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MUHAMMAD ANWAR EL-SADAT (Arabic : محمد أنور السادات‎‎ Muḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: ; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt
President of Egypt
, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Egyptian Revolution of 1952
, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser , under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970.

In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt
Egypt
's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism , re-instituting a multi-party system , and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt
Egypt
in the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, which Israel
Israel
had occupied since the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt
Egypt
and, for a time, the wider Arab World
Arab World
. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel
Israel
, culminating in the Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty ; this won him and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
the Nobel Peace Prize , making Sadat the first Muslim Nobel laureate. Though reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians, it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood , which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state. With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel
Israel
without prior consultations with the Arab states. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt
Egypt
being suspended from the Arab League
Arab League
from 1979 to 1989. The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and revolutionary activities * 2 During Nasser\'s presidency

* 3 Presidency

* 3.1 Corrective Revolution * 3.2 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
* 3.3 Peace with Israel
Israel
* 3.4 Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah
Shah
Pahlavi of Iran * 3.5 Assassination

* 4 Aftermath * 5 Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat

* 6 Honour

* 6.1 Foreign honour

* 7 Bibliography * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

EARLY LIFE AND REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES

Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom , Monufia , Egypt
Egypt
to a poor Nubian family, one of 13 brothers and sisters. One of his brothers, Atef Sadat, later became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973. His father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, and his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was a Sudanese from her father. Thus, they said his mother did not look "Egyptian enough" and some called him "Nasser's black poodle."

He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo
Cairo
in 1938 and was appointed to the Signal Corps. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to Sudan
Sudan
( Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
were one country at the time). There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser , and along with several other junior officers they formed the secret Free Officers , a movement committed to freeing Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
from British domination, and royal corruption.

During the Second World War
Second World War
he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain help from the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
in expelling the occupying British forces. Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt
Egypt
, and the secret military group called the Free Officers. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 , which overthrew King Farouk on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks.

DURING NASSER\'S PRESIDENCY

Top Egyptian leaders in Alexandria
Alexandria
, 1968. From left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser , Sadat, Ali Sabri and Hussein el-Shafei

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria . In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly (1960–1968) and then vice president and member of the presidential council in 1964. He was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.

PRESIDENCY

Further information: History of Egypt
Egypt
under Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat

Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR
USSR
, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David
Camp David
peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" (or Infitah ) of Egypt's economy, and lastly his assassination in 1981. Play media 1972 Echo newsreel about the early Sadat years

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970. Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived. Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right. On 15 May 1971, Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution , purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists . Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.

In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition
War of Attrition
in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring , which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel
Israel
on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel
Israel
nor the United States
United States
of America accepted the terms as discussed then.

CORRECTIVE REVOLUTION

Main article: Corrective Revolution (Egypt)

Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabri , who had close ties with Soviet officials, and Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police. Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police, expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel.

YOM KIPPUR WAR

Main article: Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War

On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria
Syria
, Sadat launched the October War , also known as the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, and the Syrian Golan Heights
Golan Heights
in an attempt to retake these respective Egyptian and Syrian territories that had been occupied by Israel
Israel
since the Six Day War six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement (Operation Badr , also known as The Crossing) was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
after penetrating and largely destroying the Bar Lev Line . This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain.

As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General Ariel Sharon had crossed the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army. Although this failed the Egyptian Third Army, prompted by an agreement between the United States
United States
of America, the Soviet Union, the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire. Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken. Alexei Kosygin , the Chairman of the USSR
USSR
Council of Ministers , cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen to travel to Egypt
Egypt
where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it is unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person. The Israeli military then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 24 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo
Cairo
.

PEACE WITH ISRAEL

Main article: Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty

External audio National Press Club Luncheon Speakers Anwar Sadat, February 6, 1978, National Press Club . Speech begins at 7:31

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt
Egypt
and the Arab World
Arab World
and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Israel
Israel
recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on 4 September 1975.

