Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta (29 October 1866
– 5 June 1899), was a Filipino army general who fought in the
Regarded as one of the fiercest generals of his time, he succeeded
Artemio Ricarte as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines. He sought to apply his background in military science to
the fledgling army. A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional
guerrilla soldiers later to be known as the "Luna Sharpshooters" and
the "Black Guard". His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna
Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the
provinces north of Manila. This defense line culminated in the
creation of a military base in the Cordillera.
Despite his commitment to discipline the army and serve the Republic
which attracted the admiration of people, his temper caused some to
abhor him. His efforts were not without recognition during his
time, for he was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal in 1899. He was
also a member of the Malolos Congress. Besides his military
studies, Luna also studied pharmacy, literature and chemistry.
1 Family background
2.1 Scientific achievements
3 Propaganda Movement
4 Personal life
5 Philippine–American War
5.1 Prior to the war
5.2 Outbreak of the war
Luna Sharpshooters and the Black Guard
5.4 Further operations during the war
Assassination and the aftermath
8 In popular culture
9.2 Further reading
10 External links
Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta was born on 29 October
1866 in Calle Urbiztondo (renamed Barraca Street),
Binondo (now part
of San Nicolas), Manila. He was the youngest of seven children of
Joaquín Luna de San Pedro y Posadas (1829–1891), from
Spanish mestiza Laureana Novicio-Ancheta (1836–1906, from Luna, La
Union (formerly Namacpacan)). His father was a traveling salesman
of the government tobacco monopoly. The tobacco monopoly was
formally established in 1782. After their family moved to
1861, his father became a merchant in Binondo.
His older brother, Juan N. Luna, was an accomplished painter who
studied in the
Madrid Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. His
Spoliarium garnered one of the three gold medals awarded in the Madrid
Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884. Another brother, José,
became a doctor. Yet another brother, Joaquín, fought with Antonio
in the Philippine-American War, and later served as governor of La
Union from 1904 to 1907. Joaquín would also serve as senator from
1916 to 1919. His three other siblings were Numeriana, Manuel, and
Antonio Luna finished his studes in painting in
Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
At the age of 11, Luna initially learned reading, writing, and
arithmetic from a teacher known as Maestro Intong. He also
memorized the Doctrina Christiana, believed to be the first book
printed in the Philippines. The title of the work literally
means "Christian Doctrine", and thus the primary goal of the book was
to propagate Christian teaching across the Philippine archipelago. The
book consists of 38 leaves and 74 pages of text in Spanish, Tagalog
transliterated into roman letters, and Tagalog in its original
Baybayin script, under a woodcut of Saint Dominic, with the verso
originally blank, although in contemporary versions bears the
manuscript inscription, "Tassada en dos reales", signed by Juan de
Cuellar. After a syllabary comes the basic prayers: the Lord's Prayer,
Hail Mary, Credo, and the Salve Regina. Following these are Articles
of Faith, the Ten Commandments, Commandments of the Holy Church,
Sacraments of the Holy Church, Seven Mortal Sins, Fourteen Works of
Charity, and points on Confession and Catechism.
After his education under Maestro Intong, he studied at the Ateneo
Municipal de Manila, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in
1805. He went on to study literature and chemistry at the
University of Santo Tomas, where he won first prize for a paper in
chemistry titled Two Fundamental Bodies of
Chemistry (Dos Cuerpos
Fundamentales de la Quimica). He also studied pharmacy. Meanwhile, his
background on swordsmanship, fencing, and military tactics came from
his studies under Don Martin Cartagena, a major in the Spanish
Army. In addition, he acquired skill to become a sharpshooter.
Upon the invitation of his elder brother Juan in 1890, Antonio was
sent by his parents to Spain. There he acquired a licentiate (at
Universidad de Barcelona) and doctorate (at Universidad Central de
Luna was active as a researcher in the scientific community. After
receiving his doctorate in 1893, he published a scientific treatise on
malaria entitled On Malarial Pathology (El Hematozoario del
Paludismo), which was favorably received in the scientific
community. He then went to Belgium and France, and worked as
assistant to Dr. Latteaux at the
Pasteur Institute and to Dr. Laffen.
In recognition of his ability, he was commissioned by the Spanish
government to study tropical and communicable diseases. In 1894, he
returned to the Philippines where he took part in an examination to
determine who would become the chief chemist of the Municipal
Laboratory of Manila. Luna came in first and won the position.
