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The Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(Arabic: الربيع العربي‎ ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab revolutions (Arabic: الثورات العربية‎ aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East
Middle East
that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution. The effects of the Tunisian Revolution
Revolution
spread strongly to five other countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria
Syria
and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Iranian Khuzestan, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman
Oman
and Sudan. Minor protests occurred in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian National Authority, Saudi Arabia, and the Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara.[1] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world
Arab world
is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām ("the people want to bring down the regime").[2] The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring
Arab Spring
demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities,[3][4][5] as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases.[6][7][8] Large-scale conflicts resulted—the Syrian Civil War,[9][10] Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war,[11] the Egyptian Crisis, coup and subsequent unrest and insurgency,[12] the Libyan Civil War, and the Yemeni Crisis and following civil war.[13] A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world. Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.[14] The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counterrevolutionary moves in Yemen
Yemen
and of the Saudi-linked military deep state in Egypt, the regional and international military interventions in Bahrain
Bahrain
and Yemen, and the destructive civil wars in Syria, Iraq, Libya
Libya
and Yemen.[15] Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter.[9][10][11][12][13] As of January 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia
Tunisia
has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Causes

2.1 Pressures from within 2.2 Social media
Social media
and the Arab Spring

3 Timeline 4 Events leading up to the Arab Spring 5 The Arab Spring

5.1 Summary of conflicts by country

6 Major events

6.1 Tunisia 6.2 Egypt 6.3 Libya 6.4 Yemen 6.5 Syria 6.6 Bahrain

7 Results

7.1 Analysis 7.2 Aftermath

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq
Iraq
War, it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[16] The first specific use of the term Arab Spring
Arab Spring
as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy.[17] Political
Political
scientist Marc Lynch described "Arab Spring" as "a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article" for Foreign Policy magazine.[18][19] Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement's] aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy.[17] When Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests in some countries were followed by electoral success for Islamist parties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring"[20] and "Islamist Winter".[21] Some observers have also drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
(also known as the "Autumn of Nations") that swept through Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance.[22][23][24] Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness of civil resistance, and the organizational role of Internet-based technologies in the Arab revolutions.[25][26][27][28] Causes[edit] Pressures from within[edit] The world watched the events of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
unfold, "gripped by the narrative of a young generation peacefully rising up against oppressive authoritarianism to secure a more democratic political system and a brighter economic future." [15] The Arab Spring
Arab Spring
is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction, particularly of youth and unions, with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels and pressures caused by the Great Recession
Great Recession
may have had a hand as well.[29] Some activists had taken part in programs sponsored by the U.S.-funded National Endowment for Democracy, but the U.S. government did not initiate the uprisings.[30] Numerous factors led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy,[31] human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[32] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[33] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the entire population.[34][35] Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries
Persian Gulf countries
included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[36] Some protesters looked to the Turkish model as an ideal (contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government).[37][38][39][40] Other analysts blamed the rise in food prices on commodity traders and the conversion of crops to ethanol.[41] Yet others have claimed that the context of high rates of unemployment and corrupt political regimes led to dissent movements within the region.[42][43] Social media
Social media
and the Arab Spring[edit] Main article: Social media
Social media
and the Arab Spring In the wake of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels.[44] The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
has, however, been much debated.[45][46][47] Protests took place both in states with a very high level of Internet
Internet
usage (such as Bahrain
Bahrain
with 88% of its population online in 2011) and in states with some of the lowest Internet
Internet
penetration ( Yemen
Yemen
and Libya).[48] The use of social media platforms more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests, with the exception of Libya.[49] Some researchers have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, have immense power to support a collective action – such as foment a political change.[50][51] As of 5 April 2011[update], the number of Facebook
Facebook
users in the Arab world
Arab world
surpassed 27.7 million people.[49] Some critics have argued that digital technologies and other forms of communication – videos, cellular phones, blogs, photos, emails, and text messages – have brought about the concept of a 'digital democracy' in parts of North Africa
North Africa
affected by the uprisings.[52][53] Facebook, Twitter and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular.[48][54] Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook
Facebook
to organize protests and spread awareness.[49] This large population of young Egyptian men referred to themselves as "the Facebook
Facebook
generation", exemplifying their escape from their non-modernized past.[55] Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook
Facebook
greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. Social media
Social media
sites were a platform for different movements formed by many frustrated citizens, including the 2008 "April 6 Youth Movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive Youth of Tunisia".[56] During the Arab Spring, people created pages on Facebook
Facebook
to raise awareness about alleged crimes against humanity, such as police brutality in the Egyptian Revolution
Revolution
(see Wael Ghonim
Wael Ghonim
and Death of Khaled Mohamed Saeed).[57] Whether the project of raising awareness was primarily pursued by Arabs themselves or simply advertised by western social media users is a matter of debate; Jared Keller, a journalist for The Atlantic, claims that most activists and protesters used Facebook
Facebook
(among other social media) to organize; However, what influenced Iran
Iran
was "good old-fanshioned word of mouth". Jared Keller argued that the sudden and anomalous social media output was caused from westerners witnessing the situation(s), and then broadcasting them. The Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
used texting, emailing, and blogging only to organize and communicate information about internal local protests.[58] A study by Zeynep Tufekci
Zeynep Tufekci
of the University of North Carolina and Christopher Wilson of the United Nations Development Program concluded that "social media in general, and Facebook
Facebook
in particular, provided new sources of information the regime could not easily control and were crucial in shaping how citizens made individual decisions about participating in protests, the logistics of protest, and the likelihood of success."[59] Marc Lynch of George Washington University said, "while social media boosters envisioned the creation of a new public sphere based on dialogue and mutual respect, the reality is that Islamists and their adversaries retreat to their respective camps, reinforcing each other's prejudices while throwing the occasional rhetorical bomb across the no-man's land that the center has become."[59] Lynch also stated in a Foreign Policy article, "There is something very different about scrolling through pictures and videos of unified, chanting Yemeni or Egyptian crowds demanding democratic change and waking up to a gory image of a headless 6-year-old girl on your Facebook
Facebook
news feed."[60] Social networks were not the only instrument for rebels to coordinate their efforts and communicate. In the countries with the lowest Internet
Internet
penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen
Yemen
and Libya, the role of mainstream electronic media devices – cell phones, emails, and video clips (e.g. YouTube) was very important to cast the light on the situation in the country and spread the word about the protests in the outside world.[48] In Egypt, in Cairo particularly, mosques were one of the main platforms to coordinate the protest actions and raise awareness to the masses.[61] Timeline[edit] Main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring Events leading up to the Arab Spring[edit] Tunisia
Tunisia
experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa
Gafsa
in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests.[62][63] In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004, and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action.[64] One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[64] A Facebook
Facebook
page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers and provided the platform for sustained political action in pursuit of the "long revolution."[35] The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[64] In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States
United States
Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria
Algeria
is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[65] Some claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country.[66] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[67] In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp
Gdeim Izik protest camp
was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún
El Aaiún
by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[68] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún
El Aaiún
and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[69] The catalyst for the escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, Bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector on 17 December 2010. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011[70] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.[62] The Arab Spring[edit] The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
that commenced in 2010, became known as the "Arab Spring",[71][72][73] and sometimes as the " Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and Winter",[74] "Arab Awakening"[75][76][77] or "Arab Uprisings"[78][79] even though not all the participants in the protests were Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia
Tunisia
on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.[80][81] With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen,[82] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers.[83][84][85] The protests also triggered similar unrest outside the region. The Arab Spring
Arab Spring
caused the "biggest transformation of the Middle East since decolonization." [86] By the end of February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia,[87] Egypt,[88] Libya,[89] and Yemen;[90] civil uprisings had erupted in Bahrain[91] and Syria;[92] major protests had broken out in Algeria,[93] Iraq,[94] Jordan,[95] Kuwait,[96] Morocco,[97] Oman,[98] and Sudan;[99] and minor protests had occurred in Mauritania,[100] Saudi Arabia,[101] Djibouti,[102] Western Sahara,[103] and Palestine. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian Revolution
Revolution
protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
(NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte
Sirte
after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Ali Abdullah Saleh
signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan Civil War stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as 'fallout' from the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
in North Africa.[104] During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir
Omar al-Bashir
announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015 (he ultimately retracted his previous announcement and ran anyway),[105] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term was ending in 2014,[106] although there were violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation in 2011.[107] Protests in Jordan also caused the sacking of four successive governments[108][109] by King Abdullah.[110] The popular unrest in Kuwait
Kuwait
also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.[111] The geopolitical implications of the protests drew global attention.[112] Some protesters were nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[113] Tawakkol Karman
Tawakkol Karman
from Yemen
Yemen
was co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
due to her role organizing peaceful protests. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year".[114] Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo
World Press Photo
award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen
Yemen
on 15 October 2011.[115] Summary of conflicts by country[edit]

