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Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنور السادات‎ Muḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt, Egyptian [muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt]; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970. In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt
Egypt
in the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel
Israel
had occupied since the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt
Egypt
and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty; this won him and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
the Nobel Peace Prize, making Sadat the first Muslim Nobel laureate. Though reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians,[2] it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state.[2] With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel
Israel
without prior consultations with the Arab states.[2] His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt
Egypt
being suspended from the Arab League
Arab League
from 1979 to 1989.[3][4][5][6] The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination.

Contents

1 Early life and revolutionary activities 2 During Nasser's presidency 3 Presidency

3.1 Corrective Revolution 3.2 Yom Kippur War 3.3 Peace with Israel 3.4 Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah
Shah
Pahlavi of Iran 3.5 Assassination

4 Aftermath 5 Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat 6 Honour

6.1 Foreign honour

7 Bibliography 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and revolutionary activities Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, Monufia, Egypt
Egypt
to a poor Nubian family, one of 13 brothers and sisters.[7] One of his brothers, Atef Sadat, later became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973.[8] His father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, and his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was Sudanese from her father.[9][10] He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo
Cairo
in 1938[11] and was appointed to the Signal Corps. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to Sudan
Sudan
( Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
were one country at the time). There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser, and along with several other junior officers they formed the secret Free Officers,[12] a movement committed to freeing Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
from British domination, and royal corruption. During the Second World War
Second World War
he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain help from the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
in expelling the occupying British forces. Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt, and the secret military group called the Free Officers.[13] Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which overthrew King Farouk on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks. During Nasser's presidency

Top Egyptian leaders in Alexandria, 1968. From left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat, Ali Sabri
Ali Sabri
and Hussein el-Shafei

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria.[14] In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly (1960–1968) and then vice president and member of the presidential council in 1964. He was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969. Presidency Further information: History of Egypt
Egypt
under Anwar Sadat Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War
1973 October War
with Israel, the Camp David
Camp David
peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" (or Infitah) of Egypt's economy, and lastly his assassination in 1981.

Play media

1972 Echo newsreel about the early Sadat years

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970.[15] Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived.[16] Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right.[17] On 15 May 1971,[18] Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.[19] In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition
War of Attrition
in the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring, which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel
Israel
on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel
Israel
nor the United States
United States
of America accepted the terms as discussed then. Corrective Revolution Main article: Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabri, who had close ties with Soviet officials, and Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police.[16] Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police,[16] expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel.[16] Yom Kippur War Main article: Yom Kippur War On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, also known as the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula[20], and the Syrian Golan Heights
Golan Heights
in an attempt to retake these respective Egyptian and Syrian territories that had been occupied by Israel
Israel
since the Six Day War six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement (Operation Badr, also known as The Crossing) was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
after penetrating and largely destroying the Bar Lev Line. This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain. As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
had crossed the Suez Canal, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army. Although this failed, prompted by an agreement between the United States
United States
of America and the Soviet Union, the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire.[21] Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken.[22] Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the USSR
USSR
Council of Ministers, cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen
Anker Jørgensen
to travel to Egypt where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it is unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person.[23] The Israeli military then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 24 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus
Damascus
and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.[24] Peace with Israel Main article: Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty

External audio

National Press Club Luncheon Speakers Anwar Sadat, 6 February 1978, National Press Club. Speech begins at 7:31[25]

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt
Egypt
and the Arab World
Arab World
and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Israel
Israel
recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on 4 September 1975. One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor Billy Graham for an official visit, which was held a few days after Sadat's visit.[26] In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited the Vatican for the first time, and got a message of support from Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue.[27] Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo.[28] Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper El Hawadeth in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights.[29] This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made.[30] In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo
Cairo
alone.[31] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls.[32][33] During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West.[16] The United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East.[16] Syria continued to resist such a conference.[16] Not wanting either Syria
Syria
or the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel.[16] On 19 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel
Israel
officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset
Knesset
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision".[34]

Sadat (left) shaking hands with Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, 1978

President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
announced the results of the Camp David
Camp David
Accords, 18 September 1978

President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
at the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House, 1979

President Sadat with U.S. Senator Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(left), and U.S. Senator Frank Church
Frank Church
(center), at Camp David, 1979.