Luna with fellow reformists Eduardo de Lete (center) and Marcelo H.
del Pilar (right). Photo was taken in
Spain in 1890.
In Spain, he became one of the Filipino expatriates who mounted the
Propaganda Movement and wrote for La Solidaridad, headed by Galicano
Apacible. He wrote a piece titled Impressions which dealt with Spanish
customs and idiosyncrasies under the pen-name "Taga-ilog". Also, like
many of the Filipino liberals in Spain, Luna joined the Masonry where
he rose to being Master Mason.
He and his brother Juan also opened the Sala de Armas, a fencing club,
in Manila. When he learned of the underground societies that were
planning a revolution and was asked to join, he scoffed at the idea
and turned down the offer. Like other Filipino émigrés involved in
the Reform Movement, he was in favor of reform rather than revolution
as the way towards independence. Besides affecting their property,
the proponents of the Reform Movement saw that no revolution would
succeed without the necessary preparations. Nevertheless, after the
existence of the
Katipunan was leaked in August 1896, the Luna
brothers were arrested and jailed in Fort Santiago for "participating"
in the revolution. His statement concerning the revolution was one
of the many statements used to abet the laying down of death sentence
for José Rizal. Months later, José and Juan were freed but Antonio
was exiled to
Spain in 1897, where he was imprisoned at the Cárcel
Modelo de Madrid.
His more famous and yet controversial brother, Juan, who had been
pardoned by the Spanish Queen Regent Maria Christina of Austria
herself, left for
Spain to use his influence to intercede for Antonio
in August 1897. Soon enough, Antonio's case was dismissed by the
Military Supreme Court and he was released.
Luna, repenting for his blunder during the end of the first phase
during Philippine Revolution, which ended at the Pact of Biak-na-Bato,
then prepared himself for the second phase. Upon his release in
December 1897, Luna studied field fortifications, guerrilla warfare,
organization, and other aspects of military science under Gerard
Leman, who would later be the commanding general of the fortress at
Liège. He also read extensively about the discipline when he was
at the Ateneo de Madrid. The second phase of the revolution began
with the return of
Emilio Aguinaldo to Cavite in 1898. Upon
arriving in Hong Kong, he was given a letter of recommendation to
Aguinaldo and a revolver by Felipe Agoncillo. He returned to the
Philippines in July 1898.
Luna courted Nellie Boustead, a woman who was also courted by José
Rizal, in the period between 1889–1891. Boustead was reportedly
infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos, a drunk Antonio
Luna made unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted
Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. However, Luna apologized to
Rizal, thus averting a duel between the compatriots.
There are urban legends that persist to the present concerning Luna
diverting millions of pesos from the Republic's treasury, particularly
from Ilocos and Pampanga, to the hometown of his alleged sweetheart,
Ysidra Cojuangco. Ysidra was the aunt of Jose Cojuangco, father of
Corazon Aquino. Luna's wealth was rumored to have been entrusted to
Ysidra, resulting in the latter becoming one of the richest women in
the Philippines by 1900. However, there were no recorded comments
or printed insinuations of Luna's financial impropriety from anti-Luna
figures of the Aguinaldo government during and immediately after the
Prior to the war
Luna was one of the first to see action in
Manila on 13 August 1898,
when the Americans landed troops in Intramuros. Since June 1898,
Manila had been completely surrounded by the revolutionary troops.
Colonel Luciano San Miguel occupied Mandaluyong;
General Pío del
General Mariano Noriel, Parañaque; Colonel Enrique
Pacheco, Navotas, Tambobong, and Caloocan.
General Gregorio del Pilar
marched through Sampaloc, taking Tondo, Divisoria, and Azcárraga;
Noriel cleared Singalong and Paco, and held Ermita and Malate.
Luna thought the Filipinos should enter Intramuros to have joint
occupation of the walled city. But Aguinaldo, heeding the advice of
Wesley Merritt and Commodore (later Admiral) George Dewey,
whose fleet had moored in
Manila Bay, sent Luna to the trenches where
he ordered his troops to fire on the Americans. After the chaos
following the American occupation, at a meeting in Ermita, Luna tried
to complain to American officers about the disorderly conduct of their
To silence Luna, Aguinaldo appointed him as Chief of War Operations on
26 September 1898, and assigned the rank of brigadier general. In
quick succession, he was made the Director or Assistant Secretary of
War and Supreme Chief of the Republican Army on 28 September,
arousing the envy of the other generals who were fighting since the
first phase of the Revolution. Meanwhile, Luna felt that bureaucratic
placebos were being thrown his way, when all he wanted was to organize
and discipline the enthusiastic but ill-fed and ill-trained troops
into a real army.