One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor Billy Graham for an official visit, which was held a few days after Sadat's visit. In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited the Vatican for the first time, and got a message of support from Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue . Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo.

Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper El Hawadeth in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights. This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made.

In January 1977, a series of \'Bread Riots\' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo
Cairo
alone. The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls. During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West.

The United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East. Syria continued to resist such a conference. Not wanting either Syria
Syria
or the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel.

On 19 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel
Israel
officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin , and spoke before the Knesset
Knesset
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict , which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338 . He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision". Sadat (left) shaking hands with Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman , 1978 President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
acknowledge applause during joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
announced the results of the Camp David
Camp David
Accords, 18 September 1978 President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
at the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House
White House
, 1979 President Sadat with U.S. Senator Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(left), and U.S. Senator Frank Church (center), at Camp David
Camp David
, 1979.

The Peace treaty was finally signed by Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
in Washington, D.C., United States, on 26 March 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978) , a series of meetings between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
facilitated by US President Jimmy Carter . Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long-awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis:

Let us put an end to wars, let us reshape life on the solid basis of equity and truth. And it is this call, which reflected the will of the Egyptian people, of the great majority of the Arab and Israeli peoples, and indeed of millions of men, women, and children around the world that you are today honoring. And these hundreds of millions will judge to what extent every responsible leader in the Middle East has responded to the hopes of mankind.

The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
, and the complete withdrawal by Israel
Israel
of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, which Israel
Israel
had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
.

The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt
Egypt
the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
has remained in effect since the treaty was signed.

The treaty was extremely unpopular in most of the Arab World
Arab World
and the wider Muslim World. His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt
Egypt
an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see Egypt
Egypt
). The neighboring Arab countries believed that in signing the accords, Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's pan-Arabism , and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" for the support of the Palestinians against the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat decided early on that peace is the solution. Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States
United States
his peace moves gained him popularity among some Evangelical circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by Pat Robertson
Pat Robertson
.

In 1979, the Arab League
Arab League
suspended Egypt
Egypt
in the wake of the Egyptian– Israel
Israel
peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from Cairo
Cairo
to Tunis
Tunis
. Arab League
Arab League
member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel
Israel
at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt
Egypt
as a member, and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in phases, completing its withdrawal from the entire territory except the town of Taba by 25 April 1982 (withdrawal from which did not occur until 1989). The improved relations Egypt
Egypt
gained with the West through the Camp David
Camp David
Accords soon gave the country resilient economic growth. By 1980, however, Egypt's strained relations with the Arab World
Arab World
would result in a period of rapid inflation.

RELATIONSHIP WITH MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PAHLAVI OF IRAN

Queen Farah Diba , President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran
Tehran
in 1975

The relationship between Iran and Egypt
Egypt
had fallen into open hostility during Gamal Abdel Nasser 's presidency. Following his death in 1970, President Sadat turned this around quickly into an open and close friendship.

In 1971, Sadat addressed the Iranian parliament
Iranian parliament
in Tehran
Tehran
in fluent Persian , describing the 2,500-year-old historic connection between the two lands.

Overnight, the Egyptian and Iranian governments were turned from bitter enemies into fast friends. The relationship between Cairo
Cairo
and Tehran
Tehran
became so friendly that the Shah
Shah
of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , called Sadat his "dear brother".

After the 1973 war with Israel, Iran assumed a leading role in cleaning up and reactivating the blocked Suez Canal
Suez Canal
with heavy investment. The country also facilitated the withdrawal of Israel
Israel
from the occupied Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
by promising to substitute the loss of the oil to the Israelis with free Iranian oil if they withdrew from the Egyptian oil wells in western Sinai.

All these added more to the personal friendship between Sadat and the Shah
Shah
of Iran. (The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt
Egypt
. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
(later King Fuad I ) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.)