The Peace treaty was finally signed by Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
in Washington, D.C., United States, on 26 March 1979, following the Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
(1978), a series of meetings between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
facilitated by US President Jimmy Carter. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long-awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis:

Let us put an end to wars, let us reshape life on the solid basis of equity and truth. And it is this call, which reflected the will of the Egyptian people, of the great majority of the Arab and Israeli peoples, and indeed of millions of men, women, and children around the world that you are today honoring. And these hundreds of millions will judge to what extent every responsible leader in the Middle East has responded to the hopes of mankind.[35]

The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and the complete withdrawal by Israel
Israel
of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel
Israel
had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War. The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and recognition of the Strait of Tiran
Strait of Tiran
and the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt
Egypt
the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
has remained in effect since the treaty was signed. The treaty was extremely unpopular in most of the Arab World
Arab World
and the wider Muslim World.[36] His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt
Egypt
an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see Egypt). The neighboring Arab countries believed that in signing the accords, Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's pan-Arabism, and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" for the support of the Palestinians against the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat decided early on that peace is the solution.[16][37] Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States
United States
his peace moves gained him popularity among some Evangelical circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by Pat Robertson.[38] In 1979, the Arab League
Arab League
suspended Egypt
Egypt
in the wake of the Egyptian– Israel
Israel
peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from Cairo
Cairo
to Tunis. Arab League
Arab League
member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel
Israel
at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt
Egypt
as a member, and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in phases, completing its withdrawal from the entire territory except the town of Taba by 25 April 1982 (withdrawal from which did not occur until 1989).[16] The improved relations Egypt
Egypt
gained with the West through the Camp David
Camp David
Accords soon gave the country resilient economic growth.[16] By 1980, however, Egypt's strained relations with the Arab World
Arab World
would result in a period of rapid inflation.[16] Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah
Shah
Pahlavi of Iran

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Queen Farah Diba, President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran
Tehran
in 1975

The relationship between Iran and Egypt
Egypt
had fallen into open hostility during Gamal Abdel Nasser's presidency. Following his death in 1970, President Sadat turned this around quickly into an open and close friendship. In 1971, Sadat addressed the Iranian parliament
Iranian parliament
in Tehran
Tehran
in fluent Persian, describing the 2,500-year-old historic connection between the two lands. Overnight, the Egyptian and Iranian governments were turned from bitter enemies into fast friends. The relationship between Cairo
Cairo
and Tehran
Tehran
became so friendly that the Shah
Shah
of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, called Sadat his "dear brother". After the 1973 war with Israel, Iran assumed a leading role in cleaning up and reactivating the blocked Suez Canal
Suez Canal
with heavy investment. The country also facilitated the withdrawal of Israel
Israel
from the occupied Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
by promising to substitute the loss of the oil to the Israelis with free Iranian oil if they withdrew from the Egyptian oil wells in western Sinai. All these added more to the personal friendship between Sadat and the Shah
Shah
of Iran. (The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I
Fuad I
of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
(later King Fuad I) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.) After his overthrow, the deposed Shah
Shah
spent the last months of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah
Shah
died, Sadat ordered that he be given a state funeral and be interred at the Al-Rifa'i Mosque
Al-Rifa'i Mosque
in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian Khedive
Khedive
Isma'il Pasha, his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan.[39] Assassination Main article: Assassination of Anwar Sadat The last months of Sadat's presidency were marked by internal uprising.[16] Sadat dismissed allegations that the rioting was incited by domestic issues, believing that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was recruiting its regional allies in Libya and Syria
Syria
to incite an uprising that would eventually force him out of power.[16] Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Sadat ordered a major crackdown that resulted in the arrest of numerous opposition figures.[16] Though Sadat still maintained high levels of popularity in Egypt,[16] it has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity.[40] Earlier in his presidency, Islamists had benefited from the 'rectification revolution' and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser[18] but Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel
Israel
enraged Islamists, particularly the radical Egyptian Islamic Jihad. According to interviews and information gathered by journalist Lawrence Wright, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was Abbud al-Zumar, a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing—he expected—a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country".[41] In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1,500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes.[42] All non-government press was banned as well.[43] The round up missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
that October.[44] According to Tala'at Qasim, ex-head of the Gama'a Islamiyya interviewed in Middle East Report, it was not Islamic Jihad but his organization, known in English as the "Islamic Group", that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Majlis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat.[45] On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo
Cairo
to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal.[46] Islambouli emptied his assault rifle into Sadat's body while in the front of the grandstand, mortally wounding the President. In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, a Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
bishop and Samir Helmy, the head of Egypt's Central Auditing Agency (CAA).[47][48] Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak, Irish Defence Minister James Tully, and four US military liaison officers. The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman.[49] Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982. Aftermath Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Richard Nixon. Sudan's President Gaafar Nimeiry
Gaafar Nimeiry
was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the Arab League—Oman, Somalia and Sudan—sent representatives at all.[50] Israel's prime minister, Menachem Begin, considered Sadat a personal friend and insisted on attending the funeral, walking throughout the funeral procession so as not to desecrate the Sabbath.[51] Sadat was buried in the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated. Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including future al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, Omar Abdel-Rahman, and Abd al-Hamid Kishk. The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connection with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011.[52] Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat Sadat, claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States
United States
and Israel
Israel
were involved: "No one from the special personal protection group of the late president fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial," he said.[53] Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat

Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
with Sadat and Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
in Cairo, 1962

In 1983, Sadat, a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr.
Louis Gossett, Jr.
in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures, over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed, since the alleged slanders, having taken place outside the country, fell outside the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction.[54] The film was critically acclaimed in America, but was unpopular among Egyptians and in the Egyptian press. Western authors attributed the film's poor reception in Egypt
Egypt
to racism – Gossett being African American – in the Egyptian government or Egypt
Egypt
in general.[55] Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased [the deceased] Sadat," who identified as Egyptian and Northeast African, not black or African American.[56] The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy nomination in the United States. He was portrayed by Robert Loggia
Robert Loggia
in the 1982 television movie A Woman Called Golda, opposite Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
as Golda Meir. The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when Ayyam El Sadat (English: Days of Sadat) was released in Egyptian cinemas. This movie, by contrast, was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki's greatest performance to date.[57] The young Sadat is a major character in Ken Follett's thriller The Key to Rebecca, taking place in World War II Cairo. Sadat, at the time a young officer in the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
and involved in anti-British revolutionary activities, is presented quite sympathetically; his willingness to cooperate with German spies is clearly shown to derive from his wish to find allies against British domination of his country, rather than from support of Nazi ideology. Some of the scenes in the book, such as Sadat's arrest by the British, closely follow the information provided in Sadat's own autobiography. Sadat was a recurring character on Saturday Night Live, played by Garrett Morris, who bore a resemblance to Sadat. Honour Foreign honour

 Malaysia : Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm (1965)[58]

Bibliography

Sadat, Anwar (1954). قصة الثورة كاملة (The Full Story of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: Dar el-Hilal. OCLC 23485697.  Sadat, Anwar (1955). صفحات مجهولة (Unknown Pages of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: دار التحرير للطبع والنشر،. OCLC 10739895.  Sadat, Anwar (1957). Revolt on the Nile. New York: J. Day Co. OCLC 1226176.  Sadat, Anwar (1958). Son, This Is Your Uncle Gamal – Memoirs of Anwar el-Sadat. Beirut: Maktabat al-ʻIrfān. OCLC 27919901.  Sadat, Anwar (1978). In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-013742-8. 