On 15 September 1898, the Malolos Congress, the constituent assembly
of the First Philippine Republic, was convened in Barasoain
Church. Luna would be one of the elected representatives, and was
narrowly defeated by
Pedro Paterno as President of the Congress with a
vote of 24–23.
Seeing the need for a military school, in October 1898, Luna
established a military academy at Malolos, known as the Academia
Militar, which was the precursor of the present Philippine Military
Academy. He appointed Colonel Manuel Bernal Sityar, a mestizo who was
formerly lieutenant serving the Civil Guard, as superintendent. He
recruited other mestizos and Spaniards who had fought in the Spanish
army during the 1896 Revolution for training. However, the academy had
to be suspended indefinitely by March 1899 due to the outbreak of the
Group showing some of Luna's aides:
Manuel Tinio (seated,
Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), General
Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left).
A score of veteran officers became teachers at his military school.
Luna devised two courses of instruction, planned the reorganization,
with a battalion of tiradores and a cavalry squadron, set up an
inventory of guns and ammunition, arsenals, using convents and town
halls, quartermasters, lookouts and communication systems. He built
trenches with the help of his chief engineer,
Alejandrino, and had his brother Juan design the school's uniforms
(the Filipino rayadillo). He also insisted on strict discipline over
and above clan armies and regional loyalties, which prevented
coordination between various military units. Envisioning one
united army for the Republic, clan armies and regional loyalties
presented a lack of national consciousness. It was also a condition
that the Spanish utilized to keep the native contingent of their armed
forces within check. Soldiers of one region were used to fight revolts
in other regions.
Convinced that the fate of the infant Republic should be a contest for
the minds of Filipinos, Luna turned to journalism to strengthen
Filipino minds with the ideas of nationhood and the need to fight the
Americans. He decided to publish a newspaper, "La
Independencia.":63 This four-page daily was filled with articles,
short stories, patriotic songs and poems. The staff was installed in
one of the coaches of the train that ran from
Manila to Pangasinan.
The paper came out in September 1898, and was an instant success. A
movable feast of information, humor, and good writing, 4,000 copies
were printed, which was more than all the other newspapers in
circulation put together.
When the Treaty of Paris, under which
Spain was to cede the
Philippines to the United States, was made public in December 1898,
Luna quickly decided to take military action. He proposed a strategy
that was designed to trap the Americans in
Manila before more of their
troops could land by executing surprise attacks (guerrilla warfare)
while building up strength in the north. If the American forces
penetrated his lines, Luna determined that he would wage a series of
delaying battles and prepare a fortress in northern Luzon,
particularly the Cordillera. This, however, was turned down by the
High Command, who still believed that the Americans would grant full
Outbreak of the war
American soldiers of the 1st Nebraska Volunteers, Company B, during
the Battle of Manila.
The Americans gained the time and the opportunity to start hostilities
with the Filipinos at the place and time of their choice. On the night
of 4 February 1899, when most of the Filipino generals were at a ball
in Malolos to celebrate the success of the American anti-imperialists
delaying the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, the Americans staged
an incident along the concrete blockhouses in Santa Mesa near the
Balsahan Bridge. An American patrol fired on Filipino troops,
claiming afterwards that the Filipinos had started shooting first. The
whole Filipino line from Pasay to
Caloocan returned fire and the first
battle of the Filipino-American War ensued. Two days later, in
response to the incident, the US Senate voted for annexation. In doing
so, the conflict became the war of conquest, occupation and annexation
that Luna, Mabini, and others had predicted and about which they had
warned Aguinaldo and his generals previously.
Luna, after receiving orders from Aguinaldo, rushed to the front lines
from his headquarters at Polo (present-day Valenzuela City) and led
three companies to La Loma to engage
General Arthur MacArthur's
forces. Fighting took place at Marikina, Caloocan, Santa Ana, and
Paco. The Filipinos were subjected to a carefully planned attack with
naval artillery, with Dewey's US fleet firing from the
Filipino casualties were high, amounting to around 2,000 killed and
wounded. Luna personally had to carry wounded officers and men to
safety; of these rescues, the most dramatic was that of Commander
José Torres Bugallón. After being hit by an American bullet,
Bugallón had managed to advance another fifty meters before he was
seen by Luna to collapse by the side of the road. As the Americans
kept up their fire on the road, Luna had to gather an escort of around
25 men to save Bugallón, who Luna declared was equivalent to 500 men.