After his overthrow, the deposed Shah
Shah
spent the last months of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah
Shah
died, Sadat ordered that he be given a state funeral and be interred at the Al-Rifa\'i Mosque in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian Khedive
Khedive
Isma\'il Pasha , his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
.

ASSASSINATION

Main article: Assassination of Anwar Sadat

The last months of Sadat's presidency were marked by internal uprising. Sadat dismissed allegations that the rioting was incited by domestic issues, believing that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was recruiting its regional allies in Libya and Syria
Syria
to incite an uprising that would eventually force him out of power. Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Sadat ordered a major crackdown that resulted in the arrest of numerous opposition figures. Though Sadat still maintained high levels of popularity in Egypt, it has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity.

Earlier in his presidency, Islamists had benefited from the 'rectification revolution' and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser but Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel
Israel
enraged Islamists, particularly the radical Egyptian Islamic Jihad . According to interviews and information gathered by journalist Lawrence Wright
Lawrence Wright
, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was Abbud al-Zumar , a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing—he expected—a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country".

In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1,500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes. All non-government press was banned as well. The round up missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli , who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
that October.

According to Tala\'at Qasim , ex-head of the Gama\'a Islamiyya interviewed in Middle East Report , it was not Islamic Jihad but his organization, known in English as the "Islamic Group", that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Majlis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat.

On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo
Cairo
to celebrate Egypt\'s crossing of the Suez Canal . Islambouli emptied his assault rifle into Sadat's body while in the front of the grandstand, mortally wounding the President. In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, a Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
bishop and Samir Helmy, the head of Egypt's Central Auditing Agency (CAA). Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak , Irish Defence Minister James Tully , and four US military liaison officers.

The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman . Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982.

AFTERMATH

Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
. Sudan
Sudan
's President Gaafar Nimeiry was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the Arab League
Arab League
—Oman, Somalia and Sudan—sent representatives at all. Israel's prime minister, Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
, considered Sadat a personal friend and insisted on attending the funeral. Begin even walked throughout the funeral procession so as not to desecrate the Sabbath. Sadat was buried in the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo
Cairo
, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated.

Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including future al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri , Omar Abdel-Rahman and Abd al-Hamid Kishk . The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. His brother Muhammad al-Zawahiri was imprisoned from 2000 until 17 March 2011, and then re-arrested on 20 March 2011. Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connection with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011.

Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat Sadat , claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States
United States
and Israel
Israel
were involved: "No one from the special personal protection group of the late president fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial," he said.

MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF ANWAR SADAT

Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
with Sadat and Gamal Abdel Nasser in Cairo, 1962

In 1983, Sadat , a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar -winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr.
Louis Gossett, Jr.
in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures , over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed; the court held, "the distortions and the slanders found in the film took place outside the country," so that "the crimes were not within the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction."

Western authors attributed the film's poor reception to racism – Gossett being African American – in the Egyptian government or Egypt in general. Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased Sadat". The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy nomination in the United States.

He was portrayed by Robert Loggia
Robert Loggia
in the 1982 television movie A Woman Called Golda , opposite Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
as Golda Meir
Golda Meir
.

The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when Ayyam El Sadat (English: Days of Sadat) was released in Egyptian cinemas. This movie, by contrast, was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki 's greatest performance to date.

The young Sadat is a major character in Ken Follett 's thriller The Key to Rebecca , taking place in World War II Cairo. Sadat, at the time a young officer in the Egyptian Army and involved in anti-British revolutionary activities, is presented quite sympathetically; his willingness to cooperate with German spies is clearly shown to derive from his wish to find allies against British domination of his country, rather than from support of Nazi ideology. Some of the scenes in the book, such as Sadat's arrest by the British, closely follow the information provided in Sadat's own autobiography.

Sadat was a recurring character on Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
, played by Garrett Morris , who bore a resemblance to Sadat.