  Government overthrown multiple times   Government overthrown   Civil war   Protests and governmental changes   Major protests   Minor protests   Other protests and militant action outside the Arab world

Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Death toll Situation

 Tunisia 000000002010-12-18-000018 December 2010 Government overthrown on 14 January 2011 Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi[116] Dissolution of the political police[117] Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia
Tunisia
and liquidation of its assets[118] Release of political prisoners[119] Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[120] 2013–14 protests against the interim Islamist-led government. Adoption of a new constitution On October 2014, election of a parliament, end of the transition, Tunisia, becomes a unicameral parliamentary republic.[121]

7002338000000000000♠338[122] E Government overthrown

 Algeria 000000002010-12-29-000029 December 2010 Ended in January 2012

Lifting of the 19-year-old state of emergency[123][124]

7000800000000000000♠8[125] B Major protests

 Jordan 000000002011-01-14-000014 January 2011 Ended

On February 2011, King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[126] On October 2011, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[127] On April 2012, as the protests continues, Al-Khasawneh resigned, and the King appoints Fayez al-Tarawneh
Fayez al-Tarawneh
as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[128] On October 2012, King Abdullah dissolves the parliament for new early elections, and appoints Abdullah Ensour
Abdullah Ensour
as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[129]

7000300000000000000♠3[130] C Protests and governmental changes

 Oman 000000002011-01-17-000017 January 2011 Ended in May 2011

Economic concessions by Sultan Qaboos[131][132] Dismissal of ministers[133][134] Granting of lawmaking powers to Oman's elected legislature[135]

7000400000000000000♠ 2–6[136][137][138] C Protests and governmental changes

 Egypt 000000002011-01-25-000025 January 2011 The governments overthrown on February 2011, the Egyptian Crisis follows Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, who is later convicted of corruption and ordered to stand trial for ordering the killing of protesters.

Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik[139] Assumption of power by the Armed Forces[140] Suspension of the Constitution, dissolution of the Parliament[141] Disbanding of State Security Investigations Service[142] Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt
Egypt
and transfer of its assets to the state[143] Arrest and prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers[144][145][146] Lifting of the 31-year-old state of emergency[147] Democratic election held to replace Mubarak as the new president of Egypt; Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
elected and inaugurated[148] Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
overthrown Constitutional referendum and new elections Former Armed Forces commander, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
elected President

Sinai insurgency

Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
launch anti-terror military operations in the Sinai. Increase in violence and attacks by insurgents since the ouster of Morsi.[149]

7002846000000000000♠ 846[150] EGovernment overthrown

 Yemen 000000002011-01-27-000027 January 2011 Government overthrown on February 2012. Yemeni Crisis follows. Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution.

Resignation of Prime Minister Mujawar Resignation of MPs from the ruling party[151] Occupation of several areas of Yemeni territory by al-Qaeda and Houthi rebels Restructure of the military forces by sacking several of its leaders[152] Approval of Saleh's immunity from prosecution by Yemeni legislators[153] Presidential election held to replace Saleh as the new president of Yemen; Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi
Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi
elected and inaugurated

Yemeni Crisis Begins

Al-Hadi ousted by Houthi
Houthi
Rebels Start of Yemeni Civil War

7004100000000000000♠ 10,000+[154] EGovernment overthrown Eand ECivil War

 Djibouti 000000002011-01-28-000028 January 2011 Ended in March 2011

7000200000000000000♠2[155] A Minor protests

 Sudan 000000002011-01-30-000030 January 2011 000000002013-10-26-000026 October 2013

President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015[156] President Bashir nevertheless chosen as Ruling Party candidate for 2015 election[157]

7002200000000000000♠200+[158] A Major protests

 Iraq 000000002011-02-12-000012 February 2011 Ended 23 December 2011, instability and eventually civil war follows

Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[159] Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[160] Two-third wage increase for Sahwa militia members Elections held and Haider al-Abadi
Haider al-Abadi
is elected ISIL insurgents take broad swathes of Iraq

Start of Iraqi Civil War

Coalition of Countries and the Iraqi Army battle ISIL insurgents.