Surviving the encounter, Luna tried to encourage Bugallón to live and
gave the latter an instant promotion to lieutenant colonel. However,
Bugallón died thereafter.
On 7 February, Luna issued a detailed order to the field officers of
the territorial militia. Containing five specific objects, it began
"by virtue of the barbarous attack upon our army on February 4," and
ended with "war without quarter to false Americans who wish to enslave
us. Independence or death!" The order labeled the US forces "an army
of drunkards and thieves" in response to the continued bombardment
of the towns around Manila, the burning and looting of whole
districts, and the raping of Filipino women by US troops.
When Luna saw that the American advance had halted, mainly to
stabilize their lines, he again mobilized his troops to attack La Loma
on February 10. Fierce fighting ensued but the Filipinos were forced
to withdraw thereafter.
Caloocan was left with American forces in
control of the southern terminus of the
Manila to Dagupan railway,
along with five engines, fifty passenger coaches, and a hundred
freight cars. After consolidating control of Caloocan, the obvious
next objective for American forces would be the Republic capital at
General Otis delayed for almost a month in hopes
that Filipino forces would be deployed in its defense.
Nevertheless, with their superior firepower and newly arrived
reinforcements, the Americans had not expected such resistance. They
were so surprised that an urgent cable was sent to
General Lawton who
was in Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), with his troops. Illustrating
the concern that the Americans had, the telegram stated, "Situation
critical in Manila. Your early arrival great importance."
Luna Sharpshooters and the Black Guard
Main article: Luna Sharpshooters
Luna Sharpshooters was a short-lived unit formed by Luna to serve
under the Philippine Revolutionary Army. On 11 February, eight
infantrymen, formerly under Captains Márquez and Jaro, were sent by
then Secretary of War
Baldomero Aguinaldo to Luna, then Assistant
Secretary of War. The infantrymen were disarmed by the Americans. So,
they journeyed to be commissioned in the regular Filipino army. Seeing
their desire to serve in the army, Luna took them in and from their
group grew and emerged as the Luna Sharpshooters. The
sharpshooters became famous for their fierce fighting and proved their
worth by being the usual spearheading unit in every major battle in
the Philippine-American War. After the
Battle of Calumpit on 25–27
April 1899, only seven or eight of them remained in the regular
Filipino army. In the
Battle of Paye
Battle of Paye on 18 December 1899, a
Filipino sharpshooter, Private Bonifacio Mariano, under the command of
Licerio Gerónimo killed
General Henry Ware Lawton, making the
latter the highest ranking casualty during the course of the war.
Luna also formed other units similar to the sharpshooters. One would
be the unit, which would later be named after Bugallón, commanded by
Rosendo Simón de Pajarillo. The unit emerged from a group of ten men
wanting to volunteer in the regular Filipino army. Luna, still
thinking of the defeat at the Battle of Caloocan, sent the men away at
first. However, he soon changed his mind and decided to give the men
an initiation. After taking breakfast, he ordered a subordinate,
Colonel Queri, to prepare arms and ammunition for the ten men. Then,
the men boarded a train destined towards Malinta, which was
American-held territory. After giving orders to the men, he let them
go and watched them with his telescope. The men, succeeding their
mission, eventually returned unharmed. Admiring their bravery, he
organized them into a guerrilla unit of around 50 members. This unit
would see action in the Second Battle of Caloocan.
Another elite unit would be the Black Guard, a 25-man guerrilla unit
under a certain Lieutenant García. García, one of Luna's favorites,
was a modest but brave soldier. His unit was tasked to approach the
enemy by surprise and quickly return to camp. Luna had admired
García's unit very much that he wanted to increase their size.
However, García declined the offer. He believed that a larger force
might undermine the efficiency of their work. Jose Alejandrino,
the chief army engineer and one of Luna's aides, stated that he never
heard of García and his unit again after Luna's resignation on
Further operations during the war
General Tomás Mascardo, military commander of Pampanga
A Filipino counterattack began at dawn on 23 February. The plan was to
employ a pincer movement, using the battalions from the North and
South, with the sharpshooters (the only professionally trained troops)
at crucial points. The sandatahanes or bolomen inside
start a great fire to signal the start of the assault. Troops
directly under Luna's command were divided into three: the West
General Pantaleon García, the Center Brigade under
General Mariano Llanera, and the East Brigade under
Gerónimo. Luna even requested the battle-hardened Tinio Brigade
from Northern Luzon, under the command of
General Manuel Tinio. It had
more than 1,900 soldiers. However, Aguinaldo gave only ambiguous
answers and the Tinio Brigade was unable to participate in the
battle. It was only partly successful because of two main reasons.