HONOUR

FOREIGN HONOUR

* Malaysia : Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm (1965)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Sadat, Anwar (1954). قصة الثورة كاملة (The Full Story of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: Dar el-Hilal. OCLC 23485697 . * Sadat, Anwar (1955). صفحات مجهولة (Unknown Pages of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: دار التحرير للطبع والنشر،. OCLC
OCLC
10739895 . * Sadat, Anwar (1957). Revolt on the Nile. New York: J. Day Co. OCLC 1226176 . * Sadat, Anwar (1958). Son, This Is Your Uncle Gamal - Memoirs of Anwar el-Sadat. Beirut: Maktabat al-ʻIrfān. OCLC
OCLC
27919901 . * Sadat, Anwar (1978). In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-013742-8 .

SEE ALSO

* History of Egypt
Egypt
under Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Peace with Israel * ^ Graham, Nick (21 August 2010). "Middle East Peace Talks: Israel, Palestinian Negotiations More Hopeless Than Ever". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ Vatikiotis, P. J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
(4th edition ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. * ^ "The Failure at Camp David
Camp David
- Part III Possibilities and pitfalls for further negotiations". Textus. Retrieved 2 February 2011.

* ^ " Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter\'s Role". The New York Times. * ^ "Profile: Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
The former Egyptian president believed a peace deal with Israel
Israel
was vital to end wars.". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2013. * ^ US diplomatic cable about Atef Sadat\'s funeral * ^ C. J. De Wet (2006). Development-induced Displacement: Problems, Policies, and People. Berghahn Books. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-84545-095-3 . Retrieved 31 January 2013. * ^ Sadat\'s Wife autobiography * ^ Khalid, Sunni M. (February 7, 2011). "The Root: Race And Racism Divide Egypt". npr.org. Retrieved March 3, 2011. * ^ http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/sadat-and-his-legacy-egypt-and-the-world-1977-1997 * ^ Alterman, Jon B. (1998). "New Media New Politics?" (PDF). The Washington Institute. 48. Retrieved 7 April 2013. * ^ "Big \'yes\' for Anwar Sadat". Ottawa Citizen. Cairo. AP. 16 October 1970. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P "Anwar el-Sadat, the Daring Arab Pioneer of Peace with Israel". The New York Times. * ^ " Egypt
Egypt
Corrective Revolution 1971". Onwar. 16 December 2000. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ A B Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 74 * ^ Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 83 * ^ Mary Ann Fay (December 1990). "A Country Study". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 1, Egypt: The Aftermath of War: October 1973 War. Retrieved 13 February 2008. * ^ "Situation report in the Middle East" (PDF). Department of State. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * ^ Golan, Galia (1990). Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 89. ISBN 978- 0521358590 . * ^ "National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, Anwar Sadat, February 6, 1978". National Press Club via Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. Retrieved October 21, 2016. * ^ "Text of diplomatic cable regarding Graham\'s visit to Egypt (US government website)". Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ "Text of Pope\'s message to Sadat". Vatican. 1976. Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ "John Anthony Volpe (US Ambassador to Italy), cable describing Sadat\'s visit to the Vatican". Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ "Sadat interview to El Hawadeth" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ "Telephone conversation between Kissinger and Rabin, February 5, 1976" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ Mary Ann Weaver, Portrait of Egypt, p. 25 * ^ Olivier, Roy (1994). Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press
. p. 56. ISBN 0-674-29140-9 . * ^ Weaver, Mary Ann (1999). Portrait of Egypt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 25. ISBN 0-374-23542-2 . * ^ "Sadat Visits Israel: 1977 Year in Review.". UPI. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ "Anwar Al-Sadat". Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009. * ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
(Fourth ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
. p. 443. ISBN 0-8018-4214-X . * ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
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. * ^ Avner, Yehuda (2010-07-24). The Prime Ministers (p. 575). The Toby Press, LLC. Kindle Edition. * ^ Brother of Al-Qaeda\'s Zawahri re-arrested, Sherif Tarek, Ahram Online , 20 March 2011 * ^ Egypt