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The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.[1] Classical authors such as Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Strabo
Strabo
clearly distinguish them from the other peoples of Gaul, and note their similarity to others in the Iberian Peninsula. During the process of Romanization, they gradually adopted the Latin Language (Vulgar Latin) and Roman civilization. Their old language, the Aquitanian language
Aquitanian language
was precursor of the Basque language[2] and the substrate for the Gascon language
Gascon language
(one of the Romance languages) spoken in Gascony.

Contents

1 History 2 Relation to Basque people and language 3 Tribes

3.1 Aquitani
Aquitani
tribes 3.2 Aquitani
Aquitani
related peoples or tribes

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] At the time of the Roman conquest, Julius Caesar, who defeated them in his campaign in Gaul, describes them as making up a distinct part of Gaul:

All Gaul
Gaul
is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgæ inhabit, the Aquitani
Aquitani
another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. The river Garonne
Garonne
separates the Gauls
Gauls
from the Aquitani[3]

Despite apparent cultural and linguistic connections to Iberia (Vascones) and to Iberians, the area of Aquitania, as a part of Gaul ended at the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
according to Cæsar:

Aquitania
Aquitania
extends from the river Garonne
Garonne
to the Pyrenæan mountains and to that part of the ocean which is near Spain: it looks between the setting of the sun, and the north star.[4]

Relation to Basque people and language[edit] The presence, on late Romano-Aquitanian funerary slabs, of what seem to be the names of deities or people similar to certain names in modern Basque have led many philologists and linguists to conclude that Aquitanian was closely related to an older form of Basque. Julius Caesar draws a clear line between the Aquitani, living in present-day south-western France
France
and speaking Aquitanian, and their neighboring Celts
Celts
living to the north.[5] The fact that the region was known as Vasconia in the Early Middle Ages, a name that evolved into the better known form of Gascony, along with other toponymic evidence, seems to corroborate that assumption. However, it has also been argued that the Aquitani
Aquitani
were a mixed population of Gallic and Vasconic origin that lived in the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. Eastern and Northern Aquitani
Aquitani
spoke Gaulish while Southern and Western Aquitani
Aquitani
spoke the Aquitanian language, related to Old Basque.[6];[7] Tribes[edit]

Tribes in Aquitania
Aquitania
(as was defined in the 1st century BCE)

Late distribution of tribes in Novempopulania
Novempopulania
at the end of the 6th century CE, former Aquitania
Aquitania
proper (as was defined in the 1st century BCE)

Although the country where the original Aquitanians lived came to be named Novempopulania
Novempopulania
(nine peoples) in the late years of the Roman Empire and Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(up to the 6th century), the number of tribes varied (about 20 for Strabo, but comparing with the information of other classical authors such as Pliny, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Julius Caesar, the total number were 32 or 33):[citation needed] Aquitani
Aquitani
tribes[edit]

Apiates/Aspiates in the Valley of Asp (Valée d'Asp) Aturenses in the banks of the Adour
Adour
(Aturus) river Arenosii or Airenosini in Aran valley, (high Garonne
Garonne
valley), part of Aquitania
Aquitania
and not of Hispania
Hispania
in the Roman Empire Ausci
Ausci
in the east around Auch
Auch
(Elimberris, metropolis of Aquitania) Benearni or Benearnenses/Venarni in and around low Béarn, Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques Bercorates/Bercorcates Bigerriones
Bigerriones
or Begerri in the west of the French département of High Pyrenees
Pyrenees
(medieval county of Bigorre) Boiates/Boates/Boii Boiates/Boviates in the coastal region of Pays de Buch and Pays de Born, in the Northwest of Landes Camponi Cocosates/Sexsignani in the west of Landes département Consoranni in the tributary streams of the high Garonne
Garonne
river in the former province of Couserans, today's west half of the Ariège départment and extreme south of Haute-Garonne Convenae, a “groupement” in the southeast (high Garonne
Garonne
valley) in and around Lugdunum Convenarum Elusates
Elusates
in the northeast around Eauze
Eauze
(former Elusa)[7] Datii in Valley of Osse (Valée d'Osse) Gates between the Elusates
Elusates
and the Ausci Iluronenses in and around Iluro (Oloron-Sainte-Marie) Lactorates or Lectorates in and around Lectoure[7] Monesii or Osii or Onesii in the high Garonne
Garonne
river valley (Louchon), only mentioned in Strabo's Geographica Onobrisates in Nébouzan Oscidates in the valleys and slopes of the west Pyrenees, in Ossau, high Béarn, south of the Iluronenses

Oscidates Campestres Oscidates Montani

Ptianii in Orthez Sassumini/Lassumini/Lassunni Sibyllates or Suburates
Suburates
probably around Soule/Xüberoa and also Saubusse; the same of Cæsar’s Sibuzates/Sibusates? Sotiates
Sotiates
in the north around Sos-en-Albret (south of Lot-et-Garonne department) Succasses Tarbelli
Tarbelli
or Tarbelii/Quattuorsignani in the coastal side of Landes, with Dax (Aquis Tarbellicis) Tarusates in the Midou, Douze
Douze
and Midouze
Midouze
valley, east of Cocosates and Tarbelli Tarusci in the high Ariège river valley in the former province of Foix, today's east half of the Ariège department Umbranici Vellates in high Bidassoa
Bidassoa
river valley Venami/Venarni Vasates/Volcates in the north around Bazas
Bazas
(south of Gironde department

Aquitani
Aquitani
related peoples or tribes[edit] In the southern slopes of western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Mountains, not in Aquitania but in northern Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis:

Iacetani in high Aragon River
Aragon River
valley, in and around Jaca, in the southern slopes of western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Mountains in today's northwestern Aragon, Spain Vascones
Vascones
in the southern slopes of western Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Mountains in today's Navarra, Spain

See also[edit]

Basque portal

Aquitanian language Gauls Novempopulania Gallia Aquitania Duchy of Vasconia Vascones Iberians Gascony Late Basquisation Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula

References[edit]

^ Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 9781438129181.  ^ Trask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2 ^ These are indeed the opening lines of Caesar’s account of his war in Gaul: Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgæ, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtæ, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen [...] dividit. Julius Cæsar, De bello Gallico 1.1, edition of T. Rice Holmes ^ Aquitania
Aquitania
a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenæos montes et eam partem Oceani quæ est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones. ^ Trask, R.L. (1997). The History of Basque. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 398–412. ISBN 0-415-13116-2.  ^ Mountain, Harry (1998). The Celtic Encyclopedia. Universal-Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 9781581128901.  ^ a b c Judge, A. (2007-02-07). Linguistic Policies and the Survival of Regional Languages in France
France
and Britain. Springer. p. 70. ISBN 9780230286177. 

External links[edit]

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/home.html - 51 complete works of authors from Classical Antiquity (Greek and Roman). http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Caesar/Gallic_War/home.html - Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
text of De Bello Gallico
De Bello Gallico
(Gallic War). http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Pliny_the_Elder/home.html - Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
text of Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History) - books 3-6 (Geography and Ethnography). http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/home.html - Strabo's text of De Geographic

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