Firstly, some of the successful Filipino sectors ran low on ammunition
and food, and were thus forced to withdraw to Polo. Secondly, Luna
failed to relieve the Kapampangan militia, already past their prime,
when the battalion from Kawit, Cavite, refused to replace the former,
saying that they had orders to obey only instructions directly from
Aguinaldo. Such insubordination had become quite common among the
Filipino forces at that time as most of the troops owed their loyalty
to the officers from their provinces, towns or districts and not to
the central command. As a result, the counterattack soon collapsed,
and Luna placated himself by disarming the Kawit Battalion.
1st Nebraskan Volunteers advancing during the Battle of Santo Tomas.
Luna, however, proved to be a strict disciplinarian and his temper
alienated many in the ranks of the common soldiers. An example of this
occurred during the Battle of Calumpit, wherein Luna ordered General
Tomás Mascardo to send troops from Guagua to strengthen the former's
defenses. However, Mascardo ignored orders by Luna insisting that he
was going to Arayat to undertake an "inspection of troops". Another
version of Mascardo's reasoning emerged and it was probably that which
reached Luna. This version was that Mascardo had left to visit his
girlfriend. Luna, infuriated by Mascardo's actions, had decided to
detain him. However, Major Hernando, one of Luna's aides, tried to
placate the general's anger by convincing Luna to push the case to
President Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo complied to detain Mascardo for
twenty-four hours. Upon returning to the field, however, the Americans
had broken through his defenses at the Bagbag River, forcing Luna to
withdraw despite his heroic action to defend the remaining sectors.
Luna resigned on 1 March, mainly in resentment for the rearmament of
the Kawit Battalion as the Presidential Guard. Aguinaldo
hesitantly accepted the resignation. As a result, Luna was absent from
the field for three weeks, during which the Filipino forces suffered
several defeats and setbacks. One such defeat would be at the Battle
of Marilao River on 27 March. Receiving the depressing reports
from the field through his La Independencia correspondents, Luna went
to Aguinaldo and asked to be reinstated with more powers over all the
military heads, and Aguinaldo promoted him to
Lieutenant General and
agreed making him Commander-in-Chief of all the Filipino forces in
Luzon (Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan,
The Luna Defense Line was planned to create a series of delaying
Caloocan to Angeles, Pampanga, as the Republic was
constructing a guerrilla base in the Mountain Province. The base was
planned to be the last stand headquarters of the Republic in the case
the Americans broke through the Defense Line. American military
observers were astonished by the Defense Line, which they described as
consisting of numerous bamboo trenches stretching from town to town.
The series of trenches allowed the Filipinos to withdraw gradually,
firing from cover at the advancing Americans. As the American troops
occupied each new position, they were subjected to a series of traps
that had been set in the trenches, which included bamboo spikes and
Earlier in the month of May 1899, Luna almost fell in the field at the
Battle of Santo Tomas. Mounted on his horse, Luna then charged into
the battlefield leading his main force in a counterattack. As they
advanced, the American forces began firing upon them. Luna's horse was
hit and he fell to the ground. As he recovered, Luna realized that he
had been shot in the stomach, and he attempted to kill himself with
his revolver to avoid capture. He was saved, though, by the
actions of a Filipino colonel named Alejandro Avecilla who, having
seen Luna fall, rode towards the general to save him. Despite being
heavily wounded in one of his legs and an arm, with his remaining
strength Avecilla carried Luna away from battle to the Filipino rear.
Upon reaching safety, Luna realized that his wound was not very deep
as most of the impact of the bullet had been taken by a silk belt full
of gold coins that his parents had given him, which he had been
wearing. As he left the field to have his wounds tended, Luna
turned over the command to
General Venacio Concepción, the Filipino
commander of the nearby town of Angeles. Meanwhile, in recognition
of his work, Luna was awarded with the Philippine Republic Medal.