7004720910003500035♠35+72,056 B Protests and a beginning of a civil war

 Bahrain 000000002011-02-14-000014 February 2011 000000002011-03-18-000018 March 2011

Economic concessions by King Hamad[161] Release of political prisoners[162] Negotiations with Shia
Shia
representatives[163] GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[164] Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[165]

7002120000000000000♠120[166] D Sustained civil disorder and government changes

 Libya 000000002011-02-17-000017 February 2011 Government overthrown on 23 August 2011, crisis follows Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces

Government defeated by armed revolt with UN-mandated military intervention[167] Assumption of interim control by the National Transitional Council Beginning of sporadic low-level fighting and clashes[168]

7004400000000000000♠ 40,000+[169] Government overthrown and civil war

 Kuwait 000000002011-02-19-000019 February 2011 Ended in December 2012

Resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah[170] Dissolution of the Parliament[171]

5000000000000000000♠0[172] C Protests and governmental changes

 Morocco 000000002011-02-20-000020 February 2011 Ended in March–April 2012

Political
Political
concessions by King Mohammed VI;[173] Referendum on constitutional reforms; Respect to civil rights and an end to corruption[174]

7000600000000000000♠6[175] C Protests and governmental changes

 Mauritania 000000002011-02-25-000025 February 2011 Ended

7000300000000000000♠3[176] A Minor protests

 Lebanon[citation needed] 000000002011-02-27-000027 February 2011 Ended in December 2011

5000000000000000000♠0 D Protests and governmental changes

 Saudi Arabia 000000002011-03-11-000011 March 2011 Ended

Economic concessions by King Abdullah[177][178] Male-only municipal elections held 29 September 2011[179][180] King Abdullah announces women's approval to vote and be elected in 2015 municipal elections and to be nominated to the Shura Council[181] Commitment to the expansion of women's rights in Saudi Arabia, especially after ascension of Mohammad bin Salman to position of Crown Prince.[182][183]

7001240000000000000♠24[184] A Minor protests

 Syria 000000002011-01-26-000026 January 2011 Civil uprising, which transformed into Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
in July–August 2011

Release of some political prisoners[185][186] Dismissal of Provincial Governors[187][188] Resignation of the Government[189] End of Emergency Law Resignations from Parliament[190] Large defections from the Syrian army
Syrian army
and clashes between soldiers and defectors[191] Formation of the Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army
and full-scale civil war Formation of ISIL who take broad swathes of Syria Ongoing violence in Syria
Syria
caused millions to flee their homes

7005400000000000000♠ 400,000+ Civil war

Iranian Khuzestan 000000002011-04-15-000015 April 2011 Ended on 18 April 2011

2011 Khuzestan Protests

7001120000000000000♠12 B Major protests

Borders of Israel 000000002011-05-15-000015 May 2011 Ended on 5 June 2011

Arab demonstrations on the borders of Israel

7001350000000000000♠ 35[192][193] B Major protests

 Palestinian Authority 000000002011-02-10-000010 February 2011 000000002012-10-05-00005 October 2012

Then Palestinian prime minister Salam Fayyad
Salam Fayyad
states that he is "'willing to resign"[194] Fayyad resigns on 13 April 2013 but because of political differences between him and the Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
over the finance portfolio[195]

5000000000000000000♠0 C Minor protests

Total death toll and other consequences: hundreds of thousands killed (combined estimate of events)

4 governments overthrown as part of the events Six protests leading to governmental changes Five major protests Four minor protests 2 governments overthrown in the aftermath Four civil wars in the aftermath (Syria, Iraq, Libya
Libya
and Yemen)

Major events[edit] See also: Arab Spring
Arab Spring
concurrent incidents Tunisia[edit] Main article: Tunisian Revolution

Protesters on Avenue Habib Bourguiba, downtown Tunis
Tunis
on 14 January 2011, a few hours before president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
fled the country.

Following the self-burning of Mohamed Bouazizi
Mohamed Bouazizi
in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[196] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[197] and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia
Tunisia
in three decades,[198][199] and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.[200][201] A state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created following Ben Ali's departure, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally
Constitutional Democratic Rally
(RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately.[202][203] As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi
Mohamed Ghannouchi
reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended;[204] later, on 9 March, it was dissolved.[205] Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Béji Caïd Essebsi
Béji Caïd Essebsi
became Prime Minister. On 23 October 2011, Tunisians voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution.[206] The leading Islamist party, Ennahda, won 37% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.[207] On 26 January 2014, a new constitution was elected.[208] The constitution is seen as progressive, increases human rights, gender equality, government duties toward people, lays the ground for a new parliamentary system and makes Tunisia
Tunisia
a decentralized and open government.[208][209] On 26 October 2014, the country held its first parliamentary elections since the 2011 Arab Spring[210] and its presidentials on 23 November 2014,[211] finishing its transition to a democratic state. These elections were characterized by the fall in popularity of Ennahdha, for the secular Nidaa Tounes
Nidaa Tounes
party, which became the first party of the country.[212] Egypt[edit] Main articles: Egyptian revolution of 2011
Egyptian revolution of 2011
and Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

Celebrations in Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
after Omar Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni Mubarak's resignation.

Inspired by the uprising in Tunisia
Tunisia
and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei
Mohamed ElBaradei
warned of a "Tunisia-style explosion" in Egypt.[213] Protests in Egypt
Egypt
began on 25 January 2011 and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet access,[214] in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to use media activism to organize through social media.[215] Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years. The U.S. embassy and international students began a voluntary evacuation near the end of January, as violence and rumors of violence escalated.[216][217] On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term.[218] However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt.[219] The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt
Egypt
on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square.[220] Violent protests however, continued through the end of 2011 as many Egyptians expressed concern about the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms and their grip on power.[221] Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
and his former interior minister Habib al-Adli were sentenced to life in prison on the basis of their failure to stop the killings during the first six days of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.[222] His successor, Mohamed Morsi, was sworn in as Egypt's first democratically elected president before judges at the Supreme Constitutional Court.[223] Fresh protests erupted in Egypt
Egypt
on 22 November 2012. On 3 July 2013, the military overthrew the replacement government and President Morsi was removed from power.[224] Libya[edit] Main articles: Libyan Civil War (2011)
Libyan Civil War (2011)
and Libyan Civil War (2011–present)

Thousands of demonstrators gather in Bayda.

Anti-government protests began in Libya
Libya
on 15 February 2011. By 18 February the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and militia in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the government's dismantlement.[225] Amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli
Tripoli
from the Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi
Benghazi
to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule.[226][227] However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast. On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya
Libya
with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East
Middle East
soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega
Brega
and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra,[228] and the southern Libyan Desert.[229] In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of power. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top government officials, regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital.[230] Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries.[231][232] However, Sabha fell in late September,[233] Bani Walid
Bani Walid
was captured after a grueling siege weeks later,[234] and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.[235] However, after Gaddafi was killed, the Civil War continued. Yemen[edit] Main articles: Yemeni Revolution
Revolution
and Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

Protests in Sana'a.

Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January 2011. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions,[236] and corruption,[237] but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh,[237][238][239] who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.[240] A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January 2011,[241] and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman
Tawakel Karman
called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February.[242] According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters.[243] In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013.[244] On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a,[245][246] others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden[247] that was called for by Tawakel Karman,[242] while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a.[248] Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage".[249] The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates.[250] In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a, Taiz, and Aden. Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.[251] After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity from prosecution only to back away before signing three separate times,[252][253] an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque.[254] Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies[255] and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound.[254] While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July.[256] On Friday 13 August, a demonstration was announced in Yemen
Yemen
as "Mansouron Friday" in which hundreds of thousands of Yemenis called for Ali Abdullah Saleh to go. The protesters joining the "Mansouron Friday" were calling for establishment of "a new Yemen".[257] On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh
Riyadh
authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi
Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi
to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.[258] On 23 September, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen
Yemen
abruptly, defying all earlier expectations.[259] Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh
Riyadh
on 23 November, in which Saleh agreed to step down and set the stage for the transfer of power to his vice-president.[260] A presidential election was then held on 21 February 2012, in which Hadi (the only candidate) won 99.8 percent of the vote.[261] Hadi then took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February.[262] By 27 February, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to his successor.[263] The replacement government was overthrown by Houthi
Houthi
rebels on 22 January 2015, starting the Yemeni Civil War and Saudi-led intervention in Yemen
Yemen
(2015-present). Syria[edit] Main articles: Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian Civil War, and Spillover of the Syrian Civil War

Anti-government demonstrations in Baniyas.

Protests in Syria
Syria
started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer assaulted a man in public at "Al-Hareeka Street" in old Damascus. The man was arrested right after the assault. As a result, protesters called for the freedom of the arrested man. Soon a "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful.[264][265] On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa, in southern Syria, for writing slogans against the government. Soon protests erupted over the arrest and abuse of the children. Daraa
Daraa
was to be the first city to protest against the Ba'athist government, which has been ruling Syria
Syria
since 1963.[266] Thousands of protesters gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama
Hama
on 15 March,[267][268][269] with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution".[270] The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few casualties, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths.[271] On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts, especially in the north.[272] On 31 July, Syrian army
Syrian army
tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Abu Kamal, and Herak near Daraa. At least 136 people were killed, the highest death toll in any day since the start of the uprising.[273] On 5 August 2011, an anti-government demonstration took place in Syria
Syria
called "God is with us", during which the Syrian security forces shot the protesters from inside the ambulances, killing 11 people consequently.[274] By late November – early December, the Baba Amr
Baba Amr
district of Homs fell under armed Syrian opposition control. By late December, the battles between the government's security forces and the rebel Free Syrian Army intensified in Idlib
Idlib
Governorate. Cities in Idlib
Idlib
and neighborhoods in Homs
Homs
and Hama
Hama
began falling into the control of the opposition, during this time military operations in Homs
Homs
and Hama stopped. By mid-January the FSA gained control over Zabadani
Zabadani
and Madaya. By late January, the Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army
launched a full-scale attack against the government in Rif Dimashq, where they took over Saqba, Hamoreya, Harasta
Harasta
and other cities in Damascus's Eastern suburbs. On 29 January, the fourth regiment of the Syrian Army led by the president's brother Maher al-Assad
Maher al-Assad
and the Syrian Army dug in at Damascus, and the fighting continued where the FSA was 8 km away from the Republican palace in Damascus. Fighting broke out near Damascus
Damascus
international airport, but by the next day the Syrian government deployed the Republican Guards. The military gained the upper hand and regained all land the opposition gained in Rif Dimashq by early February. On 4 February, the Syrian Army launched a massive bombardment on Homs
Homs
and committed a huge massacre, killing 500 civilians in one night in Homs. By mid-February, the Syrian army regained control over Zabadani
Zabadani
and Madaya. In late February, Army forces entered Baba Amr
Baba Amr
after a big military operation and heavy fighting. Following this, the opposition forces began losing neighborhoods in Homs
Homs
to the Syrian Army including al-Inshaat, Jobr, Karm el-Zaytoon and only Homs's old neighborhood's, including Al-Khalidiya, Homsal-Khalidiya, remained in opposition hands. By March 2012, the government began military operations against the opposition in Idlib Governorate
Idlib Governorate
including the city of Idlib, which fell to the Army by mid-March. Saraqib
Saraqib
and Sarmin
Sarmin
were also recaptured by the government during the month. Still, at this time, the opposition managed to capture al-Qusayr and Rastan. Heavy fighting also continued in several neighborhoods in Homs
Homs
and in the city of Hama. The FSA also started to conduct hit-and-run attacks in the pro-Assad Aleppo
Aleppo
Governorate, which they were not able to do before. Heavy-to-sporadic fighting was also continuing in the Daraa
Daraa
and Deir ez-Zor Governorates. By late April 2012, despite a cease-fire being declared in the whole country, sporadic fighting continued, with heavy clashes specifically in Al-Qusayr, where rebel forces controlled the northern part of the city, while the military held the southern part. FSA forces were holding onto Al-Qusayr, due to it being the last major transit point toward the Lebanese border. A rebel commander from the Farouq Brigade in the town reported that 2,000 Farouq fighters had been killed in Homs
Homs
province since August 2011. At this point, there were talks among the rebels in Al-Qusayr, where many of the retreating rebels from Homs city's Baba Amr
Baba Amr
district had gone, of Homs
Homs
being abandoned completely. On 12 June 2012, the UN peacekeeping chief in Syria
Syria
stated that, in his view, Syria
Syria
has entered a period of civil war.[275] Bahrain[edit] Main article: Bahraini protests of 2011–2014

Over 100,000 Bahrainis taking part in the "March of Loyalty to Martyrs" in Manama
Manama
honoring political dissidents killed by security forces

