the census for 1921; the number of Albanian speakers was 80,282, far fewer than the 197 thousand mentioned in the study of A. Frega of 1997."

Amelia De Lucia; Giorgio Gruppioni; Rosalina Grumo; Gjergj Vinjahu (eds.). "Albanian Cultural Profile" (PDF). Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Università degli Studi di Bari, Italia.  ^ Minni, C. Dino; Ciampolini, Anna Foschi (1990). Writers in transition: the proceedings of the First National Conference of Italian-Canadian Writers. Guernica Editions. pp. 63–4. ISBN 978-0-920717-26-4. Retrieved 30 September 2010.  ^ "LEXICOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENTS IN ALBANIAN RESIDENCE OF SOUTH ITALY (ARBËRESHE), AS PART OF THE ALBANIAN LEXICOGRAPHY" (PDF). worldresearchlibrary.org. pp. 1–2.  ^ "Legge 482". Camera.it. Retrieved 2015-12-30.  ^ a b Essays on Politics and Society Author Hasan Jashari Publisher lulu.com, 2015 ISBN 1-84511-031-5, ISBN 978-1-326-27184-8 p. 64 ^ Shkodra, arbëreshët dhe lidhjet italo-shqiptare. Universiteti i Shkodrës "Luigj Gurakuqi". 2013. ISBN 978-9928-4135-3-6.  ^ Top Channel.tv Albania
Albania
– Arbëreshët kërkojnë ndihmë nga Tirana: Të njihemi në UNESCO ^ Arbëreshët kërkojnë të anëtarësohen në UNESCO ^ Casanova. "Radio-Arberesh.eu". Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ Kristo Frasheri. History of Albania
Albania
(A Brief Overview). Tirana, 1964. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical dictionary of Albania. Lanham.  ^ The Italo-Albanian villages of southern Italy
Italy
Issue 25 of Foreign field research program, report, National Research Council (U.S.) Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of Publication (National Research Council (U.S.)) Foreign field research program, sponsored by Office of Naval research, report ; no.25 Issue 25 of Report, National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of (National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council. Publication) Author George Nicholas Nasse Publisher National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1964 page 24-25 link [1] ^ The Italo-Albanian villages of southern Italy
Italy
Issue 25 of Foreign field research program, report, National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of Publication (National Research Council (U.S.))) Foreign field research program, sponsored by Office of Naval research, report ; no.25 Issue 25 of Report, National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of (National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council. Publication) Author George Nicholas Nasse Publisher National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1964 page 25 link [2] ^ The Italo-Albanian villages of southern Italy
Italy
Issue 25 of Foreign field research program, report, National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of Publication (National Research Council (U.S.))) Foreign field research program, sponsored by Office of Naval research, report ; no.25 Issue 25 of Report, National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Earth Sciences Volume 1149 of (National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council. Publication) Author George Nicholas Nasse Publisher National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1964 page 26 link [3] ^ "Comunità albanesi d' Italia" (in Italian). Arbitalia. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "RIONERO IN VULTURE ( Basilicata
Basilicata
/ Lucania) – Fotografie". lucania1.altervista.org. Retrieved 2017-11-10.  ^ New Albanian Immigrants in the Old Albanian Diaspora: Piana Degli Albanesi. Eda Derhemi ^ Euromosaic – Albanian in Italy. ^ Albanian literature: a short history Authors Robert Elsie, Centre for Albanian Studies (London, England) Publisher I.B. Tauris, 2005 ISBN 1-84511-031-5, ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4 p. 45 ^ Albanian literature: a short history Authors Robert Elsie, Centre for Albanian Studies (London, England) Publisher I.B.Tauris, 2005 ISBN 1-84511-031-5, ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4 p. 46-47

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