By the end of May 1899, Colonel Joaquín Luna, one of Antonio's
brothers, warned him that a plot had been concocted by "old elements"
or the autonomists of the Republic (who were bent on accepting
American sovereignty over the country) and a clique of army officers
whom Luna had disarmed, arrested, and/or insulted. Luna shrugged off
all these threats, reiterating his trust for Aguinaldo, and continued
building defenses at
Pangasinan where the Americans were planning a
Assassination and the aftermath
Colonel Francisco Román, Luna's aide-de-camp who was also
assassinated with him.
On 2 June 1899, Luna received two telegrams – one asked for help in
launching a counterattack in San Fernando, Pampanga; and the other
said to be signed by Aguinaldo himself, ordered him to go to the new
Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija
Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija to form a new cabinet. In his
jubilation, Luna wrote Arcadio Maxilom, military commander of Cebu, to
stand firm in the war. Luna set off from Bayambang, Pangasinan;
first by train, then on horseback, and eventually in three carriages
Nueva Ecija with 25 of his men. During the journey, two of
the carriages broke down, so he proceeded with just one carriage with
Colonel Francisco Román and Captain Eduardo Rusca, having earlier
shed his cavalry escort. On 4 June, Luna sent a telegram to Aguinaldo
confirming his arrival. Upon arriving at
Cabanatuan on 5 June, Luna
alone, proceeded to the headquarters to communicate with the
President. As he went up the stairs, he ran into an officer whom he
had previously disarmed for insubordination, and an old enemy whom he
had once threatened with arrest for favoring American autonomy. The
former was Captain Pedro Janolino, commander of the Kawit Battalion.
The latter was Felipe Buencamino, Minister of Foreign Affairs and a
member of the Cabinet. He was told that Aguinaldo had left for San
Nueva Ecija (He actually went to Bamban, Tarlac). Enraged,
Luna asked why he had not been told the meeting was cancelled.
Both exchanged heated words as he was about to depart, a rifle shot in
the plaza rang out. Still outraged and furious, Luna rushed down the
stairs and met Janolino, accompanied by some elements of the Kawit
Battalion. Janolino swung his bolo at Luna, wounding him in the head.
Janolino's men fired at Luna, while others started stabbing him, even
as he tried to fire his revolver at one of his attackers. He
staggered out into the plaza where Román and Rusca were rushing to
his aid, but they too were set upon and shot, with Román being killed
and Rusca severely wounded. As he lay dying, Luna uttered "Cowards!
Assassins!". Luna received more than 30 wounds. He was
hurriedly buried in the churchyard, after which Aguinaldo relieved
Luna's officers and men from the field, including
Concepción, whose headquarters in
Angeles, Pampanga Aguinaldo
besieged the same day Luna was assassinated.
Immediately after Luna's death, confusion reigned on both sides. The
Americans even thought Luna had taken over to replace Aguinaldo.
Luna's death was publicly declared only by 8 June, and a circular
providing details of the event released by 13 June. While
investigations were supposedly made concerning Luna's death, not one
person was convicted. Later,
General Pantaleon García said that
it was he who was verbally ordered by Aguinaldo to conduct the
assassination of Luna at Cabanatuan. His sickness at the time
prevented his participation in the assassination.
Aguinaldo would be firm in his stand that he had nothing to do with
the assassination of Luna.
Felipe Buencamino succeeded
Apolinario Mabini as Secretary of Foreign
Affairs during the First Philippine Republic.
The death of Luna, the most brilliant and capable of the Filipino
generals at the time, was a decisive factor in the fight against
the American forces. Despite mixed reactions on both the Filipino and
American sides on the death of Luna, there are people from both
sides who nevertheless developed an admiration for him. General
Frederick Funston, who received the credit of capturing Aguinaldo at
Palanan, Isabela, stated that Luna was the "ablest and most aggressive
leader of the Filipino Republic." For
General James Franklin Bell,
Luna "was the only general the Filipino army had."
Hughes remarked that "with the death of
General Luna, the Filipino
army lost the only
General it had." Meanwhile, Apolinario Mabini,
former Prime Minister and Secretary of Foreign Affairs, had this to
say: "If he was sometimes hasty and even cruel in his resolution, it
was because the army had been brought to a desperate situation by the
demoralization of the soldiers and the lack of ammunitions: nothing
but action of rash courage and extraordinary energy could hinder its
dissolution." Of the Filipino armed forces organized during Luna's
service in the army, Major
Henry Ware Lawton
Henry Ware Lawton commented,
"Filipinos are a very fine set of soldiers, far better than the
Indians... Inferior in every particular equipment and supplies, they
are the bravest men I have ever seen... I'm very well impressed with
the Filipinos!" This statement Lawton later recanted.