The protests in Bahrain
Bahrain
started on 14 February, and were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the monarchy.[91][276](pp162–3) Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt
Egypt
are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.[91][276](p65) The protests were largely peaceful until a pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl Roundabout
Pearl Roundabout
in Manama, in which police killed four protesters.[276](pp73–4) Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy.[277] On 18 February, army forces opened fire on protesters when they tried to reenter the roundabout, fatally wounding one.[276](pp77–8) The following day protesters reoccupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.[276](p81)[278] Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21 February a pro-government Gathering of National Unity drew tens of thousands,[276](p86)[279] whilst on 22 February the number of protestors at the Pearl Roundabout
Pearl Roundabout
peaked at over 150,000 after more than 100,000 protesters marched there and were coming under fire from the Bahraini Military which killed around 20 and injured over 100 protestors.[276](p88) On 14 March, GCC forces (composed mainly of Saudi and UAE troops) were requested by the government and entered the country,[276](p132) which the opposition called an "occupation".[280] King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.[276](p139)[281] On 16 March, armed soldiers and riot police cleared the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed.[276](pp133–4)[282] Later, on 18 March, the government tore down Pearl Roundabout
Pearl Roundabout
monument.[276](pp150)[283] After the lifting of emergency law on 1 June,[284] several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties.[285] Smaller-scale protests and clashes outside of the capital have continued to occur almost daily.[286][287] On 9 March 2012, over 100,000 protested in what the opposition called "the biggest march in our history".[288][289] The police response has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on peaceful and unarmed protestors, including doctors and bloggers.[290][291][292] The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia
Shia
neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints, and denial of medical care in a "campaign of intimidation".[293][294][295][296] More than 2,929 people have been arrested,[297][298] and at least five people died due to torture while in police custody.[276](p287,288) On 23 November 2011, the Bahrain
Bahrain
Independent Commission of Inquiry released its report on its investigation of the events, finding that the government had systematically tortured prisoners and committed other human rights violations.[276](pp415–422) It also rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran.[299] Although the report found that systematic torture had stopped,[276](pp417) the Bahraini government has refused entry to several international human rights groups and news organizations, and delayed a visit by a UN inspector.[300][301] More than 80 people had died since the start of the uprising.[302] Results[edit] See also: Arab Winter
Arab Winter
and Impact of the Arab Spring Analysis[edit] In the aftermath of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
in various countries, there was a wave of violence and instability commonly known as the Arab Winter[303] or Islamist Winter.[304] The Arab Winter
Arab Winter
was characterized by extensive civil wars, general regional instability, economic and demographic decline of the Arab League
Arab League
and overall religious wars between Sunni and Shia
Shia
Muslims.

Areas of control in the Libyan Civil War (2014–present)

Although the long-term effects of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
have yet to be shown, its short-term consequences varied greatly across the Middle East and North Africa. In Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt, where the existing regimes were ousted and replaced through a process of free and fair election, the revolutions were considered short-term successes.[305][306][307] This interpretation is, however, problematized by the subsequent political turmoil that emerged, particularly in Egypt. Elsewhere, most notably in the monarchies of Morocco
Morocco
and the Persian Gulf, existing regimes co-opted the Arab Spring movement and managed to maintain order without significant social change.[308][309] In other countries, particularly Syria
Syria
and Libya, the apparent result of Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests was a complete Societal collapse.[305] Social scientists have endeavored to understand the circumstances that led to this variation in outcome. A variety of causal factors have been highlighted, most of which hinge on the relationship between the strength of the state and the strength of civil society. Countries with stronger civil society networks in various forms underwent more successful reforms during the Arab Spring; these findings are also consistent with more general social science theories such as those espoused by Robert D. Putnam
Robert D. Putnam
and Joel S. Migdal.[310][311] One of the primary influences that have been highlighted in the analysis of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
is the relative strength or weakness of a society's formal and informal institutions prior to the revolts. When the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
began, Tunisia
Tunisia
had an established infrastructure and a lower level of petty corruption than did other states, such as Libya.[305] This meant that, following the overthrow of the existing regime, there was less work to be done in reforming Tunisian institutions than elsewhere, and consequently it was less difficult to transition to and consolidate a democratic system of government.[308][312] Also crucial was the degree of state censorship over print, broadcast, and social media in different countries. Television coverage by channels like Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
and BBC News
BBC News
provided worldwide exposure and prevented mass violence by the Egyptian government in Tahrir Square, contributing to the success of the Egyptian Revolution. In other countries, such as Libya, Bahrain, and Syria, such international press coverage was not present to the same degree, and the governments of these countries were able to act more freely in suppressing the protests.[313][314] Strong authoritarian regimes with high degrees of censorship in their national broadcast media were able to block communication and prevent the domestic spread of information necessary for successful protests. Morocco
Morocco
is a case in point, as its broadcast media at the time of the revolts was owned and operated almost exclusively by political elites with ties to the monarchy.[309] Countries with greater access to social media, such as Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt, proved more effective in mobilizing large groups of people, and appear to have been more successful overall than those with greater state control over media.[307][315][316] Although social media played a large role in shaping the events of revolutions social activism did not occur in a vacuum. With out the use of street level organization social activists would not have been as effective.[317] Even though a revolution did take place and the prior government has been replaced, Tunisia's government can not conclude that another uprising will not take place. There are still many grievances taking place today.[318] Due to tourism coming to a halt and other factors during the revolution and Arab Spring
Arab Spring
movement, the budget deficit has grown and unemployment has risen since 2011.[319] According to World Bank, " Unemployment
Unemployment
remains at 15.3% from 16.7% in 2011, but still well above the pre-revolution level of 13%."[319] Large scale immigration brought on by a long and treacherous civil war has permanently harmed the Syrian economy. Projections for economic contraction will remain high at almost 7% in 2017.[320]

Demonstrators holding the Rabia sign
Rabia sign
in solidarity with the victims of the August 2013 Rabaa massacre
August 2013 Rabaa massacre
of pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo.

Still to this day, in countries affected by the Arab Spring, there is great division amongst those who prefer the status quo and those who want democratic change. As these regions dive ever deeper into political conflict time will show if new ideas can be established or if old institutions will still stand strong.[321] The largest change from the pre-revolution to the post-revolution was in the attempt to break up political elites and reshape the geopolitical structure of the middle east. It is speculated that many of the changes brought on by the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
will lead to a shifting of regional power in the Middle East
Middle East
and a quickly changing structure of power.[322] The support, even if tacit, of national military forces during protests has also been correlated to the success of the Arab Spring movement in different countries.[306][308] In Egypt
Egypt
and Tunisia, the military actively participated in ousting the incumbent regime and in facilitating the transition to democratic elections. Countries like Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, exhibited a strong mobilization of military force against protesters, effectively ending the revolts in their territories; others, including Libya
Libya
and Syria, failed to stop the protests entirely and instead ended up in civil war.[306] The support of the military in Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests has also been linked to the degree of ethnic homogeneity in different societies. In Saudi Arabia and Syria, where the ruling elite was closely linked with ethnic or religious subdivisions of society, the military sided with the existing regime and took on the ostensible role of protector to minority populations.[323] Even aside from the military issue, countries with less homogeneous ethnic and national identities, such as Yemen
Yemen
and Jordan, seem to have exhibited less effective mobilization on the whole. The apparent exception to this trend is Egypt, which has a sizable Coptic minority.[citation needed] The presence of a strong, educated middle class has been noted as a correlate to the success of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
in different countries.[324] Countries with strong welfare programs and a weak middle class, such as Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Jordan, as well as countries with great economic disparity and an impoverished working class—including Yemen, Libya, and Morocco—did not experience successful revolutions. The strength of the middle class is, in turn, directly connected to the existing political, economic, and educational institutions in a country, and the middle class itself may be considered an informal institution.[325] In very broad terms, this may be reframed in terms of development, as measured by various indicators such as the Human Development Index: rentier states such as the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
exhibited less successful revolutions overall.[326] Finally, "Still, youth across the region continue to struggle with the more personal fight to build an economic future as they enter adulthood. For many young people, this struggle has only become more acute in the difficult macroeconomic environment faced by many of the countries in the region. Finding real solutions to the economic constraints that shape the transition to adulthood in the Middle East remains as vital today as before the Arab Uprisings, when youth brought their economic frustrations to streets and squares around the region. Indeed, finding such solutions is perhaps the lynchpin for bringing stability back to the Middle East
Middle East
and building a more prosperous economic future for all of the people of the region." [15] Aftermath[edit]