See also

History of Egypt
Egypt
under Anwar Sadat

References

^ Finklestone, Joseph (2013), Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared, Routledge, ISBN 113519565X, Significantly, Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
did not mention aspects in his early life...It was in Mit Abul-Kum that Eqbal Afifi, the woman who was his wife for ten years and whom he left, was also born. Her family was of higher social standing than Anwar's, being of Turkish origin...  ^ a b c Peace with Israel ^ Graham, Nick (21 August 2010). "Middle East Peace Talks: Israel, Palestinian Negotiations More Hopeless Than Ever". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ Vatikiotis, P. J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
(4th edition ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. ^ "The Failure at Camp David
Camp David
– Part III Possibilities and pitfalls for further negotiations". Textus. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter's Role". The New York Times.  ^ "Profile: Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
The former Egyptian president believed a peace deal with Israel
Israel
was vital to end wars". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2013.  ^ US diplomatic cable about Atef Sadat's funeral ^ C. J. De Wet (2006). Development-induced Displacement: Problems, Policies, and People. Berghahn Books. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-84545-095-3. Retrieved 31 January 2013.  ^ Sadat's Wife autobiography ^ Alagna, Magdalena (2004). Anwar Sadat. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 9780823944644.  ^ Wagner, Heather Lehr (2007). Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Menachem Begin: Negotiating Peace in the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438104409.  ^ Jon B. Alterman (April 1998). "Sadat and His Legacy: Egypt
Egypt
and the World, 1977–1997". The Washington Institute.  ^ Alterman, Jon B. (1998). "New Media New Politics?" (PDF). The Washington Institute. 48. Retrieved 7 April 2013.  ^ "Big 'yes' for Anwar Sadat". Ottawa Citizen. Cairo. AP. 16 October 1970. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Anwar el-Sadat, the Daring Arab Pioneer of Peace with Israel". The New York Times.  ^ " Egypt
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Corrective Revolution 1971". Onwar. 16 December 2000. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ a b Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 74 ^ Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 83 ^ "The Egyptian Military's Huge Historical Role". 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2017-11-20.  ^ Mary Ann Fay (December 1990). "A Country Study". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 1, Egypt: The Aftermath of War: October 1973 War. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ "Situation report in the Middle East" (PDF). Department of State. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ Golan, Galia (1990). Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 89. ISBN 978- 0521358590.  ^ Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1998. New York: 1999. ISBN 9780679421207. Retrieved 6 October 2017.  ^ "National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, Anwar Sadat, February 6, 1978". National Press Club via Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ "Text of diplomatic cable regarding Graham's visit to Egypt
Egypt
(US government website)". Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "Text of Pope's message to Sadat". Vatican. 1976. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "John Anthony Volpe (US Ambassador to Italy), cable describing Sadat's visit to the Vatican". Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "Sadat interview to El Hawadeth" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "Telephone conversation between Kissinger and Rabin, February 5, 1976" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ Mary Ann Weaver, Portrait of Egypt, p. 25 ^ Olivier, Roy (1994). Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-674-29140-9.  ^ Weaver, Mary Ann (1999). Portrait of Egypt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 25. ISBN 0-374-23542-2.  ^ "Sadat Visits Israel: 1977 Year in Review". UPI. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "Anwar Al-Sadat". Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.  ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
(Fourth ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. ISBN 0-8018-4214-X.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
1978 – Presentation Speech". Nobel prize. 1978. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ "Teaching". Pat Robertson. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011.  ^ An Ideology of Martyrdom – TIME ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 192 ^ Wright, 2006, p. 49 ^ 'Cracking Down', Time, 14 September 1981 ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, pp. 103–4 ^ Wright, 2006, p. 50 ^ For an account that uses this version of events, look at Middle East Report's January–March 1996 issue, specifically Hisham Mubarak's interview with ? On pages 42–43 Qasim deals specifically with rumors of Jihad Group involvement in the assassination, and denies them entirely. ^ "1981 Year in Review". UPI. 1981. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ "Taher Helmi: Feats of circumstance". Al Ahram Weekly. 23 March 2005. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Taher Helmy's Speech at the AUC Commencement Ceremony 2008". YouTube. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ J. Tyler Dickovick (9 August 2012). Africa 2012. Stryker Post. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-1-61048-882-2. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ Tuhoy, William (11 October 1981). Most of Arab world ignores Sadat funeral. The Spokesman-Review. ^ Avner, Yehuda (2010-07-24). The Prime Ministers (p. 575). The Toby Press, LLC. Kindle Edition. ^ Egypt
Egypt
Releases Brother of Al Qaeda's No. 2, Liam Stack, The New York Times, 17 March 2011 ^ Sadat nephew in court appearance. BBC News. 18 October 2006. ^ Reuters (1984). Suit Over Film 'Sadat' Is Dismissed in Cairo
Cairo
The New York Times Retrieved 7 January 2009. ^ Benjamin P. Bowser, Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective (Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 13), (Sage Publications, Inc: 1995), p. 108 Upset by 'Sadat,' Egypt
Egypt
Bars Columbia Films ^ Walter M. Ulloth, Dana Brasch, The Press and the State: Sociohistorical and Contemporary Studies, (University Press of America: 1987), p. 483 ^ Adel Darwish (31 March 2005). "Ahmed Zaki: 'Black Tiger' of Egyptian film". The Middle East Internet News Network. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1965" (PDF). 

Further reading

Avner, Yehuda (2010). The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership. The Toby Press. ISBN 978-1-59264-278-6.  Eidelberg, Paul (1979). Sadat's Strategy. Dollard des Ormeaux: Dawn Books. ISBN 0-9690001-0-3.  Haykal, Muhammad Hasanayn (1982). Autumn of Fury: The Assassination of Sadat. Wm Collins & Sons & Co. ISBN 0-394-53136-1.  Hurwitz, Harry; Medad, Yisrael (2010). Peace in the Making. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-965-229-456-2.  Meital, Yoram (1997). Egypt's Struggle for Peace: Continuity and Change, 1967–1971. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1533-2.  Waterbury, John (1983). The Egypt
Egypt
of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of Two Regimes (Limited ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07650-2.  Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41486-X. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anwar Sadat.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Anwar Sadat

Official website (in Arabic) Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Front Page Ben-Gurion on Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
Wanting Peace, 1971 Shapell Manuscript Foundation Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
Chair for Peace and Development at the University of Maryland Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom – March 26, 1984 Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
on IMDb " Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Works by or about Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Free Egyptians Point of View About Sadat's Assassination (in Arabic) (in English) (Internet Archive) The short film Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1976) is available for free download at the Internet Archive Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
at Find a Grave Sadat Movie (Produced in 1983) – Banned from the Middle East because of some historical mistakes.