Subsequently, Aguinaldo suffered successive, disastrous losses in the
field, as he retreated northwards. On 13 November 1899, Aguinaldo
decided to disperse his army and begin conducting a guerrilla war.
General José Alejandrino, one of Luna's remaining aides, stated in
his memoirs that if Luna had been able to finish the planned military
camp in the
Mountain Province and had shifted to guerrilla warfare
earlier as Luna had suggested, Aguinaldo might have avoided having to
run for his life in the Cordillera Mountains. For historian
Teodoro Agoncillo, however, Luna's death did not directly contribute
to the resulting fall of the Republic. In his book, Malolos: The
Crisis of the Republic, Agoncillo stated that the loss of Luna showed
the existence of a lack of discipline among the regular Filipino
soldiers and it was a major weakness that was never remedied during
the course of the war. Also, soldiers connected with Luna were
demoralized and as a result eventually surrendered to the
English series ₱50 bill.
University of the Philippines Diliman
University of the Philippines Diliman Sunken Garden was
Antonio Luna Parade Grounds.
The municipalities of
General Luna, Quezon and
Surigao del Norte are named after Luna.
Antonio Luna Avenue, a two-lane national road in San Mateo,
Rizal, was named after Luna.
General Luna Street, stretching from Intramuros to Paco in the Manila,
was named after Luna. Formerly Calle Real del Palacio (Intramuros) and
Calle Nozaleda (Ermita-Paco), the whole stretch was integrated into
one and was renamed Calle Gen. Luna during the American period.
General Antonio Luna, a barrio in Mayorga, Leyte, is named after
In 1951, the first postwar
Philippine fifty peso bill
Philippine fifty peso bill featured a
portrait of Luna until it was replaced in 1969 by a portrait of Sergio
In 1958, a stamp featuring Luna was released on his 92nd birth
After the 102nd anniversary of Luna's birth (1968), former President
Ferdinand Marcos delivered a speech about the general. He said that
Luna's guerrilla tactics preceded that of China's
Mao Zedong and
Vo Nguyen Giap
Vo Nguyen Giap and Ho Chi Minh.
In 1999, the second and last of the
General Emilio Aguinaldo-class
patrol vessels was commissioned by the Philippine Navy. It was named
Antonio Luna (PG-141), after the general of the same
A monument of Luna was erected at Plaza Lucero in Cabanatuan, Nueva
Alfredo Lim led a commemorative program on Luna's 144th
birth anniversary (2010).
A Philippine military base, Camp
Antonio Luna in Limay, Bataan, was
named after the general. It is currently the Office of the Director of
the Government Arsenal.
General Luna is a Filipino rock band named after Luna.[citation
In popular culture
Christopher de Leon in the 2012 film, El
JC Tiuseco in the 2014 TV series, Ilustrado.
Marc Abaya and
John Arcilla in the 2015 film, Heneral
General in the Philippine Army
23 January 1899 – 5 June 1899
José de los Reyes
Assistant Secretary of War
28 September 1898 – 5 June 1899
^ a b c Marcos, Ferdinand (1968). The contemporary relevance of
Antonio Luna's military doctrines.
^ a b c Agoncillo, Teodoro. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.).
Quezon City: C & E Publishing.
^ a b Jose (1972), pp. 450–452.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dumindin, Arnaldo. "June 5, 1899:
Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
^ a b Jimenez (2015), p. 9.
^ Jose (1972), p. 29.
^ "Tobacco History". National Tobacco Administration. Retrieved 22
^ a b c d e f g h i j Guerrero Nakpil, Carmen (27 October 2008). "A
plot to kill a general". Philippine Star. Retrieved 22 August
^ a b Jose (1972), pp. 372–373.
^ "History". Province of La Union. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
^ "List of Previous Senators: Fourth Legislature". Senate of the
Philippines. Archived from the original on 23 April 2007. Retrieved 25
^ Lessing J. Rosenwald. "Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection". Library of
Congress. World Digital Library. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
^ Full text of
Doctrina Christiana at Project Gutenberg. Accessed 22
^ Doctrina Christiana: The First Book Printed in the Philippines.
Manila: National Historical Commission. 1973. pp. iii–xi.
^ a b Jimenez (2015), p. 10.
^ Jimenez (2015), p. 12.
^ a b Jimenez (2015), p. 14.