Yemeni capital Sanaa after Saudi Arabian-led airstrikes against the Shia
Shia
Houthis, October 2015

Some trends in political Islam resulting from the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
noted by observers (Quinn Mecham and Tarek Osman) include:

Repression of the Muslim Brotherhood, not only in Egypt
Egypt
by the military and courts following the forcible removal of Morsi from office in 2013; but also by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and a number of Gulf countries (not Qatar).[327][328][329] The ambassadors crisis also seriously threatened the GCC’s activities, adversely affected its functioning and could arguably even have led to its dissolution.[329] Rise of Islamist "state-building" where "state failure" has taken place—most prominently in Syria, Iraq, Libya
Libya
and Yemen. Islamists have found it easier than competing non-Islamists trying to fill the void of state failure, by securing external funding, weaponry and fighters – "many of which have come from abroad and have rallied around a pan-Islamic identity". The norms of governance in these Islamist areas are militia-based, and the governed submit to their authority out of fear, loyalty, other reasons, or some combination.[327] The "most expansive" of these new "models" is the Islamic State.[327] Increasing sectarianism (primarily Sunni-Shia) at least in part from proxy wars and the escalation of the Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
proxy conflict. Islamists are fighting Islamists across sectarian lines in Lebanon
Lebanon
(Sunni militants targeting Hezbollah
Hezbollah
positions), Yemen (between mainstream Sunni Islamists of Islah and the Shiite
Shiite
Zaydi Houthi
Houthi
movement), in Iraq
Iraq
(Islamic State and Iraqi Shiite militias)[327] Increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan
Jordan
where Islamist have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments. In Yemen
Yemen
Islah "has sought to frame its ideology in a way that will avoid charges of militancy".[327] In countries where Islamist did chose to lead a major challenge and did not succeed in transforming society (particularly Egypt), a disinterest in "soul-searching" about what went wrong, in favor of "antagonism and fiery anger" and a thirst for revenge. Partisans of political Islam (although this does not include some prominent leaders such as Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
but is particularly true in Egypt) see themselves as victims of an injustice whose perpetrators are not just "individual conspirators but entire social groups".[330]

"The repercussions of the 2011 uprisings have influenced Middle Eastern youth’s experiences providing impetus for questioning perennial sacred beliefs and positions, and forging ahead avant-garde views and responses to the constraints they face."[15] See also[edit]

Arab Revolt Civil Resistance Democracy
Democracy
in the Middle East Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
proxy conflict List of modern conflicts in North Africa List of modern conflicts in the Middle East Spillover of the Syrian Civil War Takfirism Women in the Arab Spring

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Aa. Vv. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno. Abaza, M. (2011), Revolutionary Moments in Tahrir Square, American University of Cairo, 7 May 2011, www.isa-sociology.org. Abdih, Y. (2011), Arab Spring: Closing the Jobs Gap. High youth unemployment contributes to widespread unrest in the Middle East Finance & Development, in Finance & Development (International Monetary Fund), Giugno. Alfadhel, Khalifa. The Failure of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016). ISBN 978-1-4438-9789-1 Anderson, L (May–June 2011). "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya". Foreign Affairs. 90 (3).  Beinin, J. – Vairel, F. (2011), (a cura di), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa, Stanford, CA, Stanford University press. Brownlee, Jason; Masoud, Tarek; Reynolds, Andrew (2013). The Arab Spring: the politics of transformation in North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Browers, Michaelle (2009). Political
Political
Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76532-9.  Cohen, R. (2011), A Republic
Republic
Called Tahrir, in New York Times. Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 182 pages Darwish, Nonie (28 February 2012). The demon We Don't Know: The Dark Side of Revolutions in the Middle East. John Wiley & Sons.  Davies, Thomas Richard. (2014). "The failure of strategic nonviolent action in Bahrain, Egypt, Libya
Libya
and Syria: ‘political ju-jitsu’ in reverse", Global Change, Peace and Security, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 299–313. ISSN 1478-1158 E-ISSN 1478-1166. Gardner, David (2009). Last Chance: The Middle East
Middle East
in the Balance. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-041-5.  Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East
Middle East
Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in Foreign Affairs, July/August. Goldstone, Jack A.; Hazel, John T., Jr. (14 April 2011). "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies". Foreign Affairs.  Haddad, Bassam; Bsheer, Rosie; Abu-Rish, Ziad, eds. (2012). The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order?. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-3325-0.  Kaye, Dalia Dassa (2008). More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political
Political
Violence in the Arab World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4508-9.  Lutterbeck, Derek. (2013). Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil-Military Relations. Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1 (pp. 28–52) Ottaway, Marina; Choucair-Vizoso, Julia, eds. (2008). Beyond the Façade: Political
Political
Reform in the Arab World. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 978-0-87003-239-4.  Pelletreau, Robert H. (24 February 2011). "Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt
Egypt
and Bahrain". Foreign Affairs.  Phares, Walid (2010). Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-7837-9.  Posusney, Marsha Pripstein; Angrist, Michele Penner, eds. (2005). Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-317-7.  Roberts, Adam, Michael J. Willis, Rory McCarthy and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance
Civil Resistance
in the Arab Spring: Triumphs and Disasters, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016. ISBN 978-0-19-874902-8. Arabic language
Arabic language
edition published by All Prints Publishers, Beirut, 2017. ISBN 978-9953-88-970-2. Rosiny, S. and Richter, T. (2016). "The Arab Spring: Misconceptions and Prospects". GIGA Focus Middle East
Middle East
No. 4/2016 Steinitz, Chris and McCants, William (2014). Reaping the Whirlwind: Gulf State Competition after the Arab Uprisings. Arlington, VA: CNA Corporation. Struble Jr., Robert (22 August 2011). " Libya
Libya
and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion". Catholic Lane.  Tausch, Arno (2015). Globalization, the environment and the future "greening" of Arab politics. Connecticut: REPEC.  Tausch, Arno (Fall 2013). "A Look at International Survey Data About Arab Opinion". Middle East
Middle East
Review of International Affairs. 17 (3): 57–74. SSRN 2388627 .  Tausch, Arno, The Civic Culture of the Arab World: A Comparative Analysis Based on World Values Survey Data (August 21, 2016). Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 35–59, Spring 2016. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2827232 or https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2827232 Tausch, Arno (2015). The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim world. With Almas Heshmati and Hichem Karoui (1st ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-62948-899-8.  United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues. (2012). Women and the Arab Spring: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues and the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, November 2, 2011. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O. Amanda Jacoby, Tamil (2013). "Israel's relations with Egypt
Egypt
and Turkey during the Arab Spring: Weathering the Storm". Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs. VII (2): 29–42. doi:10.1080/23739770.2013.11446550. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutArab Springat's sister projects