Political offices

Preceded by Abdul Latif El-Bughadi President of the People's Assembly of Egypt 1960–1968 Succeeded by Dr. Mohamed Labib Skokeir

Preceded by Gamal Abdel Nasser President of Egypt 1970–1981 Succeeded by Sufi Abu Taleb acting

Preceded by Aziz Sedki Prime Minister of Egypt 1973–1974 Succeeded by Abdelaziz Muhammad Hejazi

Preceded by Mustafa Khalil Prime Minister of Egypt 1980–1981 Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak

Party political offices

Preceded by None Chairman of the National Democratic Party 1978–1981 Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak

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Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council

Mohamed Naguib Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Latif Boghdadi Abdel Hakim Amer Gamal Salem Salah Salem Zakaria Mohieddin Khaled Mohieddin Anwar Sadat Hussein el-Shafei Hassan Ibrahim Kamal el-Din Hussein Abdel Moneim Amin Youssef Seddik Ahmed Anwar Kamal el-Din Rifaat Ahmed Shawqi Lutfi Wahid

v t e

Presidents of Egypt
Egypt
(List)

Mohamed Naguib Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar Sadat Sufi Abu Taleb Hosni Mubarak Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Mohamed Morsi Adly Mansour Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Italic: acting or interim president

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Prime Ministers of Egypt
Egypt
(List)

Khedivate (1878–1914)

Nobar Isma'il1 Tewfik Sherif Tewfik1 Riaz Sherif Baroudy Raghib2 Sherif Nobar Riaz Fahmy Fakhry Riaz Nobar Fahmy Ghaly Said Roshdy

Sultanate (1914–1922)

Roshdy Said Wahba Naseem Yakan

Kingdom (1922–1953)

Sarwat Naseem Y. Ibrahim Zaghlul Zeiwar Yakan Sarwat Nahas Mahmoud Yakan Nahas Sedky A. Yahya Naseem Aly Maher Nahas Mahmoud Aly Maher H. Sabry Serry Nahas Ahmed Maher Nokrashy Sedky Nokrashy Hady Serry Nahas Aly Maher Hilaly Serry Hilaly Aly Maher Naguib3

Republic (1953–present)

Naguib3 Nasser3 Naguib3 Nasser3,4 A. Sabry4 Z. Mohieddin4 Sulayman4 Nasser4 Fawzi4 A. Sedky Sadat Hegazy Salem Khalil Sadat Mubarak A. F. Mohieddin Aly Lotfy A. M. N. Sedky Ganzouri Ebeid Nazif Shafik Sharaf Ganzouri Qandil Beblawi1 Mahlab Ismail

Notes ^1 interim ^2 Orabi ^3 headed a government in rebellion, July–September 1882, beginning during Raghib's term ^4 UAR period

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Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Speaker of Parliament of Egypt

Abdel Latif Boghdadi (vacant) Anwar Sadat (vacant) Anwar Sadat (vacant) Mohamed Labib Skokeir Hafiz Badawi Sayed Marey Sufi Abu Taleb Mohamed Kamel Leilah Rifaat el-Mahgoub (vacant) Ahmad Fathi Sorour (vacant) Saad El-Katatni (vacant) Ali Abdel Aal

v t e

Speakers of the Parliament of Syria
Syria
since 1919

al-Atassi* Muayyad al-Atassi al-Khoury al-Jabiri al-Khoury Kikhia al-Dawalibi al-Kudsi al-Kuzbari al-Kudsi al-Hawrani Sadat† al-Kuzbari Ghazzi al-Atrash al-Khatib al-Yusufi al-Halabi Hadid Zuabi Kaddoura al-Otari al-Abrash al-Laham Abbas Sabbagh

*president of the Syrian National Congress †within the UAR

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 32191472 LCCN: n79068664 ISNI: 0000 0001 0963 1704 GND: 118604724 SELIBR: 239244 SUDOC: 027116905 BNF: cb130916470 (data) MusicBrainz: a836b6d4-1e8e-4034-8907-413332420f11 NLA: 35471102 NDL: 00431133 NKC: uk2012687095 BNE: XX1103

.