^ a b Agoncillo, Teodoro (1974). Introduction to Filipino
^ Jose (1972), p. 58.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (2010). Looking Back. Anvil Publishing, Inc.
pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-971-27-2336-0.
^ "AQUINO – COJUANGCO FACTS THEY DONT WANT YOU TO KNOW HD".
Retrieved 16 August 2015.
^ a b c d Jose (1972), pp. 429–436.
^ Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young.
^ Beede, Benjamin (2013). The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions,
1898T1934: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 266.
ISBN 978-1-136-74691-8. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 120, 124–125
^ Jose (1972), pp. 206–207.
^ Berlin, Donald (2008). Before Gringo: History of the Philippine
Military 1830–1972. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. p. 21.
^ Sonnichsen, A., 1901, Ten Months a Captive Among Filipinos, New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons
^ a b Jose (1972), pp. 269–271.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 172–177.
^ a b c d e Agoncillo, Teodoro (1960). Malolos: The Crisis of the
Republic. ISBN 978-971-542-096-9.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 178–183.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 186–189.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 200–202.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 210–212.
^ Linn (2000a), p. 92.
^ Jose (1972), p. 213.
^ a b c d e Jose (1972), pp. 220–221.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (2011). Looking Back 4: Chulalongkorn's Elephants.
Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 66–70.
^ a b Alejandrino, Jose (1949). La Senda del Sacrificio.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 225–227.
^ a b Jose (1972), pp. 229–231.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 241–244.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1997). Luna's Moustache. Anvil Publishing.
pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-971-27-0593-9.
^ Jimenez (2015), p. 16.
^ Dumindin, Arnaldo. "Americans Advance To Malolos, March 24–31,
1899". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ Jose (1972), p. 293.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 280–281.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 318–320.
^ a b c Jose (1972), pp. 314–317.
^ a b Jose (1972), p. 377.
^ Jose (1972), p. 436.
^ Jose (1972), p. 375.
^ Jose (1972), pp. 388–392.
^ Aguinaldo, Emilio. (1964). Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan.
^ Jose (1972), p. 401.
^ a b c Jose (1972), pp. 409–413.
^ Mabini, Apolinario (1969). The Philippine Revolution. National
Historical Commission. p. 50. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
^ Jimenez (2015), p. 17.
^ Linn (2000b), p. 16.
Antonio Luna Parade Grounds". UP ROTC. Archived from the
original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
^ Brief Profile of
General Luna, Quezon Province (PDF)
^ "Traveler on foot". Retrieved 26 September 2015.
^ "An Act Creating Certain Barrios in the Municipality of Mayorga,
Province of Leyte". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
^ "RP Issues of 1958". Republic of the Philippines – Stamps &
Postal History. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
General Antonio Luna". Stamps of the world. Retrieved 31 August
^ Wertheim, Eric: The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the
World 15th Edition, page 552. Naval Institute Press, 2007.
^ "REMEMBERING GENERAL ANTONIO LUNA". Archived from the original on 15
August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
^ "Department of National Defense". Retrieved 25 August 2012.
^ "El Presidente (2012) Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved 15
^ Lecaros, Mikhail. "Movie Review: 'El Presidente' is a historical
disappointment". GMA News Online. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
Agoncillo, Teodoro. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon
City: C & E Publishing.
Agoncillo, Teodoro (1974). Introduction to Filipino History.
Agoncillo, Teodoro (1960). Malolos: The Crisis of the Republic.
Jimenez, Ruby Rosa A. (2015). Heneral Luna: The History behind the
Movie. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, Inc.
Jose, Vivencio R. (1972). The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna.
University of the Philippines. ISBN 978-971-17-0700-2.
Kalaw, Maximo M. (1927). "The development of Philippine politics".
Oriental commercial. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
Linn, Brian McAllister (2000a). The Philippine War, 1899–1902.
University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3.
Linn, Brian McAllister (2000b). The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in
the Philippine War, 1899–1902. UNC Press Books.
Ocampo, Ambeth (2010). Looking Back. Anvil Publishing, Inc.
Guerrero, Angel (1933). Biag ni
General Antonio Luna. Manila: Service
Ocampo, Ambeth (2015). Looking Back 10: Two Lunas, Two Mabinis. Pasig
City: Anvil Press.
Ambeth Ocampo, The way
Antonio Luna died, 11 September 2015,
Philippine Daily Inquirer.
General Antonio Luna, great soldier, scientist". Manila
Bulletin. 29 October 2014. Archived from the original on 21 March
2016. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
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