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A (Working) Academic Arab Spring
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Reading List collected peer-reviewed academic articles on the impact of social media on the Arab Spring Constitutional Transitions Timeline Collected legal and political changes and short analysis at Middle East
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protests collected news and commentary at the Financial Times Unrest in the Arab World collected map, news and commentary at CNN "Arab and Middle East
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unrest collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  "Arab and Middle East
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in Revolt collected news and commentary at Time

Other

The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012 Interface
Interface
journal special issue on the Arab Spring, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, May 2012 "The Shoe Thrower's index (An index of unrest in the Arab world)". The Economist. 9 February 2011.  "Interview with Tariq Ramadan: 'We Need to Get a Better Sense of the Trends within Islamism'". Qantara.de. 2 February 2011.  Sadek J. Al Azm, "The Arab Spring: Why Exactly at this Time?" Reason Papers 33 (Fall 2011) Tracking the wave of protests with statistics, RevolutionTrends.org Arab uprisings: 10 key moments from BBC
BBC
Middle East
Middle East
Editor Jeremy Bowden (10 December 2012) How to Start a Revolution, documentary directed by Ruaridh Arrow

v t e

Revolutionary waves

19th century

Atlantic Revolutions Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848

20th century

Revolutions of 1917–1923 Protests of 1968 Central American crisis Revolutions of 1989

21st century

Colour revolutions Arab Spring Arab Winter Occupy movement

v t e

Arab Spring

"Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam"

Events by country

Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Tunisia Western Sahara Yemen

Groups

Bahrain: Al Wefaq February 14 Youth Coalition

Egypt: April 6 Youth Movement Kefaya Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(FJP) National Association for Change National Democratic Party National Salvation Front Revolutionary Socialists Shayfeencom The Third Square Ultras Ahlawy

Libya: National Liberation Army National Transitional Council

Mauritania: February 25th Movement

Saudi Arabia: Women to drive movement CDHRAP Society for Development and Change

Syria: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party

Regional Command National Command

National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces Free Syrian Army Syrian Revolution
Revolution
General Commission Syrian National Council National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change Hizb ut-Tahrir Foreign fighters

Tunisia: Constitutional Democratic Rally Ennahda Movement Popular Front Tunisian General Labour Union Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet

Yemen: Alliance of Yemeni Tribes Al-Islah Hashid Houthis General People's Congress Hiraak

Notable people

Women in the Arab Spring

Algeria: Abdelaziz Bouteflika Ahmed Ouyahia

Bahrain: Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Hasan Mushaima Ali Salman Ali Jawad al-Sheikh

Egypt: Hosni Mubarak Omar Suleiman Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Ahmed Nazif Ahmed Shafik Wael Ghonim Kamal Ganzouri Khaled Mohamed Saeed Gihan Ibrahim Essam Sharaf Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed Morsi Hesham Qandil Bassem Youssef

Jordan: King Abdullah II Marouf al-Bakhit Samir Rifai

Libya: Muammar Gaddafi Saif al-Islam Gaddafi Mustafa Abdul Jalil Mahmoud Jibril Mohammed Nabbous

Mauritania: Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf

Morocco: Mohammed VI Abbas El Fassi

Saudi Arabia: Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Khaled al-Johani Manal al-Sharif Nimr al-Nimr

Sudan: Omar al-Bashir Hassan al-Turabi

Syria: Bashar al-Assad Muhammad Naji al-Otari Adel Safar Riyad Farid Hijab Wael Nader al-Halqi Maher al-Assad Burhan Ghalioun Moaz al-Khatib Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb

Tunisia: Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Mohamed Ghannouchi Moncef Marzouki Rashid al-Ghannushi Fouad Mebazaa Beji Caid Essebsi Hamadi Jebali Mohamed Bouazizi Chokri Belaid

United Arab Emirates: UAE Five

Yemen: Ali Abdullah Saleh Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi Tawakkol Karman Abdul Majeed al-Zindani Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar Sadiq al-Ahmar Abdul-Malik al-Houthi Mohammed Ali al-Houthi

Impact

Occupy movement Albania Armenia Azerbaijan

2011 2013

Belarus Burkina Faso China Greece India

2011 2012

Iran Iraqi Kurdistan Israel Maldives Mali Mexico

2011 2012

Portugal Russia Spain Turkey

2011–12 2013

United Kingdom United States Libyan Civil War (2011–present) Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

UN Resolutions

65/265 1970 1973 2009 2014 2016

International reactions

Bahrain Egypt Libya

civil war military intervention death of Muammar Gaddafi

Syria Tunisia Yemen

Domestic reactions

Egypt Libya

domestic responses state's response

Syria

Timelines by country

Bahrain Egypt Libya Saudi Arabia Syria Yemen

Category Commons Wikiquotes

v t e

Post– Cold War
Cold War
conflicts in Asia

South Asia

Nepalese conflicts

Civil War (1996–2006) Royal massacre (2001)

Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
(1983–2009) Kashmir conflict
Kashmir conflict
(1947–present)

2013 India–Pakistan border skirmishes India–Pakistan border skirmishes (2014–2015) India–Pakistan military confrontation (2016–present) Kargil War
Kargil War
(1999) Jammu and Kashmir insurgency (1989–present)

Insurgency
Insurgency
in Northeast India (1964–present) Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
(1967–present) Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes Afghan Wars

1989–92 1992–96 1996–2001 2001–present

War in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
(2004–present) Balochistan conflict (2004–present) Rohingya conflict
Rohingya conflict
(1947–present)

East Asia

Taiwan Strait Crisis (1996) Korean dispute

Maritime border incidents (1967–present) 2013 crisis 2017 crisis

Xinjiang conflict
Xinjiang conflict
(1960s–present)

Southeast Asia

Cambodian–Vietnamese War Insurgency
Insurgency
in Laos East Timorese conflicts

Indonesian occupation (1975–99) 1999 crisis 2006 crisis

Cambodian–Thai border dispute
Cambodian–Thai border dispute
(2008–11) Other Indonesian conflicts

Papua conflict
Papua conflict
(1969–present) Aceh insurgency (1976–2005)

Myanmar internal conflict (1948–present)

Karen conflict Kachin (2011–present)

Civil conflict in the Philippines

CPP–NPA–NDF Moro

Al-Ma'unah
Al-Ma'unah
(2000-2001) Kampung Medan riots (2001) South Thailand insurgency
South Thailand insurgency
(2004–present)

Central Asia

Tajikistani Civil War
Tajikistani Civil War
(1992–97) Kyrgyz Revolution
Revolution
(2010) South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes (2010) Tajikistan Insurgency
Insurgency
(2010–12)

Western Asia (excluding South Caucasus)

Iraqi conflicts

Iraqi–Kurdish (1918–2003)

Civil War (1994–97)

Kurdistan Islamist conflict
Kurdistan Islamist conflict
(2001–03) War (2003–11) Post-War insurgency (2011–13) Civil War (2014–present)

Conflicts with Israel

Israeli–Palestinian (1948–present)

Intifada (2000–05) Gaza–Israel (2006–present)

Israeli–Lebanese (1948–present)

South Lebanon
Lebanon
(1985–2000) Lebanon
Lebanon
War (2006)

Yemeni conflicts

Yemeni Civil War (1994) al-Qaeda (1998–2015) Houthi
Houthi
(2004–15) South Yemen
Yemen
(2009–15) Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

Coup d'état
Coup d'état
(2014–15) Civil War (2015–present)

Civil conflict in Turkey

Political
Political
violence (1976–80) Maoist insurgency DHKP/C insurgency PKK conflict Turkey–ISIL conflict

Others

Kurdish separatism in Iran

KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Iran–PJAK conflict
Iran–PJAK conflict
(2004–present)

Sinai insurgency
Sinai insurgency
(2011–present) Bahraini uprising (2011) Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)

Regional spillover

Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2010–11)

Arab Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts African conflicts Conflicts in the Americas

v t e

Protests in the 21st century

Revolutions and uprisings

Colour revolutions

Georgia

Rose, 2003

Kyrgyzstan

Tulip, 2005

Lebanon

Cedar, 2005

Ukraine

Orange, 2004–05

Arab Spring

Algeria

2010–12

Bahrain

2011

Djibouti

2011

Egypt

2011

Jordan

2011–12

Iraq

2011

Lebanon

2011

Libya

2011

Mauritania

2011–12

Morocco

2011–12

Oman

2011

Palestine

2011–12

Saudi Arabia

2011–12

Sudan

2011–13

Syria

2011

Tunisia

2010–11

Yemen

2011–12

Western Sahara

2011

Other

Abkhazia

2014

Burkina Faso

2014

Kyrgyzstan

2010

Palestine

2000–05

Philippines

EDSA II, Jan 2001 EDSA III, Apr 2001

Ukraine

Euromaidan, 2013–14

Specific issues

Anti-austerity

Canada

Newfoundland and Labrador

Greece Ireland Italy

2011 Rome 2012 Sicily 2013 social

Portugal Spain

2012 Asturias

United Kingdom

Anti-war

War in Afghanistan

2001–14

Iraq
Iraq
War

2003–12

Russia

2014

Sri Lankan Civil War

2008–09 Canada

Arab Winter

Egypt

2012–13 2013–14

Iraq

2012–13 2015–18

Tunisia

2013–14 2018

Autonomy or independence

Catalonia

2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Sep 2017 Oct 2017 Dec 2017

Iraqi Kurdistan

2011 in Iraq

Iran

2005 Ahvaz

Turkish Kurdistan

2009 in Turkey 2011–12 in Turkey 2014 in Turkey

Ukraine

Crimea Southeastern Ukraine

Western Sahara

2010

Against elections

Belarus

2006

Armenia

2003–04 2008

Iran

2009

Moldova

2009

Russia

2011

Malaysia

2013

Mexico

2012

Serbia

2017

South Korea

2012

Togo

2005–present

United States

2015–present

Student

Austria

2009

Bangladesh

2015

Canada

2005 2012

Chile

2006 2008 2011–13

Colombia

2011

Croatia

2009

Hong Kong

2012 2014

Iran

1999

Ireland

2010

Netherlands

2007

Puerto Rico

2010–11

South Africa

#RhodesMustFall #FeesMustFall

Taiwan

2014 2015

United Kingdom

2010

Other protests by country

International

Anti-Japanese protests

2005 2012

May Day

2009 2012 2013 2014 2015 2017

Occupy movement Black Lives Matter‎ Protests against Donald Trump

2017 Women's March Executive Order 13769 2018 Women's March

#NiUnaMenos

Peru, 2016

National

Albania

2011 2017

Argentina

Dec 2001 13 Sep 2012 8 Nov 2012 18 Apr 2013 13 Nov 2014

Armenia

2011 2012 2013 2015

Azerbaijan 2011 Bangladesh

2013 Anti-War Criminal Protest

Belarus

2006 2011 2017

Bolivia

2011

Bosnia and Herzegovina

2014

Brazil

2013 2014 2015–16

Bulgaria

Borisov's first cabinet Oresharski cabinet

Burkina Faso

2011

Burundi

2015–present

Cambodia

2013–14

Cameroon

2008

Canada

2010 Idle No More

Chile

Aysén Magallanes

China

2011

DR Congo

2015 2016

Ecuador

2012 2015

Estonia

2007

Ethiopia

2016

France

2005 2010 2015 Corsica Protests against Macron Presidency

Gabon

2016

Georgia

2007 2009 2011

Guatemala

2015

Hong Kong

2003 2005 2009–10 Jan 2010, Jan 2013 2014

Hungary

2006 2014

Iceland

2009 2016

India

2011–12

Iran

2011–12 2017–18

Iraq

2015–17

Israel

Reserve soldiers Cheese boycott Social justice

Kazakhstan

2011

Lebanon

2006–08 2015–16

Macedonia

2015 2016

Malawi

2011

Macau

2010

Malaysia

Bersih HINDRAF Bersih 2.0 Bersih 3.0 People's Uprising Bersih 4.0 Bersih 5.0

Mexico

Indignados 2017

Moldova

2013 2015–16

Montenegro

2008 2015–16

Myanmar

2007–08

Nepal

2006

Nicaragua

2014–18

Northern Ireland

flag protests

Pakistan

Lawyers' Movement Long March Azadi march Inqilab March Tehreek-e-Labaik protest

Paraguay

2017

Philippines

2013 2016–17 2016–present

Poland

2016

Romania

2012–15

2012 Shale gas Roșia Montană Project Colectiv

2017–18

Russia

2005–08 Strategy-31 2011–13 2017–18

Serbia

2008 2017

South Korea

2008 2016–17

Slovenia

2012–13

Taiwan

2006

Thailand

2010 2013–14

Togo

2017–18

Tunisia

2016

Turkey

2007 2013 2017

Ukraine

2000–01 2013

United Kingdom

2011

United States

Public employee Tea Party Wall Street Wisconsin Gun violence protests

Uzbekistan

2005

Venezuela

2007 2014–18

2014 2017

Zimbabwe

2016–17

List of ongoing protests and civil unrest

Middle East
Middle East
portal Africa portal Politics portal Social movements p

.